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Sample records for da radiolise gama

  1. Identification from the Natural Response of Vasco Da Gama Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, A.; Caetano, E.; Brincker, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the reanalysis of the ambient vibration data of Vasco da Gama cable-stayed bridge with the purpose of testing the efficiency and accuracy of two recent and promising identification methods in a large application: the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and the Stochastic...... Subspace Identification (SSI) methods. The modal estimates obtained using these alternative approaches are compared, taking also into account the estimates previously obtained with the conventional Peak Picking technique from the free vibration test of the bridge, performed at the end of construction....

  2. Sebastião da Gama : milagre de vida em busca do eterno : uma leitura da sua obra

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alexandre Francisco Ferreira dos

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudos Portugueses Interdisciplinares apresentada à Universidade Aberta Resumo - Pela Poesia se vai até à verdade… (Sebastião da Gama) Sebastião da Gama (1924-52) legou-nos uma obra tão vasta como breve e intensa foi a sua vida. É o poeta da vida integral, pura e luminosa, tão amargamente ceifada pelo destino como alegremente vincada por um optimismo sem limites. O trabalho que se apresenta incide sobre um corpus textual restrito: obras publicadas em...

  3. Dias en Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw en Camões (herbesoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L. Coetser

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dias and Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw and Camões (revisited. Although he was the first Portuguese explorer who rounded the southernmost cape of Africa, world history does not herald Bartholomew Dias as an important figure. His compatriot Vasco da Gama was the first mariner who reached the Orient by navigating around the Cape. Despite Dias’s relative historical unimportance, N.P. van Wyk Louw preferred to write a radio play about him and his journey around the South African coast. Luís Vaz de Camões, on the other hand, wrote an epic poem about da Gama’s journey, which he titled Os Lusíadas (1572, or The sons of Portugal. The question I set out to answer, relates to the position and importance that the playwright of Dias (1952 attaches to themes in Canto 5 of Os Lusíadas (1572. I assume that the two can be compared due to the presence of the mythical character Adamastor in both. As in Os Lusíadas (1572, Adamastor takes the form of a storm in Dias (1952. I conclude that, in spite of different origins, both texts are allegorical and national in character. The differences in origin inspired a revised reading of Dias (1952.

  4. Dias en Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw en Camões (herbesoek

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    Johan L. Coetser

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alhoewel Bartolomeus Dias die eerste Portugese ontdekker was wat om die suidelikste kaap van Afrika geseil het, neem hy in die wêreldgeskiedenis ’n geringe plek in. Sy landgenoot Vasco da Gama het, deur ook om die Kaap te vaar, die eerste seevaarder geword om die Ooste te bereik. Nieteenstaande Dias se geringer prestasie, het N.P. van Wyk Louw verkies om ’n radiodrama oor die gedeelte van Dias se vaart om die Suid-Afrikaanse kus te skryf. Daarteenoor is die geskiedenis van Da Gama se vaart in ’n epiese gedig deur Luís Vaz de Camões opgeteken in sy Os Lusíadas (1572, of Die seuns van Portugal. Die vraag wat ek wil beantwoord, gaan oor die plek en belang wat die dramaturg in Dias (1952 aan temas heg wat teruggevoer kan word tot kanto 5 van Os Lusíadas (1572. Ek neem aan dat die twee tekste met mekaar vergelyk kan word op grond van die teenwoordigheid van die mitiese karakter Adamastor in albei. Soos in Os Lusíadas (1572 neem Adamastor in Dias (1952 die vorm aan van ’n storm. My gevolgtrekking is dat albei tekste, ondanks verskillende oorspronge, ’n allegoriese en ’n nasionale aard vertoon. Die verskillende oorspronge maak dit moontlik om ’n hersiene interpretasie van Dias (1952 te gee.

  5. [Antonio de Saldanha da Gama's proposals to improve the slave trade "for humanitarian and economic reasons," Rio de Janeiro, 1810].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Ana Carolina de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    In 1808, Dom João VI issued an edict which regulated the shipping and treatment of slaves on the transatlantic crossing from Africa. Two years later, Antonio de Saldanha da Gama, a member of the Treasury Council, drafted a letter discussing some points of the resolution. This key figure in the Portuguese administration of Brazil argued that his respectful considerations concerning the determinations of His Royal Highness were designed to improve them "for humanitarian and economic reasons." Safeguarded in the archives of Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino, this letter is transcribed, annotated, and contextualized here, supplying an interesting perspective on the prevailing concerns and justifications about the trafficking of African slaves to Brazil.

  6. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da qualidade da polpa de amora-preta (Rubus spp. L.

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    Michele Paula da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta é uma fruta que vem despertando a atenção de produtores e consumidores devido ao seu sabor agradável, cor atrativa e por apresentar em sua composição elevado teor de compostos bioativos. O grande entrave para consumo e a comercialização dos frutos da amoreira é sua elevada taxa respiratória, o que reduz sua vida útil. Uma alternativa viável para o aproveitamento econômico dessas frutas consiste em sua industrialização, podendo ser congeladas, enlatadas, processadas na forma de polpa, ou na forma de sucos e geleias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da polpa de amora. A irradiação foi realizada no laboratório de irradiação gama do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, em uma fonte de cobalto 60, com as seguintes doses de radiação: 0,75 kGy; 1,5 kGy e 3 kGy, sob uma taxa de dose de 3,24 kGy.h-1 . A polpa não irradiada foi utilizada como controle. As polpas de amora irradiadas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 4ºC, sendo avaliadas nos tempos de 0; 7; 15; 30 e 60 dias. Para verificar os efeitos da radiação gama no processamento na polpa, foi realizada a caracterização físico-química e química através das análises de acidez, pH, sólidos solúveis, sólidos totais, teor de antocianinas, atividade antioxidante e cor. Também foi feita análise microbiológica de acordo com a legislação brasileira vigente. O processo de irradiação aumentou a vida útil de prateleira da polpa em até 60 dias, sendo que o tratamento com uma dose de 1,5 kGy foi a que proporcionou a melhor qualidade microbiológica.

  7. Caracterização da dose letal mínima por irradiação gama para Penicillium citrinum Characterization of minimum lethal dosis of gama irradiation to Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Norberg

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso das radiações ionizantes na destruição de microrganismos responsáveis pela deterioração de alimentos ou causadores de infecções ou toxinfecções alimentares, constituiu-se aplicação da energia nuclear, para fins verdadeiramente pacíficos. Penicillium citrinum é um fungo produtor de micotoxinas, responsáveis por intoxicações em humanos e animais que se utilizam de alimentos contaminados. Há escassez de informações sobre a resistência do P. citrinum à irradiação gama; assim esta pesquisa objetivou determinar a dose letal por irradiação gama para esse microrganismo. Foram irradiadas 76 suspensões, contendo aproximadamente 100.000 esporos por mililitro, com doses entre 0,2 e 2,2 KGy (KiloGray, sendo os sobreviventes re-irradiados com doses até 3,0 KGy. O fungo foi totalmente destruído com dose de 2,2 KGy. P. citrinum descendentes dos sobreviventes de 2,0 KGy, quando re-irradiados também foram totalmente destruídos com dose de 2,2 KGy. Observou-se um aumento da resistência às doses mais baixas em relação ao fungo não irradiadoThe use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microrganisms which cause food decay, and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Penicillium citrinum is a fungus which produce mycotoxins responsible for intoxication in humans and animals as a result of eating contaminated food. There is little informations on the resistance of P. citrinum to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the lethal dose of gama radiation for these microrganisms. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy (KiloGray, being one sample still alive re-irradiated with doses up to 3.0 KGy. The fungus were totally destroyed with a 2.2 KGy. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy, being one sample still alive re

  8. Caracterização agronômica de mutantes de bananeira obtidos por meio da radiação gama

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    Edson Perito Amorim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bananeira é uma das fruteiras de maior importância econômica, explorada quase exclusivamente por pequenos produtores. Constitui-se em fonte contínua de alimento e renda. Embora o Brasil figure como um dos maiores produtores de banana, a bananicultura nacional enfrenta sérios problemas nas fases de produção e pós-colheita, que limitam sua inserção no mercado internacional. Um dos fatores que levam a grandes perdas na produção é o tombamento resultante da altura elevada da planta das principais cultivares comerciais. Uma estratégia para a solução deste problema é a redução do porte por indução de mutação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar mutantes de banana tipo Prata (cv´s Pacovan e Preciosa irradiadas, durante dois ciclos de produção, visando à seleção de plantas com porte baixo e boas características agronômicas. Plantas in vitro das duas cultivares foram irradiadas com raios gamas nas doses de 20 Gy ('Pacovan' - 200 mudas e 30 Gy ('Preciosa' - 200 mudas, subcultivadas por quatro vezes e posteriormente avaliadas em campo durante dois ciclos de produção. Foram selecionados quatro mutantes de cada cultivar com altura inferior à média de altura das testemunhas, após dois ciclos de avaliação. Observou-se que em alguns desses mutantes houve maior precocidade e maior massa do cacho quando comparados com as testemunhas. Pelos resultados, é possível selecionar plantas mutantes com características agronômicas superiores, tanto para a 'Pacovan' quanto para a 'Preciosa', submetidas à radiação gama.

  9. EFEITO DO TEOR DE GORDURA, VÁCUO E DOSE DE RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Salmonella TYPHIMURIUM ATCC 14028 EM CARNE BOVINA MOÍDA RESFRIADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. COSTA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho avaliou a sobrevivência de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 em carnes bovinas, moída crua e resfriada (2 ºC, através do tratamento com radiação gama (Co60, utilizando doses de 0; 1,5; 2,5 e 3,5 kGy. Além do fator dose de radiação foram avaliadas as influências do emprego de vácuo e de dois teores de gordura da carne bovina moída: baixo (2-4% e alto (11-13%, bem como a interação dos fatores, na redução ou eliminação da bactéria patogênica inoculada. Os resultados demonstraram que os teores de gordura da carne e o emprego de vácuo não influenciaram significativamente a sobrevivência da Salmonella. A dose de radiação gama influenciou a inativação de Salmonella de forma dose dependente até 2,5 kGy, com reduções de 4 ciclos logarítmicos. A dose de 2,5 kGy é suficiente para exercer um controle efetivo de Salmonella em carne bovina moída independentemente do seu teor de gordura e da presença de oxigênio.

  10. Luiz Gama: um abolicionista leitor de Renan

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    Ligia Fonseca Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O hisoriador e filósofo Ernest Renan exerceu grande influência, hoje um tanto esquecida, sobre uma boa parte da elite intelectual brasileira engajada em reformas e movimentos que caracterizam a transição da Monarquia para a República. Dentre eles, destaca-se o abolicionista Luiz Gama, caso único de um ex-escravo autodidata que alcança projeção no cenário político e na República das Letras. Leitor precoce de Vida de Jesus, obra seminal do pensador francês, o advogado dos escravos é um dos primeiros a referir-se à obra que contou com inédita tradução brasileira, pouco depois de sua publicação na França. Por fim, observamos a apropriação das idéias renanianas por parte de personalidades diversas do ponto de vista social e racial, estabelecendo um paralelo entre Luiz Gama e Joaquim Nabuco.Historian and philosopher Ernest Renan exerts great influence - today somewhat forgotten - on a large part of the Brazilian intellectual elite that is engaged in reforms and movements which characterize the transition of a Monarchy to a Republic. Among these, abolitionist Luiz Gama stands out as the sole case of a former autodidact slave, who achieves a projection in the political scenario, and in the Republic of Letters. An early reader of Vida de Jesus, a seminal work of the French philosopher, the slaves’ attorney is one of the first to refer to the work, which counted with a first-hand, unprecedented Brazilian translation, shortly after its publication in France. Finally, we shall see the appropriation of Renanian ideas on the part of various personalities from the social and racial point of view, while establishing a parallel between Luiz Gama and Joaquim Nabuco.

  11. Aplicação da radiação gama na desinfestação de rações a base de grãos para alimentação de animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Cristina Ramos Koike

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivos realizar um levantamento para identificar a entomofauna associada a rações na cidade São Paulo/SP bem como avaliar o efeito da radiação gama em rações para alimentação de animais domésticos infestadas por pragas. Amostras de 20 lojas Pet Shop de diferentes regiões da cidade São Paulo/SP foram submetidas a triagens de 1 e 45 dias para coleta de insetos com auxilio de aspirador entomológico e peneiras de diferentes granulometrias. As espécies Sitophilus z...

  12. Efeito da irradiação gama nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas de redes DGEBA/amina cicloalifática com potencial para aplicações médicas

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    Juliana C. Neves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização de sistemas epoxídicos a base do éter diglicidílico do bisfenol A (DGEBA, curado com dois co-monômeros do tipo amina cicloalifática - piperidina (Pip e 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimetildiciclohexilmetano (3DCM - antes e após a aplicação de irradiação com raios gama. Variações nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas foram investigadas através de medidas do módulo elástico, da temperatura de transição vítrea e do perfil de degradação dos materiais. Foi possível observar que uma dose de irradiação de 50 kGy provoca variações sutis em propriedades como rigidez e estabilidade, que são relevantes do ponto de vista fundamental. Este trabalho permite afirmar que as variações de propriedades observadas não implicam em impacto negativo na utilização destes sistemas como biomaterial na área médica, considerando a etapa de esterilização por radiação de que são objeto.

  13. Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo avaliada por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

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    Adilson Luís Bamberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade do arroz (Oryza sativa L. irrigado em solos de várzea está alicerçada na utilização da rotação e sucessão de culturas, fundamentais para o controle do arroz-vermelho e preto. Os reflexos sobre os atributos dos solos de várzea merecem estudos em especial sobre a compactação do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar camadas compactadas em Planossolo submetido a diferentes sistemas de cultivo e preparo, avaliando-se a densidade do solo (Ds pela Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama (TC. A análise foi realizada em um experimento de longa duração, conduzido de 1985 a 2004, na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Capão do Leão, RS, num delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições (T1 - um ano de arroz com preparo convencional do solo seguido de dois anos de pousio; T2 - cultivo contínuo de arroz com preparo convencional do solo; T4 - rotação de arroz e soja (Glycine max L. com preparo convencional do solo; T5 - rotação de arroz, soja e milho (Zea maiz L. em preparo convencional do solo; T6 - plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. no inverno; T7 - rotação de arroz sob plantio direto e soja sob preparo convencional do solo; T8 - testemunha: solo sem cultivo. A Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama permitiu detectar que o plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém no inverno não resultou na formação de camadas compactadas; a utilização de dois anos de pousio, no sistema de produção de arroz irrigado, não foi suficiente para evitar a formação de uma camada superficial compactada; e a rotação de arroz, soja e milho com preparo convencional do solo apresentou duas camadas compactadas (0,0 a 1,5 cm e 11 a 14 cm, indicando que essas podem limitar a produção agrícola nesse sistema de produção em Planossolos.The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. in

  14. Gama-gama angular correlations in the 105Rh nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, V.A.P.

    1979-01-01

    The Directional Correlation of γ transitions in 105 Rh have been measured from the β - decay of 105 Ru using a Ge(Li) - Nal(Tl) spectrometers. The measurements were carried out for the (316-469), (500-469), (845-499), (875-469), (878-499), (907-469), (1017-469), (350-326), (393-263), (413-263), (489-149) and (575-149) KeV gama cascades. The present results confirm the spin assignments to several levels in 105 Rh obtained in previous studies. The multipole mixing ratios Δ(E2/M1) for several gama transitions have been calculated from the measured angular correlations. The results are Δ(149)=0.34+-0.01,Δ(262)=-1.27+-0.02 or -0.14+-0.01,Δ(326)=-1.79+-0.01 or 0.014+-0.002, Δ(393)=-7.1+-0.3 or -0.36+-0.01, Δ(489)=0.25+-0.002, Δ(500)=0.7+-0.3 and Δ(907)=-21.7 +8 -31.1 or 0.21+-0.03. The structure of nuclear levels in 105 Rh is discussed briefly in terms of models applicable for nuclide in this mass region [pt

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  16. Caracterização e avaliação de três grupos de arroz-de-sequeiro de diferentes procedências por meio da sensitividade à radiação gama Characterization and evaluation of three groups of rice upland of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity

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    Luís Roberto Franco Rodrigues

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização e avaliação de variedades de arroz auxiliam na seleção dos parentais e na ampliação da base genética dos programas de melhoramento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar e avaliar três grupos de arroz-de-sequeiro (Oryza sativa L. de diferentes procedências por meio da sensitividade à radiação gama. Sementes de 84 variedades procedentes do Japão, Filipinas e Brasil foram submetidas a v��rias dosagens de radiação gama e semeadas em caixas de madeira no delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso com três repetições. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, em 1991, no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA, da Universidade de São Paulo (USP. Mediu-se a sensitividade por meio dos efeitos fisiológicos produzidos na geração M1; determinaram-se as porcentagens de emergência, a sobrevivência e a altura das plântulas. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas de sensitividade à radiação gama entre grupos em todos os caracteres avaliados.The characterization and evaluation of varieties of rice aid in the parents selection and in the increase of the genetic base of breeding programs. The present work was carried out to characterize and to evaluate three groups of rice upland (Oryza sativa L. of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds of 84 varieties collected from Japan, Philippines and Brazil, were submitted to various doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes. The experiment was conducted in 1991 at greenhouse according to randomized complete block design with three replications. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M1 generation, such as seed emergency, seedling height and survival rate, were determined and evaluated. The results showed significant differences of sensitivity to the radiation among three groups for all traits evaluated.

  17. Radiação gama na redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango Gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination of chicken steaks

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    Marta Helena Filet SPOTO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito da radiação gama na destruição dos microrganismos presentes em filés de frango armazenados sob refrigeração. Um dos possíveis fatores de deterioração da carne de frango é a atividade microbiana. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação de microrganismos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 5 fatores (períodos de armazenamento e 5 níveis (doses de radiação, com 3 repetições por tratamento. As amostras de filé de frango foram irradiadas com doses de 0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy e em seguida armazenadas sob refrigeração (± 5ºC por 1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias. A contagem total dos microrganismos foi realizada por plaqueamento em profundidade em meio de cultivo PCA. As amostras não irradiadas permitiram um acréscimo de dois ciclos logarítmicos na contagem microbiana ao longo dos vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10(5 para 10(7UFC/g. As amostras irradiadas com dose de 2,0kGy permitiram acréscimo de um ciclo logarítmico durante os vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10³ para 10(4UFC/g. As doses de radiação de 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy reduziram a população microbiana a níveis de 10²UFC/g no vigésimo primeiro dia e 10¹UFC/g no vigésimo oitavo dia de armazenamento. A irradiação pode ser um processo eficiente para a redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango porque a dose de radiação de 4,0kGy foi suficiente para manter os filés de frango refrigerados com uma população microbiana de 10¹UFC/g até vinte e oito dias de armazenamento.This work evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination in chicken steaks stored under refrigeration. Microbial activity causes deterioration in poultry. Irradiation is a process of food preservation by reduction of the number of the microorganisms. The experimental design was in random blocks with 5 factors (storage periods and 5 levels

  18. Efeitos do estádio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiação gama na formação de calos derivados de anteras de tomate Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

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    Ana Christina R. Brasileiro

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando: (I determinar a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de anteras de tomate sobre a formação de calos e (II analisar o efeito da radiação gama no cultivo in vitro de anteras. No primeiro experimento, anteras de híbridos de tomate IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F1 foram cultivadas em três meios nutritivos. Apesar da formação de calos ter sido induzida em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, variando de prófase I à micrósporo mononucleado, a freqüência de calos produzidos decresceu com o avanço do estádio de desenvolvimento e se apresentou de forma semelhante nos meios testados. Anteras contendo meiócitos em estádio de prófase I mostraram maior freqüência de formação de calos. Tanto o comprimento da antera quanto o do botão floral apresentaram correlação significativa com o estádio de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, sementes e botões florais dos híbridos IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2, IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2 e IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2 foram submetidos à radiação gama e suas anteras foram cultivadas em dois meios descritos por Gresshoff & Doy (1972, contendo 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 5,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 1,0 mg L-1 de cinetina. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas, no que se refere à formação de calos, para os genótipos e doses estudadas - 200 Gy, para sementes e 20 Gy, para botões florais.Two experiments were carried (I to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4 - F1 were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mononucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest

  19. Atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária, dosagens séricas de uréia e creatinina como meios diagnósticos auxiliares na nefrotoxicidade induzida por aminoglicosídeo em cães Urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, urinalysis, bun and creatinine serum dosages as a auxiliary diagnostic mean in dogs nephrotoxicity induced by aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane de Aguiar Hennemann

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 11 cães, hígidos, com idade entre 1 e 5 anos. Inicialmente procedeu-se à determinação dos valores basais através de cinco colheitas diárias de urina e sangue, e realizou-se a urinálise, determinação da atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária, dosagens sérica de uréia e creatinina. A nefrotoxicidade foi induzida com a utilização de10mg/kg de gentamicina, 3 vezes ao dia, durante 14 dias. As colheitas de urina foram realizadas a cada 24 hors e o sangue foi colhido a cada 48 horas, durante 14 dias. Após este período os cães foram submetidos à eutanásia, procedendo-se à necropsia, e estudo histopatológico dos rins. Os sinais clínicos apresentados foram apatia, anorexia, poliúria, oligúria, anúria, polidipsia, vômito e diarréia. Pela urinálise observou-se a ocorrência de proteinúria, glicosúria, hematúria, cilindrúria, celulúria e isostenúria; os valores de gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária elevaram-se de forma crescente a partir de 24 horas de administração da gentamicina até o final do experimento, a azotemia foi observada no 12° e 14° dias da pesquisa. Na avaliação histopatológica observou-se nefrose tubular aguda. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que a mensuração da atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária é um sensível indicador de lesão tubular renal possibilitando o diagnóstico precoce, juntamente com a urinálise.Eleven healthy dogs, ranging from one to five years old, were used for this study. Base line values were determined through five daily samples of urine for urinalysis and urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, and blood for serum dosage of BUN and creatinine. Nephrotoxicity was induced using 10mg/kg of gentamicin, 3 times a day (tid, for 14 days. Urine samples were drawn every 24 hours and blood samples every 48 hours, for 14 days. After this period, the dogs were euthanized and necropsy was done for further

  20. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o conteúdo de tocoferóis em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliação sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Sinigallia Taipina

    2009-01-01

    O conteúdo e o percentual de retenção de atividade de vitamina E, bem como, as características sensoriais foram analisados em amostras de alimentos fontes de vitamina E: nozes pecãs; biscoitos integrais e alimento fortificado em pó irradiados com doses de 1 e 3 kGy de radiação gama de 60Co. Para a determinação de vitamina E (como equivalentes em -tocoferol) foram utilizados três lotes dos produtos e aplicado método colorimétrico padronizado pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz de São Paulo. Para a anál...

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed crops Efeito da radiação gama na inativação de aflatoxina B1 em alimentos e ração

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    I. Ghanem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of food crops (peanut, peeled pistachio, unpeeled pistachio, rice, and corn and feed (barley, bran, corn were autoclave-sterilized, and inoculated with 10(6 of spore suspension of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus fungus known to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 . Following a 10-day period of incubation at 27 C to allow for fungal growth, food and feed samples were irradiated with gamma radiation at the doses 4, 6, and 10 kGy. Results indicated that degradation of AFB1 was positively correlated with the increase in the applied dose of gamma ray for each tested sample. At a dose of 10 kGy percentages of AFB1 degradation reached highest values at 58.6, 68.8, 84.6, 81.1 and 87.8% for peanuts, peeled pistachios, unpeeled pistachios, corn and rice samples, respectively. In feed samples percentages of AFB1 degradation were 45, 66, and 90% in barley, 47, 75, and 86% in bran, and 31, 72, and 84% in corn for the doses of 4, 6, and 10 kGy, respectively. AFB1 degradation in food samples correlated negatively with oil content in irradiated samples. Thus, in peanuts, which contained the highest oil content, percentage of AFB1 degradation at 10 kGy was not more than 56.6%, whereas, the corresponding value in corn, which contained the lowest oil content, reached as high as 80%. The above results indicate the possibility of using gamma radiation as a means of degradation of AFB1 in food and feed crops to levels lower than the maximum allowed levels.Amostras de alimentos (amendoim, pistache descascada, pistache com casca, arroz e milho e de ração (cevada, farelo de trigo e milho foram esterilizadas por autoclavação e inoculadas com uma suspensão de esporos (10(6 de um isolado de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxina B1 (AFB1. Após incubação por 10 dias a 27ºC para multiplicação do fungo, as amostras foram irradiadas com radiação gama nas doses de 4, 6 e 10 kGy. Os resultados indicaram que a degradação da AFB1 correlacionou-se positivamente

  2. Terrestrial gamma tracking: estimation of population exposition to radioactivity in urban areas; Rastreamento gama terrestre: estimativa da exposição da população à radioatividade em areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Elder Magalhães de

    2017-07-01

    In this work, measurements of Ambient Dose Equivalent, H⁎(10) in urban and rural areas is proposed to assess and estimate the dose and external dose in cases of radiological or nuclear accidents. These measurements will enable the calculation and estimation of population exposure to environmental and urban radioactivity to be performed within the parameters proposed by the IAEA and UNSCEAR. To take into account the influence of background gamma radiation on radiometric measurements, all the detectors used, AT6101C, SPARCS A1 and SPARCS M1 systems, were calibrated using IRD's extensive set of planar sources. Also, a methodology for the gamma radiation terrestrial survey is proposed to use the gamma in situ spectrometry systems in H⁎(10) measurements. Shielding effects due to the use of detection systems inside vehicles were evaluated and the corresponding corrections factors calculated are 1.45 for the AT6101C detector, 1.77 for SPARCS A1 and 1.82 for SPARCS M1. The terrestrial survey to determine the value of Ambient Dose Equivalent was performed in areas not subject to intense radioactive anomalies. Among these areas are included the cities: Angra dos Reis and Paraty (State of Rio de Janeiro), Abadia de Goiás, Goiânia, Cristalina and Itumbiara (State of Goiás), Ribeirão Preto and Campinas (State of São Paulo), Brasília-DF (Federal District), Belo Horizonte, Ubá and cities of Zona da Mata (State of Minas Gerais) and Manaus (State of Amazonas). The average altitude of the cities ranged from the sea level in the cities of Angra dos Reis and Paraty to 1100 meters in Brasilia. The number of inhabitants ranged from 3,000 in Divinésia to 3 million in Brasília-DF. The mean values of H⁎(10) ranged from 63 nSv/h in Itumbiara to 170 nSv/h in Ubá. The minimum and maximum values found ranged from 25 nSv/h in Manaus to 347 nSv/h in Belo Horizonte. The average altitude of the cities ranged from the sea level in the cities of Angra dos Reis and Paraty to 1100

  3. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

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    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  4. Tipologia de frutos e síndromes de dispersão de um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto da APA do Gama e Cabeça de Veado e montagem de Coleção Didática de frutos – Carpoteca - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v9i1.1385

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    Carolina Cátia Schaffer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de realizar um levantamento tipológico de frutos e síndromes de dispersão de um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto, e montar uma carpoteca, o presente trabalho partiu da premissa de que o Cerrado apresenta alta diversidade de frutos e estratégias de dispersão. Os frutos foram coletados na APA do Gama e Cabeça de Veado (Brasília-DF, entre os meses de agosto de 2009 a maio de 2010. A coleta foi feita pelo método de caminhamento com busca ativa por espécimes maduros. Os frutos foram classificados de acordo com a consistência, deiscência e as síndromes de dispersão, e divididos em grupos, tipos e subtipos. Foram coletados 79 frutos, sendo 70 frutos simples, 7 múltiplos e 2 compostos; 43 deiscentes e 36 indeiscentes; 53 secos e 26 carnosos. Anemocoria foi a síndrome de dispersão prevalecente. A diversidade florística encontrada no fragmento garantiu elevada variabilidade de formas de frutos para a carpoteca.

  5. Comportamento balístico de compósito de polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular: efeito da radiação gama Ballistic behaviour of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: effect of gamma radiation

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    Andreia L. S. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica (PMCs reforçados por fibras são considerados excelentes materiais de engenharia. Em aplicações estruturais, quando uma elevada relação resistência peso é fundamental para o projeto, os PMCs vêm substituindo com sucesso diversos materiais convencionais. Materiais têxteis são utilizados, desde a 2ª Guerra Mundial, como blindagens balísticas. Materiais fabricados com fibra do polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular (UHMWPE são empregados na produção de blindagens, para proteção pessoal e em carros de combate. Todavia, em virtude de terem sido desenvolvidos e comercializados mais recentemente, não existem informações suficientes sobre o desempenho balístico desses materiais após a sua exposição aos agentes ambientais. No presente trabalho foi estudado o comportamento balístico de placas compósitas fabricadas com fibra de polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular (UHMWPE, após sua exposição à radiação gama. Os resultados dos testes balísticos foram relacionados com as alterações macromoleculares induzidas pela irradiação por meio de ensaios mecânicos (dureza, impacto e flexão e físico-químicos (espectroscopia no infravermelho, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e análise termogravimétrica. Foi verificado que a irradiação gama provoca modificações nas cadeias macromoleculares do polímero, que alteram as propriedades mecânicas do compósito de UHMWPE, reduzindo, nas doses de radiação mais elevadas, o seu desempenho balístico. Estes resultados são apresentados e discutidos.The fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs are considered excellent engineering materials. In structural applications, when a high strength-to-weight ratio is fundamental for the design, PMCs are successfully replacing many conventional materials. Since World War II textile materials have been used as ballistic armor. Materials manufactured with ultrahigh molecular weight

  6. Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo: influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo

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    M. L. P. A. GOMEZ

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo, e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS, sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

  7. Estudo sobre a eventual utilidade de raios gama na profilaxia da malária transmissível por transfusão de sangue A study on the fortuitons advantage of gamma irradiation in the prophylaxis of transmissible malaria by blood transfusion

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    Lúcia Maria Almeida Braz

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a eventual utilidade de raios gama na profilaxia da malária transmissível por transfusão de sangue, tendo sido, para isso, usados camundongos infectados pelo Plasmodium berghei. Na primeira fase, quando submetemos sangue deles retirado a 2.500 e 5.000rad, com associação ou não de metronidazol, não obtivemos sucesso, já que todos os animais antes sem a parasitose apresentaram parasitemia e morreram após inoculação do sangue irradiado. Porém, ocorreu êxito parcial na segunda fase, ao serem empregados 10.000 e 15.000rad, porquanto 20% e 40% dos roedores, respectivamente, embora tenham ficado infectados, sobreviveram, com posterior negativação quanto à presença do P. berghei.This study was carried out to evaluate the fortuitons advantage of using gamma irradiation in the prophylaxis of transmissible malaria by blood transfusion, with mice as the experimental model. In the first step, when the infected blood with Plasmodium berghei was submitted to 2,500rad and 5,000rad, with or without metronidazol, there was no success, because the animals presented parasitaemia and died after inoculation of irradiated blood. However, there was partial success in the second step, when the infected blood received 10,000 and 15,000rad, and was inoculated in mice, which showed infection, and presented a survival rate of 20% and 40%, respectively, with later negativation of blood infected by P. berghei.

  8. Efeito da irradiação gama nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais do arroz (Oryza sativa L. e no desenvolvimento de Sitophilus oryzae L. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L. and on the development of Sitophilus oryzae L.

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    Cíntia Fernanda Pedroso Zanão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a viabilidade da radiação gama como método de conservação do arroz polido (Oryza sativa L.. As amostras foram irradiadas com doses 0,5; 1,0; 3,0; e 5,0 kGy. Foram realizadas análises da quebra do grão no beneficiamento, da longevidade e reprodução do Sitophilus oryzae L., a composição centesimal, o conteúdo de amilose aparente e propriedades de pasta dos amidos, e análises para cor (instrumental e análise sensorial do arroz cru e cozido. Foi utilizado teste de Tukey (p The objective of this research was to verify the viability of the gamma radiation as polished rice (Oryza sativa L. conservation method. The samples were irradiated with doses of 0.5; 1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 kGy. Analysis of the grain breakage during the enriching process, longevity and reproduction of the Sitophilus oryzae L., centesimal composition, apparent amylose content, starch paste properties, color (instrumental, and the sensorial evaluation of raw and cooked rice were performed. It was verified that the irradiation did not change the percentage of grain breakage during the enrichment process, and it caused a negative effect on the development of insects. The irradiation did not change significantly the centesimal composition and the apparent amylase content. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was conducted to verify the differences between the treatments. Gamma irradiation affected the pasting properties of the rice flour. Pasting parameters as temperature, peak, final viscosity, and setback values showed decreasing values with irradiation doses. Differences were detected in the sensorial aspect among the samples, and the sample irradiated with the dose of 1.0 kGy presented greater averages. Regarding the instrumental color parameter, it was observed the difference in the values b* indicating that the rice changed the white color for yellowish with the increase in the irradiation dose. The irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy proved the best

  9. Alimentos industrializados congelados gama III y IV

    OpenAIRE

    Tupone Reverter, Paula

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo, indagar sobre el consumo, el grado de información y contenido de sodio, grasas saturadas y colesterol de los principales alimentos congelados Gama III y V consumidos por los encuestados. A partir de esto, se realiza una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo y preguntas varias a 250 personas de entre 30 a 60 años, que concurren a cuatro supermercados de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, para determinar el conocimiento por parte de los encuestados e...

  10. Estudo da formação de ligações cruzadas por irradiação gama em membranas híbridas de Polissulfona Bisfenol-A e sílica precipitada Study of cross-linking reactions induced by gamma rays in hybrid membranes of Bisphenol-A-Polysulfone and precipitated silica

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    Acácio Antonio M. Furtado Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho a polissulfona bisfenol-A (PSU foi sulfonada com o agente de sulfonação trimetil silil cloro sulfônico [(CH33SiSO3Cl], em solução homogênea de dicloroetano. A reação de sulfonação foi confirmada por titulação ácido-base e análises FTIR. As membranas híbridas foram obtidas por vazamento da solução polimérica da polissulfona bisfenol-A sulfonada (SPSU e sílica precipitada Tixosil® 333 em N-N-dimetilacetamida (DMAc, e a formação das ligações cruzadas foi estudada por irradiação. Foram utilizadas doses totais de 5 a 30 kGy de radiação gama, oriunda de uma fonte de 60Co. A absorção de água foi determinada pela variação percentual da massa da membrana seca e hidratada em água deionizada a 40 e 60 °C. A condutividade protônica das membranas na forma ácida foi obtida pela técnica da espectroscopia de impedância ac utilizando um potenciostato/galvanostato. As membranas híbridas reticuladas por irradiação apresentaram condutividade protônica próxima de 10-1 S.cm-1 a 100% RH e 80 °C. O desempenho eletroquímico, as estabilidades térmica e mecânica, e o baixo custo tornam a membrana SPSU híbrida reticulada um possível substituto da membrana Nafion nas células a combustível que usam eletrólito polimérico.In this work the bisphenol-A-polysulfone (PSF was sulfonated using trimethyl silyl chlorosulfonate [(CH33SiSO3Cl] as a mild sulfonating agent in a homogeneous solution of dichloroetane. The sulfonation reaction was confirmed by acid-base titration and FTIR-spectroscopy analysis. The hybrid membranes were obtained by casting the sulfonated bisphenol-A-polysulfone (SPSF and precipitated silica Tixosil® 333 solutions in N-N-dimethylacetamide. Cross-linking in the hybrid membranes was obtained by irradiation, with doses ranging from 5 to 30 kGy using gamma ray from a 60Co source. The water uptake and the swelling of the membranes were estimated by measuring the change in weight between

  11. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação gama nos teores de carotenóides, ácido ascórbico e açúcares do futo buriti do brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L. Evaluation of gamma irradiation rffects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.

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    Antonio Luís dos Santos Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L. é um típico fruto da Amazônia, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste brasileiro, muito utilizado na culinária para produção de sucos, doces e vinhos. É considerado uma excelente fonte de carotenóides precursores da vitamina A, apresentando maior concentração de β-caroteno. Além dos carotenóides também encontramos ácido ascórbico e açúcares. O ácido ascórbico administrado em quantidades suficientes pode prevenir os sinais clínicos de deficiência conhecida como escorbuto. O emprego da radiação ionizante gama tem mostrado um potencial efeito na redução de perdas pós-colheita, mantendo a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama, nas doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy, na concentração de carotenóides totais, ácido ascórbico e açúcares do buriti. A determinação dos carotenos (α, β e luteína, ácido ascórbico e açúcares foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE e os carotenóides totais por espectrofotometria. Os resultados demonstraram que o Buriti é uma excelente fonte de carotenóides totais (44600μg/100g, podendo ser utilizado no combate à hipovitaminose A. A irradiação dos frutos de buriti na dose de 0,5 kGy não alterou significativamente os teores de carotenóides e açúcares. Entretanto, houve uma redução na concentração do ácido ascórbico com o aumento da dose, que pode ter sido causada pela irradiação ou por fatores intrínsecos e extrínsecos que alteram a estabilidade do ácido ascórbico nos alimentos, podendo converter o ácido ascórbico a dehidroascórbico, mantendo ainda a forma ativa da vitamina C.Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L., a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of β-carotene. It also presents ascorbic

  12. Implementation of SQLite database support in program gama-local

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    Vaclav Petras

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The program gama-local is a part of GNU Gama project and allows adjustment of local geodetic networks. Before realization of this project the program gama-local supported only XML as an input. I designed and implemented support for the SQLite database and thanks to this extension gama-local can read input data from the SQLite database. This article is focused on the specifics of the use of callback functions in C++ using the native SQLite C/C++ Application Programming Interface. The article provides solution to safe calling of callback functions written in C++. Callback functions are called from C library and C library itself is used by C++ program. Provided solution combines several programing techniques which are described in detail, so this article can serve as a cookbook even for beginner programmers.  This project was accomplished within my bachelor thesis.

  13. Assessement of glycaemia and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in thoroughbred horses submitted to exercise of different intensities/ Avaliação da glicemia e da atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase, creatinoquinase, gama-glutamiltransferase e lactato desidrogenase em eqüinos puro sangue inglês (PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades

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    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of exercise of different intensities on biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred horses blood was collected from 60 animals, 30 males and 30 females.The animals were subdivided in two groups : 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 24 to 36 months of age and not in training, and after 12 months of training; 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 36 to 48 months of age in training. Blood samples were collected before and after trot and gallop. Plasmatic glucose was analyzed through a colorimetric method, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT were analyzed through kinetic methods. Results show a statistically significant increase in plasmatic glucose after trot and gallop independent of gender, while the increases in CK and LDH were different for males and females. Variations for AST and GGT were not statistically significant.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações na bioquímica sérica em eqüinos PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 60 eqüinos PSI, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: 30 animais sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com idade de 24 a 36 meses, não submetidos a treinamento e após um período de 12 meses de treinamento e 30 eqüinos de 36 a 48 meses, em fase de treinamento, antes e após o trote . Dos animais de 36 a 48 meses foram selecionados 20 machos e 10 fêmeas e colhido sangue antes e após o galope. Determinou-se, por métodos colorimétricos, os valores da glicose plasmática e, por métodos cinéticos, as enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatinoquinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. A análise estatística dos resultados comprovou a ocorrência de aumento significativo (p < 0,05 dos valores da glicose plasmática após o trote e galope para ambos os sexos. Para as enzimas CK e LDH ocorreram

  14. Modelos de distribuição de diâmetros utilizando a função log gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência da função log gama para a descrição da estrutura diamétrica de povoamentos equiâneos, bem como propor um modelo de distribuição diamétrica utilizando esta função. A função foi ajustada a dados de parcelas permanentes de inventário, mensuradas em seis idades. A aderência da função aos dados foi comprovada pelo teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov. A análise gráfica de resíduos não apresentou tendenciosidade para os modelos construídos. A função log gama pode ser utilizada para a construção de modelos de distribuição diamétrica de eucalipto.

  15. Determinação da dose de radiação gama para reduzir a população de Salmonella spp em carne de frango Determination of gamma radiation doses to reduce Salmonella spp in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de carne de frango contaminada com Salmonella é uma causa importante de salmonelose em todo o mundo. Essa doença transmitida por alimentos, é um problema de saúde pública e causa de perdas econômicas substanciais. O processo de irradiação é um método eficiente de conservação de alimentos por reduzir o número de microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes, sem que as características organolépticas e nutricionais do alimento sejam alteradas significativamente. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram determinar o valor D10 de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, inoculada em sobrecoxas de frango, e recomendar uma dose de radiação para ser aplicada a esse alimento a fim de torná-lo seguro do ponto de vista microbiológico. O valor D10 foi calculado a partir da curva de sobreviventes dessa bactéria em sobrecoxas de frango, após terem sido expostas às doses de 0kGy; 0,1kGy; 0,2kGy; 0,3kGy; 0,5kGy; 0,6kGy; 0,7kGy e 0,8kGy. O valor D10 variou de 0,241kGy a 0,480kGy. Considerando o maior valor D10 e o maior nível de contaminação de Salmonella spp encontrado em sobrecoxas de frango - 0,4NMP/g - adquiridas em feiras livres da cidade de São Paulo, a dose de radiação gama recomendada para garantir a segurança do produto em relação à presença de Salmonella spp é de 3,8kGy.The consumption of chicken meat contaminated with Salmonella spp is an important cause of salmonellosis worldwide. This food-borne disease is a public health problem and causes substantial economical loss. Irradiation process is an effective method for food preservation because it causes no significant change in organoleptic and nutritional food characteristics and destroys pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. D10 values were calculated through the number of survivors for S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, inoculated in chicken thighs, after being irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation - 0.0kGy; 0.1kGy; 0.2kGy; 0.3kGy; 0.5kGy; 0.7kGy and 0.8kGy . D10

  16. Radiação gama e nitrito de sódio na composição química e textura de mortadelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Pereira Dutra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Um delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR foi conduzido para estudar os efeitos simultâneos da adição de nitrito (43,6; 150; 256,4; e 300 ppm e de doses de radiação gama (2,9; 10; 17,1; e 20 kGy nos atributos de textura e parâmetros físico-químicos de mortadelas. O pH, composição química e adesividade das mortadelas não foram afetados por nenhuma das variáveis estudadas, enquanto a dureza e a mastigabilidade foram influenciados pela aplicação da radiação gama. Modelos de regressão significativos (P<0,05 foram estabelecidos para a atividade de água, coesividade e flexibilidade das amostras. Estes modelos indicam que os efeitos da irradiação gama sobre estes parâmetros é dependente do nível de nitrito adicionado, sendo o comportamento diferente para amostras com níveis de adição menores que 150 ppm de nitrito daquelas com níveis de adição maiores.

  17. Aktivitas Inhibitor Enzim Pengubah Angiotensin (ACE dan Antioksidan Peptida Kolagen dari Teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habbib Khirzin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teripang merupakan salah satu echinodermata yang memiliki kandungan protein tinggi dan sekitar 70% dari proteinnya merupakan kolagen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas inhibitor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE dan antioksidan dari peptida kolagen teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus. Ekstraksi kolagen dilakukan menggunakan asam asetat 0,5 M. Peptida kolagen diperoleh melalui hidrolisis kolagen menggunakan enzim pepsin dengan konsentrasi 0,1 U/g kolagen, selama 0; 30; 60; 90; 120; 180; dan 240 menit. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE dan antioksidan peptida kolagen diuji dengan metode spektroskopi. Kolagen yang dihasilkan memiliki rendemen 16,40% dengan berat molekul 130,33 kDa. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE tertinggi dihasilkan dari proses hidrolisis selama 180 menit dengan penghambatan sebesar 82,31%, sedangkan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi dihasilkan oleh peptida kolagen dari hidrolisis kolagen selama 120 menit dengan nilai IC50 1,9 mg/ml.

  18. Efeito de diferentes doses de radiação gama na solução de quitosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moraes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quitosana é um polissacarídeo adquirido da desacetilização da quitina, existente em insetos e invertebrados marinhos. Possui ação fungistática e não causa reações de toxicidade ao organismo humano. Ela é utilizada como revestimento de alimentos, prolongando a vida pós-colheita e melhorando a aparência do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de radiação gama na solução de quitosana. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à cor onde foi observado que a radiação gama induz a mudança da intensidade e na tonalidade da solução de quitosana. A análise de MEV mostrou que as partículas do pó de quitosana possuem formatos irregulares, e as amostras irradiadas apresentaram grânulos menores dando uma aparência mais fina e dispersa. A solução também foi analisada quanto à viscosidade e foi visto que a irradiação alterou a viscosidade da solução, deixando-a menos viscosa. Assim, dentre as doses, a de 5 kGy foi a que apresentou alteração mais relevante às características da solução e a futuras aplicações da mesma.

  19. Prototype-based analysis of GAMA galaxy catalogue data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, A.; Wang, L.; Biehl, M; Verleysen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We present a prototype-based machine learning analysis of labeled galaxy catalogue data containing parameters from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Using both an unsupervised and supervised method, the Self-Organizing Map and Generalized Relevance Matrix Learning Vec- tor Quantization, we

  20. Book collections in the library of the Gama Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, R.U.; Soeratman, S.

    1976-01-01

    Book collection in the library of Gama Atomic Energy Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency in December 1974 is grouped according to Universal Decimal Classification. In accordance with the function of the library most of the collections are on physics, mathematics, and engineering. Authors and subjects are alphabetically indexed in the last part of the catalog. (author)

  1. Polpa de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia submetida à radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O fruto amazônico camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia, possui elevado teor de vitamina C, antocianinas, carotenóides e compostos fenólicos, fatores que fazem com este fruto venham se posicionando na preferência dos consumidores de frutas exóticas. A radiação ionizante tem sido utilizada para aumentar a vida útil dos produtos, além de preservar qualidades intrínsecas e nutricionais. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a radiação gama como método alternativo na conservação da polpa de camu-camu. As amostras de polpa do fruto foram submetidas às doses 0 (controle, 2, 4, e 6 kGy. Em seguida, foram armazenadas a 6 ºC e à temperatura ambiente (26 ºC, e avaliadas quanto a cor, pH, acidez titulável, teores de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos e antocianinas nos períodos 1 e 15 dias de armazenamento. Os atributos pH, teor de sólidos solúveis, compostos fenólicos e acidez total, não foram afetados pela irradiação e pela temperatura de armazenamento nos dois períodos analisados. A vitamina C também não se alterou com a irradiação, porém o armazenamento refrigerado manteve os teores mais constantes. A cor foi o atributo mais afetado pela irradiação e pelo armazenamento à temperatura ambiente. Portanto, a radiação gama não se mostrou eficaz no armazenamento da polpa desta fruta em nenhuma das temperaturas propostas.

