WorldWideScience

Sample records for czech republic application

  1. Czech Republic [2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnáč, Aleš; Petrúšek, Ivan; Linek, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 69-75 ISSN 2047-8852 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29032S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2047-8852.12130/full

  2. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic. Application of the RISCOM model in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtechova, Hana (Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic))

    2009-10-15

    On the basis of past experience, the RISCOM model proved to be a suitable tool for launching a dialogue among all stakeholders in the area of NWM in the Czech Republic. It is important to continue the activities of the RISCOM reference group that was established in connection with the ARGONA project and RISCOM model application in the Czech Republic and in organization of various events such as seminars, science shops and hearings to ensure open and meaningful communication among NWM stakeholders. Main conclusions and findings obtained by the RISCOM model implementation in the field of the deep repository siting and nuclear waste management are, in the opinion of the vast majority of the members of reference groups, as follows: NIMBY effect - It is not possible to conclude that all the opposition of the public against the construction of a deep geological repository (approx. 90% of the localities residents) in their territory or in its vicinity can be explained by means of the NIMBY effect - it is not possible to over generalize the NIMBY factor. This would be too simplistic and a somewhat problematic attitude towards opposition. This may result in a dismissive view of opposition as such and its degradation in the eyes of proponents of the construction of a deep geological repository. There are various motives and reasons for the residents refusal of the construction of a deep geological repository in their locality. The past events (seminars in the localities, public hearing) as well as public opinion surveys have shown that there are great differences among the attitudes of individual localities as well as among the citizens within these localities. Some representatives of the municipalities express the opinion that they will - under certain conditions - agree with the geological survey in their territory, other say strictly NO. However, the residents of those municipalities whose representatives are saying a strict No often have diverse opinions, motivation or

  3. The Crisis Map of the Czech Republic: the nationwide deployment of an Ushahidi application for disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Jiří; Marek, Lukáš; Pászto, Vít; Valůch, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    Crisis mapping is a legitimate component of both crisis informatics and disaster risk management. It has become an effective tool for humanitarian workers, especially after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Ushahidi is among the many mapping platforms on offer in the growing field of crisis mapping, and involves the application of crowdsourcing to create online and interactive maps of areas in turmoil. This paper presents the Crisis Map of the Czech Republic, which is the first such instrument to be deployed nationwide in Central Europe. It describes the methodologies used in the preparatory work phase and details some practices identified during the creation and actual employment of the map. In addition, the paper assesses its structure and technological architecture, as well as its potential possible development in the future. Lastly, it evaluates the utilisation of the Crisis Map during the floods in the Czech Republic in 2013. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  4. Practical Application of Art. 9 OECD Model Convention: the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All transfer prices determined between the associated enterprises must comply with the arm’s length principle. The arm’s length principle for associated enterprises is mentioned in Art. 9(1 of the OECD Model Convention, which was also adopted by the OECD Member states into their national law. However, not all OECD Member states adopted the next part of Art. 9, namely Art. 9(2, with the same way, some of them, like the Czech Republic, entered a reservation on Art. 9 (2 OECD Model Convention. In this paper the practical application of Art. 9 is analyzed from the point of view of the Czech Ministry of Finance, where the corresponding adjustment and time-limit issue are highlighted. On the basis of the results of analysis, where the history, context and purpose of Art. 9 OECD Model Convention have to be taken into account, are made some recommendations.

  5. Astronomy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Hadrava, Petr

    -, č. 128 (2007), s. 3-3 ISSN 0722-6691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomy * astropohysics * Czech republic Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. Structural Applications of Fibre Reinforced Concrete in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutková, A.; Broukalová, I.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents improvement of function and performance of the precast structural members by using fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) instead of ordinary reinforced concrete and attempts to transfer innovative technologies from laboratory in academic sphere into real industrial production which is cost-effective and brings about savings of labour and material. Three examples of successful technology transfer are shown - application of FRC in an element without common rebar reinforcement, in the element with steel rebar reinforcement and SFRC pre-tensioned structural element. Benefits of FRC utilization are discussed.

  7. Experiences with preventive procedures application in the process of beer production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kotovicová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food-processing industry is an intriguing field regarding prevention procedures application. All food-processing operations have common fundamental spheres of problems – wastewater polluted by organic substances, solid waste of biological origin and losses during source material processing. Beer production process is a representative of food-processing sphere. The brewing industry has an ancient tradition and is still a dynamic sector open to new developments in technology and scientific progress. A case study of beer production in Czech Republic has been performed. During the work on the project, there were utilized methodical procedures of Cleaner Production, best available technologies (BAT utilization and hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP, optimization of final technology operation.