  2. Interaction study of water radiolysis products with Crotalus durissus terrificus miotoxin; Estudo das interacoes dos produtos de radiolise da agua com a miotoxina do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2008-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on the Crotamine, toxin purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, circular dichroism, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acids analysis and intravital microscopy were employed. Our results indicate that ionizing radiation caused structure alterations, mainly, in secondary and tertiary structure of crotamine. In the irradiated crotamine, was not possible to determine tridimensional structure. And the crotamine toxic effect was removed by ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA COMO ALTERNATIVA DE CONSERVAÇÃO DE POLPA DE ACEROLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. J. C. GONÇALVES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Esse trabalho objetivou estudar a irradiação gama como método de conservação para a polpa de acerola. A polpa foi tratada por irradiação gama. As amostras, divididas em alíquotas, receberam diferentes doses de radiação (2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 kGy para posterior comparação com a amostra controle (0,0 kGy. Testes microbiológicos para fungos filamentosos e leveduras, após 12 dias de estocagem à temperatura ambiente, evidenciaram uma redução de 3 ciclos logarítmicos para a dose de 2 kGy e de 4 a 5 ciclos para as doses de 3 e 4 kGy, tendo a amostra controle se deteriorado (> 106 UFC.mL-1. A perda de antocianinas logo após os tratamentos foi de 23,3%, 27,8% e 29,5% para as doses de 2, 3 e 4 kGy, respectivamente, em relação à amostra sem tratamento. No entanto, análises colorimétricas revelaram que a cinética do parâmetro a* (intensidade de vermelho teve menor constante de velocidade de degradação da cor para a dose de 4 kGy, indicando, para tal dose, maior estabilidade da cor durante a estocagem da polpa à temperatura ambiente. Assim, a irradiação gama apresentase como um método alternativo para eliminar o efeito negativo do calor frente à degradação das antocianinas, viabilizando a comercialização asséptica deste produto, reduzindo os custos com a eliminação da cadeia do frio no processo de comercialização.

  4. XML in Projects GNU Gama and 3DGI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar, Jan; Soucek, Petr; Cepek, Ales

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents our practical experiences with XML in geodetic and geographical applications. The main concepts and ideas of XML are introduced in an example of a simple web based information system, which exploits the XHTML language. The article further describes how XML is used in GNU Gama...... for structuring data for a geodetic network adjustment. In another application of XML, it is demonstrated how XML can be used for a unified description of data from leveling registration units. Finally, the use of XML for modelling 3D geographical features within the 3DGI project is presented and a relation...

  5. EFEITO DO ÁCIDO LÁTICO E DA RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA ELIMINAÇÃO DE Pseudomonas spp. E NA PRODUÇÃO DE AMÔNIA EM PEITO DE FRANGO DESOSSADO RESFRIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. S. ANTUNEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido lático e doses de radiação gama, bem como o efeito de suas interações, na eliminação de Pseudomonas spp. e nas concentrações de amônia, em peito de frango desossado e sem pele. As amostras foram inoculadas com 106UFC.g-1 de Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, imersas em soluções de ácido lático nas concentrações 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0% (v/v, embaladas em polietileno permeável ao oxigênio, processadas por radiação gama, utilizando 60Co nas doses 1,5, 2,5 e 3,5KGy, e armazenadas sob refrigeração (4ºC. Estabeleceu-se, também, a correlação entre as contagens de Pseudomonas spp. (logUFC.g-1 e as concentrações de amônia (mg.100g-1, determinadas pelo método colorimétrico de Nessler, no 5º, 12º, 19º e 26º dias de armazenamento. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,05, para eliminação de Pseudomonas spp., no fator dose de radiação de 2,5KGy, enquanto o uso isolado do ácido lático, nas três concentrações utilizadas, promoveu somente reduções inferiores a um ciclo log nas contagens iniciais desse microrganismo. Todos os tratamentos resultaram em níveis de amônia inferiores ao do controle (2,8mg.100g-1. A interação entre a dose de 3,5KGy e ácido lático a 1,5% (v/v, resultou no menor nível de amônia obtido e que foi igual a 1,1mg.100g-1. O coeficiente de correlação (r = 0,8752 obtido, entre as contagens de Pseudomonas spp. e as concentrações de amônia, demonstra a viabilidade de uso do método químico para estabelecer, de forma simples e rápida, o grau de deterioração de peito de frango durante o armazenamento aeróbio refrigerado.

  6. Eficiência do uso de água em domicílios residenciais na cidade do Gama

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Paiva Scardua; Ricardo Silveira Bernardes; Rafael Lima de Almeida; Diego Gonçalves Duarte

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar os sistemas de descargas sanitárias e de chuveiros utilizados nos domicílios da cidade do Gama/DF. Foram selecionados 0,7% dos domicílios urbanos, distribuídos aleatoriamente, e aplicados questionários a fim de se avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e os sistemas de descarga e chuveiros utilizados. O consumo médio de água observado foi de 208,87 l/hab.dia, sendo que, 9,87% do consumo se deve ao uso de descarga sanitária, e 48,84%, ao uso do chuveiro, totalizan...

  7. Radiação gama na conservação do suco natural de laranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemma Juliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou o efeito da radiação gama na população microbiológica, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH and conteúdo de vitamina C do suco natural de laranja. A atividade microbiana pode causar a deterioração do suco de laranja. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação dos microrganismos, porém pode afetar algumas características do produto. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial 4x5 referentes ao controle mais 3 doses de radiação (2,0; 4,0 and 6.0 kGy e 5 períodos de armazenamento (1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias com 2 repetições. As amostras de suco natural foram extraídas de laranjas da variedade "Pêra", irradiadas a uma taxa de dose de 2,0 kGy por hora (cobalto-60, e em seguida foram armazenadas sob refrigeração (5 ± 3ºC. Os resultados mostraram pequenas variações no teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e pH, em relação aos tratamentos testados. A razão sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável foi determinada e também mostrou pequena variação em todos os tratamentos. Com o aumento da dose de radiação e o prolongamento do período de armazenamento houve redução no conteúdo de vitamina C do suco. A radiação gama se mostrou eficaz na redução da população microbiana do suco de laranja.

  8. California GAMA Special Study: Nitrate Fate and Transport in the Salinas Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Jean E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hillegonds, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtz, Marianne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Sarah K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Under the GAMA program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carries out special studies that address groundwater quality issues of statewide relevance. The study described here is one in a series of special studies that address the fate and transport of nitrate in basins where groundwater is the main source of water for both irrigation and public drinking water supply.

  9. Radiação gama e atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade de goiabas 'Pedro Sato'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André José de Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama associada à atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas 'Pedro Sato', verificando suas características físico-químicas. Foram utilizadas goiabas provenientes da região de Vista Alegre do Alto-SP,Brasil. Após a colheita, as goiabas foram imediatamente transportadas ao Laboratório de Frutas e Hortaliças, pertencente ao Departamento de Gestão e Tecnologia Agroindustrial, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu-SP, onde foram armazenadas a 10ºC e 90-95%UR, em câmara frigorífica, por 28 dias. Os tratamentos foram: controle 1 (sem embalagem e sem irradiação; controle 2 (embalagem de poliestireno (PS + polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e sem irradiação; tratamento 1 (PS+PEBD e 0,2kGy; tratamento 2 (PS+PEBD e 0,6kGy, e tratamento 3 (PS+PEBD e 1,0kGy. As análises realizadas foram: firmeza, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com esquema fatorial 5 x 5 (tratamento x tempo. Concluiu-se que as altas doses de irradiação promoveram efeito negativo nas características físico-químicas da goiaba 'Pedro Sato', e que apenas a menor dose utilizada (0,2kGy associada à atmosfera modificada conservou frutos com maior qualidade e aceitabilidade, indicado por maiores índice de maturação e teor de sólidos solúveis obtidos.

  10. Análise sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gama glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos adultos tratados com extrato bruto de própolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Diversos trabalhos têm atribuído a própolis inúmeras propriedades farmacológicas, dentre elas podemos citar, como exemplo, efeitos antibacteriano, antiviral, antiinflamatório, regenerador do tecido cartilaginoso, inibidor da formação de radicais livres e redutor de níveis sangüíneo de glicose e triacilglicerol. Alguns efeitos colaterais são atribuídos à própolis principalmente em doses elevadas. Muitos efeitos tóxicos da própolis são atribuídos ao álcool etílico presente no extrato.Dentre alguns efeitos tóxicos citados em literatura como realmente da própolis temos a dermatite e o aumento da uréia sangüínea. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar se o extrato bruto de própolis ocasiona algum efeito adverso nos níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos saudáveis. O experimento teve 30 dias de duração, sendo as dosagens dos constituintes do sangue (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase realizadas a 0, 15 e 30 dias. Os resultados indicaram que, de o extrato bruto de própolis na forma testadea, não ocasionou alteração relevante nos níveis séricos das enzimas marcadoras de metabolismo hepático. Palavras-chave: Própolis, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, gama glutamiltranpeptidase, toxicologia.

  11. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  12. Annual report April 1974-March 1975 of the Gama Research Centre National Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities at the Gama Research Centre for the period of April 1974-March 1975, covering works at the Laboratory of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, at the Reactor Laboratory, at the Laboratory of Chemistry, and at the Laboratory of Process Technology, are described. The Center's personnel and financial accounts are also given. (RUW)

  13. Distribution of gama-tubulin in cellulatr compartments of higher plant cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binarová, Pavla; Cenklová, Věra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dryková, Denisa; Volc, Jindřich; Dráber, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2003), s. 167-169 ISSN 1065-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/1013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : sds - page * gama-tubulin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2003

  14. Análisis del riesgo microbiológico "listeria monocytogenes" en ensaladas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Jiménez, Elena

    2007-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se analiza el riesgo alimentario de listeriosis a través del consumo de ensaladas de IV gama. Listeria monocytogenes en un microorganismo patógeno prevalente en una amplia gama de alimentos, entre ellos, los vegetales, tanto crudos como tratados en forma de ensalada de IV gama o listas para consumo. En primer lugar, desde un enfoque tradicional de la seguridad alimentaria, se investigó la aplicación de criterios microbiológicos según el Reglamento (CE) Nº 2073/20...

  15. Análisis del riesgo microbiológico "listeria monocytogenes" en ensaladas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Jiménez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se analiza el riesgo alimentario de listeriosis a través del consumo de ensaladas de IV gama. Listeria monocytogenes en un microorganismo patógeno prevalente en una amplia gama de alimentos, entre ellos, los vegetales, tanto crudos como tratados en forma de ensalada de IV gama o listas para consumo. En primer lugar, desde un enfoque tradicional de la seguridad alimentaria, se investigó la aplicación de criterios microbiológicos según el Reglamento (CE) Nº 2073/20...

  16. Eficiência do uso de água em domicílios residenciais na cidade do Gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paiva Scardua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar os sistemas de descargas sanitárias e de chuveiros utilizados nos domicílios da cidade do Gama/DF. Foram selecionados 0,7% dos domicílios urbanos, distribuídos aleatoriamente, e aplicados questionários a fim de se avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e os sistemas de descarga e chuveiros utilizados. O consumo médio de água observado foi de 208,87 l/hab.dia, sendo que, 9,87% do consumo se deve ao uso de descarga sanitária, e 48,84%, ao uso do chuveiro, totalizando 58,72% do consumo de água das residências analisadas. Com a utilização de descargas e chuveiros mais eficientes a redução do consumo seria de 12,73% e 47,07%, respectivamente, e a redução total seria de 41,29% do consumo total de água. Mais de 86% dos entrevistados se mostraram interessados em trocar ou adaptar os sistemas avaliados para sistemas mais eficientes

  17. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  18. A KiDS weak lensing analysis of assembly bias in GAMA galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornik, Andrej; Cacciato, Marcello; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo; Hoekstra, Henk; Nakajima, Reiko; van Uitert, Edo; Brouwer, Margot; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Farrow, Daniel J.; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; McFarland, John; Norberg, Peder; Schneider, Peter; Sifón, Cristóbal; Valentijn, Edwin; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-07-01

    We investigate possible signatures of halo assembly bias for spectroscopically selected galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey using weak lensing measurements from the spatially overlapping regions of the deeper, high-imaging-quality photometric Kilo-Degree Survey. We use GAMA groups with an apparent richness larger than 4 to identify samples with comparable mean host halo masses but with a different radial distribution of satellite galaxies, which is a proxy for the formation time of the haloes. We measure the weak lensing signal for groups with a steeper than average and with a shallower than average satellite distribution and find no sign of halo assembly bias, with the bias ratio of 0.85^{+0.37}_{-0.25}, which is consistent with the Λ cold dark matter prediction. Our galaxy groups have typical masses of 1013 M⊙ h-1, naturally complementing previous studies of halo assembly bias on galaxy cluster scales.

  19. Gamma radiation effects on polycarbonate-Durolon; A interacao da radiacao gama com o policarbonato Durolon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelina

    1996-12-31

    In this work, the commercial polycarbonate-Durolon, was characterized through measurements of its mechanical, optical viscosimetric and thermal properties, after being irradiated with a {sup 60} Co gamma-source at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These irradiations were carried out different doses and dose rates in air and in vacuum. From the results obtained it was shown that irradiation causes degradation in PC mainly by chain scission, leading to the formation of phenoxy and phenyl radicals which are associated with the yellowness of the material. Both, the concentration of radicals and yellowness of PC increase with the irradiation doses and dose rates. The irradiated PC-Durolon shown a good mechanical stability up to the doses analyzed, but on the other hand, its optical properties do not have the same performance. The viscosity and glass transition temperature of the Durolon decreases with the increase of dose and dose rates. This behavior indicates that main chain scission is the predominant process during irradiation. Furthermore in PC this degradation is higher when the material is irradiated in air, which shows that oxygen also plays an important role in this degradation process. (author). 37 refs., 30 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja

    OpenAIRE

    Verruma-Bernardi Marta Regina; Spoto Marta Helena F.

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de radiações sobre as características sensoriais do suco fresco de laranja variedade 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L) conservado sob refrigeração. Utilizou-se amostras de suco de laranja refrigerado (controle) e suco de laranja refrigerado irradiado com 1,5 e 3,0kGy por hora (Cobalto60), armazenadas a 4ºC por 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias a 4ºC. Para a análise sensorial realizou-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa, na qual provadores selecionados e trei...

  1. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 μmol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with le...

  2. Evacuation Simulation in Kalayaan Residence Hall, up Diliman Using Gama Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridades, A. R. C.; Villanueva, J. K. S.; Macatulad, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) has recently been adopted in some studies for the modelling of events as a dynamic system given a set of events and parameters. In principle, ABM employs individual agents with assigned attributes and behaviors and simulates their behavior around their environment and interaction with other agents. This can be a useful tool in both micro and macroscale-applications. In this study, a model initially created and applied to an academic building was implemented in a dormitory. In particular, this research integrates three-dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS) with GAMA as the multi-agent based evacuation simulation and is implemented in Kalayaan Residence Hall. A three-dimensional GIS model is created based on the floor plans and demographic data of the dorm, including respective pathways as networks, rooms, floors, exits and appropriate attributes. This model is then re-implemented in GAMA. Different states of the agents and their effect on their evacuation time were then observed. GAMA simulation with varying path width was also implemented. It has been found out that compared to their original states, panic, eating and studying will hasten evacuation, and on the other hand, sleeping and being on the bathrooms will be impedances. It is also concluded that evacuation time will be halved when path widths are doubled, however it is recommended for further studies for pathways to be modeled as spaces instead of lines. A more scientific basis for predicting agent behavior in these states is also recommended for more realistic results.

  3. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz submetidas à radiação gama Physiological quality rice seed submitted to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lúcia da Cruz Miranda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama (Co60 na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz. O estudo foi realizado em três ensaios. No primeiro ensaio, sementes de arroz foram irradiadas com doses de 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy e, para o segundo e o terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram submetidas a envelhecimento acelerado, antes da irradiação. No segundo ensaio, as sementes foram dividas em úmidas e secas após envelhecimento acelerado e, então, foram irradiadas nas doses 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy. No terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram secas após o envelhecimento acelerado e irradiadas com doses de 0, 10, 25 e 50Gy. Para avaliação dos efeitos fisiológicos da radiação gama, foram realizados teste de germinação - TG, índice de velocidade de germinação - IVG e crescimento de plantas (comprimento de parte aérea e sistema radicular e massa seca total, em todos os ensaios. Foram determinadas as atividades enzimáticas da fosfatase ácida e alfa amilase nas sementes secas, no segundo ensaio. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios indicam que as doses de radiação gama estudadas não afetam a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de arroz.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation (Co60 on the physiological quality of rice seeds. The research was carried out through three tests; in the first test rice seeds were irradiated at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy, while for the second and third tests the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging before being irradiated. For the second test the seeds were divided into wet and dry and both groups subjected to accelerated aging previous to irradiation at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy. For the third test the seeds were dried after being subjected to accelerated aging, and then irradiated at dosages of 0, 10, 25 and 50Gy. To assess the physiological effects of the gamma radiation, all seeds were tested for germination and their germination speed index recorded

  4. NOVOS GENÓTlPOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. OBTIDOS POR IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. de O. CAMARGO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se dezesseis linhagens mutantes tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio em solução nutritiva, uma linhagem mutante sensível e os cultivares Anahuac, IAC-60 e IAC-24, de trigo. As linhagens mutantes foram originárias de seleções realizadas em populações do cultivar Anahuac (sensível ao Al3+ cujas sementes foram submetidas ao tratamento de irradiação gama com as doses de 260 e 310 Gy. As comparações foram realizadas em dois locais através de seis experimentos em épocas diferentes, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e tolerância a solos ácidos. Quinze linhagens mutantes foram mais produtivas que o cultivar Anahuac e a linhagem mutante sensível ao Al3+, em Capão Bonito, em solo ácido e em condição de sequeiro. Nestas condições, o cultivar IAC-60 foi o que exibiu a maior produtividade, diferindo dos demais. Todos os genótipos estudados não diferiram entre si, quanto à produtividade de grãos, em Tatuí, em solo corrigido e com irrigação por aspersão. Irradiação gama no cultivar Anahuac foi eficiente possibilitando a seleção de linhagens mutantes com características agronômicas (altura de planta, ciclo da emergência ao florescimento, comprimento da espiga, número de espiguetas por espiga, número de grãos por espiga e espigueta e peso de 100 grãos similares às do cultivar original, porém com tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, tornando possível o seu cultivo em solos ácidos.Sixteen mutant lines tolerant to Al3+ toxicity in nutrient solutions, and a mutant line, sensitive to Al3+ originated from selections of a population of the cultivar Anahuac (sensitive to Al3+ previously submitted to gamma irradiation (260 and 310Gy, and the check cultivars Anahuac, IAC-24 and IAC-60, were evaluated in two locations and six trials, for grain yield, agronomic characteristics and tolerance to acid soils. ln Capão Bonito, in an acid soil and upland conditions, fifteen mutant lines

  5. Estudo comparativo de flores casmógamas, cleistógamas e de frutos de Camarea affinis St.-Hil. (Malpighiaceae Comparative study of casmogamous and cleistogamous flowers and Camarea affinis St.-Hil. fruits (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Henrique Mamede

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Camarea pertence a tribo Gaudichaudieae caracterizada pela redução no número de elementos do androceu, gineceu parcialmente sincárpico, estilete único e ginobásico e pela ocorrência de flores cleistógamas. Neste trabalho é feito o estudo de Camarea affinis St-Hil. no que se refere à morfologia e á anatomia de flores casmógamas e cleistógamas, assim como de seus respectivos frutos.The genus Camarea belongs to the tribe Gaudichaudieae, which is traditionally characterized by a solitaiy gynobasic style, presence of veiy reduced cleistogamous flowers, an androecium of 6 staminal elements and carpels only partially united. This paper presents information about the morphology and the anatomy of chamosgamous and cleistogamous flowers and fruits of Camarea affinis St HiL

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  8. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-09-01

    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  9. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  10. Reunión de consenso para recomendaciones sobre la gama de productos Restylane Skinboosters ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Anido

    Full Text Available Con motivo del 10º aniversario de Restylane Skinboosters® se llevó a cabo una reunión de consenso entre un grupo de médicos españoles con el objetivo de aumentar el estándar de seguridad, mejorar y dar coherencia a los tratamientos, favorecer la buena praxis, posibilitar mejores resultados y aumentar la seguridad con esta gama de productos. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de los estudios clínicos publicados que demuestran cómo Restylane Skinboosters® mejora la calidad de la piel, disminuyendo la rugosidad, aumentando la firmeza e hidratación a largo plazo y reduciendo las cicatrices de acné, así como estimulando la creación de colágeno tipo I. Por último, los participantes pusieron en común su experiencia clínica para realizar un resumen de las indicaciones y los protocolos más empleados con esta gama de tratamientos.

  11. Instalación eléctrica para una industria de procesado de alimentos IV Gama

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ FLOR, ALEJANDRO

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Electrical installation LV for food industry. [ES] Instalación eléctrica en BT para industria alimentaria. Martínez Flor, A. (2017). Instalación eléctrica para una industria de procesado de alimentos IV Gama. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/88215. TFGM

  12. Synergism between Ni and W in the NiW/gama-Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spojakina, A.A.; Palcheva, R.; Jirátová, Květa; Tyuliev, G.; Petrov, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 104, 1-2 (2005), s. 45-52 ISSN 1011-372X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : NiW/gama-Al2O3 * Thiophene hydrodesulfurization * TPR, XPS Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2005

  13. APLICACIÓN DE LA TECNICA DE IV GAMA PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ENSALADAS EVALUATION OF IV GAMA TECHNIQUE TO PREPARE VEGETABLE SALADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Méndez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, esta dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa, zanahoria (Daucus carota L., radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. y escarola (Cichorium endivia L., destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comercial de las ensaladas y garantizar la seguridad alimentaria para la población potencialmente consumidora. La aplicación combinada de soluciones de cloruro de calcio al 1%, acido cítrico a 0,1% y oxido de magnesio al 0,5% contribuyo a mantener la calidad de las ensaladas por un período de 16 días bajo refrigeración a 5 + 1 °C y 95 + 5% HR. En conclusión las técnicas ensayadas, posibilitaron extender el valor comercial de estos productos.The purpose of applying the fresh-cut technique in preparing vegetable salads ready for fresh consumption, was aimed to control the damage American lettuce (Lactuca sativa; carrot (Daucus carota L; Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L and endive (Cichorium endivia L.“ Mediterranean and Cheff” style salads were prepared for evaluation. The methodology allowed selecting and evaluating fresh-cut technique as well as good manufacturing practices, to extend the commercial life, and guarantee alimentary food safety to people. Use of 1% calcium chloride; 0.1% citric acid and 0.5% magnesium oxide solutions; allowed to maintain the quality of the salads for a period of 16 up to days, under refrigeration at 5± 1ºC and 95 ± 5 % RH. Finally the assays techniques let to extend the commercial value of these vegetables.

  14. Saberes e sabores da cultura baiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Farani López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bahia tem se mostrado um terreno fértil de diálogo entre as práticas da TCI e a antropologia cultural. A Bahia apresenta uma complexa e rica gama de histórias e características oriundas de diversas raízes, produzindo um terreno mágico, acolhedor, com memórias de lutas e prazeres. Sempre envolto de muita comida, cores e exuberância, a prática da TCI na Bahia tem tido como elemento central o fortalecimento das matrizes formadoras do nosso povo, resgatando com isso a autoestima de uma gente tão vibrante.

  15. California GAMA Program: A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Bakersfield Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MTBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin that underlies Bakersfield, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water

  16. Podridão por Fusicoccum em mangas submetidas a baixas doses de radiação gama Fusicoccum rot in mangoes submitted to low doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria Gonçalves Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da radiação gama em doses baixas no controle pós-colheita da podridão por Fusicoccum em manga 'Tommy Atkins', bem como avaliar o efeito desse método sobre as características físico-químicas da fruta. Frutos aparentemente livres de doenças no estádio de maturação 1,5 foram inoculados com 10 μL de suspensão de Fusicoccum parvum a 10(6 conídios mL-1. Após a inoculação, os frutos foram irradiados com as doses de 0,24, 0,35 e 0,45 kGy e armazenados a 13ºC, durante 15 dias, seguidos de mais seis dias em temperatura ambiente, a 25ºC. A dose mais alta de radiação gama foi eficiente em retardar o desenvolvimento da doença em razão do atraso causado na maturação das frutas. Não houve efeito significativo da radiação sobre as características físico-químicas das frutas. Os frutos mantiveram características ideais para comercialização, mesmo após o armazenamento refrigerado, com a presença de filme plástico, por 15 dias.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in low doses on the postharvest control of 'Tommy Atkins' mango rot caused by Fusicoccum, and to evaluate the effect of this method on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. Fruits in ripening stage 1,5 and apparently free of disease were inoculated with 10 μL of a Fusicoccum parvum suspension at 10(6 conidia mL-1. They were gamma irradiated with the doses 0.24, 0.35 and 0.45 kGy, and stored under 13°C for 15 days, followed by a further six days at room temperature, 25°C. The higher dose of gamma radiation was effective in delaying the disease development due to fruit delayed maturation. No significant effect of radiation was observed on fruit physicochemical characteristics. Fruit maintained ideal commercialization features even after cold storage, in the presence of plastic film, for 15 days.

  17. California GAMA Special Study: Analysis of Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine and Metabolites as Wastewater Tracers in Water Resource Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vu, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA Special Studies project provides analyses and interpretation of constituents of concern that allow assessment of current groundwater conditions. In addition, the Special Studies project develops analyses that will enhance the monitoring and assessment effort by focusing on specific constituents of concern and water quality parameters, such as disinfection byproducts (DBP), wastewater indicators, and redox conditions, as it relates to irrigation and groundwater management. This study developed a robust analytical method for the quantitation of CBZ, OXC, CBZ-E, CBZ-DiOH, and CBZ-10-OH in wastewater treatement plant (WWTP) effluent and in groundwater in the parts per trillion range.

  18. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  19. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, (delta) 15 N values greater than 10(per t housand) indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO 3 L -1 . In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low (delta) 15 N value (3.1(per t housand)) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer

  20. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 206 (Australia); Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P. [Scottish Universities' Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liske, J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baldry, I. K. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, The School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brough, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L., E-mail: meiert.grootes@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  1. Game, game, game and again game, de Jason Nelson: aspectos da contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Pereira Senra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora pensadores como o escritor Mario Vargas Llosa afirmem que os tempos hodiernos têm como característica principal a frivolidade, por conta da velocidade e quantidade de informações a serem digeridas diariamente, artistas em sua pulsão criativa exploram tais paradoxos de grandeza/pequenez em suas obras de arte. Este artigo visa apreender na obra Game, game, game and again game aspectos da contemporaneidade, como o conceito de lúdico e a enorme gama de entretenimentos voltados a um público imerso na indústria da cultura, através da forma como eles são trabalhados junto a conceitos como interatividade como forma de coautoria da obra de arte, finitude artística e permanência no meio digital, e transmidialidade na criação estética.

  2. Studies on the rice seed (Oryza sativa) sensitivity to gama radiation, neutrons di-enthyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1978-04-01

    Dry rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce' variety were treated with gama-rays, thermal and fast neutrons, di-ethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). Biologial effects on survival, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophy 11 mutation frequency were studied in the M 1 generation. The data obtained were analysed by 'independent test'. Survival was not affected by increased gama ray dosage, but by increased DES and SA dosages, as well as by SA treatments with increased solution acidity for seeds pretreated in distilled water. Seedling height was decreased with the increase of gama-ray dosage, DES concentration. SA acidity and concentration. Plant fertility was reduced drastically with higher gama-ray and neutron dosages and with high SA acidity and concentrations. The maximum chlorophy 11 mutation frequency was obtained in the SA treatment. Seeds pretreated with distilled water showed larger physiological damages in the SA treatments and higher mutation frequencies. Regarding chlorophyll mutation frequency, thermal neutrons were more efficient than gama-rays. SA was the most efficient mutagen used . DES showed lower physiological damages in the M 1 plants, but did not induce mutations in the used conditions [pt

  3. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)).

  4. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Morphological transformation of galaxies across the green valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.; Phillipps, S.; Kelvin, L. S.; De Propris, R.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J.; Bamford, S.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Häußler, B.; Holwerda, B.; Hopkins, A.; James, P. A.; Liske, J.; Percival, S.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-05-01

    We explore constraints on the joint photometric and morphological evolution of typical low redshift galaxies as they move from the blue cloud through the green valley and on to the red sequence. We select Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey galaxies with 10.25 sensitive K-band profiles of red and green galaxy populations are very similar while g-band profiles indicate more disc-like morphologies for the green galaxies: apparent (optical) morphological differences arise primarily from radial mass-to-light ratio variations. Two-component fits show that most green galaxies have significant bulge and disc components and that the blue to red evolution is driven by colour change in the disc. Together, these strongly suggest that galaxies evolve from blue to red through secular disc fading and that a strong bulge is present prior to any decline in star formation. The relative abundance of the green population implies a typical time-scale for traversing the green valley ˜1-2 Gyr and is independent of environment, unlike that of the red and blue populations. While environment likely plays a rôle in triggering the passage across the green valley, it appears to have little effect on time taken. These results are consistent with a green valley population dominated by (early type) disc galaxies that are insufficiently supplied with gas to maintain previous levels of disc star formation, eventually attaining passive colours. No single event is needed to quench their star formation.

  5. Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Ye, Lan; Liu, Chongxi; Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Zheng, Weiwei; Sun, Pengyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2017-04-01

    During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel species and natural products, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Gz11 T , was isolated from a soil sample, which was collected from Gama, Chad. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Gz11 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T (98.0 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. However, the physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness could differentiate the isolate genotypically and phenotypically from S. hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T . Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz11 T (=CGMCC 4.7304 T =DSM 101531 T ).

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  7. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  8. A qualidade de água como indicador de uso e ocupação do solo: bacia do Gama - Distrito Federal The water quality as an indicator of land use and occupation: Gama basin-DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Amorim Moura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of Brasília isn't accompanied by correct support of land occupation, situation that is reflected in water quality. Under the optics of land use and occupation, working with multivariate statistics as main tool, water physical and chemical quality of Gama Catchment were assessed. During two years samples were collected and analyzed for 24 parameters. The statistical analysis showed the influence of civil buildings, agricultural activities and the best statistical parameters to a quickly assessment: nitrate, ammonia, suspended solids and aluminium.

  9. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation; Atenuacao da forma leveduriforme do Paraccocidioides Brasiliensis por irradicao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L {sup 35}S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C{sub 57}Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- {sup 35}S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  10. Effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of prato cheese; Efeito da radiacao gama na maturacao do queijo prato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Erika Maria Roel

    2001-07-01

    The Prato (cheese washed dough) is one of the must popular cheese of Brazil and must be ripening for 45 to 60 days for to reach characteristics of flavors and texture. The present work studied the effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of Prato cheese. Two periods of irradiation was studied, in first day and 15{sup th} day of ripening. The cheese was irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy at a rate of 0,9696 kGy/h from a cobalto-60 source in the period referred and stored at 10-12 deg C and +- 85% RH for 60 days. The physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics and organoleptic properties were analysed every each 15 days of ripening. Through of the results observed that with the increase of the dose of radiation, decreased the total microbial count and that the irradiation retarded the ripening according to increase of the dose, this probability of the destruction of bacterial lactic. The greatest difference found was in the colour according the increasing of the dose, the cheese was more colorless, less yellow and red. Which the organoleptic properties verified that with the increase of the dose of radiation, there was a lost about the color. The cheese increase the firmness, became dryer and less creamy and tasted flavors less intense, a little more bitter and smoking compared with a control. Even though about these differences there was no refuse of Prato cheese, among the sensorial group for irradiated cheese until 2 kGy. (author)

  11. Application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis; Aplicacao da tecnica de irradiacao gama para preservacao de propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi

    2002-07-01

    Irradiation has been recognized as an efficient method for the reduction of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. Propolis is a resinous product made by bees from material processed by the bee's own metabolism and resins from plants. The aim of this work was the application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis, because of its efficiency in the reduction of the microbial load. The changes on the total flavonoids content, phenolic compounds and other characteristics required for the qualification and characterization of Brazilian propolis were also analysed. Propolis samples from Juiz de Fora region, Minas Gerais, were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source, with doses from 0 to 10kGy for the microbiological analyses and 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0kGy for the physico-chemical analyses. The physico-chemical that have been made were: determination of total flavonoids content, semi-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds (artepelin-C, kempferol, chrysin, galangin and quercetin), dry matter analysis, humidity, ash content, mechanical mass and waxes. The ionizing radiation has shown to be efficient in the reduction of the microbial load. Total coliforms determination showed a great reduction with the dose of 3kGy and concerning mesophile aerobic bacteria a systematic reduction was observed, achieving values <10 UFC/g for the dose of 10kGy; similar results was obtained for molds and yeasts. Salmonella assays were negative for all samples. There was no significant alteration on total flavonoids contents nor on the composition of phenolic compounds as a consequence of radiation application at the assayed conditions. The complementary analyses of dry matter and humidity contents, ashes, mechanical mass and waxes did not shown changes after irradiation even with the maximum dose of 10kGy, remaining the results within the standards required by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  12. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a aguardente de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-07-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p {<=}0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA statistics for the sensory analysis, no significant difference between samples, related to odor, taste, global impression was verified. However, a significant difference related to color was observed. (author)

  13. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  14. Resposta de sementes de amendoim a diferentes doses de radiação gama (60Co Response of peanut seeds to different levels of gamma radiation (60Co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da S. Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A radiação gama, proveniente da fonte de 60Co, é bastante utilizada para esterilização, visando a prevenção da decomposição e a toxidez de origem microbiana em diversos produtos. O grau de radiossensibilidade de um embrião vegetal depende da espécie, do estágio de seu desenvolvimento durante a radiação, da dose empregada e do critério usado para medir o efeito biológico, sendo comumente utilizado o teste de germinação. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a sensibilidade do amendoim a radiação gama e seus efeitos na germinação, no vigor e na micoflora das sementes da cultivar BRS Havana, irradiadas com uma fonte de 60Co, tipo gammacell, com taxa de dosagem de 12,5 kGy h-1. As doses testadas em kGy foram as seguintes: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0; 12,0; 15,0; 18,0; 21,0 e 24,0. Com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que as doses acima de 3,0 kGy prejudicaram a viabilidade das sementes e as doses acima de 12 kGy comprometeram totalmente o vigor e a germinação das sementes de amendoim. A radiação a partir da dose 2,0 kGy eliminou os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus niger e, a partir da dose 3,0 kGy, eliminou o Aspergillus glaucus. O Penicilium spp. permaneceu em mais de 30% das sementes em todos os tratamentos com radiação, não sendo eliminado até a dose de 24 kGy.The gamma radiation from 60Co source is widely used for sterilization aiming at preventing decomposition and toxicity from microbes in several products. The degree of radiosensitvity of a plant embryo depends on the species, the development stage during radiation, doses used and the criteria used to measure the biological effect, the germination test, being commonly used.This work aimed to study the peanut sensitivity to gamma radiation and its effects in the germination, in the vigour and seeds microflora of cultivar BRS Havana, irradiated with 60Co source, type gammacell with rate of dosage of 12.5 kGy h-1. The tested doses were the

  15. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  16. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): deconstructing bimodality - I. Red ones and blue ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Colless, Matthew; Driver, Simon; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Gunawardhana, Madusha; Kelvin, Lee S.; Liske, Jochen; Conselice, Christopher J.; Croom, Scott; Foster, Caroline; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lara-Lopez, Maritza; Loveday, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We measure the mass functions for generically red and blue galaxies, using a z 8.7 field galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our motivation is that, as we show, the dominant uncertainty in existing measurements stems from how `red' and `blue' galaxies have been selected/defined. Accordingly, we model our data as two naturally overlapping populations, each with their own mass function and colour-mass relation, which enables us characterize the two populations without having to specify a priori which galaxies are `red' and `blue'. Our results then provide the means to derive objective operational definitions for the terms `red' and `blue', which are based on the phenomenology of the colour-mass diagrams. Informed by this descriptive modelling, we show that (1) after accounting for dust, the stellar colours of `blue' galaxies do not depend strongly on mass; (2) the tight, flat `dead sequence' does not extend much below log M* ˜ 10.5; instead, (3) the stellar colours of `red' galaxies vary rather strongly with mass, such that lower mass `red' galaxies have bluer stellar populations; (4) below log M* ˜ 9.3, the `red' population dissolves into obscurity, and it becomes problematic to talk about two distinct populations; as a consequence, (5) it is hard to meaningfully constrain the shape, including the existence of an upturn, of the `red' galaxy mass function below log M* ˜ 9.3. Points 1-4 provide meaningful targets for models of galaxy formation and evolution to aim for.

  17. Halo ellipticity of GAMA galaxy groups from KiDS weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Schneider, Peter; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Schrabback, Tim; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We constrain the average halo ellipticity of ˜2600 galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, using the weak gravitational lensing signal measured from the overlapping Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). To do so, we quantify the azimuthal dependence of the stacked lensing signal around seven different proxies for the orientation of the dark matter distribution, as it is a priori unknown which one traces the orientation best. On small scales, the major axis of the brightest group/cluster member (BCG) provides the best proxy, leading to a clear detection of an anisotropic signal. In order to relate that to a halo ellipticity, we have to adopt a model density profile. We derive new expressions for the quadrupole moments of the shear field given an elliptical model surface mass density profile. Modelling the signal with an elliptical Navarro-Frenk-White profile on scales R < 250 kpc, and assuming that the BCG is perfectly aligned with the dark matter, we find an average halo ellipticity of ɛh = 0.38 ± 0.12, in fair agreement with results from cold dark matter only simulations. On larger scales, the lensing signal around the BCGs becomes isotropic and the distribution of group satellites provides a better proxy for the halo's orientation instead, leading to a 3σ-4σ detection of a non-zero halo ellipticity at 250 < R < 750 kpc. Our results suggest that the distribution of stars enclosed within a certain radius forms a good proxy for the orientation of the dark matter within that radius, which has also been observed in hydrodynamical simulations.

  18. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  19. Neurotoxoplasmose como primeira manifestação da Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barsotti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A AIDS (Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida é uma patologia caracterizada por depressão da atividade do sistema imune, principalmente da imunidade celular que se manifesta por alergias cutâneas, linfopenia, inversão da proporção das células T auxiliares/T supressoras e resposta linfoproliferativa diminuída a vários antígenos e mitógenos in vitro. É esta falha da função imune que explica o desenvolvimento de uma ampla gama de infecções oportunistas e neoplasias incomuns. Quase todos os sistemas orgânicos são vulneráveis incluindo todas as partes do SNC, os nervos periféricos e raízes.

  20. Tratamento do Carcinoma da Próstata Metastizado: Surgimento de Novos Horizontes Terapêuticos

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    Paulo Mota

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A evolução no tratamento do carcinoma da próstata metastizado proporciona atualmente ao Urologista uma vasta gama de possibilidades terapêuticas que comprovadamente melhoram a sobrevida e a qualidade de vida dos doentes. É apresentado um caso clínico neste artigo onde é patente não só a eficácia destas terapêuticas mas também a sua rápida evolução. Recebido: 27/05/2016  - Aceite: 07/06/2016

  1. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. Relacionamentos entre as espécies autógamas de Cuphea P. Browne seção Brachyandra koehne (Lythraceae Relationships among autogamous species of Cuphea P. Browne section Brachyandra (Lythraceae

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    Shirley A Graham

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A seção Brachyandra, uma das 13 seções de Cuphea, é excepcional por compreender a maioria das espécies autógamas do gênero. A maior parte das outras espécies de Cuphea, embora autocompatíveis, são alógamas protândricas. A seção Brachyandra é definida pela presença de estames com filetes curtos e profundamente inseridos no tubo floral, caracteres diretamente relacionados à autogamia. Entre as espécies da seção, existem poucas diferenças na morfologia floral e os caracteres vegetativos são variáveis e sobrepostos. As similaridades poderiam ser atribuídas à recente especiação dentro de um grupo monofilético, definido pela aquisição do modo autógamo de reprodução, ou a seção poderia ser polifilética, com similaridades resultantes de convergência, dirigidas pela mudança de alógamas para autógamas. A morfologia do pólen e da semente, descrita agora para este grupo, sugere que a seção Brachyandra não seja monofilética, mas sim que compreenda um mínimo de três diferentes linhas evolutivas, representadas por: 1 quatro espécies com sementes aladas e pólen oblato, sincolporado e estriado, com poros proeminentes; 2 duas espécies com sementes grandes e não aladas e pólen psilado, sem poros proeminentes e leves espessamentos interaperturados; 3 oito espécies com sementes pequenas, não aladas e quase esferoidais, pólen não sincolpado, psilado a rugulado. A variação neste último grupo sugere que o mesmo seja derivado de mais do que um ancestral. Na análise cladística, as espécies da seção Brachyandra ocorrem dentro de ciados de espécies das seções Euandra, Pseudochvaea, Trispernuun e Amazoniana. Os resultados indicam que não existe base filogenética sólida para o reconhecimento da seção Brachyandra como presentemente definida.Section Brachyandra, one of 13 sections of Cuphea, is exceptional in comprising the majority of self-fertilizing species in the genus; most other Cuphea, although

  3. H-ATLAS/GAMA: magnification bias tomography. Astrophysical constraints above ∼1 arcmin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Nuevo, J.; Bonavera, L. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Federico García Lorca 18, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Lapi, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Negrello, M.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M.W.L.; Valiante, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ivison, R.J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Loveday, J., E-mail: gnuevo@uniovi.es [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    An unambiguous manifestation of the magnification bias is the cross-correlation between two source samples with non-overlapping redshift distributions. In this work we measure and study the cross-correlation signal between a foreground sample of GAMA galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2< z <0.8, and a background sample of H-ATLAS galaxies with photometric redshifts ∼>1.2. It constitutes a substantial improvement over the cross-correlation measurements made by Gonzalez-Nuevo et al. (2014) with updated catalogues and wider area (with S / N ∼> 5 below 10 arcmin and reaching S / N ∼ 20 below 30 arcsec). The better statistics allow us to split the sample in different redshift bins and to perform a tomographic analysis (with S / N ∼> 3 below 10 arcmin and reaching S / N ∼ 15 below 30 arcsec). Moreover, we implement a halo model to extract astrophysical information about the background galaxies and the deflectors that are producing the lensing link between the foreground (lenses) and background (sources) samples. In the case of the sources, we find typical mass values in agreement with previous studies: a minimum halo mass to host a central galaxy, M {sub min}∼ 10{sup 12.26} M {sub ⊙}, and a pivot halo mass to have at least one sub-halo satellite, M {sub 1∼} 10{sup 12.84} M {sub ⊙}. However, the lenses are massive galaxies or even galaxy groups/clusters, with minimum mass of M {sub min}{sup lens}∼ 10{sup 13.06} M {sub ⊙}. Above a mass of M {sub 1}{sup lens}∼ 10{sup 14.57} M {sub ⊙} they contain at least one additional satellite galaxy which contributes to the lensing effect. The tomographic analysis shows that, while M {sub 1}{sup lens} is almost redshift independent, there is a clear evolution of increase M {sub min}{sup lens} with redshift in agreement with theoretical estimations. Finally, the halo modeling allows us to identify a strong lensing contribution to the cross-correlation for angular scales below 30 arcsec. This

  4. Sepse por Salmonella associada à deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rb1

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    Carvalho Beatriz Tavares Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever caso clínico de uma criança que desenvolveu septicemia por Salmonella enteritidis, sendo diagnosticada imunodeficiência primária. DESCRIÇÃO: paciente masculino, de um ano e 9 meses, com febre e lesões de pele há 50 dias, internado com lesão perilabial ulcerada com secreção purulenta, lesão ulcerada friável em língua, lesões ulcerocrostosas em membros, pneumonia bilateral com derrame pleural e choque séptico, sendo diagnosticado Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico. A identificação desta bactéria direcionou a investigação para a síndrome MIM. O diagnóstico de deficiência do receptor da interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1 foi confirmado através da dosagem de IL-12 e do interferon (IFN-gama produzido pelas células do paciente em meio de cultura. O resultado demonstrou ausência de produção de IL-12 e do IFN-gama mesmo após estímulo adequado. COMENTÁRIOS: a identificação da Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico de septicemia sugere uma disfunção do sistema imunológico. Foi realizada avaliação laboratorial das imunidades humoral, celular e inata. Após avaliação laboratorial direcionada para síndrome MIM, foi confirmada a deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1. O uso do IFN-gama é recomendado nos casos graves, assim como o tratamento de suporte e o aconselhamento genético.

  5. Alterações funcionais da junção neuromuscular provocadas em ratos pela administração diária e prolongada de um agente curarizante Functional changes of the neuromuscular junction induced in rats by a daily and prolonged ministration of a curare agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Zanini

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available A ratos adultos, machos, foi administrado durante 8 semanas, uma vez ao dia, o iodeto do dimetiléter da d-tubocurarina (DMT, pela via intraperitoneal. Os animais foram distribuídos em 3 lotes: os do 1.°, receberam 5,5 gama de DMT/kg/dia; os do 2.°, 16,6 gama/kg/dia; os do 3.° (controle, 1 ml da solução isotônica de cloreto de sódio. A força muscular dos animais foi avaliada uma vez por semana, de acordo com o método descrito no texto, antes e após a injeção intraperitoneal da referida substância. Com o decorrer da experimentação, observou-se que: a houve diminuição significativa da força muscular dos animais, avaliada após esvaecimento da atividade curarizante do DMT; b a determinação da força muscular, feita logo após a injeção, mostrou que a dose de 5,5 gama/kg/dia provoca um aumento da suscetibilidade dos animais à ação curarizante do DMT; c o efeito inibidor provocado pela dose de 16,6 gama/kg/dia de DMT aumentou no início mas diminuiu significantemente após a 5ª semana, muito embora houvesse uma progressiva diminuição da força muscular, sugerindo independência entre os dois efeitos. Com base nesses resultados, são discutidos alguns fenômenos que podem ocorrer na instalação e tratamento da miastenia grave.Dimethylether of d-tubocurarine iodide (DMT was administered daily, by intraperitoneal route, to adult male rats during 8 weeks. The animals were divided in three groups: the animals of the first group were given 5.5 gama/kg/day of DMT; those of the second group were given 16.6 gama/ kg/day; the rats of the 3rd (the control group, received 1 cm³ of isotonic saline solution. The animals muscular force was evaluated once a week right before and after intraperitoneal injection of the drug. During the course of the trial, it was noted: aa significant reduction of the animals muscular force, evaluated after disappearance of the DMT curarizing effect; bmeasurements of muscular force, performed straight

  6. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model Equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Fada dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. METHODS: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc99 radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. RESULTS: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of limphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. CONCLUSIONS: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement.OBJETIVO: Investigar o equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos machos, adultos jovens. Depois de anestesiados, os animais foram distribuidos em dois grupos de 15 animais cada. O grupo A recebeu radiofármaco dextran 500 - Tc99 e azul patente V e o grupo B, somente azul patente V para realização do mapeamento linfático. Foi realizada a medição da captação radioativa da região de fundo, do sítio de injeção e do linfonodo sentinela ex vivo do grupo A. Após a ex

  7. Gamma radiation in some microbiological and biochemical parameters of ethanolic fermentation.; Efeito da radiacao gama em alguns parametros microbiologicos e bioquimicos da fermentacao alcoolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation in reducing the bacterial population of the sugar cane must and verify its influence in the ethanolic fermentation. For this purpose, some microbiological and biochemical parameters of the ethanolic fermentation were analyzed, such as bacterial count; viability, replication and living replicates of the yeast; p H, acidity (total and volatile), glycerol and production of organic acids (acetic, lactic and succinic) during the fermentation; and fermentative yield. Bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus are the most common contaminants of the ethanolic fermentation and they might cause a decrease in the fermentative yield. The ionizing radiations may affect the microorganisms altering the DNA of the cells, which lose the ability to reproduce themselves and die. The experimental design was in randomized blocks (three) with one replicate in each block. The must was sugar-cane juice with approximately 5% of total reducing sugar. Bacteria of the following species were tested: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. The experiments were the inoculation of each bacteria separately in the must, the inoculation of the mixture of the four bacteria in the must and the use of natural sugar-cane juice with its own contaminating microorganisms. The contaminated must was irradiated with the doses of 0.0 (control), 2.0,4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation (60-Cobalt) at an average rate of 2.0 kGy/h. After the irradiation, the fermentation of the must was carried out using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fleischmann). It was also accomplished an experiment with the inoculation of the mixture of the four bacteria in the must and, instead of using gamma radiation to decontaminate the must, it was used the antimicrobial Kamoran ID in the concentration of 3 ppm. The effects of the irradiation of the must were: reduction of the bacterial population that contaminated the must decrease of the total acidity, the volatile acidity, the p H drop and the production of the organic acids (acetic, lactic and succinic) during the fermentation; increased of the viability, the replication and the percentage of living replicates of the yeast after fermentation; and increased of the fermentative yield. The treatment of the sugar-cane must with gamma radiation reduced its bacterial population, with consequent improved of the microbiological and biochemical parameters of the ethanolic fermentation, including the fermentative yield. The irradiation of the must was a better treatment than the use of the antimicrobial Kamoran ID in the fermentation because the yeast in the experiment with the antimicrobial presented smaller viability, replication and percentage of living replicates than in the experiment with the irradiated must. (author)

  8. Effects of the gamma radiation in the refrigerated bovine meat conservation.; Efeitos da radiacao gama na conservacao da carne bovina refrigerada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Carlos Otavio

    2004-07-01

    The meat is one of our largest alimentary source of proteins, however it is bad distributed and bad taken advantage by the population in general. Some segments of the society with excess of foods and other with lack, it generated in these last ones the drama of the hunger. Today there are about 800 million people (13% of the world population) malnourished, that they live in more than 30 countries, almost in totality concentrated in Africa and Asia. But that drama also reaches our own country. Make it arrive to this segment of the less favored population, that is usually in difficult access areas, a food with nutritional quality for the consumption is the great challenge of our society. the objective is increase the shelf life of the food, maintaining their nutritional and sensorial characteristics preserved. By this way, it becomes also a challenge to protect the meat of pathogenic microorganisms and eliminate those might have been installed in the animal still alive or during the manipulation in the meat industry before arriving for the consumption. The use of the gamma radiation allowed to guarantee the product quality in the total absence of the studied pathogenic microorganisms in this project, maintaining the initials organoleptics characteristics (sensorial and physiochemical) for a large period that the one specified by the legislation, increasing this way it shelf life. The sensorial analysis indicated that until the dose of 6,0 kGy there is no alteration in the flavor and with the dose of 8,0 kGy the meat acquired a light smoked flavor, but in the appearance, aroma and texture attributes no confirmed any alterations. The color of the irradiated meat in the used doses didn't present color change compared to the no irradiated meat. The microbiological analysis pretended to verify the elimination of the pathogenic microorganisms: Salmonella ssp, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Clostridium sulphite reducers, as specified in the Resolution RDC no. 12, ANVISA 02/01/2001. The necessary dose for the elimination of the Salmonella ssp and the Bacillus cereus was of 4,0 kGy and for the other microorganisms the dose of 2,0 kGy was enough. The storage test involved a maintenance period of the product for 0, 7, 14,21 and 28 days to the temperature of 7 deg C, as specify the Portaria number 304, DIPOA 22/04/1996, being verified the physicochemical characteristics in meat irradiated with the dose of 8,0 kGy in comparison with the fresh no irradiated meat. The alterations were observed in the Acidity that increased in the period in 5,5% and 12% in comparison with the no irradiated meat; Peroxyde were only detected in the irradiated meat and they stayed constant during the period; the Lipids increased significantly in the beginning of the period arriving to 113% above the no irradiated meat, it decreased during the period and at the end it presented an index of 51% below the no irradiated meat. Finally, Creatinine increases significantly in the irradiated meat, but it stayed constant during the period. The sensorial analysis in the storage test of meat samples irradiated with 4,0 kGy and 8,0 kGy was not verified alterations between the stored and the recently irradiated samples. (author)

  9. Effect of irradiation gamma to reduction colony counting-units in Jerked Beef; Efeito da irradiacao gama na reducao da carga microbiana em Jerked Beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.A.; Solidonio, E.G.; Vicalvi, M.C.V.; Colaco, W., E-mail: evelyne_solidonio@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Microbiologia do Solo; Silva, G.R.; Sena, K.X.R.F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Antibioticos. Lab. de Farmacos e Estudos Antimicrobianos

    2013-08-15

    The increasing meat production triggered the need to develop preservation techniques, and between them salting is the most common. From the twentieth century another method of conservation was now being applied irradiation, treatment terminal used in the packaged product. The most salted meat consumed in Brazil is the Jerked Beef that differs to Jerky from that having higher moisture content and ripening faster. The objective of this study was to determine by counting colonies, the effectiveness of irradiation in reducing to the colony-forming units per grams (CFU/g). Three batches were obtained with three samples weighing 500g each. Under sterile conditions, the meat was cut and weighed generating sub-samples which were assigned to the control group and the radiation source for irradiating with cobalt-60 (dose rate 6,619 kGy/h). We used doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy. The sub-samples were added to an Erlenmeyer with sterile distilled water, and were left to stand having forming a water desalting. Aliquots of these waters were plated and incubated. The results were for the control group ranged from 5.0x10{sup 5} to 5.0x10{sup 16} CFU /g, at a dosage of 2kGy was 1.7x10{sup 5} to 1.1x10{sup 12} CFU /g, at a dosage of 4kGy 0 to 9.0x10{sup 10} CFU/g and the dose of from 6kGy was 0 to 1.3x10{sup 5} CFU /g. In the final analysis it was found that all lots were presented contamination upon which would be allowed in the order of 5.0x10{sup 3}.For the reducing CFU/g the doses 4kGy and 6kGy were the most effective. (author)

  10. Ação de raios gama sobre formas sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi: estudo experimental em camundongos

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    Gentilda K. F. Takeda

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue de animais infectados com cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi foram submetidas, respectivamente, a 200 e 300 krad de radiação gama. Para verificar a eficácia do método na eliminação do parasita, o material foi inoculado em camundongos e os parâmetros utilizados na avaliação foram: parasitemia, cultura, xenodiagnóstico, subinoculação, reinoculação com cepa virulenta e exame anátomo-patológico das vísceras. Os sangues expostos às duas diferentes intensidades de radiação e inoculados em dois períodos após o processo, mostraram-se inócuos quanto a capacidade de produzir infecção nos animais

  11. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): small-scale anisotropic galaxy clustering and the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, J.; Christodoulou, L.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; Driver, S. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Liske, J.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    The galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion (PVD) can provide important tests of non-standard gravity and galaxy formation models. We describe measurements of the PVD of galaxies in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey as a function of projected separation and galaxy luminosity. Due to the faint magnitude limit (r PVD to smaller scales (r⊥ = 0.01 h - 1 Mpc) than previous work. The measured PVD at projected separations r⊥ ≲ 1 h - 1 Mpc increases near monotonically with increasing luminosity from σ12 ≈ 200 km s - 1 at Mr = -17 mag to σ12 ≈ 600 km s - 1 at Mr ≈ -22 mag. Analysis of the Gonzalez-Perez et al. (2014) GALFORM semi-analytic model yields no such trend of PVD with luminosity: the model overpredicts the PVD for faint galaxies. This is most likely a result of the model placing too many low-luminosity galaxies in massive haloes.

  12. Sobre a dinâmica da ideologia à luz da interpretação lukácsiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Roberta Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconhecendo que o conceito de ideologia apresenta uma gama de significados, acepções e definições, o artigo procura debatê-lo dentro da leitura de György Lukács – considerando que não há uma concepção de ideologia sistematizada pelo próprio Karl Marx. Com isso, parte-se da relação não dicotômica entre realidade objetiva e subjetividade visualizada através do trabalho, cerne da teoria marxiana, e define-se ideologia a partir de sua função social de intervir nos conflitos, impasses, questões etc. de cunho também social. Em decorrência, considerando seu caráter de consciência eminentemente prática, exploram-se então aspectos concernentes à complexa dinâmica da ideologia, que possibilitam compreender sua atuação e sua influência em meio a uma dada formação social – dinâmica esta sintetizada no que optamos por chamar de linguagem da evidência.

  13. KiDS+GAMA: cosmology constraints from a joint analysis of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and angular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin; Joudaki, Shahab; Amon, Alexandra; Heymans, Catherine; Köhlinger, Fabian; Asgari, Marika; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Farrow, Daniel J.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas D.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Schneider, Peter; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from a joint analysis of three cosmological probes: the tomographic cosmic shear signal in ˜450 deg2 of data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), the galaxy-matter cross-correlation signal of galaxies from the Galaxies And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey determined with KiDS weak lensing, and the angular correlation function of the same GAMA galaxies. We use fast power spectrum estimators that are based on simple integrals over the real-space correlation functions, and show that they are practically unbiased over relevant angular frequency ranges. We test our full pipeline on numerical simulations that are tailored to KiDS and retrieve the input cosmology. By fitting different combinations of power spectra, we demonstrate that the three probes are internally consistent. For all probes combined, we obtain S_8≡ σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}=0.800_{-0.027}^{+0.029}, consistent with Planck and the fiducial KiDS-450 cosmic shear correlation function results. Marginalizing over wide priors on the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions yields consistent results for S8 with an increase of 28 {per cent} in the error. The combination of probes results in a 26 per cent reduction in uncertainties of S8 over using the cosmic shear power spectra alone. The main gain from these additional probes comes through their constraining power on nuisance parameters, such as the galaxy intrinsic alignment amplitude or potential shifts in the redshift distributions, which are up to a factor of 2 better constrained compared to using cosmic shear alone, demonstrating the value of large-scale structure probe combination.

  14. A divulgação pela imprensa da notícia do descobrimento do Brasil por Álvares Cabral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Oscar Marcondes de Souza

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Não pertence aos cronitas quinhentistas de Portugal a prioridade da divulgação da notícia do descobrimento da Terra de Santa Cruz por Álvares Cabral, quando da sua viagem para Calicute . Tais cronistas só a partir do comêço do terceiro quartel do século XVI é que começaram a narrar o que ocorreu com a frota de Álvares Cabral quando, para evitar as calmarias do gôlfo de Guiné e os alisados de sudeste, como aconselhava Vasco da. Gama, engolfou-se no Atlântico Sul des-cobrindo o Brasil.

  15. Air effect on polycarbonate radiolysis; Efeito do ar na radiolise do policarbonato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, Mauro C.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The formation and decay of radicals in the radiolysis of new type of polycarbonate (G{sub scission} = 0,73) was investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in the presence and absence of air at room temperature. The air does not interfere in the formation of radicals because they are formed as consequence of direct interaction of radiation. But the air interferes in their decays. During the irradiation the air reacts with all isopropyl radicals and with 2/3 of phenoxy + phenyl radicals. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Influência da temperatura, da massa molar e da distribuição de massa molar na tensão superficial de PS, PP e PE: experimento e teoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira José C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho a influência da temperatura, da massa molar (n e da distribuição de massa molar (MWD na tensão superficial de poliestireno (PS foi avaliada utilizando o método da gota pendente. A influência da temperatura na tensão superficial de polipropileno isotático (i-PP e de polietileno de baixa densidade (PELBD também foi estudada aqui. As teorias de Patterson-Rastogi e Dee-Sauer foram utilizadas em conjunção com a teoria de equação de estado de Flory, Orwoll, e Vrij (FOV para prever a tensão superficial (gama utilizando dados de pressão-volume-temperatura (PVT dos polímeros. Ambas teorias prevêem que a tensão superficial diminui linearmente com o aumento da temperatura e aumenta com a massa molar concordando com os resultados experimentais. Entretanto, ambas teorias subestimam a mudança de entropia de formação de superfície por unidade de área a volume constante para sistemas poliméricos de baixa massa molar e polidisperso e subestimam o efeito da distribuição de massa molar na tensão superficial

  17. Beatriz Balzi e o piano da América Latina: a música erudita deste continente analisada a partir das gravações da pianista na série de CDs Compositores Latino-Americanos

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Maria de Almeida Monteiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho foi dividido em duas partes, por se tratar de uma pesquisa em que assuntos se complementam sem abrir mão de sua importância individual. Estes assuntos são a figura da pianista Beatriz Balzi e a música erudita latino-americana para piano. Seus caminhos se cruzam em 1984, ano em que Beatriz Balzi iniciou uma série de gravações deste repertório, registrando peças compostas entre 1898 e 1997 em uma coleção de CDs intitulada Compositores Latino-americanos. Uma vasta gama de técnicas,...

  18. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  19. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 766-square-mile South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The SCRC study unit was the 25th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. The SCRC study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the SCRC study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 70 wells in two study areas (Basins and Uplands) in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 15 wells were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). In addition to

  20. Uso da técnica da radiohormese para aumento no desenvolvimento de plantas de alho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cristina Aparecida Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O alho tem se destacado não só como uma das principais fontes de temperos dentro da gastronomia, como também um importante vetor de estudo agronômico tanto pela sua peculiar característica de cultivo como pela aplicação das propriedades na quebra de dormência em cultivares como maçã e pera. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aplicar a técnica da radiohormese em bulbos de alho para avaliação do potencial desenvolvimento de suas mudas. Foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente – CENA/USP, utilizando bulbos de alho obtidos no comércio local que, após prévia seleção, foram submetidos aos tratamentos pela radiação gama, nas doses 0 (controle 15, 50, 75 e 100kGy numa taxa de dose de 0,456Gy/h. De acordo com os resultados obtidos pode-se observar que as doses utilizadas influenciaram negativamente a germinação das plantas de alho, devendo portanto que sejam realizados novos testes afim de que se obtenha a dose adequada para este fim.

  1. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy stellar mass function to z = 0.1 from the r-band selected equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; da Cunha, E.; Davies, L. J. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Kelvin, L. S.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Phillipps, S.; Rowlands, K.; Taylor, E. N.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    We derive the low-redshift galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), inclusive of dust corrections, for the equatorial Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data set covering 180 deg2. We construct the mass function using a density-corrected maximum volume method, using masses corrected for the impact of optically thick and thin dust. We explore the galactic bivariate brightness plane (M⋆-μ), demonstrating that surface brightness effects do not systematically bias our mass function measurement above 107.5 M⊙. The galaxy distribution in the M-μ plane appears well bounded, indicating that no substantial population of massive but diffuse or highly compact galaxies are systematically missed due to the GAMA selection criteria. The GSMF is fitted with a double Schechter function, with M^\\star =10^{10.78± 0.01± 0.20} M_{⊙}, φ ^\\star _1=(2.93± 0.40)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3, α1 = -0.62 ± 0.03 ± 0.15, φ ^\\star _2=(0.63± 0.10)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3 and α2 = -1.50 ± 0.01 ± 0.15. We find the equivalent faint end slope as previously estimated using the GAMA-I sample, although we find a higher value of M^\\star. Using the full GAMA-II sample, we are able to fit the mass function to masses as low as 107.5 M⊙, and assess limits to 106.5 M⊙. Combining GAMA-II with data from G10-COSMOS, we are able to comment qualitatively on the shape of the GSMF down to masses as low as 106 M⊙. Beyond the well-known upturn seen in the GSMF at 109.5, the distribution appears to maintain a single power-law slope from 109 to 106.5. We calculate the stellar mass density parameter given our best-estimate GSMF, finding Ω _\\star = 1.66^{+0.24}_{-0.23}± 0.97 h^{-1}_{70} × 10^{-3}, inclusive of random and systematic uncertainties.

  2. Cenouras minimamente processadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas e tratadas com radiação gama: avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e química Minimally processed carrots in modified atmosphere packaging and gama irradiation treatment: microbiological, fisical-chemistry and chemistry evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As cenouras são as principais fontes de origem vegetal em carotenóides provitamínicos A (a e o b-caroteno e podem ser transformados em vitamina A dentro do organismo animal. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. As cenouras minimamente processadas foram acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2/10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, e tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy. Os produtos após o emprego da radiação foram armazenados em refrigeração de 5°C durante 24 dias. Os diferentes tratamentos da cenoura e o grupo controle foram avaliados através das análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e microbiologia. Os resultados de microbiologia evidenciaram que os produtos tratados com as doses de 0,50, 0,75 e 1,0kGy apresentaram redução de 3 a 4 ciclos logarítmicos na contagem total de mesófilos (CTM logo após a irradiação e uma vida-útil de 20 dias. Não foram detectados coliformes totais e E. coli até o 24º dia. Os patógenos B. cereus, Salmonella e Estafilococos coagulase positivos em 0,1g do produto, também não foram detectados. As contagens de bactérias láticas mantiveram-se menores que 100UFC/g. O processo de irradiação em baixas doses mostra-se promissor na manutenção da qualidade e apresenta-se como uma medida alternativa na redução de perdas pós-colheita.Carrots are the mains vegetable sources of carotenoids provitamin A (a and b-carotene which might be transformed into vitamin A in animal organism. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991 carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The minimally processed carrots were packaging with 5% O2/10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air, and g ionizing radiation treatments was carried

  3. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long

  4. Laboratório virtual de física moderna: sistema para espectrometria gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Canzian da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2015v32n2p542 O artigo descreve como foi implementada uma simulação computacional de um sistema de detecção de radiação ionizante semelhante ao encontrado em tradicionais laboratórios de física moderna. A simulação modela um sistema composto por “fontes” radioativas emissoras de fótons com energias bem definidas e de um “detector” de comportamento semelhante a um sistema de espectrometria de fótons (cintilador + fotomultiplicadora + analisador multicanal. Como em um sistema real, além de escolher a fonte, é possível ajustar a tensão na fotomultiplicadora, o ganho do amplificador e o ganho de conversão do analisador multicanal, observando-se o efeito disso nos “dados” adquiridos. São apresentados e discutidos resultados obtidos com o simulador para alguns roteiros de experimentos (calibração em energia, identificação de energias desconhecidas, determinação da resolução em energia etc.. A simulação foi utilizada com duas turmas do curso de licenciatura em física a distância da UFSC em 2011 e em 2014, associadas à realização do experimento real. Permeando o texto são discutidas as motivações e os problemas do uso das simulações neste contexto. À guisa de conclusão é discutido como o trabalho se relaciona às principais metas dos laboratórios introdutórios de física, segundo um comitê da American Physical Society especificamente constituído para isso.

  5. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from January to February 2011, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Santa Barbara study unit was the thirty-fourth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Santa Barbara study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the Santa Barbara study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the Santa Barbara study unit located in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, groundwater samples were collected from 24 wells. Eighteen of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and six wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds); constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]); naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace

  7. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 8,806-square-mile Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October to December 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The KLAM study unit was the thirty-third study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Klamath Mountains study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined by the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the KLAM study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the KLAM study unit, groundwater samples were collected from sites in Del Norte, Siskiyou, Humboldt, Trinity, Tehama, and Shasta Counties, California. Of the 39 sites sampled, 38 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining site was non-randomized (understanding site). The groundwater samples were analyzed for basic field parameters, organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs] and pesticides and pesticide degradates), inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, total dissolved solids [TDS]), radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta

  8. Galaxy-galaxy lensing in EAGLE: comparison with data from 180 deg2 of the KiDS and GAMA surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Schaye, Joop; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Sifón, Cristóbal; Schneider, Peter; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Brough, Sarah; Erben, Thomas; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kuijken, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    We present predictions for the galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) profile from the EAGLE hydrodynamical cosmological simulation at redshift z = 0.18, in the spatial range 0.02 < R/(h- 1 Mpc) < 2, and for five logarithmically equispaced stellar mass bins in the range 10.3 < log10(Mstar/ M⊙) < 11.8. We compare these excess surface density profiles to the observed signal from background galaxies imaged by the Kilo Degree Survey around spectroscopically confirmed foreground galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Exploiting the GAMA galaxy group catalogue, the profiles of central and satellite galaxies are computed separately for groups with at least five members to minimize contamination. EAGLE predictions are in broad agreement with the observed profiles for both central and satellite galaxies, although the signal is underestimated at R ≈ 0.5-2 h- 1 Mpc for the highest stellar mass bins. When central and satellite galaxies are considered simultaneously, agreement is found only when the selection function of lens galaxies is taken into account in detail. Specifically, in the case of GAMA galaxies, it is crucial to account for the variation of the fraction of satellite galaxies in bins of stellar mass induced by the flux-limited nature of the survey. We report the inferred stellar-to-halo mass relation and we find good agreement with recent published results. We note how the precision of the GGL profiles in the simulation holds the potential to constrain fine-grained aspects of the galaxy-dark matter connection.

  9. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  10. Gama de hospedeiros e reação de genótipos de tomateiro a Pseudomonas cichorii Host range and genotypes reaction to Pseudomonas cichorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Antônio Fernandes da Silva Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, foi constatada em dois campos comerciais de tomate no Estado de São Paulo, a ocorrência da queima bacteriana, causada por Pseudomonas cichorii. Em vista disso, foram desenvolvidos estudos visando a determinação da gama de hospedeiros de isolados de Pseudomonas cichorii (IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323, obtidos de tomateiro, provenientes de campos comerciais localizados nos municípios de Bragança Paulista e Mogi Guaçú, SP. Plantas de abobrinha, alface, beldroega, berinjela, beterraba, cenoura, couvebrócolo, datura, fumo, girassol, jiló, melão, pepino, petúnia, pimentão, rabanete, repolho, rúcula, salsa e tomateiro foram inoculadas por pulverização, separadamente, com os dois isolados de P. cichorii de tomateiro e um isolado de girassol (GIR-1. Os isolados IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323 foram patogênicos à beldroega, datura, girassol, pimentão e tomate; GIR-1 foi patogênico apenas à beldroega, datura e girassol, não sendo patogênico ao pimentão e ao tomateiro. No Brasil não se conhecem fontes de resistência dentro do gênero Lycopersicon ou a reação de cultivares de tomateiros a esta bactéria. Vinte e oito genótipos de tomateiro provenientes do Banco de Germoplasma da empresa Sakata Seed Sudamerica Ltda., foram avaliados quanto a reação aos isolados IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323 de P. cichorii, pelo método de inoculação nas folhas. Os maiores níveis de resistência foram observados em AF 11768, AF 2521, AF 11766, AF 11772, AF 229, AF 5719-1 e AF 8162. O genótipo AF 5719-1, que possui o gene Pto, que confere resistência a P. syringae pv. tomato, apresentou um bom nível de resistência a P. cichorii. A identificação de genótipos que apresentem bons níveis de resistência a este patógeno é importante para utilização em programas de melhoramento genético do tomateiro, visando a incorporação de genes de resistência a P. cichorii.The occurrence of the bacterial blight, caused by Pseudomonas cichorii, was observed

  11. Uso de la radiación UV-C en el proceso de elaboración de hortalizas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Diego; Ruiz López, Gustavo; Sgroppo, Sonia; Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los principales factores que limita la vida útil de las hortalizas frescas es el crecimiento de microorganismos durante el almacenamiento refrigerado. Es por ello que durante la etapa de procesamiento de hortalizas de IV gama siempre se incluye una etapa de lavado y sanitización para reducir la contaminación microbiana inicial. El uso de radiación ultravioleta artificial (UV) a una longitud de onda de 190 a 280 nm (UV-C) tiene poder germicida y puede ser eficaz para la descontaminación...

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS FÍSICOS, MICROBIOLÓGICOS Y SENSORIALES DE RADICCHIOS (CHICHORIUM INTYBUS L. VAR. FOLIOSUM) ENVASADOS MEDIANTE IV GAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola López, Nelson; Calquín Correa, Paulina; Norambuena Aguayo, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo evaluó el comportamiento del envasado de radicchio (Chichorium intybus L. var. foliosum), con el sistema de IV Gama. Esta hortaliza fue donada por la Empresa Vital Berry S.A. y los envases por la Empresa HYC. El ensayo se realizó en el Laboratorio de la Universidad Católica del Maule, Curicó, y en el Centro de Estudios Postcosecha de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago. Los objetivos del ensayo fueron determinar la vida útil del radicchio al ser envasado en dos tipos de bols...

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  1. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Tahoe-Martis study unit was investigated in June through September 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the Tahoe-Martis study unit (Tahoe-Martis) and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in El Dorado, Placer, and Nevada Counties. Forty-one of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 11 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, strontium isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 240 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the

  2. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  3. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 25,500-square-mile Sierra Nevada study unit was investigated in June through October 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Sierra Nevada study was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for public and community drinking-water supplies. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. In the Sierra Nevada study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 84 wells (and springs) in Lassen, Plumas, Butte, Sierra, Yuba, Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Alpine, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Madera, Mariposa, Fresno, Inyo, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The wells were selected on two overlapping networks by using a spatially-distributed, randomized, grid-based approach. The primary grid-well network consisted of 30 wells, one well per grid cell in the study unit, and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality throughout the entire study unit. The lithologic grid-well network is a secondary grid that consisted of the wells in the primary grid-well network plus 53 additional wells and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality in each of the four major lithologic units in the Sierra

  4. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  7. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  9. GAMA/G10-COSMOS/3D-HST: the 0 history, stellar-mass, and dust-mass densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon P.; Andrews, Stephen K.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Davies, Luke J.; Lagos, Claudia; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Vinsen, Kevin; Wright, Angus H.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bourne, Nathan; Brough, Sarah; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Cluver, Michelle; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve A.; Gomez, Haley; Holwerda, Benne; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Loveday, Jon; Liske, Jochen; Maddox, Steve J.; Phillipps, Steven; Pimbblet, Kevin; Rowlands, Kate; Sansom, Anne E.; Taylor, Edward; Wang, Lingyu; Wilkins, Stephen M.

    2018-04-01

    We use the energy-balance code MAGPHYS to determine stellar and dust masses, and dust corrected star formation rates for over 200 000 GAMA galaxies, 170 000 G10-COSMOS galaxies, and 200 000 3D-HST galaxies. Our values agree well with previously reported measurements and constitute a representative and homogeneous data set spanning a broad range in stellar-mass (108-1012 M⊙), dust-mass (106-109 M⊙), and star formation rates (0.01-100 M⊙yr-1), and over a broad redshift range (0.0 history (CSFH), the stellar-mass density (SMD), and the dust-mass density (DMD) over a 12 Gyr timeline. The data mostly agree with previous estimates, where they exist, and provide a quasi-homogeneous data set using consistent mass and star formation estimators with consistent underlying assumptions over the full time range. As a consequence our formal errors are significantly reduced when compared to the historic literature. Integrating our CSFH we precisely reproduce the SMD with an interstellar medium replenishment factor of 0.50 ± 0.07, consistent with our choice of Chabrier initial mass function plus some modest amount of stripped stellar mass. Exploring the cosmic dust density evolution, we find a gradual increase in dust density with lookback time. We build a simple phenomenological model from the CSFH to account for the dust-mass evolution, and infer two key conclusions: (1) For every unit of stellar mass which is formed 0.0065-0.004 units of dust mass is also formed. (2) Over the history of the Universe approximately 90-95 per cent of all dust formed has been destroyed and/or ejected.

  10. The Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS): survey design, data catalogue and GAMA/WiggleZ spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Pracy, Michael B.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jurek, Russell J.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS), a spectroscopic catalogue of radio sources designed to include the full range of radio AGN populations out to redshift z ˜ 0.8. The catalogue covers ˜800 deg2 of sky, and provides optical identifications for 19 179 radio sources from the 1.4 GHz Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey down to an optical magnitude limit of Imod point-like objects are included, and no colour cuts are applied. In collaboration with the WiggleZ and Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey teams, we have obtained new spectra for over 5000 objects in the LARGESS sample. Combining these new spectra with data from earlier surveys provides spectroscopic data for 12 329 radio sources in the survey area, of which 10 856 have reliable redshifts. 85 per cent of the LARGESS spectroscopic sample are radio AGN (median redshift z = 0.44), and 15 per cent are nearby star-forming galaxies (median z = 0.08). Low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) comprise the majority (83 per cent) of LARGESS radio AGN at z < 0.8, with 12 per cent being high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs) and 5 per cent radio-loud QSOs. Unlike the more homogeneous LERG and QSO sub-populations, HERGs are a heterogeneous class of objects with relatively blue optical colours and a wide dispersion in mid-infrared colours. This is consistent with a picture in which most HERGs are hosted by galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation as well as a classical accretion disc.

  11. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 2,170-square-mile Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March to July 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The WSJV study unit was the twenty-ninth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Western San Joaquin Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the WSJV study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the WSJV study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 58 wells in 2 study areas (Delta-Mendota subbasin and Westside subbasin) in Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Kings Counties. Thirty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 wells were selected to aid in the understanding of aquifer-system flow and related groundwater-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level fumigants, and pesticides and pesticide degradates

  12. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 39,000-square-kilometer Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau (CAMP) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from July through October 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CAMP study unit is the thirty-second study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA PBP. The GAMA CAMP study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the open or screened intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CAMP study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CAMP study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 90 wells and springs in 6 study areas (Sacramento Valley Eastside, Honey Lake Valley, Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau Low Use Basins, Shasta Valley and Mount Shasta Volcanic Area, Quaternary Volcanic Areas, and Tertiary Volcanic Areas) in Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Tehama Counties. Wells and springs were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators, organic constituents, perchlorate, inorganic constituents

  13. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  14. Transformações da sensibilidade musical contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jorge de Carvalho

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio visa propor uma reflexão sobre as mudanças na sensibilidade musical no mundo ocidental neste fim de século. As profundas transformações na tecnologia da produção musical ocorridas nas últimas décadas provocaram uma alteração dramática do lugar que a música ocupa na sociedade e também para o indivíduo. Interpreto o impacto dessas mudanças através de quatro elementos de análise profundamente interrelacionados: a tecnologia de gravação e reprodução, a execução musical, a recepção do produto musical e as subculturas musicais que condicionam as opções de uma vasta gama de consumidores de música, jovens e velhos. Na tentativa de construir uma sensibilidade musical deveras pluralista, procurei ilustrar esses argumentos com exemplos musicais retirados dos estilos mais diversos: eruditos, tradicionais, populares, massificados, folclóricos, ritualizados, etc. Dialogo também com teorias da música e da cultura contemporânea que cobrem um amplo eixo da Musicologia e da Etnomusicologia, de Béla Bártok, Adorno e Benjamin a John Blacking, Jacques Attali, Jean Baudrillard, Simon Frith, Lawrence Kramer, entre outros.

  15. Ultrasonic and radiographic study of laxity in hip joints of young dogs Estudo ultra-sonográfico e radiográfico da frouxidão articular em cães jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 22 hip joints of Whippet (four, Rottweiler (five and Labrador Retriever (two young dogs were evaluated with the aim of comparing the ultrasonic examination of coxofemoral joints with the radiographic evaluations, both distraction and conventional procedures, for the early diagnosis of passive laxity. The study was based on static ultrasonography, conventional radiography (CR and distraction radiography (DR methods. In order to quantify the relationship between the femur head and the acetabulum, the alpha (alpha and gamma (gamma angles were measured by ultrasonographic examination, the Norberg angle (NA was measured by CR, and the distraction index (DI was measured by DR. It was observed a negative correlation between angles alpha and gamma (r= -0,756; PAvaliaram-se 22 articulações coxofemorais de cães das raças Whippet (quatro cães, Rottweiler (cinco cães e Labrador Retriever (dois cães, com o objetivo de comparar o exame ultra-sonográfico da articulação coxofemoral de cães jovens com as avaliações radiográficas em distração e convencional, para a determinação precoce da frouxidão articular passiva. Utilizaram-se os métodos ultra-sonográfico estático, radiográfico convencional (MRC e radiográfico em distração (MRD. Para quantificar a relação entre a cabeça do fêmur e o acetábulo, foram medidos os ângulos alfa (alfa e gama (gama no exame ultra-sonográfico, o ângulo de Norberg (AN no MRC e o índice de distração (ID no MRD. Observou-se correlação negativa entre os ângulos alfa e gama (r= -0,756; P<0,001 e entre ID e AN (r= -0,474; P<0,026. Não se observou correlação entre os ângulos alfa e gama em relação ao ID e o AN (alfa e ID: r= -0,380; P<0,081; alfa e NA: r= 0,013; P<0,954; gama e ID: r= 0, 338; P<0,124; ângulo gama e AN: r= -0,192; P<0,391. O método ultra-sonográfico estático não se mostrou sensível para a detecção precoce da frouxidão passiva da articula

  16. Gamma probe-assisted brain tumor microsurgical resection: a new technique Ressecção microcirúrgica de tumor cerebral assistida por detector gama: uma nova técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Vilela Filho

    2002-12-01

    CADG, a qual foi realizada em um paciente com metástase para lobo parietal direito. O radiotraçador (99mTc-MIBI foi injetado em uma veia periférica 5 horas antes da cirurgia. Uma relação > ou = 2/1 entre a radiação gama emitida pelo tumor e pelo tecido normal foi considerada como indicativa de presença tumoral. Em um estudo piloto, SPECT cerebral com MIBI foi realizado em cinco pacientes normais. RESULTADOS: O detector gama em muito facilitou a detecção per-operatória do tumor e demonstrou a presença de um pequeno resíduo tumoral após o que se pensou tratar-se de uma completa ressecção; tal resíduo, de outro modo, não teria sido percebido, o que teria impossibilitado sua exérese. Tomografia computorizada pós-operatória confirmou a completa ressecção do tumor. O SPECT com MIBI de indivíduos normais mostrou sua captação pela hipófise, plexo coróide, crânio, couro cabeludo e glândulas salivares, mas não pelo tecido cerebral normal. Não ocorreram quaisquer complicações. CONCLUSÃO: A CADG mostrou-se, em nosso paciente, uma técnica segura e confiável para facilitar a identificação do tumor e para confirmar a presença ou ausência de resíduo tumoral.

  17. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the G02 field, Herschel-ATLAS target selection and Data Release 3 arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I.K.; Brown, M.J.I.; Robotham, A.S.G.; Driver, S.P.; Dunne, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M.E.; Eardley, E.; Farrow, D.J.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A.M.; Kelvin, L.S.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A.J.; Norberg, P.; Owers, M.S.; Taylor, E.N.; Wright, A.H.; Bamford, S.P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M.N.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C.J.; Croom, S.M.; Davies, L.J.M.; Foster, C.; Grootes, M.W.; Holwerda, B.W.; Jones, D.H.; Kafle, P.R.; Kuijken, K.; Lara-Lopez, M.A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.R.; Meyer, M.J.; Phillipps, S.; Sutherland, W.J.; van Kampen, E.; Wilkins, S.M.

    We describe data release 3 (DR3) of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA survey is a spectroscopic redshift and multi-wavelength photometric survey in three equatorial regions each of 60.0 deg^2 (G09, G12, G15), and two southern regions of 55.7 deg^2 (G02) and 50.6 deg^2 (G23). DR3 consists of: the first release of data covering the G02 region and of data on H-ATLAS sources in the equatorial regions; and updates to data on sources released in DR2. DR3 includes 154809 sources with secure redshifts across four regions. A subset of the G02 region is 95.5% redshift complete to r<19.8 over an area of 19.5 deg^2, with 20086 galaxy redshifts, that overlaps substantially with the XXL survey (X-ray) and VIPERS (redshift survey). In the equatorial regions, the main survey has even higher completeness (98.5%), and spectra for about 75% of H-ATLAS filler targets were also obtained. This filler sample extends spectroscopic redshifts, for probable optical counterparts to H-ATLAS sub-mm sources, to 0.8 ma...

  18. A aplicação da distribuição exponencial geométrica estendida para modelagem de dados pluviométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho propõem-se o uso da distribuição Exponencial Geométrica Estendida (EGE como um modelo alternativo às distribuições comumente utilizadas tais como Gama, Weibull, Lognormal, entre outras, para a modelagem de dados de precipitação pluvial. Pouco explorada na literatura, a distribuição EGE tem se mostrado eficiente em diversos campos de pesquisa como biologia, demografia, confiabilidade de produtos eletrônicos e pode ser aplicada para analisar fenômenos meteorológicos. Proposta por Adamidis e colaboradores em 2005, uma de suas particularidades é que sua função de risco pode ser crescente ou decrescente. Outra característica importante é a facilidade em se obter diferentes níveis de probabilidade, sem a necessidade de recorrer a métodos numéricos. Testou-se o ajustamento da distribuição EGE para a estimação da precipitação pluvial total mensal de Presidente Prudente-SP. Os resultados mostraram que houve um bom ajuste do modelo para os dados ao serem comparados com outros modelos como Gama, Weibull e Lognormal, de acordo com o critério de informação de Akaike, o teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov e o teste Qui-quadrado ao nivel de 5% de significância. A partir do ajustamento da distribuição EGE aos dados, os estimadores dos parâmetros da distribuição foram obtidos através do método de máxima verossimilhança permitindo assim a estimação da precipitação pluvial total mensal para diferentes níveis de probabilidade.

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  1. Estudo comparativo da massa específica aparente e retratibilidade da madeira de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata LAM. nativa e de reflorestamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval dos Santos Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre as propriedades físicas da madeira, a massa específica aparente e a retratibilidade são características importantes na avaliação da qualidade da madeira para ampla gama de uso. A massa específica aparente, ou densidade aparente, está relacionada a uma série de outras características, principalmente àquelas relacionadas às propriedades mecânicas e anatômicas da madeira. Do mesmo modo, a retratibilidade também é importante característica, pois avalia a estabilidade dimensional das madeiras, sendo de grande importância para aplicações em que a madeira não deve apresentar contrações excessivas durante sua utilização. Com base nisso, este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a massa específica aparente e a retratibilidade da madeira de pau-brasil, proveniente de áreas naturais e de reflorestamentos com 10, 15, 20, 26 e 30 anos. Tais avaliações foram realizadas segundo a metodologia preconizada pelo Método Brasileiro 26/1940 da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. Os resultados indicaram que houve variação na massa específica aparente nas diferentes idades, com os maiores valores para a madeira de 30 anos de idade, que foram próximos aos encontrados para amostras de madeira nativa. A retratibilidade volumétrica total também variou em função da idade, não apresentando grande diferença em relação à madeira proveniente de áreas naturais.

  2. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  3. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs;Efeito da radiacao gama em proteina alergenica de ovos de galinhas poedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-07-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of {sup 60}Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  4. Selection of thermal-resistant leavening (Saccharomyces boulardii) through gamma irradiation; Selecao de linhagens termotolerantes de levedura (Saccharomyces boulardii) atraves da irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Maria Jose; Martins, Flaviano Santos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Yeast cells acquire resistance to a several stress condition when they are previously exposed to a mild form of the same or of a different stress. In this way yeast cells exposure to temperatures higher than the optimum for growth results in a enhancement of the heat shock proteins and accumulation of trehalose. These cells then acquire the ability to survive under more extreme conditions, a phenomenon referred as transitory thermo-tolerance. We decided to test if gamma irradiation can induced a permanent thermo-tolerance in survival cells irradiated. Lyophilized cells of S. boulardii were irradiated with a {sup 60} cobalt source. This cells were plated in solid medium. The survival cells were counted and the trehalose level were determined. In a second step, this survivals cells were incubated in liquid medium then submitted to a lethal heat shock (52 deg C, 15 min). The cells were plated and again grown at 30 deg C. The survival index and the level of trehalose were again determined. The procedure were repeated successively. The strains showed more thermo-resistance and the level of trehalose was increased without linear correlation with the number of viable cells. (author)

  5. Effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.);Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em frutos de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz Lima dos

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate gamma radiation effects from Cobalt-60 on post harvest characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Brazilian savannah is the second biome of American Continent and concentrate a lot of plants and animal species. Many plants and their fruits are still unknown of Brazilian population. Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, Deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The loss humidity was proportional to radiation applied doses, the highest loss was observed on fruits to 1.0 kGy doses. Soluble fiber and protein showed no significant differences between treatments. Ash, insoluble fiber, dry matter and lipids showed little significant differences. Significant decrease of the pH values was observed for the irradiated samples in relation to control. Irradiated samples texture showed significant increase compared to control, but showed no significant differences between applied doses. The higher value for texture was (39.89 Newton g-1) for 0.6 kGy dose. Total soluble solids (TSS) showed a significant decrease compared to control, but was not significant between applied treatments. Titratable acidity showed a significant decrease for irradiated samples compared to control for all doses, but it was not significant between treatments. The ratio TSS/TTA showed no significant differences compared to control, only for irradiated fruits at 0.6 kGy doses presented differences compared to other treatments with the lowest value (24.12). Significant increases were observed between treatments and control, indicating an effective action of experimental doses on the parameter color a, both for the applied dose as to the pequi storage time. The parameter 'L' showed a decrease in brightness in relation to the storage time for all treatments, and the luminosity presented increase in relation to the radiation applied doses. There was a significant decrease in the parameter b* values for all applied doses compared to control. The storage time was not significantly influence for this parameter. The lowest values of parameter b* were observed for irradiated fruits at 10.0 kGy dose followed by 3.0 kGy, with reductions of more than 50%. There was a significant decrease in the ascorbic acid levels on irradiated pequi fruits, proportional to the applied dose. The losses were to around 49.85% for irradiated samples with 0.4 kGy dose, 82.28% for 0.6 kGy dose and 85.25% for the 1.0 kGy dose, compared to control. There was a decrease in total carotenoids levels of irradiated pequi samples compared to non irradiated (control). The losses were to 45.56% for irradiated fruits at 1.0 kGy dose compared to control. The control presented the highest total carotenoids value found (16.70 mg 100 g-1). The radiation processing presented a significant reducing effect on antioxidant activity of pequi fruits for all applied doses. Antioxidant capacity reductions were 2.92% for the 0.4 kGy dose, 5.26% to 0.6 kGy dose and 11.52% for the 1.0 kGy dose. The irradiation process using gamma rays from {sup 60}Co is efficiency to protect pequi fruits in post harvest period. (author)

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on country made polycarbonate Durolon FN2200; Efeito da radiacao gama no policarbonato nacional Durolon FN2200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, Mauro Cesar

    1996-07-01

    Type II polycarbonate, PC II, manufactured with high purity reagents as used on medical fabrication was gamma irradiated by {sup 60} Co source with doses from 0 to 300 kGy. Dose effects on the tensile strength at break (TSb) and at yield (TSy), on the molecular weight by viscosity, on optical properties by yellowness index (YI) and transmittance (T), molecular structure by transmission spectroscopy on infrared region (IR). Radical formation and decay at 100 kGy was studied too by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance of proton (NMR {sup 1}H). T S alteration was not observed up to 100 kGy, but molecular weight already suffers alteration at low doses, as well optical properties suffer significant alteration at sterilization doses (25 kGy) by yellowness index of 90% that is not desirable by medical application point of view. Molecular scission degree was calculated from viscosity measurements which value found is 1 and the crosslinking was not observed at sterilization doses. The formation of three different radicals was observed phenoxy, phenyl and isopropyl when irradiated on vacuum and after being put in air contact, scission occurs on PC II on two sites of the polymeric chain, while on PC I scission occurs only in one site. The PC II can be used in sterilized medical devices by gamma radiation from R T point of view, but looking to optical properties in a incorporation of additives will be necessary to cover up this coloration, as an optical whitener. It is interesting to note although PC II has G{sub scission} = 1 and yellowness index of 17% and P C I has G{sub scission} = 16,7 and yellowness index of 27% this difference can be attributed to the large quantity of optical whitener added to PC I. At sterilization doses PC II has an excellent radiolytic stability considering the point of view TS but it is necessary to avoid the yellowness on the fabrication of medical devices that can be radio sterilized. (author)

  7. The combined effect of gamma radiation and stress cracking in polycarbonate;Efeito combinado da radiacao gama e stress cracking no policarbonato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Raphaela N. de; Rabello, Marcelo S., E-mail: marcelo@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Silva, Leonardo G.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the combined effect of gamma irradiation and stress cracking was studied in polycarbonate (PC). Tensile test bars were produced by injection moulding and then exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. After that they were submitted to the contact with isopropanol, the stress cracking agent used in this work. The specimens were tested for mechanical properties, viscosity molecular weight and fractography. The results indicated that the previous radiation intensified the stress cracking effects, as evidenced by the reduction in tensile properties and surface damage caused to the samples. (author)

  8. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation; Esterilização de esgoto através da radiação gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S. [Faculdade Casa Branca, SP (Brazil). Pós-Graduação de Proteção Radiológica em Aplicações Médicas, Industriais e Nucleares; Lima, C.M.A. [MAXIM Cursos, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: franciscodasilva13uk@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Riode Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents.

  9. Study of crosslinking induced by gamma radiation in mixtures of polyacrylamide anionic and water; Estudo da reticulacao induzida por radiacao gama de misturas de poliacrilamida anionica e agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, M.T.S.; Brant, A.J.C.; Naime, N.; Guadagnin, H.C.; Ponce, P.; Lugao, A.B., E-mail: ablugao@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are composed of three-dimensional polymeric networks that can absorb and retain body of water hundreds of times the weight of its dry weight. The hydrogels can be crosslinked by chemical or physical. In general, chemical crosslinking is performed in the presence of reactive substances of high toxicity at elevated temperatures, may cause harmful secondary reactions to final product quality. However, ionizing radiation provides the crosslinking in the absence of chemical initiators or crosslinkers, therefore without contamination or toxicity. It also allows the realization of the reaction at low temperatures. These materials find use in several application fields, such as sanitary pads, diapers, controlled release of nutrients to the soil, separation processes, water purification systems and controlled release of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gamma radiation in doses of 15 and 25 kGy, in reticulation system of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and water, which were characterized by swelling and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the importance of the amount of water in the reticulation. It was concluded that gamma radiation has excellent potential for the synthesis of hiperabsorbent hydrogels. (author)

  10. Some effects of gamma radiation in Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae); Alguns efeitos da radiacao gama em Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J M.M.

    1975-12-31

    The effect of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) was studied in this work. Experiments showed that at a dose-rate of 9820 {+-} 300 rad/hour the LD sub(100) of egg embryos was 2,2 krad, of larvae 3 krad and of pupae 22,8 krad. Total sterilization of adults irradiated of the pupal stage was 5 krad. The sterilizing dose of irradiated adults was 8 krad at a calculated dose-rate of 57.630 {+-} 5000 rad/hour, whereas the LD sub(100) was 330 krad at a dose-rate of 63650 {+-} 1500 rad/hour. It was further verified that the number of eggs laid decreased with the irradiation dose. Longevity tended by increase in the females and diminish in the males as a result of irradiation. (author).