  8. Medical decision support and medical informatics education: roots, methods and applications in czechoslovakia and the czech republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the history of medical informatics in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. It focuses on the topics of medical informatics education and decision support methods and systems. Several conferences held in Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic organized in cooperation with IMIA or EFMI are described. Support of European Union and Czech agencies in several European and national projects focused on medical informatics topics highly contributed to medical informatics development in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic and to the establishment of the European Center for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology as the joint workplace of Charles University in Prague and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1994.

  9. Situational leadership theory and its application in the optical business in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Otavová, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The Theory of Situational Leadership, the core of the thesis, has become nowadays one of the intensively studied area in Sociology of management. The primary goal to be accomplished here in this thesis is to examine leadership styles of leaders in the optical business in the Czech Republic and to determine if the leaders are effective when exercise leading the followers, all with regard to Blanchard's and Hersey's Situational Leadeship Theory. The main part of the thesis consists of empirical...

  10. English in the Czech Republic: Linguists’ perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaderka, Petr; Prošek, Martin

    -, č. 28 (2014), s. 173-198 ISSN 0933-1883 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : language situation * English as a global language * attitudes towards English * national language institution * sociolinguistics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  11. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  12. UKRAINIAN LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim STRIELKOWSKI; Hryshova, Inna Yuriivna

    2017-01-01

    Our paper sheds the new light on the existence of structural channels in pushing Ukrainian  migration along occupational lines to the Czech Republic. We argue that the integration of the Czech and Ukrainian construction sectors has generated international „channels‟ that enhance the process of labour migration from Ukraine to the Czech Republic. Our novel analysis is based on a unique dataset obtained via questionnaire surveys in Zakarpat‟ye region of Ukraine and multivariate models linking p...

  13. Psychology Publication Issues in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEF ŠVANCARA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the current situation and the view of psychology publication policy in Czech Republic. The presentation provided a platform for discussion. It summarized sixth-century progress in the development of scientific language. The current publication situation in Psychology in the Czech Republic was described. The present article reports on the journals: Czechoslovak Psychology (Prague in comparison with the journal Studia psychologica (Bratislava, about their impact factors and citation indexes; Psychology in Economical Practice; E-Psychologie; Psychology Today; two proceedings: Annales Psychologici (Brno and Varia psychologica (Olomouc; News of the Czech-Moravian Psychological Society. In the Czech Republic, there seems to be a wish for the enlargement of the publication policy tailored to European perspectives; this is the challenge.

  14. Online Buying Behaviour In The Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pilík, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the Internet and its impact on online shopping behaviour of customers in the Czech Republic. A large part of Czech population has already shopped online. Customers view it as a quick and convenient shopping where they can save money. But what are the other factors that influence their shopping behaviour? This paper tries to find the answer to this question. Each customer is an individual therefore models of customer behaviour often cannot be generalized, particularly not ...

  15. Highly qualified in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Čuhlová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the current situation of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic applying the ISCO qualification. Previous studies suggest that educational attainment has an important impact on labour market performance and national competitiveness. Data analyses approved that highly qualified workforce positively influences economic situation of the EU–15 Member States they work in. However, this hypothesis was disapproved for the EU–10+3 Member States joining the EU after 2004. The difference can be explained by the various stage in convergence process since some New Member States are still in transformation period. We positively appraise the significant growth of fraction of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic since 2004, especially in the major group Professionals involving the most qualified workforce. The same trend happened also for the highly qualified foreigners in the Czech Republic, however their attracting still remains a challenge.

  16. Organic food market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Živělová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution provides partial results of the research focused on organic food, a product from organic farming. The total area of ecologically farmed areas in the Czech Republic permanently increases, however the offer of organic food is insufficient, in particular in view of their structure. Deficiency in organic food is being solved by imports. Distributors play an important role in the organic food market. In the Czech Republic the largest share from them is occupied by retail chains. Their share continues to grow to the detriment of other sales channels. One of the main factors affecting consumers’ interest in organic food is its price. The comparison of organic food prices and prices of conventional food in the selected retail chains, Globus Czech Republic, limited partnership, SPAR Czech business company Pte., Tesco Stores CZ JSC, AHOLD Czech Republic JSC, BILLA Pte., and in organic food and healthy nutrition stores showed significantly higher prices. The smallest difference in prices can be monitored in the milk and milk products. On the contrary, the largest difference is in fruits, vegetables, eggs and jams. However, the consumers’ awareness of organic food quality is at the same time increasing and the consumers are willing to pay for them a higher price.

  17. The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the socialist system at the beginning of the 1990s, the health situation in the Czech Republic has improved more rapidly than in other CEE countries. Mortality from circulatory diseases decreased significantly at higher ages. The recent decline in mortality is likely to be attributable to technical progress in medical treatment and less affected by the change in lifestyle. While the use of cardiovascular drugs and the number of operations of invasive heart-surgery considerably improved, smoking and alcohol consumption have somewhat augmented at the same time. The recent favourable turnover has currently brought the Czech Republic a little closer to the European average.