  11. Gamma radiation effects in Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama em Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J M

    1974-12-31

    Lethal effects were studied for the egg, larval and pupal stages as well as sterilization of adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by the application of gamma radiation. Irradiation of pupae with an estimated dosis of 7887 {+-} 158 rad inhibits adult emergency. Hypotheses have been suggested that the apparent density and (or) nutrient value of food substrates decisively influence the sterilizing dosis for this insect. Thus, in rice and maize which are apparently denser and (or) of higher nutrient value than maccaroni, insects are sterilized by a dosis of 7 krad, while in maccaroni the sterilizing dosis decreases to 5 krad. (author).

  12. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected after gamma irradiation. The electronic paramagnetic resonance can be detected irradiated samples. (author)

  13. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory profile of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de radiações sobre as características sensoriais do suco fresco de laranja variedade 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L conservado sob refrigeração. Utilizou-se amostras de suco de laranja refrigerado (controle e suco de laranja refrigerado irradiado com 1,5 e 3,0kGy por hora (Cobalto60, armazenadas a 4ºC por 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias a 4ºC. Para a análise sensorial realizou-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa, na qual provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram a aparência, aroma, sabor e textura oral dos sucos. As doses de radiação alteraram características de aparência como cor, brilho e grumosidade. As amostras de suco irradiados apresentaram coloração amarelo mais claro, maior brilho e menor grumosidade que o suco controle. Os sucos irradiados apresentaram também maior intensidade de aroma cozido, passado e artificial, gosto ácido, amargo, sabor cozido, de sumo, passado e de laranja artificial. As doses de radiação utilizadas alteraram as características de corpo e adstringência. A cor e a grumosidade do suco não irradiado intensificaram-se com o tempo de armazenamento. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a irradiação do suco promoveu alterações nas características sensoriais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics of the irradiated fresh of 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinnensis L. juice and kept refrigerated. Samples of orange juice (control and samples irradiated with 1.5 and 3.0kGy per hour (Cobalt 60 were stored for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days at 4ºC. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis was conducted by a selected trained panels that evaluated appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of juices. Radiation levels affected appearance characteristics as color, shine and gummy. Irradiated juice resulted more clear and shinny and less gummy, more cooked, with past and artificial aroma, more acid, bitter, cooked, sap, past and with accentuated artificial orange than the control. Irradiation levels affected texture characteristics as body and astringency, homogeneity attribute was not affected. Color and gummy of control sample intensified with the increase of storage periods. Results lead juice irradiation promoted negatively on sensorial characteristic.

  14. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  15. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene; Efeitos da radiacao gama na estrutura e nas propriedades do poliestireno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    1996-12-31

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60`s as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with {gamma} rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx {approx} 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs {approx} 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex`s molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author) 43 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry; Metodologia para determinacao da atividade de radionuclideos por sistema de espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mariacc05@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the {sup 18}F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  17. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  18. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of {sup 60}Co; Caracterizacao bioquimica e farmacologica da crotamina irradiada por raios gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-07-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective in lowering the vas deferens twitch in rats in comparison to native crotamine. In addition, the behavior of irradiated toxin in tonic contraction, modulated by noradrenaline, was different from that observed for the native toxin. (author)

  19. Study of gel formation in polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation; Estudo da formacao de geis em polipropileno modificado por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliani, W.L.; Parra, D.F.; Fermino, D.M.; Lima, L.F.C.P.; Lugao, A.B., E-mail: washoliani@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The linearity of the chains of iPP (isotactic polypropylene) confers to this, low melt strength. This fact limits the use of iPP in processes that demand high stretching. The graft of branches confers improvements in its extensional viscosity, resulting in Polypropylene with High Melt Strength (HMS-PP). Preparation process of the HMS-PP, included iPP in pellets, conditioned in plastic container containing acetylene under pressure of 110 kPa and radiation with {gamma} source of {sup 60}Co in the doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The gel fraction of the samples was determined by the extraction of soluble components in xylene under boiling for 12 hours at 138 deg C. The soluble part of the samples was decanted with the total volatilization of the xylene to the room temperature (25 deg C) and deposition in glass blades. These samples had been characterized by Optic Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy. In this study of the morphology, we obtained the formation of gel and microgel of polypropylene with higher incidence in HMS-PP 20 kGy. (author)

  20. A search for a systematic method to bridge between pre-harvest, post-harvest, and consumer research aimed at increasing fruit consumption: The "Vasco da Gama" process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertschinger, L.; Corelli-Grappadelli, L.; Derkx, M.P.M.; Hall, S.; Kockerols, K.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Steiner, S.; Lans, van der I.A.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of ISAFRUIT to increase fruit consumption has strong foundations in the new knowledge created by a multidisciplinary team of natural and social scientists addressing critical aspects of the multi-faceted fruit chain. Bridging the gap between disciplines proved to be a substantial challenge,

  1. Impurity-related point defects and gamma-radiation response of massive quartz from the Borborema pegmatite province, in Brazil; Estudo da suscetibilidade ao escurecimento por radiacao gama de quartzo roseo-leitoso da provincia pegmatitica da Borborema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Milena Ribas de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mineral; Gonzaga, Raysa Sthefany Gomes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas; Barreto, Sandra de Brito [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Melgarejo, Joan Carles, E-mail: milaribas@hotmail.com, E-mail: raysagonzaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: pguzzo@ufpe.br, E-mail: sandrabrito@smart.net.br, E-mail: joan.carles.melgarejo.draper@ub.edu [Universidade de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Cristalografia, Mineralogia e Depositos Minerais

    2012-06-15

    This work has investigated the changes induced by {gamma}-radiation on impurity-related point defects in massive rose quartz from one deposit located at The Borborema Pegmatite Province (Northeast Region, in Brazil). Samples extracted from rose and colorless (milky) quartz blocks were irradiated with doses of {sup 60}Co, from 0.5 to 96 kGy. Point defects related to Al, Ge, Li and OH were measured by optical, infrared, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, prior and after irradiation. The contents of Al, Li, Ge, Fe, Ti and other impurities were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in quartz fragments exhibiting rose, pale-rose, and milky colorations. It was found that [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0}, [AlO{sub 4}/H]{sup 0} and [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} were generated by the dissociation of [AlO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} and [Li-OH] centers with doses as lower as 0.5 kGy. Above 8 kGy, the electron paramagnetic resonance signal related to [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} decreases due to the intense mobility of Li species throughout the quartz lattice, giving rise to E'{sub 1} centers perturbed by Ge. The increase in [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0} content with {gamma} doses and the consequent rise in the intensity of smoky color were similar for both rose and colorless quartz. Scanning electron microscopy carried out in insoluble residues obtained after chemical dissolution of each type of quartz revealed the presence of nanometric fibers only in rose specimens. These results suggested that the cause of rose color in massive quartz from Borborema Pegmatite Province is probably related to the presence of dumortierite inclusions. (author)

  2. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  3. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the central-eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment.An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  4. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Madera, Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera and Chowchilla Subbasins (Madera-Chowchilla study unit) of the San Joaquin Valley Basin was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in California's Central Valley region in parts of Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in California. The primary aquifer system within each study unit is defined by the depth of the perforated or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Madera-Chowchilla study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 35 wells during April-May 2008 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of natural factors and human activities affecting groundwater quality. The primary aquifer system is represented by the grid wells, of which 90 percent (%) had depths that ranged from about 200 to 800 feet (ft) below land surface and had depths to the top of perforations that ranged from about 140 to 400 ft below land surface. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  7. The environmental sustainability of a pilot plant for the manufacture of biodiesel from frying oil: a case study: Universidade de Brasilia UNB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brazil; A sustentabilidade ambiental de uma planta piloto para fabricacao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de fritura: estudo de caso: Universidade de Brasilia UnB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glecia Virgolino da; Falla, Pilar Hidalgo; Ginoris, Yovanka Perez; Oliveira, Alessandro Borges de S.; Alves, Marcos Antonio de S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FGA/UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Whereas the efforts of the Brazilian government and its researchers to explore new renewable energy alternatives such as biofuels, and considering the existing methodologies for the production of biodiesel, including the processes of washing out, which consumes a large amount of water treated, University of Brasilia/FGA/Gama installs in about July 2010 a pilot plant for biodiesel production. The pilot plant will use feedstock used frying oil collected in homes, restaurants and coffee shop in the region, preventing this oil remains released to sewage in natura. Thus, this project aims to develop academic research and the improvement of the community in the city of Gama / DF. This study aimed to carry out preliminary studies of the methodology and water to be used in biodiesel production in order to confirm the reduction of fuel costs the University to contribute to reducing the release of oils into the sewer and use of distillers for water will wash the biodiesel, reducing the energy consumption of the plant. (author)

  8. Carbonilação catalítica de alilaminoálcoois : síntese de hidróxi-gama-lactamas e oxazolidinas bicíclicas

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Limberger

    2006-01-01

    Gama-lactamas e oxazolidinas bicíclicas são compostos importantes sob o ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Uma forma de sintetizar estes heterociclos é através de reações de carbonilação/hidroformilação de aminas insaturadas catalisadas por complexos de ródio. As gama-lactamas e as oxazolidinas são formadas concomitantemente, as primeiras através de um mecanismo de carbonilação e as últimas através de uma rota de hidroformilação, sob as mesmas condições reacionais. No presente trabalho, ...

  9. Catálogo da biblioteca: o objeto orientado ao usuário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Perea Araújo

    Full Text Available Os catálogos bibliográficos em fichas ou em linha, estes últimos também conhecidos como Online Public Access Catalogue, foram desenhados para melhor organizar e dinamizar os itens arquivados em uma biblioteca. Saciar a necessidade do consulente de biblioteca, na busca por informação, é objetivo de construção desses bancos de dados. Para muitos usuários, os objetivos iniciais de criação desses softwares não coadunam com a plasticidade dos novos sistemas, quando da apresentação da informação na hora da pesquisa. Há, no mercado de bases de dados, uma gama de softwares que hoje, atenderiam às necessidades latentes, assim como as expressas pelos usuários destes catálogos, para buscas realizadas tanto de forma remota como local. Expor novas ontologias, diferentes formatos de apresentação e apontar as reais necessidades de informação exigidas pelo usuário, são os objetivos deste trabalho.

  10. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  11. Subperíodos fenológicos e ciclo da soja conforme grupos de maturidade e datas de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Trentin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a duração dos subperíodos fenológicos e do ciclo de desenvolvimento da soja, de acordo com grupos de maturidade e datas de semeadura, e determinar as funções de distribuição de probabilidades que melhor caracterizam a distribuição destes dados. Foram avaliadas as funções exponencial, gama, lognormal, normal e Weibull, tendo-se verificado a de melhor ajuste aos dados de desenvolvimento simulado da cultura, de acordo com dados meteorológicos diários coletados de outubro de 1968 a julho de 2012, na estação climatológica principal de Santa Maria, RS. A simulação do desenvolvimento da cultura foi feita para diferentes datas de semeadura, com os grupos de maturidade (GM: 5.9-6.8, ciclo precoce/semiprecoce; 6.9-7.3, ciclo médio; e 7.4-8.0, ciclo semitardio/tardio. A função lognormal é a que melhor se ajusta à duração dos subperíodos e do ciclo da soja. Esta duração varia conforme a data de semeadura, com ciclo maior nas semeaduras antecipadas (outubro e menor nas tardias (dezembro.

  12. Significados e práticas da espiritualidade no contexto dos cuidados paliativos em pacientes oncológicos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Iaros Silva da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os significados e práticas da espiritualidade para os pacientes oncológicos adultos, enfermeiros e família no contexto dos cuidados paliativos. Elaborou-se uma revisão integrativa nas bases de dados CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS e MEDLINE, com os descritores palliative care, spirituality e nursing, no período de novembro de 2007 a novembro de 2009. A amostra constituiu-se de 11 artigos. Dentre os significados que se destacaram, para os pacientes e enfermeiros evidenciou-se fonte de conforto e para a família fonte de cura e manutenção da saúde. Dentre as práticas evidenciadas encontram-se, para os pacientes, ir a igreja, para os enfermeiros, estar presente e, para a família, exercício da caridade. Diferentes significados e práticas reveladas neste estudo evidenciam uma gama de possibilidades que poderão ser aplicadas na prática clínica. Conclui-se que a espiritualidade pode ajudar pacientes, familiares, enfermeiros e demais profissionais a enfrentarem melhor as situações de iminência de fim da vida ou mesmo a morte em si.

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  14. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system. The depth of the primary aquifer system for the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was delineated by the depths of the screened or open intervals of wells in the State of California’s database of public-supply wells. Two types of assessments were made: a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and an understanding assessment that made evaluations of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors representing characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  16. Caracterización molecular de la cadena gama común y Jak3 en un individuo afectado con inmunodeficiencia severa combinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Patiño Grajales

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La Inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada (IDSC es una enfermedad
    de origen genético, que se puede heredar de forma autosómica
    recesiva o ligada al cromosoma X. La IDSC se caracteriza por un
    defecto en el número y la diferenciación de los linfocitos T y NK. Los
    individuos afectados desarrollan diarrea crónica, infecciones persistentes y severas como neumonía, septicemia e infecciones fúngicas.
    Estos pacientes presentan retardo en el crecimiento y pueden morir a
    temprana edad si no se realiza una terapia de corrección genética o un
    trasplante de células hematopoyéticas. Las mutaciones responsables
    de la IDSC comprometen principalmente el gen de la cadena gama
    común (γc y la proteína Jak3 que son proteínas fundamentales en la
    transducción de señales de los receptores para varias citoquinas esenciales en la diferenciación y activación de células del sistema inmune, las cuales incluyen IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 e IL-15 (1,2.

     

     

  17. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  18. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of broccoli significant difference on the yellowing during storage. It is concluded that the processing of collard greens and broccoli butter by gamma radiation may be a viable alternative to the industry, since there was a reduction of the population of microorganisms, without changes in the sensory qualities and with minimum changes in the characteristics that confer antioxidant power. (author)

  20. In vitro assessment of the composition and microhardness of hard tissues of oral cavity submitted to gamma irradiation; Avaliacao in vitro da composicao e microdureza dos tecidos duros da cavidade bucal submetidos a irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Wilber Edison Bernaola

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Radiotherapy is extremely important for the treatment of malignant lesions of the head and neck region, however, exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to systemic or local complications during and after radiation treatment. Among these immediate local complications are the oral cavity xerostomia and the consequent oral mucositis. Regarding late complications produced by radiation, tooth decay of radiation and osteoradionecrosis are included, which are considered dose-dependent lesions, with high incidence in recent decades and difficult to manage, although these appear after completion of treatment and under the influence of local factors. The methodology proposed in this study consists in evaluating the effect of gamma radiation after irradiation of the samples, using the dose used in patients suffering with head and neck cancer. The samples were obtained from human enamel and root dentin; and swine mandibular bone, which were previously polished, and then submitted to the analysis of the initial surface microhardness of all groups. Subsequently, the samples were irradiated in a dose rate of 4 Gy per day, completing a total dose of 72 Gy. Finally, the samples were submitted to surface microhardness analysis after irradiation, which presented statistically significant results from the Student t, ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests referred to the difference of the mean of the initial and final values of each study group with a significant value of p = 0.00 (<0.05). Regarding the morphological analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the deleterious effect of gamma irradiation was evidenced as structural cracks, breaks and superficial fractures of the analyzed tissues and the biochemical analysis by Attenuated Total Reflection technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR - FTIR) showed degradation of inorganic components and denaturation of organic compounds; whereby, the effect of gamma irradiation on the hard tissues of the oral cavity with respect to mechanical, compositional and morphological properties was deleterious and this study highlighted the isolated action of this ionizing radiation which contributes highly for its appearance, independent of local and systemic factors in the irradiated patients. (author)

  1. Influência da radiação gama e de diferentes dietas na qualidade da carne de cordeiros Santa Inês Influence of the radiation and of different diets on quality of meat lambs Santa Ines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Régia Marques de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de irradiação é um método eficiente de conservação de alimentos, pois reduz o número de microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes. Com doses baixas, as características organolépticas e nutricionais do alimento não são alteradas significativamente, principalmente quando são controlados outros fatores como, por exemplo, a embalagem. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a cor, capacidade de retenção de água (CRA e formação de bases voláteis na carne de cordeiros Santa Inês tratados com diferentes dietas e doses de radiação. Amostras de carne de cordeiro tratados com diferentes dietas - controle, TAC1, TAC2 (taninos altamente condensados e sorgo - foram embaladas a vácuo e, excetuando-se a controle (sem irradiação, irradiadas nas doses 2 e 4 kGy e armazenadas por 15 dias à temperatura de 4 °C. As medidas de a* (redness e b* (yelowness não sofreram influência das diferentes dietas e doses empregadas no experimento. Os valores de L* (lightness se mostraram diferentes para dietas no controle (sem irradiação e na dose 2 kGy, mas, quando comparados os efeitos das doses em cada dieta, estas não apresentaram diferenças. Os valores de H e C calculados não mostraram diferenças estatísticas. O tempo de armazenamento influenciou as medidas de a*, b* , L, H e C. A irradiação diminuiu os teores de bases voláteis e CRA, porém o tempo de estocagem aumentou-os.The irradiation process is an effective method for food preservation because it reduces the pathogenic and/or the number of deteriorating microorganisms. The use of low doses did not alter the organoleptic and sensorial food characteristics significantly, especially when other factors such as packaging are considered. The objective of this work is to evaluate the color, water holding capacity (WHC, and formation of volatile bases in the meat of Santa Ines lambs treated with different diets and radiation doses. Lamb samples treated with different diets: control, TAC1, TAC2 (tannins highly condensed, and sorghum were vacuum wrapped, irradiated in the doses 2 and 4 kGy and control (without irradiation, and stored under 4 °C for 15 days. The values of a* (redness and b * (yellowness were not influenced by the different diets and doses used in the experiment. The values of L* (lightness differed statistically for the control diets (without irradiation and for 2 kGy dose diet. However, the effects of the doses in each diet were not different. The values of H and C values obtained did not show statistical differences. The storage time influenced the measures of a*, b*, L, H, and C. The irradiation reduced the levels of the volatile bases and water holding capacity (WHC although these parameters were increased due to the storage time.

  2. Feasibility study of photodiodes utilization in the soil-moisture determination by gamma transmission; Estudo da viabilidade da utilizacao de fotodiodos na determinacao de umidade de solos por transmissao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L A.P. dos

    1992-08-01

    This study was done to verify the viability of photodiodes, as gamma radiation detector ({sup 241} Am - Energy=60 KeV), to measure soil water content. The photodiodes used had different mechanical and electrical characteristics, and were tested on soils of different textures. A good linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and soil-moisture demonstrated such viability, and that the low photopeak efficiency of these devices is not a limitation to the measurement of soil water content. Furthermore, the stability, the portability, and low cost of such semiconductor devices, including its electronic system, represent relevant characteristics that may justify the development of a reliable gamma meter system for field studies. (author). 37 refs, 21 figs, 20 tabs.

  3. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  4. Evaluation gamma radiation in composite sisal fiber- polyurethane derived of castor oil by bending test; Avaliacao da influencia da radiacao gama em compositos de fibra de sisal - poliuretano derivado de oleo de mamona atraves de ensaios de flexao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Felipe H. de; Geraldo, Ricardo R.; Vasco, Marina C.; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    Materials used for making furniture and accessories or positioning in X -ray examination rooms should not exhale volatile organic compounds and are resistant to ionizing radiation. One solution is the use of vegetable fiber and polyurethane composites of vegetable origin, since they are biodegradable, derived from renewable raw materials and have no volatile organic compounds. The main difficulty in developing this material is fiber adhesion with the polymer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of composite sisal fiber composite, without further treatment, and polyurethane derived from castor oil, with a dose of 25 kGy gamma radiation, subjected to 3 points bending tests. (author)

  5. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  6. Synthesis of a gamma irradiation grafted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based olefinic copolymer; Estudo da sintese de copolimero olefinico a base de politetrafluoroetileno (PTFE) por meio da enxertia induzida por radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreto, Helio Fernando Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    The extrusion of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is limited by a process related defect known as 'melt fracture' or 'sharkskin', which is a surface defect of the extruded polymer. This defect results in a product with a rough surface that lacks luster and in alterations of specific surface properties. The aim of this study was to obtain a recycled polytetrafluoroethylene polymer with an olefin that could improve the extrudability of the LLDPE. The copolymer was obtained by irradiating recycled PTFE in an inert atmosphere followed by the addition of an olefinic monomer to graft the latter in the polymeric matrix (PTFE). After a certain time of contact, the copolymer was heat treated to permit recombination and elimination of the radicals, both in a reactive and/or inert atmosphere. Three olefinic monomers were used, namely; acetylene, ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The 1,3-butadiene monomer was found to be more effective with respect to grafting. The specimens were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). 0.2-2.0 wt% of the copolymer that was obtained was mixed with LLDPE. The rheological properties of the mixture were determined with a torque rheometer. The results indicated that the process used rendered a copolymer which when added to LLDPE, improved the extrusion process and eliminated the defect 'melt fracture'. (author)

  7. Effect of chitosan addition and gamma radiation on polymeric blends of PVP and PVAL; Efeito da adicao de quitosana e da radiacao gama em blendas polimericas de PVP e PVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, M.C.; Castro, P.J.; Miranda, L.F.; Faldini, S.B., E-mail: mauroterence@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo. SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this project is the study of the effect of chitosan addition and the radiation with gamma rays. The polymeric blend usage is a recent development that expanded the applications of the polymers, due to the improvement of the properties of a single polymer. The PVP and PVAL were chosen because they present the main required characteristics to the formation of a hydrogel, such as water absorption and crosslinking, and the chitosan to improve the interaction between the hydrogel and the organism. The flexibility of the PVP was added with the mechanical resistance of the PVAL and the chitosan biocompatibility. With a defined concentration of PVP and PVAL, films of this blend was irradiated and also solutions with different concentrations of chitosan was prepared to obtain new films of this blend. After obtaining the films, some assays were realized to evaluate the mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on molluscicidal and antimicrobial action of leaf and stem bark of Ziziphus joazeiro; Influencia da radiacao gama sobre a acao moluscicida e antimicrobiana da folha e casca do caule de Ziziphus joazeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabricio O.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Lima, Maira V.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Oliveira, Maria L.M.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: fabriciomendesbio@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: mairavasconceloslima@gmail.com, E-mail: larissamelo.pe@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: viniciushtmorais@hotmail.com, E-mail: mluizamarinho@gmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: fabriciomendesbio@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation is a physical agent used in several areas of knowledge: in medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, in the industry, it is apply in the generation of energy, sterilization of equipment and food, for example. Studies show that radiation can modify the molecular structure of substances of natural origin, potentiating or inactivating their function. The compounds derived from plants have received special attention because they constitute a form of medicinal therapy that has been growing notably in recent years. In addition, products of natural origin may also aid in the control of microbiological or animal vectors of parasites. Of the various species of plants being studied, Ziziphus joazeiro, popularly known as jua, native to the Caatinga, is commercially exploited for the manufacture of cosmetics and as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti influenza, fever and gastritis, bruises and has molluscicidal activity. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on leaf and bark extracts of Z. joazeiro stem, evaluating possible changes in molluscicidal and antimicrobial action. For the experiments, the Z joazeiro extracts were irradiated with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy (Gammacell-Cobalt-60, dose rate 7.222 kGy/h). Adult mollusks (n = 60) and embryos (n = 1800) of Biomphalaria glabrata were distributed in the following groups: negative control 1 (water only); negative control 2 (extract only); positive control (CuCO{sub 3}); and three groups submitted to irradiated extracts. The antibacterial assay was performed with Gram-positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) belonging to the collection of the Departamento de Antibioticos of the UFPE by disc diffusion method. Statistical analysis was perform by Student's t-test and chi-square test, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed that the ionizing radiation was not able to potentiate the molluscicidal action of the extracts studied; however, antimicrobial activity was verify independently of the irradiation. (author)

  9. Dosimetric evaluation of spectrophotometric response of alanine gel solution for gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations; Avaliacao dosimetrica da resposta espectrofotometrica da solucao gel de alanina para radiacao gama, de fotons, de eletrons e de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo

    2009-07-01

    Alanine Gel Dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on Alanine system developed by Costa. The DL-Alanine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO{sub 2}) is an amino acid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to analyse the main dosimetric characteristics this new gel material for future application to measure dose distribution. The performance of Alanine gel solution was evaluated to gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations using the spectrophotometry technique. According to the obtained results for the different studied radiation types, the reproducibility intra-batches and inter-batches is better than 4% and 5%, respectively. The dose response presents a linear behavior in the studied dose range. The response dependence as a function of dose rate and incident energy is better 2% and 3%, respectively. The lower detectable dose is 0.1 Gy. The obtained results indicate that the Alanine gel dosimeter presents good performance and can be useful as an alternative dosimeter in the radiotherapy area, using MRI technique for tridimensional dose distribution evaluation. (author)

  10. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail: lilia@truenet.com.br; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais

    1999-12-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  11. Effect of gamma radiation in the conservation of minimally processed cassava-parsley (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) packed under vacuous;Efeito da radiacao gama na conservacao da mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) minimamente processada e embalada a vacuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iemma, Juliana

    2001-07-01

    In the third millennium, when the main words are globalization, world net of computers, genetic code and efficiency, deep transformations have been incorporated to human behavior. Among such transformations it may be pointed out, matching with the objectives of this study, the modem consumer's profile. The consumers have quickly become more and more conscious and demanding regarding to the quality of the available products in the market. In that sense, the consumer's concern about the natural and healthy appearance, as well as the preservation of the nutritious content of the foods, have been a constant sign of alert for producers and suppliers. Besides, the timeless for domestic preparation of foods have imposed the use of minimally processed as an incontestable reality. A barrier for the production of minimally processed foods is imposed by the degree of perishability of certain products, such as the cassava-parsley. This vegetable is a source of energy, calcium, phosphorus and niacin, and important in the alimentary diet of children, seniors and convalescents. Post harvest treatments try to turn foods less perishable and also conserve as much as possible their original appearance. Among these post harvest treatments for food conservation it may be stood out the irradiation, which is the focus of this study. The objective of this study was to examine the viability of including the cassava parsley in the list of the minimally processed foods. Fresh cassavas were minimally processed and packed under vacuous. Samples were divided for three treatments: control and irradiation with the doses 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. After irradiation the samples were stored under refrigeration temperature (8 deg C) during 28 days. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were carried out at each 7 days of the period of storage, and sensorial analysis were carried out in the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. The experimental design was in factorial scheme with two factors: dose of irradiation and period of storage, with 3 replications for the physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes and with 30 replications for the sensorial analysis. The results showed that gamma radiation may be considered an interesting post harvest treatment for conservation of cassava-parsley because the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 kGy did not bring out undesirable alterations in the physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics of the cassava-parsley and showed efficiency in reducing its microbial population. (author)

  12. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety; Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama com tratamento termico na conservacao de suco natural de maca da variedade Gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; heat at 80{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60{sup 0}); radiation plus heat 80{sup 0} C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5{+-}3{sup 0} C up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs.

  13. Filosofia da análise da estabilidade da liquidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antônio Chaves da Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A informação foi considerada finalidade de nosso conhecimento, até o período em os pensadores e pesquisadores da contabilidade passaram a raciocinar sobre o conteúdo e o significado dos informes. Nesta busca da razão sobre os estados patrimoniais, surgiu a análise contábil que procura por meio de relações e identidades, o significado da dinâmica expressa da estaticamente na informação. O primeiro aspecto que surgiu no objeto de análise foi o estudo da liquidez, que é um dos principais exercícios do patrimônio. A estabilidade também é outro exercício básico e imprescindível, pois este é que promove o equilíbrio do organismo administrativo. A ciência contábil após a sua dignidade científica passou a trilhar caminhos esplendorosos, amparados em doutrina que permite alcançar os píncaros filosóficos. Os estudos concernentes aos aspectos de interação da estabilidade na liquidez são, complexos e somente com os recursos filosóficos da contabilidade se pode estudá-los com o panorama holístico e sublime. A filosofia da contabilidade não é alheia às suas práticas tecnológicas, podendo buscar pontos sublimes de panoramas abrangentes, para o estudo analítico da liquidez e estabilidade, observando todas as dimensionalidades e essencialidades de acontecimentos, na comprovação e orientação dos estados de ineficácia e eficácia patrimonial.

  14. A expressão cênica como elemento facilitador da performance no coro juvenil Scenic expression as a facilitator in the youth choir performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo nasceu do desejo de pesquisar e divulgar este excelente veículo facilitador do canto coral - sobretudo para adolescentes - que é a expressão cênica. Tal recurso vem oferecer uma gama maior de possibilidades criativas e soluções originais para o desenvolvimento da linguagem coral, além de instigar os envolvidos ao exercício do autoconhecimento. Este trabalho é parte de pesquisa do Mestrado em Música desenvolvido na UNIRIO.The present paper results from the need to research and promote scenic expression as an ideal facilitator for singing, especially among adolescents. It may offer a wider range of creative possibilities and original solutions for the development of the choral language, besides encouraging the exercise of self-knowledge. This paper is part of a Masters Degree in Music research developed at UNIRIO (Brazil.

  15. A produção das desigualdades: análise da relação entre trabalho infantil e indicadores sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Natércia Janine Dantas da

    2014-01-01

    A Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT) estima que haja cerca de 118 milhões de crianças em todo o mundo submetidas ao trabalho infantil. No Brasil, há 3,5 milhões de trabalhadores entre 5 e 17 anos. Esse exercício de exploração constitui um grave problema da sociedade, inclusive de Saúde Pública, já que esses trabalhadores estão expostos a uma gama de riscos, quais sejam à saúde, à integridade física e até à vida, podendo torná-los adultos doentes e/ou interrompendo precocemente suas v...

  16. Produção de sulfato ferroso a partir do resíduo proveniente da mineração de ferro

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Kelly Araldi

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Florianópolis, 2012. O ferro é o metal de transição mais abundante da crosta terrestre e o quarto de todos os elementos. O ferro é encontrado em uma gama de minerais, destacando-se: a hematita (Fe2O3), a magnetita (Fe3O4), a limonita (FeO(OH)), a siderita (FeCO3), a pirita (FeS2) e a ilmenita (FeTiO3). O ferro é também um nutriente essencial para a vida e at...

  17. Variação sazonal nos atendimentos de emergência por asma em Gama, Distrito Federal Seasonal variations in emergency room visits for asthma attacks in Gama, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Moreira Valença

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar o atendimento por asma em um serviço de emergência público e estudar a flutuação sazonal, considerando as condições climáticas locais, caracterizadas por duas estações, uma chuvosa e úmida e outra seca. MÉTODOS: Levantamento retrospectivo conduzido em um hospital geral comunitário. Um total de 37.642 consultas emergenciais por asma, bronquite, pneumonia, infecções de vias aéreas superiores e outras condições foram identificadas durante um período de dois anos. As informações constantes em cada guia de atendimento foram levantadas para posterior análise. RESULTADOS: Asma foi o segundo diagnóstico mais freqüente dentre as condições respiratórias (24%. A maioria das consultas por asma foi feita em crianças de zero a catorze anos (56,6%. A análise de regressão mostrou uma variação sazonal dos atendimentos, com concentração significativamente maior de casos de asma no mês de março (p = 0,0109 e concentração menor nos meses de agosto e setembro (p = 0,0485 e p = 0,0169, respectivamente. A correlação entre asma e clima foi mais significativa em relação à flutuação da umidade defasada de um e dois meses (p = 0,0026 e p = 0,0002, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: As visitas por asma ao pronto-socorro foram mais freqüentes durante a estação úmida. O aumento do número de casos cresceu um a dois meses após o aumento da umidade e diminuiu no período seco. Essa correlação positiva levanta a possibilidade de uma relação causal com a proliferação de ácaros domésticos e fungos ambientais.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of asthma attacks treated in the emergency room of a public hospital and to study seasonal fluctuations, taking into consideration the local climate, which is characterized by having only two seasons: a rainy/humid season and a dry season. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted in a community general hospital. A total of 37,642 emergency room consultations

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  19. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  1. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  2. Implementación del núcleo de un microcontrolador compatible con los PIC de la gama media en FPGA de Altera

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    Victor Escartín

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-TRAD X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} En este trabajo se describe, el diseño del núcleo de un procesador compatible con el juego de instrucciones de microcontroladores PIC de la gama media. La estructura utilizada posee un pipeline de dos etapas. Se utiliza el lenguaje de descripción de hardware VHDL con dispositivos programables de las familias Cyclone de Altera. La metodología de diseño empleada es un proceso recurrente que se inicia con la definición de la arquitectura a nivel de bloques funcionales del sistema a diseñar, se realiza la modelación estructural y la implementación de cada bloque. Finalizando con la simulación funcional y temporal. Todo este proceso tiene como objetivo lograr un dispositivo con la mayor velocidad posible en su funcionamiento y sintetizarlo con el  menor número de celdas.

  3. El mercado mediático de la belleza. Estudio de la estructura de ingresos en revistas femeninas de alta gama

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    María José Pérez Serrano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El sector de la comunicación no es ajeno a la crisis y sus correlatos. La bajada de la inversión publicitaria está teniendo consecuencias drásticas que se manifiestan, por ejemplo, en un reajuste en su estructura de ingresos. Además de esta crisis “coyuntural” –aunque larga-, hay otra que afecta significativamente a las empresas periodísticas: la reducción paulatina de lectores de medios impresos. En este estudio se parcela esta tipología de empresas de comunicación, centrándonos en aquellas que tienen como output las revistas. Y, para que el universo se reduzca aún más, abordaremos aquellas que se califican como “de alta gama”, que por su exclusiva idiosincrasia se sitúan ante el contexto económico imperante de una forma distinta.  De ellas, se analizará su estructura económica, en concreto, los ingresos provenientes de la publicidad, aunque de manera tangencial, se estudiará su precio de venta al número y su tirada. Con una metodología sustentada en el análisis cualitativo, con transposición cuantitativa, pretendemos conocer la cuantía de ingresos que perciben tres de estas arquetípicas revistas en un mes a través de la publicidad que muestra el prototipo de belleza actual. Para llegar a corroborar –o no- la siguiente hipótesis: “las revistas de alta gama, como medios de comunicación impresos no diarios, son un vehículo de la expresión de la belleza y, a través de ella, se consiguen ingresos sustanciales”.

  4. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water

  5. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2: qual o papel da insulina na expressão de NF-kappaB, PPARγ e CD36?

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    Cristina de Oliveira SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 e na síndrome de resistência à insulina, as complicações cardiovasculares resultam de um conjunto de processos aterogênicos envolvendo hiperglicemia crônica, excessiva glicação de proteínas (AGEs, ativação do fator nuclear kappa B (NKκB associada com o aumento da expressão de citocinas inflamatórias e estresse oxidativo, observando-se ainda alteração de LDL e expressão do receptor de scavenger CD36. A contribuição da hiperinsulinemia nesta sequência não é completamente elucidada. Nesta revisão, relata-se como a insulina pode modular a expressão proteica de NFκB, PPAR gama (PPARγ e CD36 em células da musculatura lisa vascular (CMLV da aorta de ratos estimuladas pelos AGE.

  6. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

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    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  7. Detecção do linfonodo sentinela em câncer da mama: comparação entre métodos

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    Xavier Nilton Leite

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a eficiência da cintilografia mamária, do detector manual de raios gama (probe e do corante azul vital para a localização do linfonodo sentinela (LNS, estabelecendo a sensibilidade, o valor preditivo negativo (VPN e a acurácia do mapeamento do LNS. Métodos: neste estudo estão incluídas 88 pacientes com câncer de mama atendidas consecutivamente e com axila clinicamente negativa. Foi utilizado o radiofármaco tecnécio ligado ao colóide dextran 500 (Dextran 99mTc, para cintilografia pré-operatória, realizada em 58 pacientes, e detecção transoperatória com o probe em 53 pacientes. Destas, 47 tiveram as contagens de irradiação gama anotadas e também o intervalo de tempo decorrido entre a injeção e a cirurgia. Foram empregados 2 mL do corante vital Bleu Patente V, injetado em torno do tumor, 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica na axila em todos os casos. O LNS foi avaliado por congelação em 77 casos e todos pela coloração por hematoxilina e eosina. Resultados: a linfocintilografia, realizada em 58 casos, foi útil em 62,1%, sendo que em nove ocorreu mapeamento de dois linfonodos, e com o probe foram confirmados 45 casos (84,9% dos 53 avaliados. Das 47 com anotação de contagens de raios gama e do tempo decorrido da injeção do radiofármaco até a cirurgia, constituíram-se dois grupos para análise, o grupo dia (27 casos e o grupo outro dia (20 casos, que se mostraram diferentes, com significância estatística, tanto no tempo decorrido quanto nas contagens de raios gama, porém sem interferência nos resultados de detecção do LNS. A associação do probe e do corante azul resultou em sucesso nos 53 casos avaliados, assim como em 32 dos 35 casos em que só o corante foi usado. A média de idade das pacientes foi 58 anos. Quarenta e uma pacientes tiveram linfonodos axilares com metástase e apenas duas com LNS falsamente negativo, dando sensibilidade de 95,3%, VPN de 95,5% e acurácia de 97,6. Conclus

  8. Paulo Freire: impacto e apropriação da sua obra na produção da pós-graduação no Brasil (1987-2010

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    Silvio Sánchez Gamboa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pretensão de aprofundamento sobre o impacto do trabalho de Paulo Freire na produção de pesquisas na pós-graduação stricto sensu no Brasil, bem como as formas de apropriação de seu pensamento delimitam a problematização que gerou este estudo. Sua influência é significativa no campo da educação, dos movimentos sociais, da extensão rural, da política educacional e da teologia da libertação, no entanto, é pouco conhecida a sua repercussão na produção de investigação científica. O objetivo central é limitado à análise das diferentes leituras e apropriações do trabalho de Paulo Freire apresentadas na pesquisa produzida em programas de pós-graduação entre 1987 e 2010. Os resultados indicam que a obra de Paulo Freire está presente em forma direta em 233 dissertações e 138 teses, localizados em 32 diferentes universidades e suas referências são utilizadas numa ampla gama de temáticas e áreas de concentração. A desigual apropriação das categorias geradoras: ser-no-mundo (realidade, ser-com-outros (o diálogo e ser inconcluso (liberdade/libertação, indicam inconsistências com a visão do mundo do pensamento de Freire. A categoria "diálogo" é amplamente utilizada, no entanto, as categorias "liberdade/libertação" e "realidade", indicando a dinâmica e permanente transformação histórica são pouco utilizadas.

  9. A Sintaxe da Janela

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    Luís Antônio Jorge

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação fundamenta! do trabalho é de caráter ontológico: esboçar o problema das significações apriorísticas e autônomas dos elementos que compõem a sintaxe arquitetônica. O trabalho elege um desses elementos: a janela. Este artigo parte da aproximação histórica entre a janela e a secção da pirâmide visual, construção imaginária da teoria da perspectiva renascentista. A consideração da janela na linguagem arquitetônica implica reconhecer uma ambigüidade essencial: a janela deve inserir-se ordenadamente no plano da parede - raciocínio típico da modenatura - mas também relacionar-se com a imagem vista através dela, que extrapola o plano, ressaltando a tridimensionalidade - herança da perspectiva renascentista, fundamentada no espaço euclidiano. Ver janela ou ver através da janela são alternativas que se colocam tanto ao observador interno ao edifício, quanto ao externo. Texto de duplaface, a sintaxe da janela versa sobre o relacionamento desses dois lados

  10. Study of acute hepatotoxicity of Equisetum arvense L. in rats Estudo da hepatotoxicidade aguda da Equisetum arvense L. em ratos

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    Nilo César do Vale Baracho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the acute hepatotoxicity of Equisentum arvense L. in rats. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were used, these being divided in four groups, one being the control (receiving only water and the other groups receiving graded doses of Equisentum arvense L. (30, 50, and 100mg/kg respectively for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained to determine TGO, TGP, FA, DHL and GT-gamma activities. After that, hepatic tissue samples were collected for the anatomopathologic analysis. RESULTS: The anatomopathologic exam of the hepatic tissue showed organ with preserved lobular structure. In the same way, there was no significant change in the seric activities of the hepatic enzymes when compared to control group. CONCLUSION: The oral treatment with graded doses of Equisentum arvense L. was not able to produce hepatic changes. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the chronic hepatotoxicity of Equisentum arvense L. in rats.OBJETIVO: Investigar a hepatotoxicidade aguda da Equisetum arvense L. em ratos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar, os quais foram divididos em quatro grupos, sendo um controle (recebendo apenas água e os outros grupos recebendo doses crescentes de cavalinha (30, 50 e 100mg/Kg, respectivamente por 14 dias. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue para determinação da atividade sérica de TGO, TGP, FA, DHL e gama-GT. Em seguida, foram obtidas amostras de tecido hepático para análise anatomopatológica. RESULTADOS: O exame anatomopatológico de tecido hepático demonstrou órgão com estrutura lobular preservada. Da mesma forma, não houve alteração significativa na atividade sérica das enzimas hepáticas, quando comparado ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com doses crescentes de Equisetum arvense L., não induziu hepatotoxicidade aguda em ratos. Novos estudos são necessários para avaliar a hepatoxicidade crônica de Equisetum arvense L. em ratos.

  11. Irradiation effect on in vitro organogenesis, callus growth and plantlet development of Gerbera jamesonii Efeito da irradiação na organogênese in vitro, crescimento de calos e desenvolvimento de plântulas de gerbera

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    Nor A Hasbullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to study the effects of gamma irradiation on in vitro growth of explants, callus and the formation of shoots and plantlets. Irradiation is known to exhibit or inhibit the differentiation of cells and growth of plants in vitro, which helps in producing new plant varieties. Gamma irradiation is one of the physical mutagens that are widely used for mutation breeding. A gradual decline was observed in the number of shoots regenerated from irradiated petiole explants compared to control. Numbers of shoots regenerated from irradiated petiole explant cultured on Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA was reduced to 6.6±0.9 from 7.5±0.4 (control when explants were exposed to 20 Gray of irradiation dose. Similar observation was reported on effects of gamma irradiation on in vitro propagated plantlets. Gradual decline was observed based on plant height as the dose of gamma irradiation increased. A significant decline was observed in the fresh weight of irradiated callus compared to control. In this case, growth responses of callus were strongly influenced by the radiation dose. The fresh weight of callus was reduced to 76.4±2.2% compared to 89.7±0.5% of control when callus tissues were exposed to 20 Gy.O presente trabalho foi realizado para estudar os efeitos da radiação gama no crescimento in vitro de explantes de calos, e a formação de brotos e mudas. A irradiação é conhecida por induzir ou inibir a diferenciação de células e o crescimento das plantas in vitro, o que ajuda na produção de novas variedades vegetais. Radiação gama é um dos agentes mutagenicos que são amplamente utilizados para o melhoramento através da mutação. Um declínio gradual foi observado no número de brotos regenerados a partir de explantes de pecíolos irradiados comparado com o controle. O número de brotações regeneradas de explantes de pecíolos irradiados, cultivados em meio

  12. Uso Da Enxertia Na Produção De Mudas De Meloeiro

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    Marcos Paulo dos Santos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia surge no cenário de produção de hortaliças como estratégia de escape a condições adversas oriundas do cultivo contínuo destas plantas em uma mesma área durante praticamente todo o ano. A escolha dos materiais a serem usados como enxerto e porta-enxertos aliada ao tipo de enxertia definem o sucesso da técnica na produção de mudas comerciais. Dentre as vantagens proporcionadas pela enxertia destacam-se a possibilidade de aumento da resistência das plantas à patógenos de solo, salinidade, déficit hídrico e ainda incrementos na produtividade e qualidade de frutos. Para o melão, o maior gargalo no emprego da enxertia é a obtenção de porta-enxertos que se adaptem ao meio ambiente, não interfiram negativamente na qualidade dos frutos e mantenham a resistência às doenças por longo período de tempo. As causas de incompatibilidade na enxertia do meloeiro ainda não estão bem esclarecidas e respostas incompatíveis podem surgir mesmo após o transplantio. O incentivo ao rastreamento de combinações de porta-enxerto/enxerto para o melão figura como meio potencial para superar estas limitações, visto que a gama de porta-enxertos comercias é limitada, restringindo-se basicamente ao próprio meloeiro e as éspecies Cucurbita maxima e Cucurbita moschata.

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  14. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed Study Unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed (BEAR) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit comprises two study areas (Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed) in southern California in San Bernardino County. The GAMA-PBP is conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA BEAR study was designed to provide a spatially balanced, robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater from the primary aquifer systems in the two study areas of the BEAR study unit. The assessment is based on water-quality collected by the USGS from 38 sites (27 grid and 11 understanding) during 2010 and on water-quality data from the SWRCB-Division of Drinking Water (DDW) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by springs and the perforation intervals of wells listed in the SWRCB-DDW water-quality database for the BEAR study unit.This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resource as of 2010 by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the BEAR study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers. Bear Valley study area and the Lake Arrowhead Watershed study area were also compared statistically on the basis of water-quality results and factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality.Relative concentrations (RCs

  16. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2012–13: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Wright, Michael

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 7,820-square-kilometer (km2) Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer (MS-SA) study unit was investigated from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the second phase of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in the central coast region of California in the counties of Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The MS-SA study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems. The assessment was based on water-quality samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 100 groundwater sites and 70 household tap sites, along with ancillary data such as land use and well-construction information. The shallow aquifer systems were defined by the depth interval of wells associated with domestic supply. The MS-SA study unit consisted of four study areas—Santa Cruz (210 km2), Pajaro Valley (360 km2), Salinas Valley (2,000 km2), and Highlands (5,250 km2).This study had two primary components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first primary component of this study—the status assessment—assessed the quality of the groundwater resource indicated by data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the shallow aquifer system of the MS-SA study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. As opposed to the public wells, however, water from private wells, which often tap the shallow aquifer, is usually consumed without any treatment. The second

  17. Perspectivas atuais da Informática em Enfermagem Perspectivas actuales en Informática en Enfermeria Current perspectives in Nursing Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimar de Fátima Marin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Informática em Enfermagem é a área de conhecimento que estuda a aplicação dos recursos tecnológicos no ensino, na prática, na assistência e no gerenciamento da assistência e do cuidado. Recursos como reconhecimento de voz, bancos de conhecimento, projeto genoma e mesmo a Internet, têm oferecido para a Enfermagem uma gama de possibilidades para melhoria do desempenho profissional e melhoria do atendimento ao cliente/paciente. Este texto relata e exemplifica como tais recursos estão causando impactos e oportunidades para o ensino, pesquisa e principalmente, para a assistência de enfermagem ao cliente/paciente, ainda alerta para a importância do cuidado humanizado num cenário de alta tecnologia.Informática en Enfermería es una area del conocimiento que estudia la aplicación de los recursos tecnológicos en la enseñanza, en la practica, en la atención y en la gerencia de la atención. Recursos como el reconocimiento de la voz, las bases del conocimiento, el proyecto genoma y mismo la Internet tienen ofrecido a la Enfermería una gama de posibilidades para mejorar el performance profesional asi como para la mejora de la calidad de atención al paciente. Este texto presenta y ejemplifica como estos recursos estan impactando y presentando nuevas oportunidades para la enseñanza, investigación y especialmente para la atención de enfermería, ainda resalta la importancia de la atención humanizada en un cenario de alta tecnología.Nursing Informatics is the area of knowledge that studies the application of technological resources in teaching, in practice, in care, and in the management of care. Resources such as voice recognition, knowledge base, genoma project and even Internet have offered to Nursing a gama of possibilities for a better professional performance and better nursing care to the patient/client. This text reports and exemplifies how these resources are impacting and presenting new oportunities for teaching, research

  18. Tópicos da teoria da relatividade

    OpenAIRE

    Fragata, Paulo Renato Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Matemática para Professores, 25 de Outubro 2013, Universidade dos Açores. Qualquer descrição física da natureza tem por base a especificação da posição e do instante em que decorre determinado acontecimento. Para tal, é necessário recorrer a um sistema de coordenadas, escolhido por cada observador, do modo que ele achar mais pertinente. Dada a generalidade na escolha do sistema de coordenadas, é útil conhecer as regras que nos permitem comparar cálculos feitos em d...