  18. The Growing Importance of the Practical Application of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Management of Companies in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bris Petr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at researching the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (hereinafter “CSR” in the Czech Republic (hereinafter “CR”. Social responsibility is now an integral part of integrated business management. It has a long tradition in the Czech Republic, because one of the most prominent businessmen of the 20th century – a Czech entrepreneur, Tomas Bata - began to apply CSR in his plants around the world in the first half of the last century. Currently,the issue of CSR becomes increasingly important. There is an integration of positive attitudes, practices or programs into company’s business strategy at the top management level. We followa shift in management focus from the level of “profit only” to a wider view in the context of the three P’s - people - planet - profit. This involves the functioning of the organization with regardto the so called triple - bottom - line, when the company focuses not only on economic growth, but also on environmental and social aspects of its activities. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the current state of CSR in the Czech Republic on the basis of quantitative research (approx. 100 organizations were approached and compare it with an analysis from 2004. The conclusion summarizes the approaches of managers to the issue of CSR in the CR, including some trends.

  19. Application of current knowledge and trends in sports training of top level volleyball teams in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Lehnert; Jiří Stierand; František Chmelík; Zdeněk Haník

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To achieve the best results in top volleyball it is necessary to analyze the current state and to react adequately to development trends, which characterize modern volleyball. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to acquire information regarding how do top volleyball coaches of senior and junior volleyball teams in the Czech Republic put current knowledge and trends in volleyball sport training and coaching in practice. METHODS: We created a survey consisting of 31 questions, whi...

  20. Thematic tourism vs. mass tourism in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červinka Michal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article titled Thematic Tourism vs. Mass Tourism in the Czech Republic is concerned with the relationship between thematic tourism, mass tourism and presuppositions of the tourism development. The authors aim is to compare the turnout of thematic tourism attractions and sights focused on mass tourism paying attention to presuppositions of the tourism development and barriers for the turnout of thematic monuments. Comparisons will be based on presuppositions of tourism development and will be based especially on the specifics of thematic tourism - as a marginal field within the tourism industry. The application part will focus on the comparison of sights with massive turnout in the Czech Republic and thematic landmarks as the subject of thematic tourism. Special attention will be paid to the comparison of the two most visited monuments in the Czech Republic as for mass tourism - the Charles Bridge, and the most visited monument as for thematic tourism - the hydro-power plant Dlouhé Stráně, a technical representative of thematic tourism. Both monuments were elected by general public on the list of Seven Wonders of the Czech Republic in 2013. The aim is to confirm / refute the hypothesis that quality preconditions of tourism development are essential for the development of tourism and visiting tourist attractions. The article will use secondary data analysis methods and author's own field research.

  1. Application of geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape in the creation of nature reserve (case study from Czech Republic

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    Ivo Machar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape describes the variability and consecutive character of alluvial ecotopes and biocenoses, which are interrelated in terms of their homeorhetic development, in their dynamic ecological stability. This article deals with application of this landscape concept in the frame of creation of nature reserve as core zone of the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic. Complex protection of the whole floodplain ecosystem, which comprised all components of the fluvial succession series of alluvial habitats, was proposed on the basis of determination of geomorphological type of the river system. Analyses of the floodplain forest stands status within the study area were performed using methods that are normally used in the elaboration of management plans of protected areas within forest land on the basis of data from Forest Management Plan. The area of the proposed NNR was created by the overlay of the special map layers using method gap-analysis in the frame of GIS.

  2. Transparency of Shareholders in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřiška Šedová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recodification of commercial and civil law in the Czech Republic has resulted in a new concept for the legislation relating to securities. Significant changes have also been made to the legislation covering shares. The new legislation concerns not only the actual form of shares, but also their circulation. The aim of this article is to highlight the most important changes in the legislation relating to bearer shares, especially bearer shares in paper form, and to assess these changes from the viewpoint of their impact on the transparency of joint stock companies and uncontrolled circulation of shares. This assessment will be based on an appraisal of the importance of bearer shares for capital business in the Czech Republic and the effects the new legislation is expected to bring about. The article will also consider possible alternatives in the behavior of shareholders (investors who prefer to remain anonymous.

  3. Floods and migration in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, R.; Kelman, I.; Duží, B. (Barbora)

    2015-01-01

    Residents’ strategies are generally aimed at either protection from or adaptation to flooding. Large-scale migration from the floodplains of rivers has not been seriously considered, even in high-risk zones. The Czech Republic is of particular interest in the European context due to several recent flooding disasters which were national emergencies, including in 1997, 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2013. Weather extremes and climate variability are not the sole causes of floods in Central Europe. Ot...