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  20. Percepção e cotidiano humano na era da conectividade: sobre a falta de paciência e (suposta falta de tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mendes Silva Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Qual o cotidiano das pessoas? A atual sociedade depende cada vez mais da tecnologia. A tecnologia tem propiciado uma miríade maneiras de acessos a informações, compartilhamentos e comunicação. Por exemplo, a tecnologia permite qualquer pessoa comunicar-se com outra em qualquer instante e em qualquer lugar. Essa comunicação pode se dar apenas por voz e numa vídeo-chamada. Também, os sistemas de comunicações (Internet incluída permitem qualquer cidadão manter-se informado do que acontece em qualquer parte do mundo. Não obstante, a Internet provê acesso a enorme gama de informações para qualquer usuário a partir de um computador, tablet, smarthphone e outros gadgets. Notavelmente, nunca em qualquer outra época da história tiveram os seres humanos tamanho uso de seus sentidos e, mais especificamente, a visão humana. Mas, até onde vai a percepção humana? Este artigo, sem a pretensão de ser completo, explora caminhos que possam trazer resposta a esta questão

  1. Suprimento global de serviços de conhecimento e inovação: uma revisão integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda Swirski de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O suprimento global de serviços de conhecimento e inovação (GSKSI tem sido objeto de vários estudos em uma ampla gama de áreas, incluindo a estratégia e gestão internacional, geografia econômica, comportamento organizacional, gestão de operações, entre outros. Os objetivos deste trabalho são dois: a produzir um resumo de estudos GSKSI e b fornecer uma agenda de pesquisa para GSKSI. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura acadêmica e descobriu que, além de ensaios, relatórios e trabalhos teóricos, estudos empíricos sobre GSKSI são distribuídos em quatro categorias principais: gestão estratégica e internacional; tecnologia e gestão da inovação; trabalho, comportamento organizacional e recursos humanos; e gestão de operações. Nosso artigo contribui de duas maneiras únicas: ao fornecer uma análise quantitativa da literatura e uma avaliação qualitativa dos resultados de estudos anteriores.

  2. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  3. MACIEZ DA CARNE BOVINA

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    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as características de qualidade da carne bovina, a maciez assume posição de destaque, sendo considerada a característica organoléptica de maior influência na aceitação da carne por parte dos consumidores. A dureza da carne pode ser dividida em dureza residual, causada pelo tecido conjuntivo e outras proteínas do estroma, e dureza de actomiosina, causada pelas proteínas miofibrilares. Dentre os fatores que influenciam a maciez da carne, podem ser destacados a genética, a raça, a idade ao abate, o sexo, a alimentação, o uso de agentes hormonais (?-adrenérgicos e os tratamentos post-mortem. A qualidade final da carne é resultante de tudo o que aconteceu com o animal durante toda a cadeia produtiva. Devem-se assegurar procedimentos adequados de transporte, armazenamento, manipulação, exposição e preparo da carne, a fim de se obter um produto de melhor qualidade. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Calpaínas, calpastatina, qualidade da carne, rigor mortis, tecido muscular.

  4. GERONTOLOGIA: ESTADO DA ARTE

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    Vera M.A.Tordino Brandão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Gerontologia da PUC desenvolve pesquisas focando o ser na perspectiva do envelhecimento. As atividades são interdisciplinares e reúnem docentes, alunos e ex-alunos. Nesta mesa redonda apresentamos um panorama sobre estes estudos. Na área da educação e comunicação o foco está centrado na longevidade e na preparação e representação social da velhice. São ressaltadas como temáticas: a formação continuada de profissionais e pesquisadores; o significado da religiosidade/espiritualidade ao longo da trajetória, e sua repercussão na qualidade de vida do idoso; os programas sócio-educacionais para idosos e concepções sobre educação; o monitoramento da mídia na cobertura da crescente longevidade e seus impactos. Em identidade e modos de morar reflete-se sobre soluções planejadas e sua adequação para a inclusão do envelhecimento populacional como questão fundamental, que implica a elaboração de novas políticas, investigações e, especialmente, apresenta-se como questão a ser analisada, refletida e vivenciada pela sociedade em geral. Quanto à saúde, o Programa desenvolve várias pesquisas numa abordagem interdisciplinar tendo como objetos de estudo: a terapia assistida com animais direcionada a idosos com diagnóstico de Alzheimer; o acompanhamento terapêutico e o atendimento psicoterapêutico em grupo, a aplicação da técnica de Calatonia em idosos moradores de ILPI, além da investigação sobre impasses clínicos no idoso frágil. Palavras-chave: gerontologia, longevidade, envelhecimento

  5. Conjecturas da Epistemológia Jurídica e Aspectos da Teoria da Linguagem

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Cartelli de; Cesumar; Motta, Ivan Dias; Cesumar

    2008-01-01

    Apresentar-se-ão reflexões em torno da epistemologia jurídica e alguns aspectos da teoria da linguagem; a necessidade de acompanhamento e aprimoramento da linguagem jurídica, para que o direito não se distancie da realidade, mantendo-se apenas como um sistema do status quo; uma breve análise de algumas teorias da ciência do direito e da linguagem; as especificidades dos termos lingüísticos para a análise da ciência do direito, pautada na contemporaneidade sob a perspectiva humanista, buscando...

  6. Conectividad entre comunidades de decápodos asociadas a fondos infralitorales de algas y fanerógamas marinas. "Cuando pequeños fragmentos hacen un todo"

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo-Ramírez, A. (Ángel); Urra, J. (Javier); Rueda, J.L. (José Luis); Marina-Ureña, P. (Pablo); García Raso, J.E. (José Enrique)

    2014-01-01

    La diversidad de especies es, de forma general, mayor en fondos con cobertura vegetal (p.e. fanerógamas marinas, algas fotófilas) que en fondos blandos sin vegetación, por lo que una pérdida parcial de pradera debería traer consigo una pérdida de diversidad. Sin embargo, el efecto de la fragmentación del hábitat dependerá de varios factores, incluyendo el número y tamaño de los parches, la distancia entre ellos y los tipos de hábitats próximos. En este trabajo se ha analizado este...

  7. CONDICIONANTES DA COMPETITIVIDADE EMPRESARIAL

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    José Luiz Contador

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho examina teoricamente os fatores determinantes da competitividade do produto e do negócio, imprescindíveis à elaboração de estratégias competitivas que visam à obtenção e sustentação de vantagens competitivas. Esse tema é objeto tanto da área de marketing estratégico quanto da de estratégia empresarial. Nas duas áreas, há um ponto de consenso que afirma que a empresa deve diferenciar sua oferta para conquistar e manter vantagem competitiva. Mas, os estudos conduzidos por meio do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição revelaram que a empresa pode diferenciar seu produto e/ou serviço de modo mais amplo, levando em consideração, na formulação da sua estratégia competitiva, também o campo da competição, quer do produto, quer dela própria. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar que, para a empresa ser competitiva, além de diferenciar seu produto e/ou seu serviço no sentido tradicional, ela precisa: 1 diferenciar seu produto incluindo a definição em quais campos vai competir em cada segmento; e 2 escolher as armas da competição que irá utilizar e definir a intensidade de cada arma. Para atingir tal objetivo, foram necessários vários conceitos do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição: campo da competição, arma da competição, tese do modelo, configuração dos campos da competição, campo coadjuvante, produto coadjuvante e par produto-mercado. Como uma proposta inovadora sempre desperta dúvida, é mostrado o processo de validação do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição e são discutidas sua universalidade, consistência e completude.

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  9. Efeito da eutonia no tratamento da fibromialgia

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda,Cecília; Martinez,José Eduardo; Neder,Matilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a eutonia como método terapêutico auxiliar no tratamento da fibromialgia (FM). MÉTODOS: estudou-se um grupo de 20 mulheres, segundo os critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR), com duração mínima de seis meses, sem alterações no tratamento medicamentoso ou prescrição de exercícios nesse período. As pacientes foram avaliadas através do questionário de dados sociodemográficos; Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) para dor e questionário genérico de avaliação da qualidade d...

  10. Het Italiaanse voorzetsel da

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING In een voorzetselstudie in het kader van Jackendoffs semantische theorie wordt het sterk polyseme Italiaanse voorzetsel da geanalyseerd als een verzameling deelbetekenissen waarbij de meeste door een of meer semantische regels afgeleid kunnen worden van de basisbetekenis ruimtelijke

  11. ESPECTROS INFRAVERMELHOS DA CREATINA

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    Kumiko K. Sakane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados espectros infravermelhos da creatina, na faixa de 4000 a 400 cm−1. Os resultados são comparados com espectros observados e calculados, publicados na literatura.

  12. Significados Ocultos da Enfermagem

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    Wiliam César alves Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que as ações de cuidar em enfermagem foram sendo moldadas através da história da humanidade e deram-se, majoritariamente, na esfera do subjetivo que permeia as interações existenciais do ser humano que cuida e daquele que recebe cuidados. Campo fecundo para intercâmbios eletromagnéticos. Suas origens remontam ao cuidado prestado por mães, pais, avós, irmãos e demais familiares incumbidos da responsabilidade de ajudar entes recém-natos, crianças, doentes e idosos em suas necessidades de cuidados para preservação da vida.

  13. ORIGEM DA ANGTIA MODERNA

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    Edvino Rabuske

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema que me foi proposto "origem da angtia moderna". Por certo, um tema extremamente complexo. Trata-se de surpreender as modalidades modernas de um fenomeno, antigo como o prrio homem. Visando contribuir numa semana de reflexo sobre a esperan crist em, que esta abordada a partir, de diversos gulos, parece indicado que esta exposio n se atenha a um ico aspeto da angtia.

  14. As dobras da imagem

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    Profª. Drª. Fátima Antunes da Silva (Yaska Antunes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo tentar compreender a produção da imagem visual no teatro. Para isso se vale da apropriação livre do conceito de “dobra? de Gilles Deleuze para se referir à multiplicidade de imagens criadas pelas diversas modalidades artísticas. Como no teatro há o entrelaçamento de imagens verbais – palavras enunciadas pelo texto dramático ou teatral – com imagens visuais – a visualidade advinda da composição cênica concreta que organiza no espaço ator e objeto –, a ênfase só podia recair sobre estas duas formas imagéticas. No caso do teatro, surge ainda a percepção de que para além da materialidade da cena, outras imagens emergem do confronto entre palco e platéia. Nesse sentido, imagem teatral seria então aquilo que surge da interação entre ator e espectador. A contribuição desse trabalho pode estar no fato de atualizar certos conceitos sobre a criação da imagem poética na poesia e no cinema para aplicá-los ao teatro. Ao recuperar o pensa-mento de Otávio Paz, Alfredo Bosi, Sergei Eisenstein, entre outros, bus-ca-se promover uma reflexão mais aprofundada sobre a construção visual no teatro.

  15. Palinomorfos de fungos e criptógamas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Palynomorphs of fungi and cryptogams in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests, Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pólen, esporos e demais palinomorfos preservados em sedimentos são material de referência básico em estudos paleoambientais. A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar a taxonomia de palinomorfos correspondentes a fungos e criptógamas contidos em sedimentos do interior de duas matas com Araucária do Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul e, assim, fornecer subsídios para reconstituições paleoambientais na região. A análise envolveu amostras de dois perfis sedimentares holocênicos de São Francisco de Paula (perfil 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; perfil 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, coletados com o Amostrador de Hiller. O processamento químico das amostras seguiu o método padrão, com HCl, HF, KOH, acetólise e montagem das lâminas em gelatina-glicerinada. A análise foi realizada em microscopia óptica. São apresentados palinomorfos de oito fungos, seis algas, cinco briófitos e 19 pteridófitos. A descrição de cada material é acompanhada de ilustrações e, sempre que possível, de dados ecológicos do organismo de origem. A grande quantidade de palinomorfos distintos, bem preservados nos sedimentos, mostra a potencialidade deste material em oferecer informações ambientais relevantes, junto com grãos de pólen, no estudo da gênese e expansão da mata com Araucária.Pollen, spores and other palynomorphs preserved in sediments are basic reference material for palaeoenvironmental studies. The aim of this research is to present the taxonomy of fungal and cryptogamic palynomorphs contained in sediments from two Araucaria forests on the Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, thus contributing to palaeoenvironmental reconstitution in the region. The analysis involved samples from two Holocene sedimentary profiles from São Francisco de Paula (profile 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; profile 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, collected with a Hiller Sampler. Chemical processing of the samples followed standard methodology, using

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus Flavus aflatoxins producer and on the use of polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in samples of maize grains artificially inoculated; Efeitos da radiacao gama no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxinas e no emprego da tecnica da Reacao em Cadeia da Polimerase (RCP) em amostras de graos de milho inoculadas artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this present study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxins producer; to demonstrate the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in the diagnostic of A. Flavus, as well to verify the effect of radiation in the profile of DNA bands. Twenty samples of grains maize with 200 g each were individually irradiated with 20 kGy, to eliminate the microbial contamination. In following, the samples were inoculated with an toxigenic A. flavus (1x10{sup 6} spores/ml), incubated for 15 days at 25 deg C with a relative humidity of around 97,5% and irradiated with 0, 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The samples, 5 to each dose of irradiation, were individually analyzed for the number of fungal cells, water activity, viability test (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide), PCR and aflatoxins (AFB) detection. The results showed that the doses used were effective in reducing the number of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) mainly the doses of 5 and 10 kGy. In addition, the viability test showed a decrease of viable cells with increase of irradiation doses. The reduction of AFB{sub 1} and AFB-2, was more efficient with the use of 2 kGy in comparison with the dose of 5 kGy, while the dose of 10 kGy, degraded the aflatoxins. Thereby, it was observed that AFB2 showed to be more radiosensitive. The use of PCR technique showed the presence of DNA bands, in all samples. (author)

  17. Efeito de diferentes fontes de sílica nos parâmetros texturais da peneira molecular MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. B. Fontes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Nas últimas décadas, pesquisas estão sendo desenvolvidas para obtenção de materiais eficientes e economicamente viáveis para aplicação em diversos setores da indústria. Os materiais mesoporosos da família MCM-41 estão entre os candidatos eficazes pela facilidade de síntese e estrutura que favorece uma gama de aplicações. O objetivo desse trabalho foi apresentar uma abordagem rítica das características e propriedades dos materiais mesoporosos do tipo MCM-41, enfocando nos aspectos estruturais. Além isso, foram discutidas as vantagens e desvantagens do uso de sílica comerciais e alternativas. As fontes de sílica comerciais analisadas foram sílica gel e TEOS; já as fontes de sílica alternativas foram cinza da casca de arroz, quartzo e pó de vidro. Os materiais analisados foram sintetizados pelo método hidrotérmico e caracterizados por DRX, FTIR, BET e TG. Os resultados apresentados comprovam a eficiência das fontes de sílica alternativas na síntese do MCM-41, pois os materiais apresentaram propriedades texturais dentro dos padrões exigidos. Dessa forma, eles estão aptos a serem testados na indústria em substituição aos MCM-41 sintetizados com fonte de sílica comercial.

  18. Trauma da Veia Porta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trauma da veia porta é raro e freqüentemente fatal por causa de exsanguinação e alta incidência de lesões de estruturas adjacentes. Devido às pecualiaridades desta lesão e diferentes condutas propostas na literatura, o objetivo dos autores é relatar a experiência neste tipo de lesão. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, de janeiro de 1994 e dezembro de 2001, de 1370 pacientes submetidos à laparotomia devido trauma abdominal. Entre esses, 15 pacientes apresentavam lesão da veia porta. As lesões foram classificadas conforme a sua extensão e localização. RESULTADOS: O mecanismo de trauma predominante foi o penetrante. O diagnóstico da lesão foi realizado no intraoperatório. Os procedimentos executados foram: sutura, anastomose término-terminal e ligadura da veia porta. A mortalidade foi de 53,3%. CONCLUSÃO: A lesão da veia porta possui alta taxa de mortalidade e o atendimento adequado está diretamente relacionado à sobrevida.

  19. Probability density function of the number of embryos collected from superovulated Nelore breed donors Função de densidade de probabilidade do número de embriões produzidos por doadoras da raça Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2009-08-01

    Consultoria e Sistemas Ltda.. A densidade probabilidade do número de embriões viáveis foi modelada utilizando as funções exponencial e gama. A determinação dos parâmetros foi executada utilizando o critério de máxima verossimilhança em um método de gradiente não linear. Ambas distribuições permitiram similar nível de precisão: raiz do erro quadrático médio (RMSE = 0.0072 e 0.0071 para a distribuição exponencial e gama, respectivamente. Tanto a distribuição exponencial quanto a gama foram adequadas para representar a função de densidade probabilidade da produção de embriões para doadoras da raça Nelore.

  20. Padrões de inativação microbiana em hortelã-pimenta por radiação gama

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Duarte; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Santos, Pedro M.P.; Falcão, António N.; Margaça, Fernanda M.A.; Cabo Verde, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    As plantas podem ter várias aplicações, especialmente como aditivos alimentares e na promoção da saúde, como ingredientes em formulações de alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. Contudo, um dos maiores problemas associados ao seu consumo e comercialização é a sua contaminação microbiana. Esta contaminação pode ocorrer ao longo da colheita, processamento e distribuição. Deste modo, torna-se necessário encontrar uma solução viável para a conservação de plantas comestíveis ou medicin...

  1. Da Vinci Linjen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin.......Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin....

  2. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on the molecule of tetracycline concerning its behavior as complexing and extracting agent; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre a molecula de tetraciclina relativamente ao seu comportamento como agente complexante e extrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondim de

    1982-07-01

    Both solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques were used to show the alterations that gamma radiation causes in the behavior of tetracycline molecule as far as its extracting and complexing power are concerned. The effect of gamma radiation on the solid tetracycline molecule, benzyl alcohol and on the solution of both was examined in solvent extraction systems whose aqueous phases were made up by {sup 152} Eu-{sup 154}Eu radioactive tracer solutions and whose organic phases were constituted by tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions. Experiments were performed in order to determine whether or not the water used for the pre-saturation of benzyl alcohol would influence the radiolysis of tetracycline. Solvent extraction and spectrophotometry were the techniques used to obtain the necessary data. Absorption spectra of irradiated tetracycline benzyl alcohol solutions submitted to several gamma radiation doses were examined and the alterations shown by these spectra were examined. The effect of gamma radiation on the tetracycline molecule was also studied when tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions were irradiated under several gaseous atmospheres, namely: O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, SF{sub 6} and N{sub 2}O. The variation on the concentration of the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solution caused by several doses of gamma radiation was determined by using the spectrophotometric technique. (author)

  3. Moisture profile measurements of concrete samples in vertical flow by gamma ray attenuation method. Medidas do perfil de umidade de amostras de concreto em infiltracao vertical, atraves da atenuacao de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, C R; Nardocci, A C; Obuti, M M [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1988-04-01

    This work deals with the study of the water diffusion in concrete by the gamma ray attenuation method. The moisture profiles, [theta] (z,t), of the vertical water flow were determined in concrete samples of different trace and porosity. The data were taken with a vertical and horizontal measurement table, a [sup 60] Co gamma ray source, a NaI (T) scintillation detector and the standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic. The [theta] (z,t) data analysis is presented using a phenomenological model of the moisture profile temporal evolution in heterogeneous materials. Two other models, Cell and Sandwich, were also applied to determine the attenuation coefficient of a non-homogeneous media from the attenuation coefficients of the components, taking into account particles-size effects. (author).

  4. Gamma radiation applied to extend the shelf-life of lamb meat vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration; Radiacao gama aplicada para estender a vida util da carne de cordeiro embalada a vacuo e armazenada sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregonesi, Raul Pereira

    2013-07-01

    The State of Sao Paulo has experienced in recent years a significant increase in production, supply and consumption of lamb meat. With the current trend of demand for products of greater convenience, with speed and ease preparation, there is the need to invest in the market supply of refrigerated lamb cuts. Accordingly, irradiation with ionizing energy could be a viable alternative for the marketing of refrigerated cuts of lamb meat. The aim of this work was to study the application of different doses of gamma radiation in order to extend the stability of lamb meat vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration. For this, first a preliminary experiment was conducted aiming to determine parameters such as irradiation dose and storage time. The lamb loins (Longissimus dorsi) were vacuum packed, irradiated with doses of 1,0, 3,0 and 5,0 kGy and stored under refrigeration in cooling chamber at 1 °C. According to the results, a dose of 3,0 kGy may be indicated as the maximum dose of irradiation. After establishing these parameters, the final experiment began, and for that, the lamb loin samples were vacuum packaged and irradiated with doses zero (control), 1,5 kGy and 3,0 kGy and stored under refrigeration at 1 °C. In predetermined periods (zero, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days) microbiological and physical chemical analysis were carried out. Also, a sensory acceptance test was conducted, with 63 consumers, which evaluated aroma, texture, juiciness, flavor and overall quality attributes. All data were statistically evaluated using contrasts between means, with a significance level of 5%. The results obtained for microbiological testing of all samples were absence of Salmonella sp. and sporadic counts of coliforms at 45 °C and Staphylococcus aureus (<10 (est) CFU/g). For other microbiological analysis there were significant effects (p <0,05) of treatment, and time. However, for the physicochemical characteristics, there were only differences (p <0,05) of time from zero to 28 days for pH and color b * (yellow), which declined and increased, respectively, over this period. In the sensory acceptance test, the samples did not differ (p> 0,05) in any of the evaluated attributes. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation in the lamb loins was effective in decreasing the proliferation of microorganisms without damaging its physical and chemical characteristics. At the end of the experiment, it was possible to say that the 3.0 kGy dose was indicated because could extend the shelf life of 14 to 56 days of loin of lamb irradiated and stored at 1 °C . (author)

  5. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  6. Effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp; Efeito da radiacao gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao e qualidade de pimenta in natura e em polpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant activity and the color were influenced by irradiation during storage. Coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella not were detected in irradiated and non-irradiated samples during storage. In the dose of 6.00 kGy there was reduction of the initial count of yeasts and molds of the 5 logarithmic cycles, while other doses decreased by 2 and 3 logarithmic cycles. However, 21 days after the irradiation, the contamination by yeasts and molds increased in all treatments. In pepper Dedo-de-moca fresh, the irradiation doses studied not contributed to preserving the fruit during storage. In the pulp pepper, doses of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy, associated with 5% NaCl proved promising to increase shelf-life without affecting the bioactive compounds, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes during storage at 25 °C. (author)

  7. Effect of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on trehalose level of Saccharomyces boulardii cells; Efeito da radiacao gama {sup 60} Co nos niveis de trealose de celulas de Saccharomyces boulardii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Radiobiologia; Duarte, Rinaldo; Nicoli, Jacques R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia

    1996-07-01

    The medicine Floratil used for diarrhea treatment is composed by lyophilized yeast cells of Saccharomyces boulardii. The action mechanism of this product is unknown. The efficacy of S. boulardii depends on its viability. The increase in the trehalose level in S. cerevisiae cells submitted to a previous sub-lethal level heat shock results in resistance to a lethal shock. The aim of this work was to study weather the cell trehalose level is involved also in the resistance of gamma irradiation. It was noted that the yeast cells surviving to gamma irradiation had more trehalose level than control cells. Apparently there is a positive correlation between of trehalose level and gamma irradiation resistance of S.boulardii cells. (author)

  8. Microstructural characterization of porous materials by X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques; Caracterizacao da microestrutura de materiais porosos por microtomografia de raios X e transmissao de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Anderson Camargo

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the application of the X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques for the microstructure characterization of different kinds of materials. Total porosity, pore size distribution and the two point correlation functions were measured. The two point correlation function, which allows the reconstruction of 3D models, was carried out for two samples. Seven ceramic tablets of Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), seven tablets of Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C), three samples of sedimentary rocks and one sample of Titanium foam were analyzed. The experimental set up for the Gamma Ray Transmission technique consisted of: a 2'' x 2'' crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an {sup 241} Am radioactive source (59,53 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Two microtomography systems were used: a Fein Focus system, constituted by an X-ray tube, operated at 160 kV and 0.3 to 1.1 mA, a CCD camera and the movement sample system, and a Skyscan system, model 1072, with a X-ray tube operated at 100 kV and 100{mu}A, and a CCD camera. The ceramic tablets, analyzed by the gamma ray transmission technique presented results for most of the porosities data with smaller confidence intervals and inside the intervals supplied by the tablets manufacturer. The Titanium porous sample was analyzed by the two techniques, its microtomography images achieved a resolution of 17{mu}m, obtained employing the Fein Focus system. For both techniques, this sample showed high porosity, which allows its application for this purpose. The sandstones samples were analyzed by the Skyscan system, achieving resolutions of 19{mu}m, 11{mu}m and 3.8{mu}m for each sample, respectively. The resolutions of 11{mu}m and 3.8{mu}m were the ones that generated better 2D sections for the respective samples and, consequently, more reliable porosities. The 3.8{mu}m resolution was the one that best quantified the pore size distribution data, showing information not shown by the 11{mu}m resolution, showing that pores with 15 to 45{mu}m radius are predominant, constituting 57% of the porous phase of this sample, and 1 % are just constituted by pores with radius up to 3.8{mu}m. These results show that resolution better than 3.8{mu}m could be necessary only for specific cases. (author)

  9. Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co; Estudo da dependencia energetica de detectores de radiacao gama para {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: rediniz@ipen.b, E-mail: vcsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors

  10. Influence of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation on the trehalose levels in Saccharomyces boulardii leaven cells; Influencia de radicais livres gerados pela irradiacao gama nos niveis de trealose em celulas da levedura Saccharomyces boulardii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Vianna, Cristina Roscoe [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia]|[Minas Gerais Univ, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2002-07-01

    Lyophilized cells of yeast Saccharomyces boulardii were submit to the gamma irradiation ({sup 60} Cobalt). It was noted that the yeast cells surviving to gamma irradiation had more trehalose than control cells. The incubation of cells with H{sub 2}0{sub 2} induces the synthesis of trehalose but the exposition to CdCl{sub 2} induces the accumulation of trehalose only in low concentrations. Apparently there is a positive correlation between of trehalose level and gamma irradiation resistance of S. boulardii cells. It was not observed any correlation with the level of trehalose determined and the oxidative stress tested. (author)

  11. Study of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co na peconha de Apis mellifera: aspectos bioquimicos, farmacologicos e imunologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Helena

    2001-07-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA{sub 2} activity analysis, lethality assay (LD{sub 50}). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with {sup 99m}Tc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA{sub 2} activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated bee venom have been rapidly absorbed and suggested that they have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The irradiated bee venom seems to be eliminated faster than the native one, which could explain its reduced toxicity. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimally processed; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimamente processado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio

    2011-07-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to rethink their eating habits, consuming fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, therefore, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has high nutritional value, being rich in C vitamin especially, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Thus, along with papaya, passion fruit and pineapple, kiwi can be considered as an additional feature of C vitamin in the diet, or as a substitute for traditional citrus. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gamma radiation on physical and chemical characteristics of kiwis minimally processed and stored under refrigeration, since this technology increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The Kiwis was stripped, processed and cut into slices, stored in polyethylene bags of 10 cm squared and irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1 and 2 kGy. A source of {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220, dose rate of 0.429 kGy/hour, in which each treatment had 5 replicates with 15 slices of kiwifruit per replicate. After irradiation the samples were stored in a climatic chamber at 6 degree C (near the temperature of commercial refrigerators). The following criteria were physical chemical analysis: pH, color, chlorophyll content, loss of weight, moisture, acidity and Brix. The analysis were done on 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} days after irradiation. The results indicated that gamma radiation did not induce deleterious changes in the physicochemical properties of the kiwi may be used for preservation of minimally processed kiwifruit. (author)

  13. Conservation studies of peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.): effects of packaging, gamma radiation and storage temperature;Estudos de conservacao de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.): efeitos da embalagem, radiacao gama e temperatura de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiebao, Helena Pontes

    2008-07-01

    Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.) is a tuber root that presents a short post-harvest period of conservation, 3 to 5 days, due to a phyto pathology known as soft rot or {sup m}ela{sup ,} caused by bacteria of the genus Erwinia. This bacteria release enzymes that decay the cellular wall, causing the lost of the characteristic rigidity. At present, many conservation methods have been studied in the attempt of prolonging the post harvest conservation, but the combination of processes seems to be the best alternative. The aim of this work was to study the interaction between the conservation processes (refrigeration, vacuum packaging and irradiation) to extend the post-harvest period of the roots. It was studied the combination of two temperatures (25 deg C e 4 deg C), with two packages (boxes and vacuum) and three gamma irradiation doses (1, 2 e 3kGy), obtaining a total of 16 sample groups. The samples were daily analyzed, for a 30 day period, using texture parameters (penetration energy), microbiology and pectinolitic enzymes activities (pectate lyase, polygalactunoronase and pectin methyl esterase). The samples irradiated in doses of 2 and 3kGy, vacuum packed and conserved at 4 deg C extend the post-harvest period of 5 to 28 days, with a decrease of the microbiologic population, but with decreased in the rigidity of the roots (p<0.05). The treatments affected the pectinolitic enzymes profile, however the amplitude of the results and the low number of analysed samples per day, besides the complexity of factors affecting the enzyme activity and the multiple possible sources(endogenous, bacterial or fungous), limits the carefully discussion of the results. (author)

  14. Gamma radiation effects at color, antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.); Efeitos da radiacao gama na cor, capacidade antioxidante e perfil de acidos graxos em amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Mansi, Debora Niero; Domingues, Maria Antonia Calori [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Irradiation is efficient at extinction fungi contamination in peanuts. Peanuts have high biologic value protein, minerals, vitamin E, complex B, and high concentration of lipids. The objective of this research is to evaluate the gamma irradiation effect on color, total phenolic, antioxidant activity, and fatty acid profile in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Cultivars IAC-Tatu ST and IAC-Runner 886 were submitted to gamma radiation with doses of 5.0; 7.5; 10.0, and 15.0 kGy and storage at room temperature. There was no significant difference in the color of IAC-Tatu ST. However, significant difference was found in the luminosity and Chroma in IAC-Runner 886. Total fenolics differed from the control with 33.27 mg.g{sup -1} and treatment dose of 10.0 kGy with 58.60 mg.g{sup -1} in IAC-Tatu ST. This parameter not had significant difference in IAC-Runner 886 and the control with 51.59 mg.g{sup -1}. The antioxidant activity did not present significant difference with a dose of 10.0 kGy, recommended for the elimination of fungi in peanuts. The dose of 10.0 kGy showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids, increase in unsaturated fatty acids, and an increase in linolleic acid. The oleic/linoleic relation decreased justifying further research correlating storage and oxidative stability. (author)

  15. Sonic profile simulation from the profiles of gamma ray and resistivity in the wells from Campos Basin; Simulacao do perfil sonico a partir dos perfis de raios gama e de resistividade em pocos da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marcos, E-mail: marcosviniciuscl@gmail.com [PETROBRAS, E e P - SERV/US - PO, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Carrasquilla, Abel, E-mail: abel@lenep.uenf.br [Laboratorio de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Jadir da [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of the rocks is essential in the calculation of the stability of the oil wells and in the elaboration of drilling projects, because they help in the selection of the best equipment for each geologic scene. In these activities, the most important mechanical property is the rock compressibility, which can be calculated from the sonic geophysical log, but this one, not always available in the well data set. In order to minimize this limitation, it was developed, in this work, a methodology to simulate it through an algorithm that utilizes fuzzy logic concepts, using as input data gamma ray and resistivity logs. The basic principle of this methodology is to propose that any geophysical log, including the sonic log, can be considered function of other measured geophysical logs in the same depths. On the other hand, to test the confidence of this approach, it was compared with two others commonly used in the simulation of logs: the linear multiple regression and the neural network back-propagation, showing, our methodology, however, better results. Finally, to validate the method, it was tested using wells from Namorado Oil Field in Campos Basin, which contains gamma ray, sonic and resistivity logs. (author)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of DGEBA/cycloaliphatic amine networks with potential for medical applications; Efeito da irradiacao gama nas propriedades mecanicas e termicas de redes DGEBA/amina cicloalifatica com potencial para aplicacoes medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Juliana C.; Silva, Glaura G., E-mail: glaura@qui.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mendes, Marcio W. Duarte; Bressiani, Ana H.; Bressiani, Jose C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Filiberto Gonzalez [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Two epoxy polymers based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), cured with piperidine (Pip) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimethyldicyclohexylmethane (3DCM), were characterized before and after treatment with γ irradiation. The changes in the mechanical and thermal properties were studied by elastic modulus, glass transition temperature and degradation temperature measurements. A dose of 50 kGy of irradiation caused subtle variations in properties such as rigidity and stability, which are relevant from the fundamental point of view. The variations do not imply on negative impact when considering the stage of sterilization during the use of these systems as a biomaterial in the medical area. (author)

  17. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  18. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha EPDM e nitrilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-07-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h{sup -1} at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  19. Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals; Aplicacao da radiacao gama na desinfestacao de racoes a base de graos para alimentacao de animais domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

  20. Characterization of barite and crystal glass as attenuators in X-ray and gamma radiation shieldings; Caracterizacao da barita e do vidro cristal como atenuadores na blindagem das radiacoes X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Airton Tavares de

    2005-03-15

    Aiming to determine the barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}) ore and crystal glass attenuation features, both utilized as shieldings against ionizing X and gamma radiations in radiographic installations, a study of attenuation using barite plaster and barite concrete was carried out, which are used, respectively, on wall coverings and in block buildings. The crystal glass is utilized in screens and in windows. To do so, ten plates of barite plaster and three of barite concrete with 900 cm{sup 2} and with an average thickness ranging from 1 to 5 cm, and three plates of crystal glass with 323 cm{sup 2} and with thicknesses of 1, 2 and 4 cm were analyzed. The samples were irradiated with X-rays with potentials of 60, 80, 110 and 150 kilovolts, and also with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. Curves of attenuation were obtained for barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) and (mGy/h), both at 1 meter, as a function of thickness and curve of transmission through barite plaster and barite concrete as a function of the thickness. The equivalent thicknesses of half and tenth value layers for barite plaster, barite concrete and crystal glass for all X-Ray energies were also determined. (author)

  1. A eficiência da semeadura direta para a revegetação de uma jazida de cascalho na fazenda Água Limpa, APA Gama Cabeça de Veado, Brasília, DF

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Larissa Carolina Amorim dos

    2011-01-01

    A recuperação de áreas degradadas pela mineração é um processo lento e oneroso. O plantio de mudas nativas tem sido a maneira mais comum de se revegetar áreas mineradas. Uma alternativa a esse método é a semeadura direta no substrato exposto. Redução de custo, incentivo aos processos de regeneração natural, maior diversidade de espécies e menor manutenção são algumas vantagens desse método. Este trabalho, portanto, visou à avaliação do sucesso do estabelecimento de espécies arbóreas nativas d...

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre microbiota fungica e micotoxinas encontradas em racao de frangos de corte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  3. Use of gamma-rays sensitivity for discrimination of upland cultivars of groups Indican and Japonica; Uso da sensitividade a radiacao gama na discriminacao de variedades de arroz-de-sequeiro dos grupos Indica e Japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Luis Roberto Franco [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Ando, Akihiko [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Sixty-five upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) were evaluated in relation to gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds were subjected to seven doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes in randomised complete block design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse during the year of 1992. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M{sub 1} generation, were evaluated. The results showed that the sensitivity to the radiation at doses 300 and 360 Gy was useful for distinguishing Indican and Japonica groups. (author)

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-07-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

  5. Gamma radiation physical-chemical effects on vitamin C contents in white and red guavas; Efeitos fisico-quimicos da radiacao gama nos teores de vitamina C em goiabas brancas e vermelhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Jose Daniel V.; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is valuable tropical fruit because its high C vitamin content. Red an white are the most common species of guava found in tropical areas. The ionizing radiation is normally used as a ripen ring retardant for longer storage periods. This work studies gamma radiation effects on the C vitamin concentration in white and red guava. Samples of juices were irradiated using a source of Cobalt-60, with doses of 1,0 2,5 and 5,0 kGy and storing periods of 0,15 and 30 days. The white guava juice showed a 49% loss in the C vitamin concentration with 5 kGy radiation dose, while the red guava juice showed 33% under the same condition. This shows that the juice of white guava is more sensitive to gamma radiations than the red guava. This results suggests a protection mechanism by colour pigments we believe is associated to the aromatic structures in the red specie. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the sterilization and consequently the disinfestation of all studied rations. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  8. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  9. Gamma irradiation effect and time of storage on the beta-carotene rate of dehydrated parsley; Efeito da irradiacao gama e tempo de estoque no teor de beta-caroteno de salsa desidratada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiao, K.I.; Romanelli, M.F.; Leite, Q.R.; Koseki, P.M.; Hamasaki, K.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Analise e Deteccao de Alimentos]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Almeida-Muradian, L.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: ligiabi@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The A vitamin is an essential nutrient for men. Therefore, this vitamin or one of its precursors must be ingested for a healthful diet. The carotenoids are also called pro-vitamin A. As any another carotenoid, the {beta}-carotene has a structure with many unsaturations, conferring certain instability. It can be modified and even destroyed for acid, light, heat, oxygen; the formation of cis-trans isomers, reduction of its color and its pro-vitacimin A activity reduction can happen. Those alterations can occur during the processing or storage of the food. The use of the ionizing radiation is a kind of food processing that consists of the use of the high energy of the gamma ray or accelerates electrons, capable to ionize molecules. The carotenoids are considered by literature little sensible to the irradiation. It is suggested doses of 1 to 10 kGy in the irradiation of spices, dehydrated condiments and vegetables. These doses are enough to eliminate or to reduce pathogenic microorganisms and insects, to magnify the time of useful life and still substitute the use of chemical fumigants. They also reveal adequate to the organoleptic aspect, not affecting its flavor and smell. This study had as objective to search the different {beta}-carotene levels in samples of dehydrated parsley submitted to the radiation of {sup 60}Co and stored by 6 months. The results gotten in first analysis had not indicated difference significant statistics in {beta}-carotene rate between the controlled sample and the radiated one. After 6 months of storage, were verified that the {beta}-carotene rate had fallen for the half in both samples.

  10. Biodegradability and aging study of rubber films obtained by gamma radiation vulcanization processes of latex; Estudo da biodegradabilidade e envelhecimento de filmes de borracha obtidos por processos de vulcanizacao do latex por radiacao induzida de fonte gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos Felipe Pinto

    2005-07-01

    The natural rubber latex (NRL) is industrially crosslinked by the conventional process of vulcanization, which uses sulphur and heat. Otherwise, the network can also be done by the alternative process with ionizing radiation. In this work the crosslinking of NRL was studied by the comparison of the conventional vulcanization system and the ionizing radiation process of {sup 60}C source. The products obtained, the irradiated latex, the irradiated latex with approximately 1% of soy lecithin and the sulphur vulcanized latex were tested by accelerated aging with ultraviolet (UV) and outdoor aging with compostage, tensile strength at break, swelling and gel fraction, fungi micro biota, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG and DSC). The results showed that the aging with microorganisms have a great influence in the physical properties of the samples. The thermal stability order observed showed that the sulphur vulcanized latex is more resistant, what is probably associated to a network more stable under the aging conditions. On the other hand, the irradiated latex showed intense biodegradation aspects, particularly with the presence of the soy lecithin. (author)

  11. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha natural e EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CQMA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation.

  12. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples; Efeito da radiacao gama na frequencia de fungos toxigenicos em amostras de sene (Cassia angustifolia) e cha verde (Camellia sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Reis, T.A.; Zorzete, P.; Correa, B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Goncalez, E.; Rossi, M.H. [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination.

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo); Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamao (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influencia da radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    1999-05-15

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  14. Study about the sensibility in vitro of different strains of Vibrio cholera 01 exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation; Estudo da sensibilidade in vitro de diferentes cepas de Vibio cholerae 01 a radiacao gama de 60Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servicos de Saude; Gelli, Dilma Scala; Jakabi, Miyoko [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Microbiologia; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    The presence of some microorganisms in food, or the metabolites originated during their own multiplication may bring several diseases to humans: intoxications and food borne infections. Among the agents that may cause those diseases, we find Vibrio cholerae 01. In this experiment, the studies are focused on the radiosensibility in vitro of four strains of V. cholerae 01, exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation of {sup 60} Co. The results are compared with other data related to bacterial food borne diseases, including water. (author)

  15. Determination of gamma radiation dose for destruction of Salmonella spp. in chicken flesh.; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama para a destruicao de Salmonella spp. em carne de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andreia Ferreira dos

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate: 1) the radio sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 in soy trypticase broth; 2) the radio sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 in chicken thigh and; 3) to recommend a radiation dose which can be non hazardous for human consumption

  16. Gamma radiation effects of {sup 60} Co on Bombyx mori (Lep., Bombycidae) modifying the silk fiber production; Influencia da radiacao gama ({sup 60} Co) na producao de fios de seda em Bombyx mori(Lep.,Bombycidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Francisco [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil); Bendassolli, Jose A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The present work aimed to verify the biological effects of the application of different doses of gamma radiation during the fifth instar of the silkworm catepillar. Sevently eight silkworm caterpillars (Bombyx mori) were irradiated with {gamma}{sup 60} Co radiation at the initial period of the fifth instar. The caterpillars were divided and classified in six batches of thirteen individuals each. Treatments 1 through 5 received 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy, respectively, and the control, also consisted of thirteen caterpillars, was not irradiated. The results showed a general increase in the silk fiber content in the irradiated batches compared to the control. The weight of the silk cocoons was higher with increasing doses of irradiation, from 20 to 80 Gy, respectively, followed by a decrease in weight in the treatment irradiated with 100 Gy. the results obtained in this experiment enable the conclusion that the radiation applied to the caterpillars significantly influenced the production of silk fiber in this species. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Study of the combined action of gamma radiation and static electric fields in human cells; Estudo da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    The basic principle of radiotherapy is the one of maximizing damage to the tumor, while minimizing it in neighboring health tissues. Several strategies have been worked out aiming at increasing cellular radiosensitivity, and among them is the use of exogenous fields. Our goal in this work is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 - 8 Gy doses range. The corresponding survival curve provided information on the radiosensitivity of this cell line. The rate of cell deaths per Gray in the 0 - 8 Gy range exhibited a maximum at 2 Gy, which corresponds to the most efficient irradiation dose. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours didn't induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast, without and with exposition to a SEF, have quantified the expression of the y- H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS allowed the investigation of a possible interference of radiation and SEF in the cell distributions among the cellular cycle phases. It was found that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. Therefore, it would be possible to conclude that static and exogenous electric fields are able of negatively interfering in the cellular repair and, presumably, in DNA repair. (author)

  18. Effects of gamma radiation and packaging on conservation of toyonoka strawberries stored under refrigeration.; Efeito da radiacao gama e embalagem na conservacao de morangos 'toyonoka' armazenados sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Danielle Marinelli

    2000-07-01

    Strawberries have short post harvest life due to the rapid spoilage caused by fungal infections, even when stored under refrigeration. The effects of gamma radiation (0.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy) and two kinds of packages (plastic boxes with or without PVC film wrapping) were evaluated using Toyonoka strawberries kept under refrigeration (3 to 6 deg C and relative humidity of 55%) for 1, 8, 15 and 22 days after irradiation, applied 1 day after harvesting. Deterioration progression and loss of weight occurred in the course of storage and although the content of ascorbic acid had also increased, total titratable acidity, p H and ratio remained constant during all the experimental period, independent of the samples treatments. The use of PVC film packing inhibited dehydration of the strawberries along the storage and also caused reduction in soluble solid content of the fruits stored for more than 8 days. The treatments with 2.0 and 2.5 kGy had caused significant losses of ascorbic acid the higher dose also significantly reduced the texture of the fruits. Sensorial analysis has been performed with 30 untrained judges to evaluate the acceptability of strawberries packed without the PVC wrapping and irradiated with doses of 0.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy. No irradiation effects were observed and the samples were acceptable with no significant difference between samples stored for 1 or 8 days after irradiation. PVC film packaging and irradiation were not efficient in delaying post harvest decay of Toyonoka strawberries in the conditions used in these experiments. (author)

  19. Effects of gamma radiation and electron beam on samples of the Brazil nuts artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus; Efeitos da radiacao gama e feixe de eletrons sobre amostras de castanhas-do-Brasil inoculadas artificialmente com Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Ednei Assuncao Antunes

    2012-07-01

    The high level of contamination by aflatoxin produced by fungi in lots of Brazil nuts and the strict control by importing countries in relation to the levels of toxins in food, European Union countries decided in 2003 by the return of these lots products from Brazil. Despite the economic loss represented by contamination by toxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts, a major product of extractive Northern of Brazil, studies are still preliminary as the control of contamination aflatoxigenic fungal using methods such as gamma radiation (G.R) and mainly, electron beam (E.B). These facts motivated this research, which aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation and application of electron beam in samples of Brazil nut artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. This goal, we were studied 50 samples of the Brazil nut previously inoculated with spores of A. flavus and subsequently incubated at 30 °C in relative humidity controlled at 93%. After incubation, period of 15 days, the average water activity of the samples was 0.80, the samples were divided into 5 groups that received the following doses of radiation: control (0 kGy), 5 and 10 kGy 5 E.B and G.R. The mycobiota was performed by serial dilution, plated on surface using potato dextrose agar. The results demonstrated that treatment with E.B using a dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy resulted in reduced growth of A. flavus in 74% (37/50) and 94% (47/50) of samples. The samples treated with G.R at the dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy no fungal growth occurred in 92% (46/50) 100% (50/50) of. The study of aflatoxins showed that doses of E.B of 5 kGy and 10 kGy reduced levels of AFB1 at 53.32% and 65.66% respectively. The application of gamma rays at doses of 5 and 10 kGy reduced levels of toxins in 70.61% and 84.15% respectively. This result may be attributed to higher penetrability of gamma radiation. Sensory analysis showed greater acceptance of the judges for the samples irradiated with E.B and G.R at the dose of 10 kGy. We concluded that although sensory analysis have demonstrated some loss of organoleptic characteristics, both processes of radiation were effective in reducing the count of A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination. (author)

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  1. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays; Estudo da estabilidade de acidos humicos extraidos de solo e turfa, frente a radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-07-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO{sub 2} content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation in the viscosity of gelatin and pectin solutions used in food industry; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a viscosidade de solucoes de gelatina e pectina utilizadas na industria de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Pectin is a polysaccharide substance of plant origin that may be used as gelling agent, stabilizer in jams, in yogurt drinks and lactic acid beverages. Gelatin, a protein from bovine origin, in this case, is mainly used as gelling agent due to hydrogel formation during cooling. The {sup 60} Co-irradiation process may cause various modifications in macromolecules, some with industrial application, as reticulation. The dynamic response of viscoelastic materials can be used in order to give information about the structural aspect of a system at molecular level. In the present work samples of pectin with different degree of methoxylation, gelatin and the mixture of both were employed to study the radiation sensitivity by means of viscosity measurements. Solutions prepared with citric pectin with high methoxylation content (ATM) 1 por cent, pectin with low content (BTM) 1 por cent, gelatin 0.5 por cent, 1 por cent and 2 por cent, and the mixture 1 por cent and 2 por cent were irradiated with gamma rays at different doses, up to 15 kGy with dose rate about 2 kGy/h. After irradiation the viscosity was measured within a period of 48 h. The viscosity of ATM and BTM pectin solutions decreased sharply with the radiation dose. However, the gelatin sample presented a great radiation resistance. When pectin and gelatin solutions were mixed a predominance of pectin behavior was found. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre o conteudo de tocoferois em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliacao sensorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  4. Shelf-life increase of fresh mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju using gamma radiation;Aumento da vida util de cogumelos Pleurotus sajor-caju in natura com aplicacao de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moda, Evelise Moncaio

    2008-07-01

    The production and consumption of edible mushrooms has been increasing in the last years due to its nutritional composition and sensory quality. The irradiation of mushrooms has been used with the purpose of maintaining the fresh product characteristics during shelf-life. The present study evaluated the effect of different radiation doses on the conservation of mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju, through by chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters. The packaging consisted on polystyrene trays with 250 g of sample, wrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mushrooms were irradiated with doses of 125, 250, 500 and 750 Gy in a Gamma cell 220 type irradiator, and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 10 days. The proximate composition (moisture, crude fibre, total protein, total fat and ash), total soluble solids, pH, texture, color (L, a, b, Chroma and ho), enzymatic activity (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase), microbiological (total coliform, Escherichia coli and total psychotropic bacteria) and sensory evaluation (color, taste and appearance) were determined in the 1st, 5th and 10th storage days. For the respiratory rate analysis, 30 g of sample were placed in jars and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 8 days. CO{sub 2} was analyzed every day using a gaseous chromatograph. The results were submitted to variance analysis and average test using the SAS statistical package. The total protein and total fat values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods, while the moisture, crude fibre and ash values differ between treatments and periods. The dose of 750 Gy darkness the mushroom in the last evaluation, and texture was better in control during the storage period. The color (L, a), texture and proximate composition values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods. A significant increase was observed for soluble solids, b{sup *} and enzymatic activity values in all treatments at the end of the storage period. Values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities increased in the last day of evaluation in samples irradiated with 250 Gy. This fact may be a result of the water radiolysis process, since mushrooms have high water content. The dose of 125 Gy increased the respiratory rate of the samples until the 5th storage day in comparison to the other treatments, causing reduction in the product shelf-life. The samples irradiated with 250, 500 and 750 Gy had a reduction on the respiratory rate if compared with the control, so contributing to the maintenance of the post harvest quality during the storage. The samples which received 750 Gy obtained the best results in the microbiological analyses, with reduction of total coliform and psychotropic bacteria during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the control had higher scores for color, aroma and appearance attributes; they were above the acceptability limit until the last storage day. In general, the irradiated samples were accepted for the evaluated attributes until the 5th storage day; thus, establishing the shelf-life for irradiated mushrooms (author)

  5. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  6. Influence of gamma irradiation in the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE); Influência da radiação gama no elastômero termoplástico (TPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Camila B.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Marchini, Leonardo G., E-mail: camila@ba7.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The TPE is the nomenclature used for the thermoplastic elastomer, which is also known as thermoplastic rubber. It belongs to an under-researched class of engineering plastics, however, in recent years there has been steady growth due to its important and unusual combination of properties. During its use, it behaves like an elastomer, but, unlike traditional elastomers (vulcanized rubbers), it can be processed using conventional technologies and equipment used for thermoplastics, such as extrusion and injection. The processing of polymers, such as TPE by means of radiation, constitutes a technological area dedicated to the study of the physical and chemical effects caused by high energy radiation, such as gamma radiation. Thus the objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical and thermal properties of TPE irradiated by {sup 60}Co source of gamma radiation in different doses. The thermoplastic elastomer being modified by means of ionizing radiation at doses of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 kGy the effects of the radiation on the mechanical and thermal properties of this material are evaluated through the tests of tensile tests, TGA, FTIR and Fluency Index.