  4. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  5. Closed detention in the Czech Republic: on what grounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Szakácsová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available People who arrive by air in the Czech Republic claiming asylum are transferred to a ‘reception centre’ at Prague’s Vaclav Havel Airport. Although they are deprived of their liberty, have limited access to fresh air and to the internet, and are only allowed to use a payphone, asylum seekers at the centre are not treated as criminals and detainees report that conditions in the reception centre are moderately good. However, there are some significant problems in the Czech Republic’s current practice of detaining applicants for international protection.

  6. [Palliative care in Czech Republic in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Ondřej; Kabelka, Ladislav; Loučka, Martin

    In the Czech Republic more than 70,000 patients with chronic incurable diseases need palliative care each year. In 50,000 this need is manageable in the context of general palliative care, 20,000 patients would greatly benefited from specialized palliative care. Most chronically ill patients (> 60 %) died in acute or post acute inpatient health care facilities. Here s the availability and quality of palliative care varies substantially. Inpatient hospices provide end of life palliative care to less than 3000 patients each year. Outpatient and mobile specialized palliative care services are available only to a few hundreds of patients.In the year 2016 palliative care at the appropriate professional level ("state of art") is not a generally available and guaranteed within Czech health care and social system. We perceive an urgent need for the systematic development of general and specialized palliative care at the level of education, healthcare organization and the development of new health and social services.

  7. Informatization of Financial Administration of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Myslikovjan, David

    2013-01-01

    Informatization in Financial administration of Czech Republic Thesis deals with informatization in Financial administration of Czech Republic. Especially, it is focused on informatization of internal processes of the organization: Payments, invoicing, asset management, electronic document and record management system, circulation of accounting documents and the advantages and disadvantages consequent informatization of these areas. Informatization evaluation is conducted by a questionnaire su...

  8. Arion alpinus Pollonera, 1887 in the Czech Republic (Gastropoda: Arionidae

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    Libor Dvořák

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first records of the pulmonate land snail Arion alpinus in the Czech Republic are presented and the European distribution and ecology of this species are discussed. A. alpinus occurs in forest ecosystems in the southern part of the Czech Republic at the margin of its continuous distribution range. Both externally and anatomically the Czech Republican specimens strongly resemble A. alpinus from neighbouring countries. Identification was confirmed by DNA analysis.

  9. Family therapy in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvala, Vladislav; Trapkova, Ludmila; Novak, Tomas; Lattova, Zuzana

    2012-04-01

    Political, economic and cultural transformations in the Czech Republic after 1989 were reflected in a number of demographic indicators, including those that characterize family behaviour. The main features of these changes are declining birth and marriage rates, postponement of first marriage and first birth ages, and a growing proportion of children born outside of marriage. These changes are comparable to those that have taken place in western Europe since the 1960s; however, some of them are abrupt and cause rapid shift in the family structure. Over the last two decades, significant changes have also occurred in the organization of family therapy. Earlier less coordinated activities underwent institutionalization, and guidelines for training and supervision were established. Family therapy in the Czech Republic is covered by a national organization, the Society of Family Therapy (SOFT). Standards of training and supervision correspond to European standards. The problem remains the lack of support for family therapy from state institutions, especially in the health service. There are only a few healthcare facilities providing family therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders or chronic somatic diseases. The capacity of these centres is substantially inadequate.

  10. The business environment in the Czech Republic

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    Helena Chládková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a comparison of the business environment in 2004 and 2010. The aim of this paper is to compare opinions of managers of small and medium – sized enterprises on opportunities and threats of external environment and on strengths and weaknesses of internal environment after the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union, in 2004 and now in 2010.The basic sources of information were 70 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2004 by students of combined form of study, who work in management functions on medium or basic managerial levels and 228 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2010. 77 % of managers from analyzed enterprises identified the integration of the Czech Republic into the EU as an opportunity in 2004 and only 33 % of managers from analyzed enterprises in 2010. The competition as the most important threat was reported in both groups of respondents. Namely 64 % of managers in 2004 and even 82 % of managers in 2010.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, MSM 6215648904.

  11. Digital archiving of specific scientific information in the Czech Republic

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    P Slavik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a description of activities in the Czech Republic related to digital archiving. First of all the general situation in the field is described in order to give insight in the state of art in the field in the Czech Republic. The key part of this paper deals with a description of the design and implementation of a pilot system that should serve for digital archiving of scientific information of certain kind – MSc and PhD theses at Czech Technical University in Prague. One of the reasons for archiving of this type of information was the fact that these theses contain information about scientific and technological developments in a given period of time. Such information might be widely appreciated in future by historians who will investigate the history of science and technology of a certain period of time. The research is oriented towards robust archiving systems that can be used in small-scale applications. These small systems do not offer universal solutions in the field of digital archiving – they solve problems that become urgent in various applications: to save current digital documents in the form that could be transferable to general archiving systems developed later. The described implementation is a pilot practical solution to this problem. The approach described in the paper will allow the user to archive also documents that contain non-textual information.

  12. Desulphurisation of waste gases in Czech Republic

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    Svrèek Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the decreasing sulphur dioxide emission in the Czech Republic. In 1991 a new Cean Air Act has been accepted. Emission limit values based on the best available technology not entailing cost. All sources of pollution will have to comply the emission limit values up to December 31, 1998 at the latest. At the present time the last units in the power plants and heating plants are under construction, many of them are on the scale. The prevailing system is the wet limestone technology producing gypsum. Differences in the installed systems, in particular power plants, are described. In a lesser extent the wet dry lime technology will be used. Old boilers are replaced by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. At the end of the paper the proposal of the amendment to the Europe Union Directive 608/87 EEC, is discussed. Differences in the systems in the particular power plants are described.

  13. ORCONECTES LIMOSUS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    DURIS Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of epibiosis by macro-invertebrates on Orconectes limosus were recorded during our research on the biology of populations of this invasive crayfish species in the Czech Republic. (1 In 2001, we observed a high infestation of O. limosus by native species of branchiobdellidan worms (Annelida: Branchiobdellidae in the river Elbe at Obríství (Central Bohemia. Four European Branchiobdella species were collected and identified from three crayfish specimens: B. pentodonta (52%, B. balcanica (24%, B. parasita (18% and B. hexodonta (6%. In 2003, only a single crayfish was found bearing branchiobdellidans (5 specimens of B. parasita only in the same locality. No branchiobdellidans on O. limosus have been confirmed since. (2 A flooded sandpit Lhota near Brandýs nad Labem is the only Czech locality where the settlement of Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca, Bivalvia on an O. limosus body was recorded. The crayfish lost the bivalves by moulting in summer; new mussels had settled by late summer and early autumn. (3 Females of the fish louse Argulus cf. foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura lay egg-strings on any hard substrate, including the crayfish exoskeleton. Such egg-masses were found on up to 65% of O. limosus specimens in the above-mentioned sandpit. (4 Bryozoan colonies of Plumatella repens were found twice on crayfish in the rivers Elbe (Labe and Cidlina.

  14. Results of analysis of organisational culture in organisations in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

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    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues concerning organisational culture and its maintenance in existing conditions in organisations in the Czech Republic. The importance of the topic lies in the fact that organisational culture is a reflection of human dispositions in work activities and strengthens one’s attitude to work and regulates relationships between employees and the management of the organisation. The aim of the article is to identify the importance of organisational culture and to determine the process of its development and its maintaining in organisations in the Czech Republic. Data has been obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out in organisations in the Czech Republic and evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics. Primary data was evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics and also the methods of comparison, induction, deduction and synthesis were applied. The results have been compared with the outcomes of a similar survey which took place in the Slovak Republic. At present, the theme of development and maintenance of a suitable organisational culture for the purpose of ensuring the required level of organisations’ performance and gaining a competitive advantage is highly relevant and significant in terms of its possible application in both scientific and practical activities.

  15. EVALUATION OF CONSUMER STANDARD OF LIVING IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN THE PERIOD 2010–2013: APPLICATION OF REVEALED PREFERENCE THEORY IN DISCUSSION WITH ENGEL’S LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Hovorková Jana

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses changes in consumer standard of living in the Czech Republic from 2010 to 2013 resulting from the Czech Statistical Office’s annual survey “Expenditures and Consumption of Households Included in Household Budgets”. Based on revealed preference theory and index theory (Paasche and Laspeyres price and quantitative indices), consumer standard of living is evaluated both in general and according to single economic activity categories, i.e. employees with higher and lower edu...

  16. [Tuberculosis among foreigners in the Czech Republic 2003-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, J; Krejbich, F

    2008-01-01

    Authors compared the situation in tuberculosis among foreigners in the Czech Republic during the years 2003-2006. Foreigners participated in 13.0-14.2% of total notified tuberculosis cases during this period. Proportion of smear positive cases among foreigners in this period grew up from 32.8% to 40.8%. The proportion of active case finding of tuberculosis cases among foreigners declined from 36.0% to 15.4%. At the same time foreigners formed an important part in drug resistance of TB-strains in the Czech Republic. 50% of MDR-TB cases were detected in foreigners. In 20 MDR-TB cases notified in the years 2003-2006 10 were detected in foreigners. If the number of immigrants from countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis to the Czech Republic increases the control of TB in the Czech Republic could be negatively influenced.