  7. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei);Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama e de refrigeracao na conservacao do camarao-branco-do-pacifico (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-07-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g{sup -1} for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found in terms of instrumental color during the first day of storing when compared to the non-irradiated samples and to the 3.5 kGy irradiated ones. Statistical differences were not found (p <= 0.05) between non-irradiated and irradiated samples within the first day of sensorial analysis. Non-irradiated samples were rejected on the sensorial test after the 7th day of storage, while the 1kGy irradiated samples were accepted until the 14th day. Samples irradiated with 3.5 kGy kept viability in terms off flavour and aspect until the end of the experiment. When compared to conventional refrigerated product, the gamma-irradiation technique, (especially the 3.5 kGy doses) provided a higher stability related to physical chemical properties and microbiological safety during storage. No differences on the sensorial shrimp quality were found. Through gamma irradiation, we obtained a product with minimal procedure modifications, with enhanced shelf life under refrigeration. (author)

  8. Monitoring of mass flux of catalyst FCC in a Cold Pilot Unit by gamma radiation transmission; Monitoramento da taxa de fluxo do catalisador FCC em uma unidade piloto a frio por medicao de transmissao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marcio Fernando Paixao de

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a model for monitoring the mass flow of catalyst FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking - in a CPU - Cold Pilot unit - due to the injection of air and solid by gamma radiation transmission. The CPU simplifies the process of FCC, which is represented by the catalyst cycle, and it was constructed of acrylic, so that the flow can be visualized. The CPU consists of riser separation chamber and return column, and simulates the riser reactor of the FCC process. The catalyst is injected into the column back to the base of the riser, an inclined tube, where the compressed air means that there fluidization along the riser. When the catalyst comes in the separation chamber, the solid phase is sent to the return column, and the gas phase exits the system through one of the four cyclones at the top of the separation chamber. The transmission gamma of measures will be made by means of three test sections that have source and detector shielded. Pressure drop in the riser measurements are made through three pressure gauges positioned on the riser. The source used was Am-241 gamma ray with energy of 60 keV, and detector used was a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 2 {sup x} 2{sup .} Measures the mass flow of catalyst are made by varying the seal of the catalyst, and density of solid in the riser because with the combination of these measures can determine the speed of the catalyst in the riser. The results show that the transmission gamma is a suitable technique for monitoring the flow of catalyst, flow model in CPU is annular, tomography third generation is more appropriate to study the CPU and the density variation in circulation in the CPU decreases linearly with increasing air flow. (author)

  9. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment; Quantificacao de micronucleos em linfocitos de pacientes expostas a radiacao gama para a avaliacao da dose absorvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-15

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  10. Gamma radiation effect in vacuum-packed dried meat: an alternative to the environment | Efeito da radiação gama em carne seca embalado a vácuo: uma alternativa para o meio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Albuquerque Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne diseases are the major health problem in many countries. This concern relates to the fact that in recent years the occurrence of foodborne diseases has become frequent due to failure to comply with the hygienic and sanitary standards. The processing of Jerked beef is very similar to the charque and at all stages of their technological processing the meat is exposed to contamination, especially in operations where is more manipulated. The objective was to determine which doses of radiation between 2kGy, 4kGy 6kGy would be more effective in decontaminating the product sold in a large supermarket network in Recife. The jerked beef is sold in vacuum packaging weighing 500g each, for this work were purchased six bags of 500g, these were divided into two different batches (each of three samples. Under sterile conditions, the meat was cut placed in Petri dishes and weighed, each specimen were made in eight sub-samples each weighing 25g, generating 48 subsamples. Of these 12 sub-samples were assigned to the control group and the remaining (36 sub-samples were taken to the irradiator with a source of cobalt-60 MDS-Gammacell 220EXCEL Nordionn. The sub-samples were added to an Erlenmeyer flask with 225 ml of sterile water and were agitated for 15 minutes creating wash water, and another part was added to an Erlenmeyer flask with 225 ml of sterile water and was stored at room temperature by having 14 hours to form a water desalting. 1μL Aliquots of these waters were removed and sown in the midst of exhaustion sheep blood agar and incubated at 35 ° C for 24 hours for analysis of bacterial growth and the microbial count. Using the methodology of wash water was not observed in any growth plate. for the desalting water the results were as ‘follows: for first experiment in the control group values were between 5.133 x 105 and 9.56 x 108 UFC/ g after irradiation values ranged from 1.7 x105 to 2x106 for 2kGy ;0 to 6x104 for 4kGy and 0 to 6 kGy performing statistical analysis between the control and the doses were not statistically significant  of dose 2 kGy (p = 0, 130919 there is a statistical difference in rates of 4kGy (p = 0.040510 and 6 kGy (p = 0.047905 in experiment two control values ranging from 2.3 x 109 to 4.1 x 109 UFC/ g for the dose 2kGy, and 4kGy 6kGy variants respective values of 6.5 x107 to 1.05x109; 1.7 x105 to 1.76 x105 and from 0 to 1.3 x104, as seen in the first experiment, no statistically significant difference in dose of 2 kGy (p = 0.079057 , significant differences were 4 kGy and 6 kGy (p = 0.028125; p = 0.028151, respectively. We can conclude that the dose of 2kGy is ineffective, and doses of 4kGy and 6kGy are effective in decontaminating the jerked beef because there is a statistically significant difference between control and these doses.

  11. Analysis of the gamma radiation effects in the composite of polyurethane derived from castor oil and natural fibers; Analise dos efeitos da radiacao gama no composito de poliuretano derivado de mamona com serragem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienen, Victor D.; Todt, Matheus L.; Capellari, Giovanni S.; Azevedo, Elaine C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Neto, Salvador C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Composite of Polyurethane derived from castor oil and natural fibers are obtained from renewable raw material, low cost, and for not assaulting nature. This paper analyzes the effects of gamma radiation on composite polyurethane derived from castor with sawdust irradiated with gamma radiation of 25 kGy . It was held from 3 tips bending tests and micrograph by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that gamma radiation decreases the breakdown voltage and the micrograph of the fracture indicates brittle fracture occurred. (author)

  12. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  13. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  14. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  15. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation; Acao da sacarose na manutencao de inflorescencias cortadas de crisantemo, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, apos exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1998-07-01

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  16. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala; Efeito da radiacao gama e do tratamento termico na conservacao do suco natural de maca (Malus domestica), cv. gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60{sup 0} C/20 min and 80{sup 0} C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 {+-} 3{sup 0} C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Profilaxia da peste

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    Renato dos Santos Araújo

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor parte da premissa de que a profilaxia da doença infecciosa decorre do encadeamento epidemiológico: fonte de infecção-veículo transmissor - receptivel, para explicar a da peste, baseada no mesmo princípio. Depois de citar os 4 principais complexos epidemiológicos da peste e afirmar que tôda a profilaxia da doença consiste em atingir os dois primeiros elos dessas cadeias e proteger o último, passa a classificar os vários métodos profiláticos empregados em 2 grandes grupos: o das medidas destrutivas ou provisórias e o das medidas supressivas ou definitivas. Entre as primeiras arrola a desratização e a despulização, às quais acrescenta o tratamento e isolamento do doente e do portaãor, e entre as segundas inclui a anti-ratização e a imunização. A seguir, passa a explicar em que consistem essas várias medidas profiláticas e quais os agentes de que se tem lançado mão para executá-las, expendendo ao curso dessa exposição o conceito que formula a respeito de cada uma delas, à guisa de apreciação do seu valor relativo. Enaltece sobretudo as medidas supressivas ou definitivas, às quais empresta a maior significação na luta antipestosa, chamando a atenção, em especial, para a necessidade de estudos imunológicos para aperfeiçoamento do poder imunitário das vacinas de germes vivos avirulentos, que considera um grande recurso para a profilaxia da doença, sobretudo para a proteção do rurícola, cujo labor e modo de vida o expõem inevitavelmente a se infectar, por ocasião da ocorrência de epizootias de origem silvestre. Concluída essa primeira parte, passa a fazer o histórico de como se desenvolveu a campanha contra a peste, no Brasil, desde a época da sua invasão em 1899 pelo pôrto de Santos até os nossos dias. Nesse histórico, detem-se um pouco para expôr a atuação do extinto Serviço Nacional de Peste, o qual, criado em 1941, após a reorganização do Departamento Nacional de Saúde, passou

  18. Análise quantitativa e molecular de hemoglobina fetal em indivíduos da população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamaro Paula J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A hemoglobina fetal - Hb F, formada por duas cadeias gama e duas cadeias alfa, é característica do período fetal do desenvolvimento, tendo sua síntese diminuída no período pós-natal. Em algumas alterações hereditárias, a Hb F permanece aumentada, como nas delta-beta talassemia, beta talassemia e persistência hereditária de Hb F (PHHF. A síntese da globina gama também pode ser estimulada por fatores externos como leucemias, transplantes de medula óssea, induções químicas, dentre outros. Através da observação de Hb F aumentada em doadores de sangue por procedimentos eletroforéticos objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de Hb F em amostras de sangue de candidatos à doação, visando estabelecer seus limites de normalidade na população de São José do Rio Preto e região, por meio de desnaturação alcalina e cromatografia líquida de alta pressão (HPLC, comparar as metodologias aplicadas e, nos indivíduos com Hb F aumentada, realizar estudos moleculares para identificar as mutações que alteram a expressão dos genes gama. Foram analisadas 208 amostras de sangue, sendo 119 de candidatos à doação e 89 de indivíduos sem sintomas de anemia ou achados hematológicos e com Hb F aumentada como grupo comparativo. Das 119 amostras de candidatos à doação, 110 foram utilizadas para traçar o perfil de normalidade de Hb F, comparando-se as metodologias de desnaturação alcalina e HPLC, onde se obteve a média de 1,48% e de 0,6%, respectivamente. A análise estatística por regressão linear mostrou diferença significativa na comparação entre as duas metodologias aplicadas, sendo a HPLC mais precisa para a quantificação de Hb F. Foram observados nos testes de rastreamento de hemoglobinas anormais nestas 110 amostras de sangue: 16,4% de alfa talassemia, 0,9% com Hb F aumentada, 0,9% com beta talassemia e 0,9% com hemoglobina variante de cadeia delta. Os outros nove doadores de sangue apresentaram Hb F acima de 10% em

  19. Gestão de ciclo de vida e desenvolvimento de produto: análise bibliométrica e classificação da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Varandas Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é realizar um mapeamento e classificação da literatura, bem como uma análise bibliométrica sobre os conceitos Product Life Cycle Management (PLM, Product Development Process(PDP, Environmental Sustainability (ES e suas interfaces. As publicações de interesse foram localizadas por meio de consultas na base de dados de periódicos da ISI Web of Knowledge, por meio do portal da CAPES, considerando publicações entre 2006 e 2010. Os resultados indicam que os trabalhos são publicados em uma gama variada de periódicos e congressos e que a maioria das publicações analisadas utiliza como abordagem metodológica o estudo de caso, mas também existe uma grande proporção de trabalhos teórico-conceituais. Quanto à natureza dos dados verificou-se que a abordagem qualitativa tem sido mais adotada e é praticamente predominante a condução de estudos descritivos. Em síntese, os trabalhos analisados incorporam o conceito de sustentabilidade ambiental e PLM no PDP e são mais aplicados em empresas, cadeia de suprimentos e desenvolvimento de software. De modo geral, os trabalhos analisados enfatizam a melhoria da gestão do PDP, o aumento do desempenho e a integração de informações de diferentes áreas e sistemas. A literatura converge para a inserção dos conceitos de sustentabilidade ambiental e PLM nas atuais práticas do PDP.

  20. Planejamento de cenários e amplificação da variabilidade da demanda Planning scenarios and amplification of variability demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dais de Faria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este caso para ensino foi elaborado a partir dos problemas enfrentados pela DELTA, líder no mercado brasileiro de controle de pragas urbanas, a partir da epidemia de dengue do verão de 2007/2008, quando as vendas de inseticidas e repelentes pelos players do setor atingiram volumes significativamente superiores às expectativas. Falhas na previsão de demanda causaram escassez de produtos nos pontos de venda, desgastes no relacionamento da empresa com seus revendedores, dificuldades nas unidades de produção e também perda de participação de mercado da DELTA e da vice-líder GAMA para marcas alternativas. A natureza dos problemas levantados sugere questionamentos que envolvem a estrutura da indústria e a constituição da arena do mercado, bem como decisões de governança, gestão e gerência envolvidas na configuração do próprio negócio. Construída a partir de dados coletados por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, investigação documental e técnicas de observação direta, a narrativa se desdobra a partir das idéias de incerteza, transformação organizacional e integração, proporcionando possibilidades de aproveitamento do caso em disciplinas de Estratégia, Marketing, Produção e Ética, preferencialmente em cursos de graduação ou em matérias básicas de programas de pós-graduação.This case was based on the problems facing the Delta, a leader in the Brazilian urban pest control, from the dengue epidemic in the summer of 2007/2008, while sales of insecticides and repellants by industry players reached volumes significantly higher than expectations. Failures in forecasting demand caused shortages of products to sell, wear the company's relationship with its dealers, difficulties in production and also loss of market share from DELTA and GAMMA deputy leader for alternative brands. The nature of the problems suggests questions involving the structure of industry and the establishment of the marketing arena, as well as

  1. Oncologia Moderna: Necessidade da Quebra de Paradigmas, Pré-conceitos e da Estagnação / Modern Oncology: Needs of Breaking Paradigms, Prejudice and Stagnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Francisco de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O câncer engloba uma vasta gama de neoplasias sólidas e não sólidas que possuem a capacidade de invadir tecidos adjacentes e potencial de disseminação à distância. É uma doença devastadora: representa uma patologia carregada de estigma social, com uma carga negativa bastante elevada na grande maioria das vezes, afetando todos os aspectos da vida dos pacientes bem como daqueles com quem convivem (familiares, amigos, cuidadores, etc.. É uma doença secular: as primeiras descrições remetem à Grécia antiga, onde foi descrito como uma doença semelhante a um caranguejo, karkínos, provavelmente devido sua característica infiltrativa em casos mais avançados, porém sua origem dá-se juntamente à origem da própria espécie. É uma doença democrática: salvo alguns casos onde os fatores de risco são bem conhecidos e podem ser evitados, o câncer não privilegia uma ou outra esfera social, limite geográfico, religião ou outro fator ambiental/social. O câncer é hoje a segunda causa de morte no país e no mundo, somente superado pelas doenças cardiovasculares; mais significativo ainda do que sua posição como causa de morte é o crescimento dessa taxa ao longo das últimas décadas e indícios evidentes de que continuará a crescer. As causas dessa impressionante mudança do perfil nosológico do Brasil, acompanhando uma tendência mundial, são em parte conhecidas. Em primeiro lugar, a melhoria das condições de vida e de saneamento básico, a crescente urbanização, a aplicação de medidas preventivas eficientes no controle de doenças infectocontagiosas, entre outros, contribuíram para uma redução significativa das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. Por outro lado, estas mesmas causas produziram um sensível aumento da expectativa de vida, de 34 anos em 1.900 para 64 anos em 1980. A redução da mortalidade, principalmente nas faixas etárias mais elevadas (acima de 60 anos e a diminuição da fecundidade resultaram

  2. O USO DA WEB SOCIAL POR BIBLIOTECAS DE INSTITUIÇÕES PÚBLICAS E PRIVADAS DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE FLORIANÓPOLIS - SANTA CATARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Martins D’Ávila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa tem por finalidade analisar, no âmbito da gestão da informação, as transformações que estão ocorrendo nas bibliotecas com o advento das tecnologias de informação e da Web social, por meio do mapeamento dos portais de unidades de informação. Como objetivos específicos, avalia-se as formas de acesso dos usuários aos serviços baseados na Web social e verifica-se de que forma os bibliotecários se preparam e adquirem competências e habilidades para utilizar as ferramentas necessárias para esse ambiente. No referencial teórico, são abordados a evolução das tecnologias para a gestão de unidades de informação, os recursos da Web tradicional (Web 1.0 e da Web social (Web 2.0. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, cujo universo da pesquisa são os portais de bibliotecas das instituições de ensino superior públicas e privadas da Cidade de Florianópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina, cujas unidades de análise se referem aos serviços oferecidos na Web social. Quanto à abordagem, a pesquisa é do tipo quali-quantitativa. Constatou-se que o processo na adesão de toda a gama de tecnologias de informação e comunicação disponibilizadas atualmente é incipiente nas bibliotecas de ensino superior de Florianópolis, é importante ressaltar que as de âmbito público são as que mais apresentam opções para a utilização das tecnologias da Web social, enquanto que as privadas deixam a desejar, excetuando três, contudo, por possuírem mais recursos financeiros poderiam aproveitá-los de modo a ofertar serviços diferenciados que incentivem o uso e a disseminação das informações facilitando o acesso e a recuperação das informações.

  3. da Zehirlenmeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Akbulut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıda Teknolojisinin gelişmesi ile, gıda maddesinin tüketici için daha alımlı olmasını sağlamak, kısa zamanda bozulmasını engellemek ve pazara yeni çeşitler sunmak için bazı kimyasal maddeler kullanılmaya başlanılmıştır. Bunun yanında tarımda kullanılan kimyasal maddeler artmış, ambalaj sanayi gelişmiş, bu dada maddelerine bulaşan maddelerin türlerini arttırmıştır. Ayrıca gıda maddelerine belirli amacı olmadan katılan maddelerde vardır. Diğer taraftan tüketiciyi aldatmak, hile yapmak, çok kar sağlamak veya kötü kaliteyi gizlemek amacı ile de kullanılan maddeler bulunmaktadır. İster teknik zorunluk, ister hile amacıyla olsun bu tür yabancı maddeler öncelikle insan sağlığını ilgilendirmektedir. Bazı maddelerin vücuda alınması sakıncasız olduğu halde, bazıları sakıncalıdır. Sakıncasız olanlarında belirli bir sınırın üzerinde uzun süre alınmaları zararlı olabilmektedir. Bu toplum sağlığı sorunu birçok ülkeyi gıda sanayiinde kullanılan kimyasal maddelerin hoşgörü sınırlarının hesaplanması noktasına götürmüştür.

  4. A REFORMA DA IGREJA

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    Vítor Galdino Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O pontificado do papa Francisco trouxe à tona o tema da reforma da Igreja. Retoma-se essa causa que acompanha a história da Igreja desde os seus primórdios e que interessa a todos os membros do povo santo de Deus. O texto divide-se em quatro partes. Primeiro, faz-se um apanhado histórico dos anseios de reforma da Igreja, mostrando que, muitas vezes em instâncias subterrâneas, sempre houve o desejo e também ações concretas de renovação. Em seguida, apresenta-se como razão para a reforma da Igreja o anúncio e a realização do Reino de Deus, pelo qual é preciso que a Igreja se volte à concretude humana e histórica de Jesus de Nazaré, pela superação do apego ao poder e às estruturas religiosas. Num terceiro momento, trata-se do critério pelo qual se mede a realização e a veracidade da reforma da Igreja: a santidade de cada fiel e do povo cristão no meio do mundo. Por fim, conclui-se que o caminho para a reforma da Igreja está na escuta dos clamores do Espírito Santo, que fala na própria Igreja e no mundo através do sensus fidei dos fiéis, das Igrejas particulares, dos pobres, das mulheres e das realidades terrestres. ABSTRACT: The pontificate of Pope Francis brought to the surface the theme of reform of the Church. This essay takes up this cause that accompanies the history of the Church from its beginnings and concerns all the members of the holy people of God. The text is divided into four parts. First, it gives a historical summary of the yearnings for reform of the Church, showing that, in many instances subterranean, there has always been the desire and also the concrete actions of renewal. Following from this, the essay presents as the reason for the reform of the Church the proclamation and the realization of the Kingdom of God, whereby it is necessary that the Church return to the concrete human and historical Jesus of Nazareth, in order to overcome the addiction to power and to religious structures. In the

  5. A cultura da internet

    OpenAIRE

    Cádima, Francisco Rui

    2017-01-01

    O novo ambiente digital é cada vez mais perturbante na sua dimensão ‘visível’ e está, em boa parte, incontrolável nessa área ainda algo desconhecida da Internet negra, conhecida por deep web ou dark net, convoca-nos para uma reflexão profunda de largo espectro, que não se pode vincular apenas às questões de mercado, tecnológicas e de redes, mas que nos vem alertar sobretudo para a ordem do político e da cidadania, do ‘desconhecido’ e do conhecimento e, enfim, do acesso à rede, quer no que is...

  6. [da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years.

  7. A utilização da teoria da aprendizagem significativa no ensino da Enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa; Nilton Soares Formiga; Simone Helena dos Santos Oliveira; Marta Miriam Lopes Costa; Maria Júlia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: sintetizar a produção científica acerca da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa no processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Enfermagem. Método: revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e CINAHL, com artigos que abordaram a temática ou aspectos da teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Fizeram parte da amostra dez artigos, sendo seis escritos no idioma português e quatro no inglês, publicados de 1998 a 2013. Resultados: cinco...

  8. Os (descaminhos da identidade

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    Oliveira Roberto Cardoso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A conferência procurou apresentar uma interpretação das vicissitudes da identidade étnica e/ou nacional quando observada em situações de ambigüidade. É quando o processo identitário expressa crises reais ou virtuais, como as que têm lugar entre imigrantes latino-americanos nos Estados Unidos, entre povos de diferentes regiões da Espanha emigrados para Barcelona, entre catalães espanhóis, franceses e andorranos residentes em Andorra, e entre povos indígenas em regiões de fronteira do Brasil com países vizinhos. O exame do processo identitário que tem lugar em diferentes latitudes, nas Américas e na Europa, sugere que os fenômenos socioculturais de etnicidade e de nacionalidade possuem em comum características tais como a busca de reconhecimento da pessoa moral, o respeito à diferença e, como corolário ético, a elevação do que se pode definir como "taxa de consideração".

  9. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

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    Andréa de Castro Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atribuído as microcistinas incluírem gastroenterite, reações alérgicas ou irritativas, neurotoxicidade, o principal alvo da toxina é o fígado. Nos hepatócitos as microcistinas são carreadas pelo sistema transportador do ácido biliar, inibindo a atividade da proteína fosfatase no citoplasma. A inibição leva a mudanças morfológicas na membrana plasmática pela hiperfosforilação de citoqueratinas, e à atividade de promoção tumoral pelas proteínas hiperfosforiladas. Os métodos de detecção e quantificação de microcistinas no ambiente incluem a cromatografia líquida, o bioensaio em camundongos e os testes imunoenzimáticos. O último vem ganhando destaque pela praticidade e alta sensibilidade.

  10. IMPLICAÇÕES DA MADEIRA NA IDENTIDADE E SEGURANÇA DE QUEIJOS ARTESANAIS

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    Éder G. Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A madeira é secularmente utilizada na manufatura dos utensílios empregados na fabricação de alimentos artesanais, como por exemplo, tonéis de fermentação de bebidas alcoólicas, tinas, formas, prateleiras e bancadas para produção de queijos. Essas superfícies apresentam estrutura porosa, o que permite o desenvolvimento de comunidades microbianas conhecidas como biofilmes. Fungos filamentosos, leveduras e bactérias do ácido acético e lático (BAL presentes nesses biofilmes são responsáveis pelas características peculiares de alimentos como cidras, vinhos, vinagres e de uma gama variada de queijos artesanais, garantindo sabores e odores característicos desses alimentos, assim como sua segurança. Pesquisas recentes demonstraram que a presença de BAL, em biofilmes, diminuiu a adesão de patógenos como Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus, principais indicadores de práticas de fabricação insatisfatórias em ambientes de produção de alimentos. Em 2002 a legislação criada para a fabricação do queijo Minas artesanal, estabeleceu padrões físicoquímicos e microbiológicos para a elaboração desses queijos, e eliminou o uso das formas e bancadas de madeira, como uma medida para cercear a proliferação de patógenos nesses produtos. Essa medida foi preventiva e emergencial, embora ainda hoje questionada pelos produtores tradicionais, conhecedores das práticas utilizadas em países da Europa, onde a madeira tem um papel importante nas características de vários produtos artesanais, especialmente em alguns tipos de queijos com Denominação de Origem Protegida (DOP. Essa revisão tem como objetivo reunir informações relacionadas ao papel da madeira na produção de alimentos, assim como dos biofilmes nela formados e da função dos mesmos nas características e segurança de queijos artesanais.

  11. Melhoramento do trigo: XXVIII. Novos genótipos obtidos por seleções em população segregante interespecífica submetida a irradiação gama Wheat breeding: XXVIII. New genotypes obtained by selections in a interespecific segregating population submitted to gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 23 linhagens provindas de seleções em população submetida à irradiação gama (27,5 krad, em geração F4, do cruzamento interespecífico entre 'BH-1146' (Triticum aestivum L. e 'Anhinga' "S" x Winged "S" (Triticum durum L. e os cultivares BH-1146 e Yavaros "S" (T. durum L. em nove ensaios, denominados "Novas variedades III", instalados em condições de irrigação por aspersão e de sequeiro, analisando-se a produção de grãos, outros componentes da produção e resistência às doenças. Em condição de laboratório, estudou-se a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas. As linhagens 11, 12, 13 e 14, de porte médio, com moderada resistência ao acamamento, com ciclo médio da emergência ao florescimento e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando-se a média dos nove experimentos. Yavaros "S" e as linhagens 8 e 12 apresentaram-se, ao mesmo tempo, imunes ao agente causal da ferrugem-da-folha e moderadamente resistentes ao agente causal de oídio. Todos os genótipos foram suscetíveis aos agentes causais de manchas foliares. As linhagens 3, 9 e 10 mostraram ser fontes genéticas de espiga comprida; a 12, de maior número de espiguetas por espiga; as linhagens 12, 13 e 14, de maior número de grãos por espiga; Yavaros "S", de maior número de grãos por espigueta, e 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 15 e Yavaros "S", de grãos mais pesados. Todos os genótipos se mostraram tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, com exceção de Yavaros "S" e das linhagens 9 e 15, que exibiram elevada sensibilidade.Twenty three selected lines originated from population submitted to gamma irradiation (27.5 krad, in the F4 generation, from the interespecific hybrid between BH-1146 (Triticum aestivum L. and Anhinga "S" x Winged "S" (Triticum durum L. and the check cultivars BH 1146 and Yavaros "S" (T durum L. were evaluated in nine trials, named "New Varieties 111". Evaluation trials were

  12. Distribuição de frequência da chuva para região Centro-Sul do Ceará, Brasil Frequency distribution of rainfall for the South-Central region of Ceará, Brazil

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    Ítalo Nunes Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas sete distribuições de probabilidade Exponencial, Gama, Log-normal, Normal, Weibull, Gumbel e Beta para a chuva mensal e anual na região Centro-Sul do Ceará, Brasil. Para verificação dos ajustes dos dados às funções densidade de probabilidade foi utilizado o teste não-paramétrico de Kolmogorov-Smirnov com nível de 5% de significância. Os dados de chuva foram obtidos da base de dados da SUDENE registrados durante o período de 1913 a 1989. Para a chuva total anual teve ajuste satisfatório dos dados às distribuições Gama, Gumbel, Normal e Weibull e não ocorreu ajuste às distribuições Exponencial, Log-normal e Beta. Recomenda-se o uso da distribuição Normal para estimar valores de chuva provável anual para a região, por ser um procedimento de fácil aplicação e também pelo bom desempenho nos testes. A distribuição de frequência Gumbel foi a que melhor representou os dados de chuva para o período mensal, com o maior número de ajustes no período chuvoso. No período seco os dados de chuva foram melhores representados pela distribuição Exponencial.Seven probability distributions were analysed: Exponential, Gamma, Log-Normal, Normal, Weibull, Gumbel and Beta, for monthly and annual rainfall in the south-central region of Ceará, Brazil. In order to verify the adjustments of the data to the probability density functions, the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used with a 5% level of significance. The rainfall data were obtained from the database at SUDENE, recorded from 1913 to 1989. For the total annual rainfall, adjustment of the data to the Gamma, Gumbel, Normal and Weibull distributions was satisfactory, and there was no adjustment to the Exponential, Log-normal and Beta distributions. Use of Normal distribution is recommended to estimate the values of probable annual rainfall in the region, this being a procedure of easy application, performing well in the tests. The Gumbel frequency

  13. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira (Varronia curassavica Jacq.

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    D. S. BRANDÃO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é fundamental para a conservação e manejo de uma espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fenologia da floração, a antese, registrar os insetos visitantes no período de floração, determinar as características morfométricas das flores e o sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira, em um ambiente de Cerrado do Norte de Minas Gerais. Entre maio a dezembro de 2012 foi caracterizado o comportamento fenológico da floração. Na análise da fenologia floral foi determinado: o crescimento da inflorescência, o número de flores e frutos por inflorescências. Utilizou-se seis acessos que tiveram dez inflorescências marcadas em cada acesso, totalizando 60 inflorescências. A antese foi determinada utilizando quatro inflorescências em duas plantas. Os visitantes florais foram observados in loco e capturados em três dias consecutivos de coleta. As características morfométricas foram determinadas com paquímetro utilizando 20 flores, sendo cinco flores de quatro acessos. Para determinar o sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, utilizando 50 flores, sendo 10 flores de cinco acessos em pré-antese. Nas condições de Montes Claros, o crescimento das inflorescências de erva-baleeira ocorreu entre meados de agosto e início de outubro, totalizando 45 dias. O florescimento foi observado entre meados de setembro e final de outubro, enquanto a frutificação ocorreu de meados de outubro a início de dezembro, sendo que ambos ocorreram de forma irregular. A antese floral de erva-baleeira, neste estudo, ocorre entre 7:00 e 11:00 horas. Os insetos visitantes pertencem as ordens Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera e Hymenoptera. As flores apresentaram o diâmetro de 2,13 ± 0,05 (mm, o comprimento de 3,29 ± 0,08 (mm, diâmetro do ovário de 0,70 ± 0,02 (mm, o comprimento do ovário de 2,48 ± 0,12 (mm, o diâmetro da antera de 0,67 ± 0,01(mm e o comprimento da antera de 0,93 ±0

  14. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    OpenAIRE

    Leal,Andréa de Castro; Soares,Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atrib...

  15. Dos livros ao cinema: uma reflexão a partir da literatura fantástica sobre aspectos educativos encontrados na Saga Harry Potter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germária Cybelle Bezerra Nogueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre todas as características propostas pela educação, a leitura faz parte fundamental para o entendimento e compreensão do mundo no qual estamos vivendo, ou contemplando a existência de nossas vidas. Mas em grande parte, principalmente após a realização dos eventos da Sétima Arte aonde transferem obras literárias para imagens em movimento que se fundamentam em conceitos filosóficos e contemplando teorias que tendem a fortalecer o uso e as comparações sobre o conflito ideológico existente entre universo literário e a gama do envolvimento fictício de cada obra. Assim sendo, o objetivo deste artigo é verificar através da Narrativa de Ficção, o que há de atrativo para os jovens neste tipo de Gênero? E assim, verificar os fatos apontados, por exemplo, que em uma leitura realizada em Harry Potter pode desenvolver no leitor uma busca interior do papel social de um individuo. No contexto da Sétima Arte o papel já passa a ser visto como introdução de um mundo mágico, construído em contos e lendas necessário para conhecer o verdadeiro universo do personagem, onde a amizade prevalece como papel principal ao aprendizado do aluno.Palavras-chave: ficção; literatura; cinema; Harry Potter.

  16. Aspectos moleculares da anemia falciforme

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    Galiza Neto Gentil Claudino de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo abordaram-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário que acomete expressivo número de indivíduos em várias regiões do mundo. As pesquisas realizadas em torno desta patologia da hemácia, ao longo de quase um século, a partir de 1910, cooperaram para a criação de um novo e importante segmento da ciência, denominado biologia molecular. A descoberta dos polimorfismos da mutação (GAT->GTG no gene que codifica a cadeia beta da hemoglobina, originando diferentes haplótipos da doença, permitiu um melhor e mais amplo conhecimento em torno da heterogeneidade clínica nos pacientes falcêmicos. Analisando a hemoglobina na sua estrutura normal e mutante, sua produção e evolução, pode-se ter um entendimento mais completo da fisiopatologia desta doença e da sua complexidade clínica.

  17. Use of the gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana nanica;Utilizacao da radiacao gama, na dose de 0,4kGy, na reducao da temperatura de armazenamento da banana nanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoel, Luciana, E-mail: luciana_manoel@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Vieites, Rogerio Lopes, E-mail: vieites@fca.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the use of gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana 'Nanica'. The bananas 'Nanica' were harvested in the Arm Taperao, Brotas (SP) town, and sent to CBE (Companhia Brasileira de Esterilizacao-Cotia-SP) for irradiation and constitution of the following treatments: T1 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 16 +-1 deg C); T2 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 14 +-1 deg C); T3 (fruit irradiated ata 0,4 kGy and stored at 12+-1 deg C); T4 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 16+-1 deg C); T5 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 14+-1 deg C) and T6 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 12+-1 deg C). The fruits were stored in B.O.Ds. of the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, with a relative humidity of 80+-5%. The experiment was divided in two groups: control group (post harvest conservation and disease incidence) and parcel group (soluble solids and pulp/peel). The analyses were performed in intervals of five days during a period of 25 days. The experimental design employed was completely randomized (DIC) by applying a factor of 2 x 3 x 6 (irradiation x temperature x time). The Tukey test with 5% of probability was used for comparison between means. The storage temperature of the bananas 'Nanica' was not reduce by irradiation. (author)

  18. Study of seasonal variation of the gamma radiation at Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brazil: radiometry and risk analysis; Estudo da variacao sazonal dos niveis de radiacao gama na Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brasil: radiometria e analise de risco ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the natural gamma radiation at the Areia Preta Beach (APB) in Guarapari, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The level of this radiation is dependent on the concentration of the radioactive mineral monazite in the sand. Probable risks of the exposure to gamma radiation at the APB were evaluated by the preliminary environmental risk analysis technique. For this purpose were conducted two annual sets monitoring gamma radiation in the APB every two months and so, acquired the seasonal variation of the radioactive levels. Additional/y was investigated the granulometry of the heavy mineral fraction and also carried out electronic microscopic scanning and radiometric age dating of the monazites of the APB, the mineral separation by magnetic susceptibility, and the mineralogic determination of the sediment. In order to gain a more complete picture of the seasonal variation, and, consequently, of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at the APB, the radiometric variation was also studied at some other beaches in the same region. The results indicate that the highest radiometric values are measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The radiometric dating of the monazites from the APB revealed the ages of 475 and 530 Ma. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis indicates a minimum risk of excessive radioactive exposition. It would take a period of approximately 870 years of a beach fully crowded to result in one case of bad consequences due to exposure to gamma radiation. (author)

  19. REFLETINDO SOBRE AS ESPECIFICIDADES DA GEOGRAFIA NA CRISE DA MODERNIDADE

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    Patrício A. S. Carneiro Carneiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a evolução da ciência moderna, bem como a crise desse paradigma dominante e seus efeitos sobre a geografia. Destaca ainda a necessidade da construção de um novo pensamento científico para além das fronteiras disciplinares e do método absoluto.

  20. A dignidade da pessoa humana na doutrina social da igreja

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    Manzone, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma análise panorâmica sobre a compreensão da dignidade humana nos diversos textos da Doutrina Social da Igreja, mostrando o entendimento da mesma nos diversos documentos dos Papas, notadamente Leão XII, Pio XI, Pio XII e João Paulo II, além de apontar aspectos históricos e culturais que influenciaram cada pronunciamento, o que foi determinante para a evolução do pensamento do Magistério na questão social. O ponto de partida é a visão antropológica da Doutrina Social da Igreja, resumida em termos de “homem criado por Deus a sua imagem e resgatado pelo sangue de Jesus Cristo” (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis 29. A partir daí, há a defesa do primado do ser humano sobre o social e reivindicações totalitaristas que perpassaram a história recente da humanidade, embora a pessoa seja sempre um ser-em-relação e situado em uma sociedade determinada

  1. Os usos da diversidade

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    Clifford Geertz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Ao discorrer sobre o “Futuro do Etnocentrismo”, este artigo parte da premissa de que a globalização, apesar de ter – em muitos casos – diminuído as diferenças entre povos, não tem amenizado os preconceitos e as formas de discriminação que ocorrem em nome dessas diferenças. Ele resgata a importância do antropólogo neste cenário lembrando que a diversidade cultural faz parte da sociedade complexa, remetendo-se não apenas a grupos étnicos ou nacionais bem delimitados, mas também a diferenças de geração, gênero, sexo e classe, entre outros. Neste contexto, a tolerância passiva de modos distantes de vida assim como a aceitação pragmática de nosso próprio paroquialismo são atitudes não somente intelectualmente desonestas mas também moralmente repreensíveis. É no encontro incômodo de subjetividades variantes na sua própria sociedade que o antropólogo define seu lugar.

  2. Progresso Interdisciplinar da Medicina

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    Jorge Correia-Pinto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Portugal é muitas vezes citado como um bom exemplo na prestação de cuidados de saúde. Para tal concorreram a investigação (engenharia biomédica, a evolução técnica e a diferenciação clínica de diferentes especialidades. Para que esta evolução se transfira para o paciente com o seu máximo potencial, o diálogo e a interdisciplinaridade são imprescindíveis. Nesta Edição da Gazeta Médica, vários artigos trazem até ao leitor alguns exemplos desta evolução e interdisciplinaridade, que continua todos os dias nos nossos hospitais. Assim não podemos deixar de salientar o enorme progresso que houve no desenvolvimento de antimicrobianos e logicamente, o desafio que agora enfrentamos, o da resistência aos antibióticos. Por outro lado, a biologia molecular ao permitir-nos conhecer melhor a origem e fisiopatologia de inúmeras doenças, abriu um janela de oportunidade para individualizar o algoritmo clínico de orientação e tratamento clínicos. É com naturalidade, portanto, que a seguir encontramos vários artigos que relatam estratégias de individualização terapêutica, aumentando o efeito terapêutico, e minimizando os efeitos laterais. Sendo o relator deste editorial, um cirurgião, não posso deixar de dar enfoque à forma como a cirurgia minimamente invasiva tem revolucionado a intervenção cirúrgica. A história reporta-nos que foram os urologistas e os ginecologistas os pioneiros em muitos dos passos determinantes para chegarmos à cirurgia laparoscópica. Aqueles e os cirurgiões digestivos documentaram clinicamente que o desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe consigo várias vantagens que, resumidamente, resultam numa convalescença pós-operatória mais suave e mais curta. Inspirado pelos benefícios bem documentados de cirurgia minimamente invasiva em adultos e crianças, o século XXI começou com as primeiras tentativas de transportar as vantagens desta abordagem para recém-nascidos, tal

  3. O ensino da "extensão rural" nos cursos superiores de medicina veterinária no Brasil

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    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa investigou como os Cursos Superiores de Medicina Veterinária no Brasil (CSMV estão oferecendo conhecimentos relacionados à "Extensão Rural". Foram aplicados questionários aos 149 cursos de Medicina Veterinária em funcionamento. Deste universo, obteve-se uma amostra de 57 entrevistados que responderam à pesquisa (38,3%. Em que pesem as mudanças curriculares após o Parecer 105/2002, a disciplina ainda é oferecida na maioria (97% dos cursos, evidenciando o reconhecimento de sua importância na formação dos alunos de graduação. Três aspectos observados merecem reflexão: a heterogeneidade na carga horária da disciplina, variando de 30 a 90 horas/semestre; certa heterogeneidade da inserção (semestre/período na grade, podendo constar desde o segundo até o último período; e a ampla gama de temas que constam nos programas. Sugere-se que os programas da disciplina de Extensão Rural, a serem oferecidos nos CSMV, procurem inserir três pontos que se entende serem importantes, mas nem sempre abordados: i a "extensão rural" com seus múltiplos enfoques (serviço público para o desenvolvimento holístico das famílias rurais, assistência técnica propriamente dita, difusão de tecnologia, prática pedagógica, processo de comunicação etc.; ii temas relacionados diretamente à atuação do médico veterinário (tais como a relação da extensão com a sanidade animal e humana, a defesa agropecuária etc.; e iii temas emergentes relacionados a áreas multidisciplinares, especialmente a sustentabilidade, o meio ambiente e o bem-estar animal.

  4. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  5. Disponibilidade de cálcio do leite de búfala irradiado por raios gama
    Calcium availability of buffalo milk irradiated by gamma rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DALLA DEA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O leite de búfala é composto por elevados teores de nutrientes, sendo importante, principalmente, como matéria-prima para elaboração de produtos lácteos e fonte de proteínas e cálcio. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito dos raios gama na disponibilidade de cálcio no leite de búfala. O leite integral foi irradiado nas doses 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,0 kGy e também foi avaliado o controle, que não foi submetido ao processo de irradiação. Foram avaliadas composição centesimal e teor de cálcio total no primeiro dia para caracterização do leite utilizado. As análises de diálise de cálcio in vitro ocorreram no primeiro, terceiro, sexto e nono dias de armazenamento a 4ºC. Como resultados para a composição centesimal foram obtidos valores de 4,85% de proteína, 7,00% de gordura, 0,79% cinza e 4,45% carboidratos. O teor de cálcio foi 212,43mg/100mL. A irradiação do leite não alterou a disponibilidade de cálcio.