  17. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  18. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an overall…

  19. Application of current knowledge and trends in sports training of top level volleyball teams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve the best results in top volleyball it is necessary to analyze the current state and to react adequately to development trends, which characterize modern volleyball. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to acquire information regarding how do top volleyball coaches of senior and junior volleyball teams in the Czech Republic put current knowledge and trends in volleyball sport training and coaching in practice. METHODS: We created a survey consisting of 31 questions, which were divided into 5 areas: respecting of the current requirements of game performance in training, training efficiency, conditioning, coaching and psycho-social aspects. The survey was sent to 49 coaches, 24 of them replied (response rate 49 %. RESULTS: The research shows that coaches do not apply all important knowledge and trends for players' preparation (76 % of correct answers in total. Groups of coaches were further divided to subgroups according to gender of the trained teams, age categories, coaches work load and 1st and 2nd class coaches. The comparison of the answers in the subgroup of coaches with respect to segregated areas has only pointed at a difference between male and female teams in the area of psycho-social training aspects (Z = 1.756; p = 0.079; d = 0.717. The comparison of coaches' groups answers to individual questions show that: a coaches of male teams base their training sessions on real game situations and choose the content of the exercises with the ball more thoroughly (Z = 1.85; p = 0.07; d = 0.75 and require defensive game combinations at the net more often (Z = 1.81; p = 0.07; d = 0.74; b junior teams are behind (Z = 1.90; p = 0.06; d = 0.77 senior teams in the number of training hours with the ball a week and in making conditions for successful realization of offensive game combinations with fast set (Z = 2.10; p = 0.04; d = 0.86; c 1st class coaches within the scope of condition training pay more attention to core training

  20. GPR use and activities in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek

    2014-05-01

    In the field of civil engineering applications in the Czech Republic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used particularly for the diagnostics of roads and bridges. There is no producer of GPR in the Czech Republic, sets of different producers are used, particularly Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (USA) and MALÅ GeoScience (Sweden). The measurement results are mostly processed by software Radan, Road Doctor Pro, ReflexW and RadEx. The only technical specification in the Czech Republic is TP 233 issued by the Ministry of Transport, which describes the diagnostics of roads by GPR. Apart from a basic description of the method and a measurement system, it mentions possible applications. The only application where accuracy is mentioned is the locating of dowels and tie bars in concrete road pavements, which states that if calibration is performed, the expected depth accuracy is up to 1.0 cm. The following R&D project is currently in progress: New diagnostics methods as a supporting decision tool for maintenance and repair of road pavements - their contribution and ways of their usage (2012-2014) The project aims to test possible non-destructive methods (particularly GPR and laser scanning), make recommendations when and how to use specific methods for individual applications and for changes in technical specifications. The following R&D projects have been recently completed: Position of dowels and tie bars in rigid pavements and importance of their correct placement to pavement performance and service life (2012-2013) The project included an analysis of individual NDT methods used for the location of dowels and tie bars and for testing of their accuracy - GPR, MIT-scan and GPR in combination with a metal detector. Multichannel ground penetrating radar as a tool for monitoring of road and bridge structures (2009-2011) The project included detection of hollow spaces under non-reinforced concrete pavements, detection of excessive amount of water in road construction

  1. Influencing youth entrepreneuship in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fantová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the possible solutions to the pan-European problem of youth unemployment. The objective of the research was to identify differences between male and female entrepreneurs in their opinions of entrepreneurship of young people. We wanted to find out whether male and female entrepreneurs would recommend young people to do business and what factors in their opinion can influence the fact whether young people start business. To collect data, we used a questionnaire sent to entrepreneurs from the whole Czech Republic. The most important barrier identified by entrepreneurs was frequently amended legislation, complexity of administration, poor enforceability of law and a lack of funds. The most important incentives of young people according to entrepreneurs is particularly the vision of opportunities in business. Another important incentive is becoming more independent. Statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found in the barrier related to the personal knowledge of an unsuccessful entrepreneur and in the incentive of the necessity to start business due to the lack of a job. Sufficient funding and possessing business premises were factors in which statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found, too. This research emphasises factors which women and men can find important in making a decision on starting business or being employed.

  2. Archaeological Map of the Czech Republic. Current state and future visions of virtual research tools in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kuna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Archaeological Map of the Czech Republic (AMCR project will soon be finished and one chapter of building digital infrastructures in the Czech Republic will be closed. It is a natural occasion to evaluate national state-of-the-art in dealing with Digital Culture Heritage, particularly archaeological data. It is a also good time to summarise our knowledge about using digital tools and to outline prospects of development for the coming years. What are the key points? The AMCR represents both an administrative system of field archaeology management and a kind of 'sites and monuments records' for the territory of the CR. Its fundamental underlying principles are interoperability, standardisation, data re-use, crowdsourcing and networking. However, a reasonable question should also concern the theoretical background to the process of digitisation of the archaeological world. Infrastructures should every time stay on the level of service for the community of researchers and every digital tool has to fulfil real needs in the fields of both archaeological theory and practice. On the other hand, the application of this virtual research environment is inseparable from archaeological legislation and institutional management.

  3. EVALUATION OF CONSUMER STANDARD OF LIVING IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN THE PERIOD 2010–2013: APPLICATION OF REVEALED PREFERENCE THEORY IN DISCUSSION WITH ENGEL’S LAW

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    Hovorková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses changes in consumer standard of living in the Czech Republic from 2010 to 2013 resulting from the Czech Statistical Office’s annual survey “Expenditures and Consumption of Households Included in Household Budgets”. Based on revealed preference theory and index theory (Paasche and Laspeyres price and quantitative indices, consumer standard of living is evaluated both in general and according to single economic activity categories, i.e. employees with higher and lower education, the self-employed, unemployed consumers and pensioners. The results are compared and discussed with conclusions ensuing from Engel’s law.

  4. Possibilities and Conditions for water tourism-development in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Němečková, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on water tourism in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibilities and conditions for the development of water tourism in the Czech Republic. There were conducted analyses of water tours, water tourism development opportunities, own research, which focuses on the behavior of water tourism in the Czech Republic.Water tourism in the Czech Republic lags behind its potential and has potential for the future development.

  5. Religion, Culture, and Tax Evasion: Evidence from the Czech Republic

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    Wadim Strielkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the impact of culture and religion on tax evasions in the Czech Republic, which represents one of the most atheistic countries in Europe, and a very interesting example of attitudes to the church and religion, as well as the influence of religion on the social and economic aspects of everyday life. Our results suggest that, in the Czech Republic, religion plays the role of tax compliance, but only through a positive effect of visiting the church. National pride supports tax morality while trust in government institutions and attitudes towards government are not associated with tax compliance. These results suggest that the Czech Republic is no different from other countries regarding the relationship between religion and tax compliance. Moreover, the role of government as the authority for improving tax compliance is different from what is observed in other countries.

  6. Relationship of reverse logistics and marketing communication in Czech Republic

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    František Milichovský

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper deals with question if the final customers are interested in reverse logistics in marketing campaigns, acceptable in the market of Czech Republic. methodology/methods: Paper is based on primary research, on which participated final consumers in Czech Republic through the questionnaire survey. Results of the paper are based on testing of dependence between individual variables by Pearson chi-square test. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to show relationship of marketing communication and reverse logistics, and their correlation. Findings: Main result of research provide relationship between marketing communication tools and reverse activity. The research was aimed at random chosen group of 585 people in the Czech Republic. The result of the research can be used for the companies that operate in the Czech or Central European market. conclusions: The primary research provides possible approaches for companies in communication green services to final consumers. Limitation for this research because of the chosen sample. Own data for primary research was gained only in Czech Republic.

  7. Media education in primary schools in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junová Iva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with realization of Media Education in Primary schools in the Czech Republic. The study introduction addresses the mass media influence on children’s and the youth’s socialization and gives reasons for the necessity of media education. There is a development of media education, mentioned in the text, followed by the description of an actual situation of media education in the Czech Republic. Another chapter depicts challenges that accompany the media education’s execution at schools. The contribution presents the output of the media education survey in schools that was done by analysing documents and interviewing primary school teachers.

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Generators in the Czech Republic

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    Vladimír Lapčík

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes author´s experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of wind generators. The introductorypart of paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic in frame of fulfilling the European Union´s limits in branch ofrenewable energy resources utilization. Next part of paper deals with analysis of impacts of wind generators on the environment.The final part of paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process (pursuant to the ActNo. 100/2001 Coll. in the field of wind power in the Czech Republic.

  9. The required competencies of project managers in metallurgical companies in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kostalova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on the problems of competencies of project managers in the corporate practice of metallurgical companies in the Czech Republic. The authors aim to assess the requirements imposed on the position of a project manager from the point of view of the corporate management. The authors identify the basic areas playing a significant role in assessment of project managers’ competencies. They represent procedures applicable within selection of a project manager. Subsequently, the authors present outcomes of a survey, these outcomes show requirements of corporate management represented by human resource department managers of metallurgical companies in the Czech Republic when recruiting project managers in practice.