  6. Identificação de itens alimentares constituintes da dieta dos peixes-boi marinhos (Trichechus manatus na região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes Borges

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p77 Os peixes-boi marinhos são considerados herbívoros oportunistas, consumindo uma grande variedade de itens alimentares. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar os itens alimentares constituintes da dieta dos peixe-boi marinhos em vida livre, na região Nordeste do Brasil. Para tanto  foram coletadas amostras de conteúdo estomacal, provenientes de seis carcaças de peixes-boi marinhos, além de amostras fecais de 11 animais nativos e cinco espécimes reintroduzidos. O material foi identificado ao nível de gênero e/ou espécie, através de aspectos morfo-anatômicos, sendo identificadas 21 espécies entre macroalgas, fanerógamas e cnidários. Através destas análi ses, foi possível observar que os peixes-boi marinhos alimentaram-se de uma grande diversidade de plantas aquáticas, com predominância das algas vermelhas.

  7. Os limites da competitividade

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    Henrique Rattner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Costuma-se destacar os aspectos aparentemente positivos e as vantagens hipotéticas da concorrência e da competitividade entre empresas e também entre nações. Não se pode negar que a concorrência nos mercados tenha exercido uma função central e fundamental na gênese e na expansão do sistema de produção capitalista. Ela contribuiu para a geração e acumulação de riquezas materiais. Também estimulou e fortaleceu as aspirações de seus principais atores sociais, os empreendedores, de exigir uma organização política mais democrática em oposição ao regime feudal ou absolutista, em determinado período da história do mundo ocidental.

  8. Status of groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Hancock, Tracy Connell; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 963-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 52 wells (49 grid wells and 3 understanding wells) and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, not the

  9. Engenharia da mente

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Tânia Cristina D'Agostini

    2005-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Na era da informação digitalizada, pesquisadores de diferentes áreas do conhecimento enfrentam uma nova questão: a organização semântica dos dados. A matéria tornou-se importante pelo fato das informações digitalmente disponíveis estarem dispostas, em sua maioria, como dados não-estruturados. Todavia, sabe-se que a estruturação de dados é um problema complexo ...

  10. Em favor da talassografia

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    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  11. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

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    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Controladoria tem sido alvo de estudos e destaque de análises e reflexões dos estudiosos das ciências que têm como foco o campo gerencial das organizações como a da Administração e Contabilidade. É importante observar a contribuição da Controladoria à governança pública, fundamento de uma gestão democrática e participativa. Nesse contexto, insere-se o objetivo deste estudo, refletir sobre atuação da controladoria pública da cidade de Salvador, observando a contribuição efetiva na governança nesse município. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos na Secretaria da Fazenda (SEFAZ do município a quem Controladoria vincula-se. Com caráter exploratório, essa investigação descritiva envolveu pesquisa de campo, análise de documentos e relatórios emitidos pela SEFAZ e pelo Tribunal de Contas do Município (TCM. Verificou-se o organograma da SEFAZ, seu orçamento e os pareceres do TCM. Os resultados expressam a importância da Controladoria e denotam a impressão de que, na instituição estudada, essa área não esteja cumprindo bem seu papel. 

  12. Ocorrência da ferrugem da videira em Minas Gerais

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    Adelica Aparecida Xavier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da videira causada por Phakopsora euvitis Ono constitui-se numa ameaça às regiões produtoras de uva em função do potencial destrutivo da planta. A doença foi detectada no Brasil, pela primeira vez, em 2001. Atualmente, ela ocorre no Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Espírito Santo e Santa Catarina. Em abril de 2010, observaram-se na estação experimental da Unimontes, Janaúba, Minas Gerais, plantas da cv. Niágara rosada com sintomas típicos da doença. A análise dos sintomas e a caracterização dos urediniósporos sésseis, levemente equinulados, com formato oval, ou elipsoide formado em urédias subepidérmicas na origem, inrompentes e com paráfises circundantes dorsalmente, levaram à diagnose de Phakopsora euvitis como o agente causal da doença. Este é o primeiro relato da doença no Estado de Minas Gerais.

  13. A importância da citometria de fluxo no diagnóstico raro de mieloma mielomonocítico

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    Bacal Nydia Strachman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O mieloma múltiplo consiste na proliferação de células plasmáticas. Raramente apresenta, ao diagnóstico, morfologia de células imaturas com citoplasma amplo basofílico, sugerindo quadro leucêmico inicial. O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar a importância da imunofenotipagem na elucidação destes achados morfológicos pela expressão simultânea de antígenos plasmocíticos, mielomonocíticos e de linhagem linfóide T, confirmando a hipótese diagnóstica de mieloma mielomonocítico. Apresentamos dois casos de mieloma mielomonocítico através de análise morfológica (coloração pancromática de Romanovsky, citoquímica (PAS, peroxidase, sudan black, alfanaftil acetato esterase e oil red, citogenética e imunofenotipagem por citometria de fluxo em sangue periférico e medula óssea, de acordo com as técnicas recomendadas. Foram utilizados os anticorpos monoclonais: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD20, CD25, CD33, CD34, CD38, CD45, CD56, CD71, HLA-DR, TCR alfa/beta, TCR gama/delta, kappa, lambda, IgM e IgD de superfície e intracitoplasmática, assim como MPO, CD79a e CD3 intracitoplasmático. Utilizamos as técnicas de banda G e FISH nas análises citogenéticas. Foram observadas alterações clonais em ambos os casos, sendo uma com trissomia do cromossomo 8 e outro caso com deleção do braço longo do cromossomo 7 e do braço curto do cromossomo 6. Os percentuais de positividade encontrados nos anticorpos monoclonais CD4, CD7, CD10, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD33, CD38 e CD56 de forte expressão, HLA-DR, TCR gama/delta, MPO e IgM intracitoplasmático no histograma de volume x complexidade e no histograma de CD45 x complexidade permitiram concluir este diagnóstico em ambos os casos, demonstrando a importância do método.

  14. Historicidade da filosofia em Hegel e Heidegger

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Iber

    2017-01-01

    Gostaria de discutir, em forma de teses, a temática da historicidade da filosofia em contraste e na sua divergência em Hegel e Heidegger. Diferente do historicismo, que não soluciona o problema da historicidade da filosofia, porque ele dissolve tendencialmente a filosofia na história da filosofia e não coloca em especial a questão da verdade, Hegel e Heidegger desenvolvem uma teoria genuinamente filosófica da história da filosofia do interesse filosófico pela verdade. Esse interesse genuiname...

  15. Dos cuidados com o corpo feminino em reclames na Revista do Globo da década de 1930 Feminine body care ads in the Revista do Globo magazine of the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Carolina Schossler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde as primeiras décadas do século XX, a moda dos banhos de mar contribuiu para despir pouco a pouco mulheres, homens e crianças no Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil. As mulheres foram o público-alvo preferencial dos reclames de produtos higiênicos, farmacêuticos, cosméticos e de vestuário. Para o veraneio, uma gama desses produtos foi anunciada na Revista do Globo durante a década de 1930. Com o fito de satisfazer "novos desejos" femininos por meio de novos produtos, esses anúncios permitem uma análise histórica das representações da mulher moderna, principalmente da emergência de um novo corpo feminino. O presente artigo trata da mudança nas representações do feminino na década de 1930, com base na publicidade da revista de maior circulação no Rio Grande do Sul à época.Since the beginning of the 20th century, the habit of going to the beach allowed for the progressive revelation of the bodies of women, men, and children in Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil. Women were the main targets of advertisements for hygiene and pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, and fashion. During the 1930s, a wide variety of such products was advertised in the Revista do Globo magazine. With the aim of satisfying new feminine desires through new products,these advertisements allow for a historical analysis of the representation of the modern woman, especially the birth of a new feminine body. This article discusses the changes in the representation of women, during the 1930s, based on the advertisements which appeared in the most widely read magazine in the state of Rio Grande do Sul at the time.

  16. Análise da Inteligibilidade de textos via ferramentas de Processamento de Língua Natural: adaptando as métricas do Coh-Metrix para o Português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Evaristo Scarton

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o projeto de adaptação de métricas da ferramenta Coh-Metrix para o português do Brasil (Coh-Metrix-Port. Descreve as ferramentas de processamento de língua natural para o português que foram utilizadas, juntamente com as decisões tomadas para a criação da Coh-Metrix-Port. O artigo traz duas aplicações da ferramenta Coh-Metrix-Port: (i a avaliação de textos jornalísticos e sua versão para crianças, mostrando as diferenças entre os textos supostamente complexos e textos simples, isto é, os textos reescritos; (ii a criação de classificadores binários (com córpus de textos dedicados a adultos e crianças, analisando a influência do gênero no desempenho destes classificadores (gêneros jornalístico e de divulgação científica e de textos de outras fontes. A precisão do melhor classificador treinado foi conseguida com a implementação de Support Vector Machines (SMO do WEKA e foi de 97%. Como as métricas desta ferramenta ajudam a discriminar com boa precisão textos dedicados a adultos e a crianças, acreditamos que elas possam também ajudar a avaliar se textos disponíveis na Web são simples o suficiente para serem inteligíveis por analfabetos funcionais e pessoas com outras deficiências cognitivas, como afasia e dislexia, e também para crianças e adultos em fase de letramento e assim permitir o acesso dos textos da Web para uma gama maior de usuários.

  17. Modelo para sistemas da qualidade como base da estrategia competitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Vários autores propõem a empresa como um sistema em transformação, sendo que esse enfoque sistêmico parece oferecer um meio efetivo de prover as capacidades estratégicas que são valorizadas pelos mercados atuais. Por outro lado, vem crescendo a consciência para o enfoque da qualidade como base da estratégia competitiva, onde esta é associada à lucratividade e incluída no processo de planejamento estratégico, tornando-se um instrumento eficaz de concorrência que, para fazer frente à di...

  18. Dimensão da maturidade à luz da logoterapia

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    Libardi, Tadeu Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o tema da maturidade humana à luz da logoterapia, fundada por Viktor Emil Frankl. Nos dias de hoje, existe a frustração existencial, não mais a sexual, como analisada por Freud. Cada ser humano, como pessoa livre e responsável e tendo como meta a busca da maturidade, vai percorrendo seu próprio caminho, que o leva à ceitação de si, de seus limites e potencialidades e ao relacionamento social e religioso, capacitando-o ao confronto com o sofrimento humano

  19. Comparação do teste tuberculínico e do ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama para diagnóstico de tuberculose latente em agentes comunitários de saúde do Sul do Brasil, Rio Grande do Sul, 2012

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    Paula Corrêa Machado

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a capacidade de detecção de infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis em agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS com uso do teste tuberculínico (TT e do ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama (IGRA. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com aplicação do TT e do IGRA em 47 ACS no período de março a junho de 2012; o TT foi considerado positivo na presença de uma induração ≥10 mm, assim como o IGRA, se houvesse concentração ≥0,35 UI/ml de interferon-gama. RESULTADOS: 12 ACS apresentaram TT positivo e 6 tiveram IGRA positivo; a concordância entre os testes foi avaliada como pobre (κ=0,063. CONCLUSÃO: apesar do número limitado de amostras, a alta discordância entre os testes evidencia a necessidade de desenvolver mais estudos que busquem encontrar uma explicação biológica para tais diferenças e avaliem a relação de custo-benefício na utilização do IGRA.

  20. O carnaval da turba futurista

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    Ana Paula Freitas de Andrade

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da repercussão do futurismo italiano no Brasil, a partir da análise de crônicas de Menotti Del Picchia publicadas no Correio Paulistano, entre 1920 e 1922. Nessa época o escritor participou da polêmica sobre a vanguarda italiana veiculada na imprensa paulistana, publicando uma série de crônicas que, ao promover ideias futuristas e criticar a literatura passadista, estabelecem a formulação de um futurismo compósito, adaptado à realidade brasileira; e esboçam as principais teses do movimento modernista.

  1. Evapotranspiração da cultura da cebola

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    G. M. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da quantidade de água necessária para as culturas é um dos principais fatores para o correto planejamento, dimensionamento e manejo de qualquer sistema de irrigação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo, comparar medida da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc da cebola com estimativa obtida a partir da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo determinada por diferentes métodos e Kc proposto na literatura. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental do Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciências Sociais da Universidade do Estado da Bahia - UNEB, em Juazeiro, no período de junho a setembro de 2011. As medidas da ETc foram obtidas em evapotranspirômetros e as estimativas, a partir de ETo determinada pelos métodos: Penman-Monteith (padrão FAO, Penman-Monteith modificado por Villa Nova et al. (2004, Hargreaves & Samani, Makkink e Jensen & Haise e Kc proposto por Marouelli et al. (2005, para a cultura da cebola. É fundamental a avaliação de métodos de estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência antes de sua aplicação, pois erros consideráveis podem ser cometidos na determinação da quantidade de água a ser aplicada a uma cultura, o que repercutirá certamente, na produtividade.Evapotranspiration crop onionAbstract: The determination of the amount of water needed for crops is a major factor for the correct planning, sizing and management of any irrigation system. This study aimed to compare measure of crop evapotranspiration (ETc onion with estimates obtained from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo determined by different methods and Kc proposed in the literature. The experiment was conducted in the experimental field of the Department of Technology and Social Sciences, University of the State of Bahia, in Juazeiro, from June to September 2011. The ETc measurements were obtained in evapotranspirometers and estimates, from ETo determined by the methods: Penman-Monteith (FAO standard, Penman-Monteith modified

  2. Dos Males da Medida

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    Lilia Moritz Schwarcz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objeto a difícil percepção da "diferença". Tema polêmico, o debate sobre as variedades culturais foi transformado, em meados do século XIX, em uma questão racial e, nesse sentido, vinculado às regularidades da biologia. Tecendo comparações entre os teóricos raciais brasileiros e os impasses mais contemporâneos, sobre a aferição de inteligência e capacidade, esse ensaio pretende provocar. Em pauta estarão as contradições que têm se destacado, mais recentemente, quando se opõem de um lado as etnicidades locais, de outro a tão propalada globalização. Tal qual dois lados de uma mesma moeda, a afirmação de identidades tem se mostrado tão evidente como o próprio estreitamento das relações internacionais. Mudam os termos do debate - de raça, para etnia -, mas, de alguma maneira, continuamos presos a uma lógica positiva de estabelecimento de hierarquias ontológicas.This article has as its objective the difficult perception of "difference". A controversial theme, in the nineteenth century, this debate on cultural varieties, became a racial issue and in this sense, bonded to the regularities of biology. In such a context, this essay intends to provoke comparisons about the standard measure of intelligence and capacity, between Brazilian racial theorists and the impasse of more contemporary times. Appointed here will be the contradictions which have, more recently grown in importance, and have opposed through one aspect, local ethnic groups and through another the greatly publicized globalization. As are the two sides of a coin, the affirmation of identities has shown itself as evident as the tightening of international relations. The terms of the debate change from race to ethnicism, but in some way, we are still tied to a positivist logic which establishes ontologic hierarchies.

  3. SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA ARQUITETURA DA INFORMAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfram Roberto Rodrigues de Albuquerque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Expõe-se o estado atual da disciplina Arquitetura da Informação quanto a problemática terminológica da definição do campo de estudo, apresentando-se argumentos para uma definição de Arquitetura da Informação de uma forma ampla na qual os usos correntes dessa expressão sejam vistos como especializações. Defende-se uma definição com a utilização de um conjunto de propriedades mínimas cujas interações levam a uma terminologia formal e cuja abstração leva a uma definição formal do conceito que emprega a linguagem de morfismos da Teoria das Categorias. Trata-se de um recorte de alguns dos resultados obtidos na tese de doutoramento de um dos autores, defendida em setembro de 2010. O contexto da pesquisa é exposto e alguns dos resultados obtidos são delineados.

  4. O sentido da espiritualidade na transitoriedade da vida

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    Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Arrieira

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Compreender o sentido da espiritualidade para a pessoa em cuidados paliativos. Métodos: Abordagem qualitativa, fundamentada na fenomenologia existencialista e referencial de Viktor Frankl. Os participantes foram nove pessoas em cuidados paliativos atendidas no domicílio. Informações coletadas por meio da observação e de entrevista realizadas no período de junho a outubro de 2014, gravadas, transcritas e transformadas em texto interpretado com a abordagem fenomenológica hermenêutica. Resultados: Surgiram as seguintes categorias: sentido de continuidade da vida; sentido de alívio do sofrimento; sentido de naturalidade da morte e sentido de valorização do viver. Conclusão: Para a integralidade da atenção faz-se necessário a inclusão da espiritualidade na prática do cuidado em saúde. A espiritualidade proporciona o encontro existencial entre a pessoa em cuidados paliativos e os profissionais que a cuidam em sua integralidade.

  5. O uso da aromaterapia na melhora da autoestima

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    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram verificar se a inalação dos óleos essenciais de rosa e de ylang-ylang alteram a percepção da autoestima e comparar a eficácia dos mesmos. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Hospital da Universidade de São Paulo. Participaram 43 funcionários dos setores de Higienização e da Central de Materiais e Esterilização durante os meses de maio a julho de 2009. Os sujeitos foram randomizados em três grupos: dois que receberem os óleos essenciais e outro que recebeu placebo (essência de rosa. A avaliação da autoestima foi feita através de uma escala já validada no Brasil, sendo aplicada antes do uso dos aromas, depois de 30 dias de uso e ao completar 60 dias. Dentre os resultados, verificou-se que a amostra era constituída por 88,6% de indivíduos com média e alta autoestima e que os óleos essenciais em questão não alteraram de forma significativa a percepção da autoestima.

  6. Irradiation effects on meat: a review Efeito da irradiação na carne: uma revisão

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    Fábio Costa Henry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is a process exposing food to ionizing radiations such as gamma rays emitted from the radioisotopes 60Co and 137Cs, or, high energy electrons and X-rays produced by machine sources. Irradiation can induce formation of isooctane-soluble carbonyl compounds in the lipid fraction and acid-soluble carbonyls in the protein fraction of meat. Increasing irradiation dose increases these compounds however, cooking reduces them. Among the volatile components, 1-heptene and 1-nonene are influenced most by irradiation dose, and aldehydes (propanal, pentanal, hexanal are influenced most by packaging type (aerobiose vs vacuum. Sulfur-containing volatiles formed from sulfur-containing compounds (primarily amino acids also contribute to irradiation odor. Reducing the temperature during the irradiation process reduces the effects on odor/flavor because free radical generation and dispersion are reduced. Ultimately, radiolysis of water into free radical species may be the initiators of both lipid oxidation breakdown products and sulfur-containing volatiles responsible for irradiation odor. Methods to decrease the detrimental effects of irradiation include oxygen exclusion (vacuum packaging, replacement with inert gases (nitrogen and addition of protective agents (antioxidants.A irradiação de alimentos é um processo que expõe o alimento às radiações ionizantes tais como os raios gama, emitidos pelos isótopos radioativos 60Co e 137Cs, ou, os elétrons de alta energia e os raios X. A irradiação pode induzir a formação de compostos de carbonil isooctano solúveis na fração do lipídio e carbonils solúveis nos ácidos da fração proteica da carne. A dose crescente da irradiação aumenta estes compostos, entretanto o cozimento pode reduzi-los. Entre os componentes voláteis, 1 heptene e 1 nonene são mais influenciados pela dose de radiação, e os aldeídos (propanal, pentanal, hexanal são mais influenciados pelo tipo de embalagem

  7. A utilização da teoria da aprendizagem significativa no ensino da Enfermagem

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    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:sintetizar a produção científica acerca da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa no processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Enfermagem.Método:revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e CINAHL, com artigos que abordaram a temática ou aspectos da teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Fizeram parte da amostra dez artigos, sendo seis escritos no idioma português e quatro no inglês, publicados de 1998 a 2013.Resultados:cinco artigos fizeram alusão à Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, quatro citaram Ausubel como autor dessa teoria e apenas dois seguiram a estrutura para a aplicação da teoria completamente. Há escassez de estudos sobre o tema e os que o abordam não o correlacionam com a teoria de Ausubel.Conclusão:faz-se necessário romper com a dicotomia entre teoria e prática e promover a articulação dos conteúdos com a ação, introduzindo o aluno como autor de seu próprio conhecimento.

  8. Da janela do meu quarto

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    Esther Hamburger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o curta Da Janela do Meu Quarto de Cao Guimarães como contraponto a filmes brasileiros recentes que lidam com a desigualdade social brasileira na chave da violência. O texto contrasta o distanciamento imposto pelo posicionamento de câmera e efeitos de montagem e som nesse filme, com o uso de estratégias de pertencimento e apropriação presentes em filmes "de resultado".

  9. Da janela do meu quarto

    OpenAIRE

    Hamburger, Esther

    2008-01-01

    O texto aborda o curta Da Janela do Meu Quarto de Cao Guimarães como contraponto a filmes brasileiros recentes que lidam com a desigualdade social brasileira na chave da violência. O texto contrasta o distanciamento imposto pelo posicionamento de câmera e efeitos de montagem e som nesse filme, com o uso de estratégias de pertencimento e apropriação presentes em filmes "de resultado".

  10. Uma Análise da Definição do Sortimento nos Supermercados Brasileiros e sua Influência nas Vendas

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    João Carlos Lazzarini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A economia brasileira expandiu-se rapidamente ao longo dos anos 2000 suscitando amplas mudanças em diversos segmentos da atividade econômica. No âmbito do mercado de consumo três características são absolutamente marcantes: aumento significativo do poder de compra dos indivíduos, crescimento vertiginoso do nível de informação sobre produtos e serviços e diversificação da oferta.  Nesse cenário a enorme variedade de produtos colocada à disposição dos consumidores por meio de uma ampla gama de alternativas de distribuição, não apenas lojas em seus mais diferentes formatos, mas também outros meios, como por exemplo, a internet, gradativamente tornaram a definição do sortimento para um particular varejista uma questão inequivocamente crucial no estabelecimento de uma posição competitiva. Estudar a importância do sortimento na dinâmica da competição do mercado varejista é exatamente o propósito deste artigo. Ou seja, procurou-se avaliar a significância de uma eventual relação entre sortimento e vendas ao consumidor final de bens não duráveis de massa. Para tanto foram utilizados dados do painel de lojas Scantrack® da The Nielsen Co. Os dados foram colhidos ao longo de 116 semanas em estabelecimentos localizados na região da Grande São Paulo. As análises de correlação, envolvendo diversidade do sortimento e o volume de vendas, basearam-se na análise de vinte e sete importantes categorias de produtos. Com base nessas informações conseguiu-se mostrar que a média do número de itens ofertados, variável proxy das dimensões sortimento e profundidade, mantem correlação significativa e elevada com as vendas ao consumidor final independentemente dos tipos e tamanhos  de supermercados analisados. 

  11. BIODIESEL E AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR NO TOCANTINS: UMA ANÁLISE A PARTIR DA TEORIA DOS CONJUNTOS FUZZY

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    Vinícius Souza Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biocombustíveis tem sido fortemente discutida no Brasil, levando o País a desenvolver políticas e implantar, em 2004, o Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso de Biodiesel (PNPB, com o objetivo de introduzir um biocombustível adequado às condições edafoclimáticas do País, e que tivesse como princípio a inclusão social da agricultura familiar e o desenvolvimento regional. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a eficácia do PNPB quanto à sua meta de inclusão dos agricultores familiares mais pobres na cadeia produtiva do biodiesel tocantinense, bem como estimar se a produção de soja para fins bioenergéticos gera aos agricultores familiares renda superior aos rendimentos provenientes dos outros plantios tradicionais do segmento no Brasil, assim como determinar e avaliar os impactos ambientais sobre a segurança alimentar, provenientes do cultivo da soja. Para a elaboração do presente estudo, foram utilizados dados primários, obtidos mediante a aplicação de questionários às 30 famílias produtoras de soja, e às 32 famílias não produtoras da oleaginosa, localizadas em 9 cidades do Centro do Tocantins; uma gama de indicadores socioeconômicos foi coletada entre os agricultores. A teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy, baseada na condição de vida dos agricultores, e um modelo não linear probit foram utilizados para avaliar a inclusão de famílias rurais pobres na cadeia do biodiesel. Os resultados preliminares mostram uma relação negativa entre o nível de privação das famílias e a adoção do cultivo de soja.

  12. Facetas da democratização: uma escola exigente Facets of schooling democratization: an exigent school

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    Fátima Antunes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, realizado em uma escola portuguesa, identifica uma constelação de orientações, práticas e experiências em que a performatividade e a diversidade parecem ser temas polarizadores dos sentidos de testemunhos de professores e alunos. Procurando interpretar os processos relatados, sugere-se que a edificação de uma escola exigente, segundo os referentes salientados pelos atores no caso estudado, é suscetível de representar uma negociação em presença e uma resposta encontrada, no quadro da performatividade exigida e das condições de diversidade dos públicos acolhidos, face ao processo de democratização da educação vivido naquele contexto. Nas diversas dimensões apreendidas, aquela construção identitária (uma escola exigente testemunha ângulos particulares de facetas atuais do processo de democratização da instituição escolar vivido ao longo das últimas três décadas. A pesquisa constitui-se como o estudo de um caso, que decorreu entre 2003 e 2005, e procurou recolher uma ampla gama de informações de proveniência diversa: dados estatísticos, documentos internos à escola, entrevistas semiestruturadas e notas de observação não-participante.This study, developed in a Portuguese school, identifies several guidelines, practices and experiences in which performance and diversity seem to be polarizing topics of the meanings of teachers and students' testimonies. Trying to interpret the reported processes, it is suggested that the edification of an exigent school? according to the referents underscored by the actors of the case under study ? seems to represent a negotiation in presence and an answer found by that school, taking into account the capacity of performance required and the conditions of diversity of the public attended by the school, in face of the scholar institution democratization, as it has occurred in that context. On the dimensions approached, that identity construction (an exigent school

  13. PROBABILITY OF PRECIPITATION FOR THE MICROREGION OF TANGARÁ DA SERRA, MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL PROBABILIDADE DE PRECIPITAÇÃO PARA A MICROREGIÃO DE TANGARÁ DA SERRA, ESTADO DO MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admar Júnior Coletti

    2010-08-01

    Cerrados, aliada aos inúmeros modelos que visam a avaliar tal parâmetro, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar a precipitação pluviométrica mensal, em diferentes níveis de probabilidade, na região de Tangará da Serra (MT, utilizando-se a Função Gama de Probabilidade. Foram utilizados dados pluviométricos de 1970 a 2007 (38 anos, disponibilizados pela Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA, coletados nas coordenadas 14º37’55” de latitude Sul, 57º28’05” de longitude Oeste e 488 m de altitude. Para verificação do ajuste entre os valores estimados e observados, utilizou-se o teste de aderência de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ao nível de 5% de significância, o qual não demonstrou discrepância significativa para períodos mensais, inclusive nos meses em que houve vários valores próximos ou iguais a zero, possibilitando, assim, a utilização da distribuição Gama. As maiores lâminas de precipitação esperadas ocorreram de novembro a março (estação chuvosa, enquanto, entre junho e agosto, ocorreram as menores lâminas de precipitação (estação seca. Os demais meses podem ser caracterizados como intermediários entre a estação seca e a chuvosa.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Distribuição Gama; precipitação esperada; planejamento agrícola.

  14. Evaluation of the transfer of passive immunity by the analysis of immunoglobulin and serum proteins of Holstein calvesAvaliação da transferência de imunidade passiva através da análise de imunoglobulinas e proteínas séricas em bezerras da raça holandês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This present study evaluated the serum concentrations of the fractional and total proteins, the immunoglobulin concentrations, and the dynamics of passive immune transfer in 25 female Holstein calves. All calves were maintained with their respective dams for 24 hours during which the ingestion of colostrum was done ad libitum. The determinations were done within 24 hours after suckling and at 30 days of age. The gamma fraction of proteins was the predominant immunoglobulin observed 24 hrs after the suckling of colostrum, followed by beta, alpha 2, and alpha1. 30 days later, the beta fraction was more elevated, followed by gamma, and the alpha fractions. The concentrations of serum albumin increased proportionally with age, but the concentrations of total proteins remained unaltered. Most calves (56%; 14/25 demonstrated effective passive immune transfer of immunoglobulins; transfer was within acceptable limits for 36% (9/25 but was inadequate in 8% (2/25 of the calves evaluated. Este presente estudo avaliou as concentrações séricas da proteína total, suas frações, as concentrações de imunoglobulinas e a dinâmica de transferência da imunidade passiva em 25 bezerras da raça Holandês variedade preto e branco. Todas as bezerras permaneceram com suas respectivas mães até 24 horas após o nascimento, durante este período a ingestão de colostro foi realizada ad libitum. As determinações foram feitas após a ingestão do colostro às 24 horas após o nascimento e aos 30 dias de idade. As gamaglobulinas foram predominantes às 24 horas após a ingestão de colostro, seguida pelas frações beta e alfa. Aos 30 dias a fração beta foi a mais elevada, seguida pela gama e as frações alfa. A concentração de albumina sérica aumentou proporcionalmente com a idade, mas a concentração de proteína total manteve-se inalterada. A maior parte das bezerras (56%; 14/25 demonstrou transferência passiva imune eficaz de imunoglobulinas; a

  15. GRAU DA PRÁXIS DA GESTÃO DA RESPONSABILIDADE AMBIENTAL PRATICADA POR USINAS SUCROALCOOLEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Longo

    2014-12-01

    gerencial (PCDA foi o Action que apresentou maior grau de aderência. Há uma concordância acentuada às características fundamentais do ciclo gerencial na Gestão da Responsabilidade Socioambiental.

  16. Papel da vitamina B12 na patogenia da mielose funicular

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    Horacio M. Canelas

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a absorção da vitamina B12 radioativa em 29 casos de mielose funicular. O diagnóstico baseou-se na clássica sintomatologia neu- rológica e na presença de acloridria gástrica e eventuais alterações hemato-lógicas. As manifestações neurológicas foram avaliadas de modo semiquan-titativo e correlacionadas com os resultados do teste de excreção urinária da vitamina B12. Não foi verificada correlação significante da absorção da vitamina B12, quer com a sintomatologia nuerológica total, quer com as síndromes periférica e funicular dorsal. Contudo, foi encontrada significante correlação negativa entre a síndrome piramidal e a absorção da vitamina B12. Os resultados são confrontados com o papel desempenhado pela vitamina B12 na síntese das bainhas de mielina e do ácido ribonuclêico, sendo salientada a importância dêste último para a vida das células nervosas e dos longos axônios.

  17. Composição florística das formações vegetais sobre uma turfeira topotrófica da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Costa César S. B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Turfeiras topotróficas caracterizam-se como corpos de águas rasas, permanente ou periodicamente alagados por água do lençol freático, percolada através do solo inorgânico das terras altas adjacentes à depressão central da turfeira. Possuem solos orgânicos e a cobertura vegetal é dominanda por fanerógamas aquáticas emergentes. Este estudo visou o levantamento da diversidade específica e caracterização das principais formações vegetais ao longo de duas transecções de 200m em uma turfeira topotrófica na localidade de Domingos Petrolini (Rio Grande, RS. Em março/1998, o total de 48 espécies vegetais (30 famílias foram encontradas nas 40 parcelas de 5m × 2m observadas nas duas transecções efetuadas. Cerca de 56% das espécies eram plantas aquáticas herbáceas (submersas, flutuantes ou emergentes e apenas 10% arbustos ou árvores. Sete espécies dominaram a cobertura vegetal (Eupatorium tremulum, Eryngium pandanifolium, Blechnum brasiliense, Rhynchospora sp., Xyris jupicai, Utricularia gibba e Cladium jamaicense. Quatro formações vegetais tipicamente distribuídas em relação à topografia e à distância do lençol freático foram caracterizadas: (1 banhados do capim-navalha Cladium jamaicense, drenados apenas no verão, ocupam a depressão central da turfeira (DCT; (2 planos médios de Gravatás/Caraguatás (Eryngium pandanifolium associados a samambaia Blechnum brasiliense (+0,5 a +1,5m da DCT; (3 bosques marginais de arbustos palustres (+1 a +3m da DCT são dominados por Eupatorium tremulum; e (4 campos de turfa recobertos por ciperáceas de pequeno porte, gramas boiadeiras e botões-de-ouro (Xyris jupicai ocupam a borda do afloramento da turfa (+3 a +4m da DCT.

  18. Para além da paz liberal? respostas ao "retrocesso" Beyond liberal peace? responses to "backsliding"

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    Oliver P Richmond

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A ortodoxia familiar de construção da paz liberal depende da transplantação e da exportação de condicionalidade e dependência, com vistas a consolidar um contrato social entre populações, seus governos e o Estado, em que repouse uma paz liberal legítima e consensual. O que, com frequência, ocorre, é uma forma híbrida de paz liberal, sujeita a críticas locais poderosas, à resistência, por vezes, e à percepção de que a construção da paz internacional está fracassando em corresponder às expectativas. Em termos kantianos, os problemas com que a paz liberal tem se deparado e a crise pela qual está hoje passando podem ser denominados "retrocesso". Tem sido particularmente notável que a construção da paz liberal não vem sendo capaz de construir políticas unidas a partir de fragmentos territoriais no Kosovo, na Bósnia, no Afeganistão, no Iraque, no Sri Lanka e mesmo na Irlanda do Norte, onde alguns ou todos de seus elementos estão em desenvolvimento. Isso indica uma necessidade ou de reforma do modelo liberal para a paz, ou de estabelecimento de uma capacidade de coexistência desse modelo com alternativas, ou de substituição do modelo. Este artigo examina uma gama de questões inerentes ao paradigma de construção da paz liberal, algumas causas de "retrocesso" e o que pode ser feito no que tange a tais causas, no sentido de utilizar a construção da paz para criar um novo contrato social e atingir o que se poderia muito bem ser uma forma "híbrida liberal-local" de paz.The familiar orthodoxy of liberal peacebuilding depends upon transplanting and exporting conditionality and dependency in order to cement a social contract between populations, their governments and the state, on which rests a legitimate and consensual liberal peace. What often emerges is a hybrid form of the liberal peace, subject to powerful local critiques, sometimes resistance, and to the perception that international peacebuilding is failing to

  19. Influência da dependência energética de dosímetros termoluminescentes na medida da dose na entrada da pele em procedimentos radiográficos Influence of thermoluminescent dosimeters energy dependence on the measurement of entrance skin dose in radiographic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Liane de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da dependência energética de materiais termoluminescentes na determinação da dose na entrada da pele de pacientes submetidos a exames radiográficos (radiologia geral, mamografia e radiologia odontológica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Três diferentes materiais termoluminescentes foram utilizados: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P e CaSO4:Dy. Estes materiais foram expostos a fontes padronizadas de radiação X e gama, e a feixes clínicos de raios X. RESULTADOS: As curvas de calibração e de dependência energética foram obtidas. Todos os materiais apresentaram resposta linear em função do kerma no ar. Com relação à dependência energética, as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti mostraram maior variação da resposta termoluminescente em função da energia efetiva do feixe de radiação. CONCLUSÃO: Os materiais testados mostraram desempenho adequado para a detecção da radiação X em feixes padronizados e clínicos. Embora as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti apresentem dependência energética significativa no intervalo de energia considerado, este materiais podem ser utilizados para medição da dose de entrada na pele se fatores de correção apropriados forem utilizados.OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of the energy dependence of thermoluminescent materials on the determination of entrance skin dose in patients submitted to conventional radiographic studies (general radiology, mammography and dental radiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different thermoluminescent materials were utilized: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO4:Dy. These materials were exposed to standardized sources of X and gamma radiation and clinical X-ray beams. RESULTS: Calibration and energy dependence curves were obtained. All the materials showed a linear response as a function of the air kerma. As far as energy dependence is concerned, the CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples showed the

  20. Publicidade e ética: um estudo da construção da imagem da mulher

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    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O texto propõe uma reflexão sobre a ética da responsabilidade na publicidade veiculada nas revistas Claudia e Nova. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, resultante da leitura dos anúncios selecionados, subsidiada por teóricos da Análise do Discurso da linha francesa, que busca averiguar como a mulher é representada. Constatou-se que no contexto da sociedade contemporânea o retrato da mulher como sedutora ainda está presente, mesmo que em vários momentos ela apareça como protagonista de sua própria vida.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO QUALITATIVA DAS PREPARAÇÕES DO CARDÁPIO DE UMA UNIDADE DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E NUTRIÇÃO HOSPITALAR DE VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Ferraz BRITO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar qualitativamente os cardápios servidos aos acompanhantes e servidores de uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição de um hospital público do município de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Foi realizada uma pesquisa exploratória, durante cinco semanas entre os meses de agosto e setembro de 2011. Foram analisados os cardápios do almoço de 31 dias, de acompanhantes e servidores do hospital, com base no método de Avaliação Qualitativa das Preparações do Cardápio. Uma oferta reduzida de folhosos foi observada nos cardápios dos acompanhantes (19,4% e servidores (41,9%, bem como um grande fornecimento de doces, 64,5% e 70,9%, respectivamente. Repetições de pratos principais foram encontradas em ambos os cardápios dos grupos avaliados e no cardápio dos servidores destacam- -se refeições ricas em alimentos sulfurados (48,4%. Tais inconformidades configuram um risco à saúde da clientela dado a gama de doenças crônicas desencadeadas pelo desequilíbrio nutricional relativo ao consumo açúcares e gorduras, em detrimento da ingestão de frutas e verduras. Torna-se necessário, a implementação de medidas corretivas, como o planejamento adequado do cardápio, de modo a padronizar o processo de produção de refeições e melhorar a qualidade nutricional e sensorial das preparações.

  2. Variedades da Democracia no Brasil

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    Fernando Bizzarro

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste artigo apresentamos resultados coletados pelo projeto Variedades da Democracia para o Brasil. Descrevemos a evolução histórica da democracia brasileira entre 1900 e 2015 enfocando seus cinco principais componentes (eleitoral, liberal, participativo, deliberativo e igualitário e duas dimensões adjacentes ao regime (corrupção e partidos políticos. Por fim, nós comparamos os dados para o Brasil com resultados obtidos para outros países da América do Sul. A análise dos dados aponta: a. a existência de uma trajetória “em espiral” dos regimes políticos no Brasil, na qual novas experiências democráticas tendem a superar experiências anteriores em todos os quesitos; b. os avanços e limites da experiência democrática contemporânea em que se combinam bons resultados nos indicadores eleitoral, liberal e deliberativo da democracia, e resultados menos elevados nos componentes igualitário e participativo do regime, bem como em suas dimensões adjacentes.

  3. 76 FR 12627 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... on Diamond aeroplanes, the majority of which were DA 40. In additional, at least 18 doors have been... conditions) while the aeroplane was parked. All DA 40 and DA 42 aeroplanes have a system installed that...

  4. 76 FR 27861 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes... on Diamond aeroplanes, the majority of which were DA 40. In additional, at least 18 doors have been... conditions) while the aeroplane was parked. All DA 40 and DA 42 aeroplanes have a system installed that...

  5. Ensino da música

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    O papel da Igreja Católica no desenvolvimento do ensino da música em Portugal é inquestionável. Neste texto descreve-se como a música e o seu ensino antecederam a própria fundação da nacionalidade no território que é hoje Portugal, e como a Igreja Católica teve um papel preponderante, até aos nossos dias, no desenvolvimento desse ensino e na criação de estruturas pedagógicas que permitiram a aprendizagem musical ao longo dos séculos. Primeiro nas escolas monacais, depois nas sés catedrais, e ...

  6. O LUGAR DA MORADIA SOCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela das Neves Alvarenga; Paulo Romano Reschilian

    2017-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este artigo analisar o processo de segregação socioespacial nas cidades industriais europeias, com olhar na localização da moradia operária no espaço urbano. A partir desta análise, parte-se para a construção do cenário no Brasil, apontando as origens da habitação social nas cidades industriais, com enfoque na inserção urbana da moradia produzida pela iniciativa privada e pelo Estado até os dias atuais, culminando na produção de interesse social vinculada ao programa habitaci...

  7. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social

    OpenAIRE

    Ito,Lígia M; Roso,Miréia C; Tiwari,Shilpee; Kendall,Philip C; Asbahr,Fernando R

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Este artigo revisa aspectos relevantes da fobia social e os estágios de tratamento através da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em crianças, adolescentes e adultos. MÉTODO: A partir do banco de dados Medline, realizou-se revisão da literatura publicada a respeito do tratamento da fobia social por meio da terapia cognitivo-comportamental. RESULTADOS: Revisão da literatura sugere que a fobia social é uma condição prevalente e crônica, caracterizada por inibição social e timidez excessi...

  8. O panorama das Drogas no México: da margem da sociedade ao centro da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palaversich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo destaca o percurso das manifestações culturais ligadas ao tráfico de drogas no México, de um lugar marginal, de subcultura, na sociedade mexicana das décadas de 1970 e 1980, expressas principalmente através dos narcocorridos e do narcocine, para um lugar no mainstream cultural mexicano, desde o início do século 21, com destaque especial para a narcoliteratura. O aumento da violência, provocado pela guerra ao narcotráfico, produz uma proliferação da temática nos meios de comunicação e se reflete em áreas da cultura como as artes plásticas e a literatura, produzindo um novo tipo de expressão artística ou narrativa, que tanto pode ser oportunista e contribuir para a banalização da violência do narcotráfico como ser crítica e narrar o impacto individual e coletivo do tráfico de drogas, narrar a desenfreada e violenta realidade mexicana sem cair no estilo da imprensa marrom, do folclore ou dos lugares comuns dos romances de ação.

  9. Daño medular espinal: tratamiento y posibles usos de la terapia celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penélope Mantilla F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El daño medular espinal, representa la principal causa de parálisis (total o parcial, que se acompaña de secuelas irreversibles y de gran impacto negativo para el paciente, entorno familiar y laboral. Con el advenimiento y avances en tecnología, técnicas de inmunohistoquímica, citología y bioingeniería, se han podido desarrollar numerosos estudios a nivel experimental, dirigidos a la recuperación de la función vertebro-espinal, con una inmensa gama de resultados, que sirven de asiento a futuras investigaciones en seres humanos. En su mayoría, evalúan funciones motoras y sensitivas durante las 3 fases de la lesión espinal. Para ello se emplean técnicas de implantación de células madre (de origen alogénico, autólogo o xenogénico a través de la inyección intratecal o directa en parénquima nervioso. Los resultados a nivel experimental son alentadores; sin embargo, aún queda mucho por dilucidar en torno a la formación de la cicatriz glial, de los factores inductores que se expresan y su repercusión en humanos. Las directrices actuales en el tratamiento de la lesión espinal, incluyen desde mejoras en las técnicas de inmovilización y traslado pre-hospitalario del paciente lesionado espinal, pasando por el empleo de fármacos (Esteroides, Lazaroides, Calcio antagonistas, diuréticos osmóticos, etc., hasta el uso de estimulación cortical, epidural y nanoimplantes medulares, así como la aplicación de exoesqueletos y de la Terapia Celular. En este artículo se reúnen los resultados de la revisión de estudios con más de 21mil publicaciones (hasta octubre del 2017, donde se han empleado células madre para tratar la lesión medular espinal (traumática.

  10. Cinco discursos da digitalidade audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault ensina que toda fala sistemática - inclusive aquela que se afirma “neutra” ou “uma desinteressada visão objetiva do que acontece” - é, na verdade, mecanismo de articulação do saber e, na seqüência, de formação de poder. O aparecimento de novas tecnologias, especialmente as digitais, no campo da produção audiovisual, provoca uma avalanche de declarações de cineastas, ensaios de acadêmicos e previsões de demiurgos da mídia.

  11. CILADAS DA DIFERENÇA

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    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar os efeitos perversos da apropriação pela esquerda de um tema definidor das tradições de direita, a saber, a diferença. Com base no caso Sears (EUA e no caso Le Pen (França, o autor aponta para as armadilhas racistas e sexistas presentes nos discursos que focalizam e enfatizam a diferença, sobretudo num período histórico de reemergência dos conservadorismos que, por sua vez, se apropriam do argumento da diferença, dirigindo-o contra os próprios movimentos de esquerda.

  12. Cultura da Convergência

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    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Cultura da Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas e pesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  13. Tecnologia da informação voltada para portadores de necessidades especiais: relato de caso/ Information technology for people with disabilities: a case report

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    Tito Livio Gomes Osório

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo enfoca como a informática pode auxiliar portadores de necessidades especiais que possuem dificuldades de aprendizado e raciocínio, visto que a tecnologia da informação quando utilizada de forma planejada e bem estruturada permite maior absorção de conceitos e crescimento cultural, devido à gama de informações que proporciona. Este crescimento visa compreender a formação de todos os tipos de deficientes, sejam eles visuais, mentais, auditivos, paraplégicos, etc. Para portadores de necessidades especiais esta realidade se torna ainda mais importante, pois não serão excluídos da sociedade, que hoje vive essa nova era da informação e globalização, onde a tecnologia muda a cada instante. Por meio de um enfoque integrado da visão sistêmica, o presente estudo buscou compreender o projeto do Centro de Atendimento a Pessoas com Deficiências / SMAC (CAPD, procurando analisar como a tecnologia de informação pode transformar a vida sociocultural destes indivíduos. Para coleta de dados foram utilizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas, que permitiram a avaliação das fases do desenvolvimento e as mudanças na realidade dos envolvidos. Foram identificados os fatores que comprovam a viabilidade e a eficiência das tecnologias quando inseridas na rotina dos deficientes e seus familiares. This study focuses how the information technology can assist people with disabilities that possess difficulties in the learning and reasoning, since the information technology, when used of planned and well structuralized form allows greater absorption of concepts and cultural growth. This growth aims to understand the formation of all kinds of disabilities - visual, mental, auditory, paraplegia etc. For people with disabilities this reality is more important, therefore they will not be excluded from the society, that currently lives this new age of the information and globalization, where the technology change at every moment. By an

  14. da Vinci decoded: does da Vinci stereopsis rely on disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2012-11-01

    In conventional stereopsis, the depth between two objects is computed based on the retinal disparity in the position of matching points in the two eyes. When an object is occluded by another object in the scene, so that it is visible only in one eye, its retinal disparity cannot be computed. Nakayama and Shimojo (1990) found that a precept of quantitative depth between the two objects could still be established for such stimuli and proposed that this precept is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. They named this and other occlusion-based depth phenomena "da Vinci stereopsis." Subsequent research found quantitative depth based on occlusion geometry in several other classes of stimuli grouped under the term da Vinci stereopsis. However, Nakayama and Shimojo's findings were later brought into question by Gillam, Cook, and Blackburn (2003), who suggested that quantitative depth in their stimuli was perceived based on conventional disparity. In order to understand whether da Vinci stereopsis relies on one type of mechanism or whether its function is stimulus dependent we examine the nature and source of depth in the class of stimuli used by Nakayama and Shimojo (1990). We use three different psychophysical and computational methods to show that the most likely source for depth in these stimuli is occlusion geometry. Based on these experiments and previous data we discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for processing depth from monocular features in da Vinci stereopsis.

  15. Efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface

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    Nelson Licínio C. de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversos relatos da utilização da urina de vaca em hortaliças, todavia sua eficácia carece de comprovação. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface. O experimento foi constituído de 12 tratamentos, esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as vias de aplicação (solo ou foliar e nas subparcelas as concentrações das soluções (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 1,25% v/v. Aplicou-se 60 mL de solução/planta, divididos em cinco aplicações de 5; 5; 10; 20 e 20 mL/planta, aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 após o transplante, respectivamente. Durante o ciclo avaliou-se o índice SPAD e na colheita a massa da matéria seca de cabeça (MSCA e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu e B na matéria seca das folhas (MSF, caule (MSC e raízes (MSR. Em ambas as vias de aplicação o índice SPAD apresentou incremento linear às concentrações e resposta quadrática ao longo do tempo. A MSCA teve comportamento linear às concentrações, com aumento de 25,9 e 35,4% nas aplicações via foliar e solo, respectivamente. Não houve efeito de concentrações sobre teores de nutrientes na MSF e MSC. Na MSR, via solo, os teores de P e K apresentaram pontos de máximo enquanto Fe e Mn de mínimo; o Na apresentou incremento linear às concentrações via foliar. Os efeitos da urina sobre o crescimento da alface provavelmente são devidos a fatores outros que não somente a quantidade de nutrientes veiculados nas soluções.

  16. The general clause of right abuse as longa manus function of civil responsibility institute A cláusula geral do abuso de direito como função longa manus do instituto da responsabilidade civil

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    Franciel Munaro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Civil Code brings the institute of right abuse as a general clause. This clause, through its structural elements, as good-faith, good-customs and the social and economical aims, will find the responsibility of the agent into compensate another person who has overtook the limits of the law. The right abuse institute, however, goes further one to the civil order and the responsibility institute, coming around another fields of the law as well the institute of civil responsibility, matching with another law fields, reason that include a great situations and law probabilities, should be worked as a law principle.O Novo Código Civil traz o instituto do abuso de direito erigido a uma cláusula geral. Esta, através de seus elementos estruturais, como a boa-fé, os bons costumes e os fins econômicos e sociais, determinará a responsabilidade do agente em indenizar outrem caso este ultrapassar os limites do permitido. O instituto do abuso de direito, contudo, extravasa à ordem civil, bem como ao instituto da responsabilidade, permeando por outros campos do direito, fato pelo qual abrange uma vasta gama de situações e probabilidades jurídicas, devendo ser trabalhado como um princípio de direito.

  17. O desafio da tuberculose na faixa etária pediátrica frente a novas técnicas diagnósticas The challenge of pediatric tuberculosis in face of new diagnostic techniques

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    Flavio R. Sztajnbok

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre os novos métodos para o diagnóstico da tuberculose baseados na produção in vitro de interferon-gama (IFN-γ por células T dos pacientes sob investigação, comparando-os com a tradicional prova tuberculínica. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão de literatura utilizando os bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS (2000-2008 utilizando as palavras-chave tuberculose, interferon-gama, quantiFERON, ELISPOT e T-SPOT.TB. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Esses novos testes mostraram-se, de um modo geral, tão ou mais sensíveis e específicos que a prova tuberculínica, tanto em adultos como em crianças e imunossuprimidos, para o diagnóstico da infecção latente e da doença ativa, apresentando vantagens como a menor interferência da vacinação prévia pelo BCG, menor influência de estados anérgicos e melhor acurácia em crianças menores. Nos Estados Unidos, já estão sendo utilizados em substituição à prova tuberculínica, e apesar dos custos ainda elevados, a Organização Mundial de Saúde vai priorizar a sua viabilidade econômica. CONCLUSÕES: Sempre levando em conta a importância da história clínica e epidemiológica, os novos testes baseados na produção de IFN-γ apresentam resultados promissores e deverão ser considerados na investigação de tuberculose em qualquer paciente, mas especialmente nos grupos de risco, como as crianças e os imunossuprimidos.OBJECTIVES: To present an updated review concerning new assays for diagnosing tuberculosis based on in vitro interferon-gamma production by host T cells, and compare them with tuberculin skin test. SOURCES: A literature review was carried out based on Medline and LILACS databases (2000-2008 searching for the following keywords: tuberculosis, interferon-gamma, quantiFERON, ELISPOT and T-SPOT.TB. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: These new assays proved to have, in general, equal or superior sensitivity and specificity than the tuberculin skin test not only in

  18. A identidade à flor da pele: etnografia da prática da tatuagem na contemporaneidade

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    Andrea Lissett Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, realiza-se uma descrição etnográfica da prática da tatuagem na contemporaneidade, a partir de uma perspectiva que prioriza as noções da prática, das interações e das experiências vividas durante o processo de ser tatuado. A reflexão tenta reconstruir uma visão total da prática da tatuagem que abrange o mundo subjetivo e as dinâmicas sociais como partes constitutivas desse ato. Entre as idéias conclusivas estão, de um lado, o surgimento de uma nova normalidade estética e vivencial no seio da sociedade ocidental e, de outro, a configuração de uma nova subjetividade, a dos "tatuados", como um processo interativo, inovador, emotivo e reflexivo, em que o corpo se converte em uma forma de expressão e construção do sujeito.This article provides a descriptive account of contemporary tattooing, based on a perspective that prioritizes the notion of practice, as well as the interactions and experiences involved in the process of being tattooed. The analysis attempts to rebuild a holistic view of tattooing, combining subjective processes and social dynamics as equally constitutive parts of this activity. Among the conclusions reached are: (a the emergence of tattooing as a new aesthetic norm and a lived experience at the heart of the western society; and (b the configuration of a new subjectivity, the ‘tattooed,’ as an interactive, innovative, emotional and reflexive process in which the body is converted into a form of expressing and constructing the subject.

  19. Segurança hídrica do reservatório Castanhão-CE: aplicação da matriz de sistematização institucional

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    Eduardo Galdino de Souza

    Full Text Available RESUMO A segurança hídrica envolve o uso sustentável e a proteção dos sistemas hídricos, de modo a se dispor de água em quantidade e qualidade adequadas à saúde, aos meios de subsistência, aos ecossistemas e à produção. No que se refere à gestão da quantidade de água, houve muitos avanços desde a aprovação da Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos em 1997. As competências e atribuições de cada ente do sistema estão definidas na legislação pertinente. No que se refere à gestão da qualidade de água, no entanto, há um grande número de normativos aplicáveis e de instituições competentes para atuarem na fiscalização e na regulação da matéria. Em função dessa gama de informações, configura-se a necessidade de sistematização e síntese do arcabouço legal/institucional. Para essa finalidade, este trabalho propõe associar a metodologia da matriz de sistematização institucional aos instrumentos de monitoramento ambiental já praticados no Ceará. Espera-se que essa associação propicie visualizar as fontes potencialmente poluidoras, os normativos pertinentes e as instituições competentes. A metodologia foi aplicada ao reservatório Castanhão, no estado do Ceará. Identificou-se que 50% das fontes poluidoras são geradas por entidades públicas (Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Ceará - CAGECE; Serviço Autônomo de Água e Esgoto - SAAE; ou prefeituras municipais. As fontes particulares (pessoas físicas ou jurídicas contribuem com os outros 50%. Isso significa que ações de controle sobre entidades públicas poderiam resolver em grande parte a poluição da bacia hidrográfica. As agências reguladoras e os órgãos ambientais independentes podem contribuir muito para a redução das fontes de poluição.

  20. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  1. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp; Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli e Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of food borne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98kGy for S. poona and 0.72 e 0.88kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  2. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp;Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of foodborne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09 kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98 kGy for S. poona and 0.72 and 0.88 kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5 kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  3. Effects of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on the main physical and chemical properties of health care packaging and their compounds paper and multilayer plastic film, used for health products sterilization; Efeitos da radiacao gama (Cobalto-60) nas principais propriedades fisicas e quimicas da embalagens compostas por papel grau cirurgico e filme plastico laminado, destinadas a esterilizacao de produtos para saude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Karina Meschini Batista Geribello

    2013-07-01

    Gamma radiation is one of the technologies applied for the sterilization of packaging systems containing products for health. During sterilization process it is critical that the properties of packages are maintained. In this study two samples of commercial pouch packaging comprised of surgical grade paper on one side and the other side multilayer plastic film were irradiated with gamma rays. The following doses were applied 25 kGy (1,57 kGy/h) and 50 kGy (1,48 kGy/h). One packaging sample was paper formed by softwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/polyethylene (PE). The second type of paper sample was made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on polyethylene terephthalate (ethylene) (PET)/polypropylene (PP). The effects of radiation on the physical and chemical properties of papers and multilayer plastic films, as well as the properties of the package were studied. The paper was the more radiation sensitive among the studied materials and radiation effects were more pronounced at brightness, pH, tearing resistance, bursting strength and tensile strength. Nonetheless, worst comparatively effects were noted on the sample made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers. The porosity of paper was enhanced by 50 kGy. In the case of plastic films, radiation effects on tensile strength was the most pronounced property for both samples. In the case of the packaging the sealing resistance decreased with radiation. The effects observed for the treatment at 50 kGy were more pronounced when compared to 25 kGy. This last is the dose which is usually applied to sterilize health products. A dosimetry study was performed during irradiation at 25 kGy, 40 kGy and 50 kGy and its importance may be reported by the average dose variation 20 %. (author)

  4. Study of the effects of gamma radiation on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat throughout refrigerated and frozen storage; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama sobre a qualidade microbiologica, a oxidacao lipidica e as propriedades sensoriais da carne mecanicamente separada de frango, armazenada refrigerada e congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo

    2002-07-01

    Mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is widely used in traditional meat products such as sausages. The proceed of mechanical separation results in grinding of the bones, liberating the marrow and rupturing cells, thus making the MDCM a favorable medium for biochemical reactions and microbiological growth. Irradiation using a Co{sup 60} source is one of the processes which has been developed aimed at reducing contamination by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. The main advantages of food irradiation are the possibilities of treating the already packaged products at refrigerated and frozen temperatures, ideal for a highly perishable product such as MDCM, which, being a ground, easily spoiled product, requires rapid cooling followed by freezing, immediately after processing. Processing with ionizing radiation results in chemical alterations in the food, including the production of volatile compounds and free radicals. Irradiation of meat in the frozen state reduces or eliminates the negative sensory effects of this process. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of gamma radiation at doses of 3.0 and 4.0 kGy, on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of MDCM, at the refrigerated (2 {+-} 1 deg C) and frozen (-18 {+-} 1 deg C) storage, The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of this raw material when stored under refrigeration, as compared to non-irradiated samples. Since doses of 3.0 kGy produced increases in the shelf life of refrigerated MDCM equal or greater than those produced by doses of 4.0 kGy, this dose was considered the most adequate for the irradiation of this raw material. According to the results of microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing in irradiated MDCM samples with doses of 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy, the material studied presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption during the 90 days of frozen storage, whereas samples of non-irradiated MDCM were shown to be unacceptable with respect to the occurrence of S. aureus and fecal coliforms after only 30 days of frozen storage, The irradiation process produced characteristic volatile compounds, perceived as irradiation odor. These were lost from the MDCM during refrigerated and frozen storage, For the non-irradiated MDCM samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated MDCM samples this factor was lipid oxidation. (author)

  5. Physical, chemical and sensorial effects of gamma irradiation and cooking on soybean cultivars (Glycine max) with and without lipoxygenase;Efeitos da irradiacao gama e da coccao sobre aspectos fisicos, quimicos e sensoriais de cultivares de soja (Glycine max) com e sem lipoxigenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaro, Luciana Marino e

    2009-07-01

    The soybean is a vegetable with high nutritional value, mainly due to its high protein content. Among the culture of grains, the soy beam is the most important in Brazil, what represents a greater incentive for the consumption of this food. However, a great claim of occidental consumer is its characteristic odor and flavor, known as beany flavor, which is provided by the action of lipoxygenase enzyme. The catalytic action exerted by this type of isoenzyme on polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic and linoleic acid of the soy grains, is one of the main factors responsible for the appearance of the carbonyl compounds, which cause the unpleasant flavor in grains. To enhance the organoleptic characteristics of soybeans, researchers have developed new cultivars, without the presence of lipoxygenase. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical, chemical and sensorial differences between the two soy cultivar, with and without lipoxygenases (cultivars BRS 232 and BRS 257, of EMBRAPA, respectively) and to analyze the possible changes promoted by different radiation doses (0, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked soybean grains. The physical analyses were: time of cooking and hydration of the grains. The chemical analyses were: centesimal composition, protein digestibility, anti nutritional factors, isoflavone content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS). The sensory aspects were determined by sensorial analysis performed by applying analytical methods of differentiation for selection of panelists, and descriptive method to determine the quality of the soybean. At the end, factorial statistical analysis was performed 3x2x2 (irradiation doses X cultivars x treatment) for analysis, comparison and discussion of the obtained results. The results showed differences in physical analyses with the irradiation and between the two cultivars. Besides, the cultivars presented differences in the centesimal composition, digestibility fenolic content, isoflavone content and trypsin inhibitor. Cooking promoted difference in all the studied components, except for the proteic digestibility of the grains. On the other hand, the irradiation affected the anti nutritional contents, the proteic digestibility and the content of aglicone isoflavones. Data from sensory analysis showed that the taste and the texture of the samples didn't differ between the cultivars and were not affected by the irradiation. (author)

  6. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation immunogenicity of ribonucleoprotein (RNPs) of rabies virus and purification of anti-RNPs antibodies for diagnosis; Efeitos da radiacao gama na imunogenicidade das ribonucleoproteinas (RNPs) do virus da raiva e purificacao de anticorpos anti-RNPs para diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Elena Boamorte da

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the direct immunofluorescence test for laboratory diagnosis and serological evaluation of rabies. To achieve this test, fluorescent anti-ribo nucleoproteins (RNPs) conjugates, produced from purified IgGs of RNP-immunized animals are employed. The aims of the present study were: investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the immunogenicity of RNPs, as well as to compare two chromatographic methodologies for the purification of anti-RNPs immunoglobulins. Sera from animals immunized with either native or irradiated RNPs were compared by direct immunofluorescence and immuno enzymatic assays. Our results indicate that the animals immunized with irradiated antigen requested a lower number of doses to reach high antibody titers. The immunofluorescence assays indicated that the conjugates produced with the anti-irradiated RNPs IgGs showed similar specificity to its anti-native counterpart, but with a higher definition of the virus inclusions. The purification methods were compared by Bradford and electrophoresis assays. According to the results, we concluded that the affinity-based process resulted in higher yields, lower execution time, and higher purity of the antibodies. (author)

  8. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  9. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on different phases of the evolutive cycle of pinworm - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera,Gelechiidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 nas diferentes fases do ciclo evolutivo da traca do tomateiro - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, Gerson Antonio

    1996-10-01

    The effects of different gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) doses on different phases of the evolutive cycle of Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) have been studied under laboratory conditions in the laboratory of Entomology of Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all the treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma beam-650 was used. The doses utilized ranged from of 0,0 (Control) to 3250 Gy with a dose rate of 1110 Gy/h. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions at 25{+-} 2 deg C, 70 {+-} 5% of relative humidity and photo period of (12:12). It was verified that the lethal doses were: for eggs - 70 Gy; for larvae - 200 Gy e for pupae - 300 Gy. The sterilizing dose for adults from irradiated larvae was 45 Gy. The sterilizing dose for the crossing of irradiated female with normal males (FI X MN) was 100 Gy and for normal female with irradiated male (FN x MI) was 150 Gy, in the both crosses, doses refer to irradiation of pupae. The sterilizing dose for adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults, (FI x MN) and (FN x MI, were 150 and 200 Gy, respectively. The average longevity of adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults was 8,3 days. The immediate lethal dose for adults was 3250 Gy. (author)

  10. Fuzzy logic application for data correction of gamma ray profile and correlation with effective porosity of core from Resende Basin, Rio de Janeiro; Aplicacao da logica fuzzy para correcao de dados de perfil de raios gama e correlacao com porosidade efetiva de testemunhos da Bacia de Resende, Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Francisco de Assis Leal de; Tunala, Leonardo Fernandes; Abreu, Carlos Jorge de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: pachoteki@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: leotunala@hotmail.com, E-mail: abreu@geologia.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/CCMN), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Matematicas e da Natureza. Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Rocha, Paula Lucia Ferrucio da, E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Martins, Ricardo Rhomberg, E-mail: ricardo301@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politenica de Engenharia; Lima, Inaya Correa Barbosa, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2010-12-15

    This work presents here a study on the porosity of cores from Resende Basin (Rio de Janeiro). The first step involved the selection, thinning of the material (core) and sample preparation for the use of porosimeter to obtain effective porosity. The material studied is sandstone, friable, coarse to very fine of three wells (GPR1, GPR2 and GPR3). The fuzzy logic (MatLab) was applied to the effective porosity data calculated from the gamma ray (GR) profile for the construction of a synthetic profile and from this we could identify the errors made in calculating the data. Then the results of porosity from the core were correlated with data from the corrected effective porosity (gamma ray profile) in order to prove the results obtained with both methods. The analysis of the synthetic porosity calculated by the fuzzy logic has shown that this is a promising method for assessing the quality of data and to obtain good fits. (author)

  11. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  12. Tratamento da dor em queimados

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    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  13. Šmakuláda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ireinová, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2017), s. 189-191 ISSN 0027-8203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-04648S Keywords : šmakuláda * šmak * Czech National Corpus * database Neomat * etymology Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics

  14. Smart AD and DA Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van A.H.M.; Hegt, J.A.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Radulov, G.I.; Zanikopoulos, A.; Doris, K.; Quinn, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a concept is proposed to solve the problems related to the embedding of AD and DA converters in system-on-chips, FPGAs or other VLSI solutions. Problems like embedded testing, yield, reliability and reduced design space become crucial bottlenecks in the integration of high-performance

  15. O LUGAR DA MORADIA SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela das Neves Alvarenga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este artigo analisar o processo de segregação socioespacial nas cidades industriais europeias, com olhar na localização da moradia operária no espaço urbano. A partir desta análise, parte-se para a construção do cenário no Brasil, apontando as origens da habitação social nas cidades industriais, com enfoque na inserção urbana da moradia produzida pela iniciativa privada e pelo Estado até os dias atuais, culminando na produção de interesse social vinculada ao programa habitacional Minha Casa, Minha Vida (MCMV. Por fim, será feita uma análise comparativa da localização das vilas operárias em São José dos Campos, com a inserção urbana dos empreendimentos produzidos pelo Estado.

  16. Cultura da Convergência

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    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  17. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  18. Valores bioquímicos séricos em potros da raça puro sangue inglês suplementados com diferentes tipos de gordura Serum biochemical in thoroughbred horses supplemented with fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Locatelli Dittrich

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as concentrações de glicose, ureia, GGT (gama glutamil transferase, CK (creatino quinase, AST (aspartato aminotransferase e LDH (lactato desidrogenase em equinos alimentados com dietas normal e suplementadas com gorduras. As amostras de sangue foram obtidas após os exercícios físicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um ensaio rotativo em quadrado latino 4x4. Os quatro tratamentos foram: Tl - dieta normal; T2 - dieta normal, com 10% de óleo de milho (gordura insaturada; T3 - dieta normal, com 10% de gordura de coco (gordura saturada; T4 - dieta normal, com 5% de óleo de milho e 5% de gordura de coco. Os resultados encontrados para glicose, ureia e GGT não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas. Os resultados para a AST e LDH foram maiores nos equinos alimentados com dietas sem gordura, e os valores da CK, em UI/L. foram de 118,01 (Tl; 84,24 (T2; 60,37 (T3 e 76,28 (T4, sendo significativamente menores (PThis experiment determined lhe concentrations of blood glucose, urea, GGT (gama glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in horses after the exercises, with normal diet and additional dietary fat. It was used the 4x4 Latin square design. The four diets were Tl-normal diet; T2-normal diet with 10% com oil; T3-nonnal diet with 10% coconut oil; T4-nonnal diet with 5% com oil and 5% coconut oil. There were no signifi cam changes in glucose, urea and GGT leveis due to diet. The serum concentrations of AST and LDH were higher in horses fed a diet withoutfat, and the resultsfound to CK (Ul/L were 118.01 (Tl; 84.24 (T2; 60.37 (T3 and 76.28 (T4. Serum leveis ofCK were significantiy smaller (P<0.05 in horses suppiemented with saturated fat, suggesting a smaller damage to the muscle fibers after the exercises.

  19. Producción de primicia en invernadero de híbridos masculinos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis y procesado IV Gama para optimización del posicionamiento en el mercado

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    Sofía Barreto

    2012-12-01

    empleo de la técnica IV Gama para la optimización de la calidad del producto final y la extensión del periodo de oferta, destacándose los híbridos Zeno e Italo.

  20. Producción de primicia en invernadero de híbridos masculinos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis y procesado IV Gama para optimización del posicionamiento en el mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Barreto

    2012-01-01

    empleo de la técnica IV Gama para la optimización de la calidad del producto final y la extensión del periodo de oferta, destacándose los híbridos Zeno e Italo.

  1. Hanna Krall e os caminhos tortos da memória e da identidade

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kilanowski

    2013-01-01

    Neste artigo apresentamos a escritora polonesa de origem judaica Hanna Krall por meio da análise literária do seu romance Sublokatorka (A sublocatária).  O romance, com elementos autobiográficos, apresenta a personalidade cindida de uma menina sobrevivente do Holocausto e discute o tema da identidade polonesa, judaica e judaico-polonesa. Através da observação da memória e do processo de criação da memória, a autora mostra a construção da identidade falsa e a repressão da verdadeira, o comport...

  2. A PROBLEMÁTICA DA BIOPIRATARIA: REFLEXÕES A PARTIR DA GEOPOLÍTICA E DOS DIREITOS DA SOCIOBIODIVERSIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Denise Silva; UFSM; Tybusch, Jerônimo Siqueira; UFSM

    2013-01-01

    O bioimperialismo configura-se como uma característica da geopolítica da atualidade, com alicerces nas estruturas da globalização e do capitalismo. Nesse contexto, a problemática da pesquisa consiste na violação dos direitos dos povos locais e a exploração do meio ambiente, em que o atual sistema internacional de propriedade intelectual contribui para a biopirataria dos recursos naturais, por meio da infiltração, em áreas ricas em diversidade biológica, das grandes corporações, multinacionais...

  3. Euclides da Cunha nas vascas da modernidade // Euclides da Cunha in the throes of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnice Nogueira Galvão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Euclides da Cunha embraced the role of posthumous champion of the backlanders slaughtered by the Brazilian army during the Canudos War. He claimed to have written an “avenging book”. Coming of age at the turn of the century, his work would bear witness to a Modernity that was both historical and aesthetic.

  4. Da ordem. Da cidade. Da literatura: personagens à beira do "ruim do mundo"

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    Eliana Kuster

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As grandes cidades estão doentes. Seus sintomas: a quebra da sociabilidade e a irrupção rotineira da violência. Diante disso, ecoa na sociedade um clamor por ordem. No mesmo momento em que a polícia põe a tropa na rua, os literatos criam personagens que dão voz à sensação crescente de que a cidade está deixando de ser uma referência à constituição das identidades urbanas. É a partir da literatura, em especial da obra do escritor Rubem Fonseca, que iremos perscrutar as possibilidades apresentadas pela cidade para o convívio humano.The great cities are sick. Its indications: the sociability in addition and the routine irruption of the violence. Ahead of this, a outcry for order echoes in the society. At the same moment where the policy goes to the street, the writers create personages who give voice to the increasing sensation of that the city is leaving of being a reference to the constitution of the urban identities. It is from literature, in special of the writer Rubem Fonseca, that we will go to investigate the possibilities presented for the city for the human conviviality.

  5. Uso da fluoxetina no tratamento da tricotilomania felina

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Marlos Gonçalves; Ferreira,Lilian Stefanoni; Gerardi,Daniel Guimarães; Costa,Mirela Tinucci

    2004-01-01

    A tricotilomania ou alopecia psicogênica felina é uma dermatopatia de origem psicogênica, decorrente da lambedura compulsiva do pelame, realizada pelo gato em situações de estresse. Tal distúrbio decorre de alterações neuro-hormonais e pode associar-se à introdução de novos animais e/ou crianças no ambiente. Além de mudanças de manejo e atitude para com o animal, sugere-se o emprego de ansiolíticos no tratamento da doença. A fluoxetina foi utilizada no tratamento de cinco gatos domésticos com...

  6. Um enfoque epidemiológico da promoção da saúde: as idéias de Geoffrey Rose An epidemiological approach to health promotion: the ideas of Geoffrey Rose

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    Dóra Chor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos princípios sistematizados por Geoffrey Rose, raramente explicitados no debate contemporâneo sobre promoção da saúde. São enfatizadas as seguintes noções: muitos parâmetros biológicos apresentam-se ao longo de um continuum e não seguem as dicotomias expostos/não expostos ou doentes/não doentes; a relação entre determinadas exposições e seus efeitos ocorre linearmente, ao longo de toda a gama dos valores da exposição; portanto, muitos indivíduos expostos a um risco baixo podem gerar um número maior de casos do que poucos indivíduos expostos a um risco alto de adoecer. Além disso, há forte relação entre os comportamentos populacionais médios e os desviantes, como resultado da dinâmica entre forças biológicas e sociais, que favorecem ou limitam a diversidade de características individuais. Assim, o risco de alguns agravos, em populações concretas, torna-se alto ou baixo em virtude do deslocamento em bloco da distribuição populacional, e não em função do número de indivíduos na faixa de alto risco. Em conjunto, esses conceitos favorecem estratégias voltadas para o conjunto da população, em vez das que apenas visam indivíduos considerados de alto risco.In this paper, we discuss some of the ideas developed by Geoffrey Rose, which are seldom explicitly expressed in the contemporary debate on health promotion. The following notions are emphasized: many health exposures and outcomes are expressed in a continuum, and do not follow the dichotomy exposed/non-exposed or diseased/ non-diseased; there is a linear relationship between certain exposures and their effects along the range of exposure levels; thus, many individuals exposed to low risk may generate more cases of a disease than few individuals exposed to high risk. In addition, there is a strong relationship between average behaviors and the occurrence of deviance, as a result of the balance between biological and social forces

  7. Teoria da adequação econômica da conduta: significado econômico da conduta em face da tutela penal antitruste

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz da Silva, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Essa tese tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento da teoria da adequação econômica da conduta no direito penal econômico. Vale-se de uma abordagem interdisciplinar abrangendo a Economia, o direito econômico e o direito penal. Para alcançar o desiderato a investigação analisou a intervenção do direito penal em face da atividade econômica e, em especial, os fundamentos da tutela penal antitruste, para fins de estabelecer os contornos teóricos necessários à aplicação das premissas fund...

  8. Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade

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    Décio Krause

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.

  9. O ACESSO AO DIREITO SOCIAL À MORADIA NAS METRÓPOLES: A PERIFERIZAÇÃO DA OFERTA DE HABITAÇÃO DA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE BELO HORIZONTE

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    Natalia Cardoso Marra, UNA, Brasil

    2012-04-01

    ópoles brasileiras e a exclusão social são responsáveis por uma gama de problemas enfrentados diariamente pela administração pública e de difícil solução individual por cada município. Ocorre que a simples criação de regiões metropolitanas não resolve os problemas originados a partir do crescimento das cidades, são necessários institutos e normas que regularizem a atuação e a competência dessas instâncias da administração pública. Mais importante ainda é a necessária cooperação entre as esferas do poder público, o setor privado e a sociedade. O desenvolvimento local depende de formas coletivizadas de gestão. Nas regiões metropolitanas a expansão da periferia e o abandono desta agravam a segregação socioespacial e inviabilizam a garantia da dignidade da pessoa humana. Este trabalho, a partir da análise de dados demográficos e de políticas públicas, visa a demonstrar que apenas uma administração intermunicipal, participativa e intersetorial é capaz de trabalhar todos os requisitos necessários para uma moradia de qualidade na periferia das cidades que são polo regional. O caso da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte foi o escolhido para ser tratado neste estudo em razão de a capital mineira ter sido planejada, e, ainda assim, apresentar intenso crescimento desordenado e altos índices de déficit habitacional. Palavras-chave: Moradia. Região Metropolitana. Periferia. Direito social.

  10. Influência da idade e do estresse cíclico de calor no perfil bioquímico sérico em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da idade e do estresse cíclico por calor durante uma hora por dia, nas concentrações das proteínas, metabólitos e enzimas séricas em frangos de corte de 21 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 420 pintos de corte machos, da linhagem Cobb Avian48TM, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto de dois tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de dois ambientes térmicos: um para frangos de corte criados em condições naturais de temperatura e umidade do primeiro ao 42° dia de idade (controle; e outro para estressados por calor à 36 °C do 16° ao 42° dia, durante uma hora do dia (12h00m às 13h00m. No 21º, 28º, 35º e 42º dias de idade, foram coletados em duas aves por repetição aproximadamente 5mL de sangue por punção cardíaca. Foram determinadas em cada amostra de soro as concentrações de proteína total, albumina, globulinas, relação A/G, aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase, gama glutamiltransferase, ácido úrico, creatinina, colesterol total, triacilgliceróis, lipoproteínas de alta densidade, lipoproteínas de muito baixa densidade, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade e glicose. Para as concentrações de glicose, ácido úrico, alanina aminotransferase, triacilgliceróis e lipoproteínas de muito baixa densidade, não houve diferenças significativas para ambiente e idade. Observou-se interação significativa entre ambiente e idade para os valores de colesterol e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade. Aos 21 dias de idade o colesterol e as LDL-C foram maiores nas aves em estresse comparados àquelas do tratamento controle, o que não ocorreu nas demais idades. A aspartato aminotransferase nos frangos sob estresse cíclico de calor foi maior em comparação ao tratamento controle e apresentou efeito cúbico para ambiente. A idade das aves influenciou os valores de proteínas totais, albumina, globulina, albumina: globulina, creatinina

  11. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F... received information from Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH that the Models DA 40 and DA 40F airplanes have...

  12. Aspectos incomuns da paracoccidioidomicose infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achiléa Lisboa Bittencourt

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois casos de paracoccidioidomicose (PCM infantil. Em um deles, a principal manifestação da doença foi tumoração abdominal, simulando linfoma maligno não Hodgkin. O outro apresentou acentuado envolvimento articular, com ruptura da cápsula. Representam o segundo e terceiro casos de PCM infantil observados na Bahia, ambos procedentes de áreas urbanas.The authors present two cases of infantil para-coccidioidomycosis. In one case the main presentation was an abdominal mass that mimicked non- Hodgkin lymphoma. In the other case the child had a joint swelling with rupture of the capsule and the clinical diagnosis was piogenic arthritis. They represent the second and third cases of infantile paracoccidioidomycosis observed in the state of Bahia, all coming from urban areas.

  13. 1992: a redescoberta da Natureza

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    Milton Santos

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a presença do homem sobre a Terra, a natureza está, sempre, sendo redescoberta, com a criação da natureza social. É a história de uma rutura progressiva entre o homem e o entorno, acelerada pela mecanização. Mediante a tecnociência, a natureza artificializada alcança seu estágio supremo, onde a natureza e o homem tornam-se reciprocramente hostis. Com a globalização da economia, da política e da cultura, não há mais relações totalizantes entre a sociedade e o meio. A natureza tecnicizada se impõe como algo abstrato, exigindo um discurso. A questão do meio ambiente é um aspecto dessa evolução e reclama um estudo abrangente, para permitir uma correta interpretação. Para alcançar essa interpretação, a universidade deve fugir dos raciocínios técnicos e conformistas e enfrentar o entendimento do mundo como um todo.With man on Earth, Nature is being permanently rediscovered through the creation of social nature. The progressive rupture between man and his surrounding is quickened by mechanization. More recently, with globalization of economy, politics and culture, there are no longer totalizing relations between society and environment. Through technoscience, nature and man become reciprocally hostile. Tecnicized nature emerges as an abstraction that demands a discourse. Environmental problems are only an aspect of this evolution, and ask for a comprehensive approach, in order to reach its correct interpretation. University must fly away from technical and conformicist reasonning and face the understanding of the world as a whole.

  14. A travessia da escrita machadiana

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    Ruth Silviano Brandão

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A narração machadiana constrói-se de uma maneira tal que se pode falar de determinadas posições do sujeito da enunciação em relação a seus fantasmas. Assim, é possível pensar num trajeto que se pode chamar de travessia exatamente pelas modificações ocorridas na escritade Machado de Assis até o Memorial de Aires.

  15. Cultura da Convergência

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    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Culturada Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas epesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  16. Paquimeningite hipertrófica e parotidite: manifestações raras da granulomatose de Wegener Hypertrophic pachymeningitis and parotiditis: unusual ocurrences of the Wegener's granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Monteiro Gomides

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A granulomatose de Wegener é uma vasculite sistêmica dos vasos de médio e pequeno calibre. Classicamente, há formação de granulomas com necrose no trato respiratório e glomerulonefrite necrosante. Embora seu acometimento mais comum envolva o trato respiratório superior, pulmões e rins, uma vasta gama de manifestações em vários órgãos e tecidos é descrita. Relatamos o caso de um paciente que, paralelamente às manifestações típicas da doença, desenvolveu algumas alterações raras como a parotidite e a paquimeningite hipertrófica. Diante de quadros graves, atípicos e/ou refratários ao tratamento convencional, torna-se necessário o aprofundamento no estudo e uso de novas armas terapêuticas.The wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic angiitis of small and medium caliber vessels. Normally, it is characterized by the formation of granulomas with necrosis in the respiratory system and necrosing glomerulonephritis. even though it is more common in the upper respiratory system, in the lung and in the kidney, a great range of manifestation in other different organs and tissues can be described. we report the case of a patient who, in parallel with the typical symptoms of this disease, developed some rare alteration such as the parotiditis and the hypertrophic pachymeningitis. in face of serious situations, severe disease, atypical or non responsive to conventional treatments, it is necessary a more detailed study of the case and the use of new therapeutic drugs.

  17. ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA DA COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA VOLÁTIL DE AMOSTRAS DO ALECRIM IN NATURA COM A DISPONÍVEL COMERCIALMENTE

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    Andre Luiz Melo Camelo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais têm ampla gama de aplicações, devido às suas potenciais atividades biológicas, com um ou mais princípios ativos relevantes para a saúde humana. Este fato torna-se preocupante a partir do momento que há um aumento crescente na comercialização das mesmas, pois, determinados tipos de ervas, de composições químicas e propriedades farmacológica diferentes são muitas vezes comercializados com nomes populares idênticos, como é o caso do alecrim, que designa várias espécies de plantas medicinais. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a extração e análise comparativa da composição química do óleo essencial de uma amostra comercial, que não descreve sua identificação botânica e uma amostra in natura, sendo ambas reconhecidas pelo nome de alecrim. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre a composição química das amostras, confirmando a importância de um maior detalhamento quanto a sua classificação botânica e constituição química na descrição das plantas medicinais comercializadas e utilizadas pela população, a fim de evitar a utilização indevida desta fonte natural, uma vez que as propriedades farmacológicas atribuidas a cada espécie estão intimimamente relacionada com a sua composição química.

  18. Comportamento de expansão de argilas bentoníticas organofílicas do estado da Paraíba Expansion behavior of organophilic bentonite clays from the State of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Argilas organofílicas apresentam uma vasta gama de aplicações industriais, desde a indústria do petróleo à farmacêutica e de cosméticos, passando pela retenção de resíduos e produção de nanocompósitos argila-polímeros. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a influência do teor de sais quaternários de amônio na organofilização de argilas bentoníticas. As argilas utilizadas foram caracterizadas através da determinação de sua composição química, distribuição do tamanho de partículas e capacidade de troca de cátions. As argilas organofílicas foram preparadas utilizando dois sais quaternários de amônio: cloreto de alquil benzil amônio (Dodigen e brometo de cetil trimetil amônio (Cetremide. As argilas organofilizadas foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X e espectroscopia de infravermelho. Os resultados mostraram que o espaçamento basal aumenta com o aumento na quantidade de sal utilizado para a organofilização e que o comportamento desse aumento depende do sal e da argila utilizados, sendo, linear quando da utilização do sal Dodigen e dependente do tipo da argila quando da utilização do sal Cetremide.Organoclays are used in a wide range of industrial applications, from the petroleum to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, reaching the waste adsorption applications and production of polymer-clay nanocomposites. This work has as aim study the influence of the amount of quaternary ammonium salts in the organophilization of bentonite clays. The used clays were characterized by chemical composition, particle size distribution and cation exchange capacity determination. The organoclays were prepared using two quaternary ammonium salts: alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (Dodigen and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (Cetremide. The organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The results showed that the interlayer spacing increase with the rise in the amount of salt

  19. MODELAGEM DA ESTRUTURA DE FLORESTAS CLONAIS DE Populus deltoides Marsh. ATRAVÉS DE DISTRIBUIÇÕES DIAMÉTRICAS PROBABILÍSTICAS

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    Julio Eduardo Arce

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram avaliadas, entre os anos 1987 e 1995 (idades 1 a 9, as distribuições diamétricas de seis florestas clonais de Populus deltoides Marsh. plantadas em 1986. As funções probabilísticas normal, gama, beta, SB de Johnson e Weibull com dois e três parâmetros foram ajustadas aos dados observados utilizando na estimativa dos parâmetros, segundo o caso, o Método dos Momentos, o Método da Máxima Verossimilhança, a metodologia proposta por Loetsch et al. (1973 e a média aritmética e o desvio-padrão dos diâmetros. A qualidade dos ajustes das distribuições probabilísticas foi avaliada considerando os desvios relativos entre as somas observada e estimada dos diâmetros elevados à primeira, segunda, terceira e quarta potências. Para todas as funções analisadas, os desvios se incrementaram com o aumento da potência, sendo a função Weibull com dois parâmetros (a = 0 a que apresentou os menores valores em todos os anos ao considerar a quarta potência. Os valores dos desvios relativos entre as somas observada e estimada dos diâmetros elevados à quarta potência não superaram o valor de 0,005 (0,5% para a função Weibull com dois parâmetros, com exceção do primeiro ano, no qual todas as funções apresentaram valores de desvios mais elevados (entre 11 e 13%. Os parâmetros escala (b e forma (c da função Weibull com dois parâmetros foram estimados pelas equações ajustadas por regressão linear múltipla utilizando o diâmetro quadrático médio do povoamento como variável independente.

  20. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (PDA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (PDA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (PDA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (PDA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (PDA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perfil bioquímico de algumas enzimas no plasma sangüíneo de potras da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH criadas em Colina, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Benesi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de avaliar o perfil bioquímico de algumas enzimas, em potras sadias da raça BH (Brasileiro de Hipismo, utilizaram-se 380 amostras de plasma sangüíneo colhidas de 19 animais desde o nascimento até 24 meses de vida. Na análise dos resultados evidenciou-se que os valores médios das enzimas FA (fosfatase alcalina e CK (creatina quinase foram máximos entre o nascimento e 24 horas de vida (FA-1995.50 UI/ ; CK-189.13UI/L, enquanto que para a LD (lactato desidrogenase e GGT (gama glutamiltransferase as maiores magnitudes ocorreram, respectivamente, entre 3 e 4 dias (LD-479.11UI/L e aos 10 dias de idade (GGT-18.70UI/L. As FA, CK, LD e GGT, mostraram diminuições dos valores médios, respectivamente, até 6 meses (FA-323.50UI/L, 20 dias (CK-51UI/ L, 19 meses (LD-214.00UI/L e 4 meses (GGT-11.40UI/L estabilizando-se a seguir, com pequenas variações. A atividade da AST (aspartato aminotransferase que foi mínima logo após o nascimento (AST- 43.38UI/L, aumentou até os sete dias de vida (AST-110.89UI/L, e a seguir diminuiu progressivamente, com pequenas oscilações, até o final do estudo. Todas as enzimas avaliadas sofreram variações influenciadas pelo fator etário, particularmente no período inicial de vida dos animais estudados.

  2. Caída de presión de un flujo turbulento en un espacio anular con hélices insertadas//The pressure drop of turbulent flow in an annular space with wire coil inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presentado evaluó el comportamiento experimental de la caída de presión en un espacio anular con alambres enrollados insertados para números de Reynolds entre 1500 y 5000. La zona de prueba se seleccionó alejada de la influencia de los efectos de entrada. Anteriormente se realizaron pruebas de visualización del flujo para verificar la presencia de un flujo turbulento en esta gama del número de Reynolds. A partir de los datos experimentales se obtuvieron ecuaciones de correlación del factor de fricción para el flujo turbulento. Las ecuaciones obtenidas se compararon con los datos experimentales. Los resultados indican hasta qué punto las hélices inducen la aparición de turbulencias en un espacio anularPalabras claves: caída de presión, flujo anular, análisis hidrodinámico, visualización de flujo, hélices insertadas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work presented evaluates the experimental behavior of the pressure drop in an annular space with coiled wires inserted forReynolds numbers between 1500 and 5000. The test zone was selected away from the influence of entrance effects. Previously flow visualization tests were performed to verify the presence of a turbulent flow in this range of Reynolds number. From the experimental data were obtained correlation equations of the friction factor for turbulent flow. The equations obtained were compared with experimental data. The results indicate to what extent the helices induce the occurrence of turbulence in an annular space.Key words: drop pressure, annular flow, hydrodynamic analysis, visualization flow, wire coil inserts.

  3. Influência da administração crônica de fluoreto de sódio na função e histologia hepática de ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreane Filappi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de investigar o efeito da ingestão acumulativa de fluoreto de sódio sobre o metabolismo hepático de ovinos. O experimento foi conduzido com 12 animais da raça Texel x Ile de France, os quais foram divididos em dois grupos iguais. O grupo controle recebeu sal iodado (5 g de NaCl/animal + 0,2 ppm I/kg matéria seca e o grupo tratado, o mesmo sal iodado adicionado de fluoreto de sódio (4,7 mg F/kg de peso corporal, diariamente, por um período de 150 dias. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias de tratamento. Ainda, nesses mesmos momentos, com uma coleta também no tempo zero, os animais foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas para obtenção de urina produzida em 24 horas. Após o sacrifício dos animais, uma amostra de fígado foi removida para avaliação histológica. Verificou-se elevação nas concentrações séricas e urinárias de F no grupo tratado. Quanto às concentrações séricas de proteína total, albumina e colesterol total, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos, assim como não houve na atividade das enzimas gama glutamiltransferase e aspartato aminotransferase. No exame histológico do fígado, não foram observadas alterações. A administração de fluoreto de sódio na dose e duração deste estudo não induz a hepatotoxicidade.

  4. Da onda da gestão da qualidade a uma filosofia da qualidade da gestão: Balanced Scorecard promovendo mudanças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cavalcanti Correia Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 80 a Gestão da Qualidade Total (GQT era apresentada como capaz de resolver todos os problemas e atender a todas as necessidades da gestão das organizações. Buscando solucionar problemas de gestão não equacionados pela GQT, muitas organizações começam a adotar o Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Uma questão ainda não discutida com profundidade no mundo acadêmico é a viabilidade de integração desses dois modelos. O presente artigo discute a possibilidade de integração dessas duas ferramentas, verificando as melhorias que podem alcançar, principalmente no gerenciamento da estratégia da organização. Assim sendo, realizou-se estudo de caso no Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza (CPHF, empresa que vêm adotando com sucesso os dois modelos. A pesquisa revela que é possível integrar os princípios da GQT com os do BSC, à medida que os fundamentos de ambos se complementam, sendo assim a utilização conjunta das ferramentas propicia melhor gerenciamento da estratégia da organização.In recent years, many organizations have been managed according to the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM, which became known around the globe in the 1980's, when looking for explanations for the so-called "Japanese miracle". TQM was presented as being capable of solving all problems and attending to all company management needs, a stage that seems outdated now. In the search for a model that would allow them to analyze and follow up the implementation of organizational strategies, without remaining limited to Quality indicators, many companies started to adopt the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Companies using TQM question whether it is viable together with the BSC. In order to contribute to a solution to this question, this article discusses the possibility of aligning these two tools. Therefore, a case study was carried out at the Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza, a company that implanted TQM in 1997 and started to adopt the BSC in 2000. The

  5. EM TORNO DA GUERRA E DO PACIFISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Bernardo Fuks

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta algumas das principais reflexões de Freud sobre os temas da guerra e do pacifismo.  Partindo do texto “Da guerra e morte. Temas da atualidade”, escrito  durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial,  a autora mostra de que modo  Freud estabeleceu a incursão da psicanálise no campo da política e de que modo esta conexão exige do analista  manter sua escuta voltada  para a singularidade contemporânea.  Conclui que  em relação a dimensão catastrófica do psiquismo, que podemos observar hoje, por exemplo, na passagem ao ato violento; na delinqüência; na toxicomania; no totalitarismo que se coloca acima da lei e no fundamentalismo como  instrumento da lei divina etc,  importa salientar que a existência desses  novos modos de expressão dos sintomas, põe à prova o devir da psicanálise.  Lança, por fim, a aposta: o futuro da psicanálise depende da responsabilidade do analista em manter seu trabalho voltado à dinâmica psíquica do sujeito, individual ou coletivo, sem abrir mão do rigor dos conceitos freudianos.

  6. A metodologia de projecto na aprendizagem da biodiversidade e geodiversidade na praia da concha

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Marina Maria Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia e de Geologia, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Terra e ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida Este trabalho consistiu na implementação e avaliação da metodologia de projeto no estudo da Biodiversidade e Geodiversidade na Praia da Concha, Portugal Central, dando ênfase ao trabalho prático, através de uma aula de campo e de aulas laboratoriais. O trabalho foi realizado numa escola da Marinha Grande, com 11 alunos do 10º ano de escolaridade. Sendo a...

  7. Vulnerabilidades sociais e juvenil nos mananciais da zona sul da cidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli,Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802012000100006 Este artigo é um produto parcial da pesquisa “Reflexos da Vulnerabilidade Socioambiental nas Manifestações Musicais dos Jovens Paulistanos da Periferia”, identificando como recorte geográfico a periferia da Zona Sul da cidade de São Paulo. Trata-se de uma região que começou a se formar devido à ocupação populacional desordenada em áreas de manancial, onde a vulnerabilidade social é agravada por situações de risco e degradação ambiental, da...

  8. Fresnel: O formulador matemático da teoria ondulatória da luz

    OpenAIRE

    Bassalo, José Maria Filardo

    1988-01-01

    Neste artigo, apresentamos alguns aspectos da vida de Fresnel, engenheiro e físico francês que se notabilizou pela formulação matemática da teoria ondulatória da luz, e cujo bicentenário de nascimento transcorre neste ano de 1988. Realçamos, neste trabalho, suas principais pesquisas relacionadas com o estudo da difração, dupla-refração e reflexão da luz, nas quais utilizou a idéia revolucionária de transversalidade da onda luminosa para deduzir equações, as quais explicaram alg...

  9. A escrita da dor : testemunhos da ditadura militar

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio Flores Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo as obras testemunhais de Luiz Roberto Salinas Fortes, Retrato calado (1988), e de Flávio Tavares, Memórias do esquecimento (1999), em que os autores narram acontecimentos vividos durante os anos da ditadura militar no Brasil (1964-1985), entre os quais suas passagens por sessões de tortura. Exploram-se, neste trabalho, os motivos por que os relatos apresentam determinadas características estruturais, tais como a cisão do narrador ante a descriçã...

  10. Efeito da irradiação (60Co na frequência fúngica de amendoim in natura em função do tempo de prateleira Gamma-irradiation effect (60Co in fungi frequency of peanut in natura and after storage

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