  10. [CZECANCA: CZEch CAncer paNel for Clinical Application-- Design and Optimization of the Targeted Sequencing Panel for the Identification of Cancer Susceptibility in High-risk Individuals from the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukupová, J; Zemánková, P; Kleiblová, P; Janatová, M; Kleibl, Z

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes form a minor but clinically important subgroup of oncology patients, comprising several thousand cases in the Czech Republic annually. In these patients, the identification of pathogenic mutations in cancer susceptibility genes has an important predictive and, in some cases, prognostic value. It also enables rational preventive strategies in asymptomatic carriers from affected families. More than 150 cancer susceptibility genes have been described so far; however, mutations in most of them are very rare, occurring with substantial population variability, and hence their clinical interpretation is very complicated. Diagnostics of mutations in cancer susceptibility genes have benefited from the broad availability of next-generation sequencing analyses using targeted gene panels. In order to rationalize the diagnostics of hereditary cancer syndromes in the Czech Republic, we have prepared the sequence capture panel "CZECANCA", targeting 219 cancer susceptibility genes. Besides more than 50 clinically important high- and moderate-penetrance susceptibility genes, the panel also targets less common candidate genes with uncertain clinical relevance. Alongside the panel design, we have optimized the analytical and bioinformatics pipeline, which will facilitate establishing a collective nationwide database of genotypes and clinical data from the analyzed individuals. The key objective of this project is to provide diagnostic laboratories in the Czech Republic with a reliable procedure and collective database improving the clinical utility of next-generation sequencing analyses in high-risk patients, which would help improve the interpretation of rare or population-specific variants in cancer susceptibility genes.

  11. Czech young generation activities in nuclear training and education framework in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejkova, J.; Foral, S.; Varmuza, J.; Katovsky, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Czech Republic has a long tradition in nuclear power production. One third of Czech electricity production is generated in two nuclear power plants, Dukovany and Temelin, totaling six power reactors. There are also three non-power, research reactors: two zero power reactors for education and research support, and one material testing reactor (MTR) used mainly for radioisotopes production. One of zero power reactors is employed by the Czech Technical University in Prague for education and research purposes, other zero power reactor and MTR are situated at nuclear research complex in Rez. (Author)

  12. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  13. Doing Business in Czech Republic after Accession to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Litva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: European Union can be considered as a full integration process including political, safety, social or economic aspects. Economic integration is process of interconnection otherwise separated national markets (by removal of economic borders. This assumes removal of all obstacles (in economy, trade, tax, administration or industrial area and establishment of common rules for market competition. Basic benefit of economic integration is occurrences of real or potential competitiveness effects. Methodology/methods: European integration influenced number of factors of business environment mainly in area of legislation, taxes, public competition or harmonization of norms which can result in overall Czech Republic competitiveness abroad. In these papers have been used DB and GCI indexes and their subsequent indicators to analyze competitiveness and business environment in CR. Scientific aim: The aim of this article is research on impact of European integration on business environment and competitiveness of Czech Republic. Findings: Growing DTF trend for DB index since 2004 shows improvement of business environment after accession to the EU in contrast with non- EU members (Switzerland, Norway which remains flat. The biggest benefit for Czech business environment seems to be trade liberalization as Czech companies were able to compete successfully at foreign markets. On the other hand, according to GCI remains biggest challenge non- effective bureaucracy, tax regulation, corruption, political instability and low business sophistication. Conclusions: Czech Republic should focus, consistently with Lisbon strategy, on qualification of labour forces, increase o

  14. Monetary transmission and the financial sector in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, T.; Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2012), s. 135-155 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : transmission mechanism * monetary policy * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  15. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  16. Parasitic helminths of reptiles (Reptilia) in South Moravia (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkovcová, M; Kopriva, J

    2005-01-01

    An helminthological investigation of 104 reptile species was carried out in south Moravia (Czech Republic). We examined Lacerta viridis, L. agilis, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus. Twelve species of parasites were found. Among these, Nematoda occurred most often, followed by Trematoda and Cestoda. No Acanthocephala were detected.

  17. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  18. Reviews of National Policies for Education - Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report analyzes the difficulties encountered in the transformation of education in the Czech Republic and identifies change in policies and structures that could stimulate further reform in the needed directions. The book contains two parts with 15 chapters. Part 1 describes the development of education since the political change as rapid and…

  19. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Stock Market of the Czech Republic and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Titizov, Toško

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes effects of the financial crisis on stock market of the Czech Republic and Spain. We employ BEKK-GARCH model in order to study volatility spillovers and transmissions from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The multivariate GARCH models results show statistically significant, but relatively small, almost irrelevant volatility spillovers from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The Czech stock market exhibit...

  20. The Scenarios of Social Policy Development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Svatošová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to create scenarios of possible development of social policy in the Czech Republic and evaluate the probability of each scenario. Based on the literature review and scenario method, three scenarios are created (scenario of a positive development, scenario of a negative development, and explorative scenario, which are compared with the current state of Czech social policy and which evaluate the possible development of Czech social policy in the period up to 2050. For the implementation of scenarios, basic factors that influence the development of Czech social policy are identified. The complementary research methods are creative methods brainstorming and mind mapping, modelling, an intuitive method of estimating trends and decision-making method of scoring. The research shows that the Czech social policy system is threatened without accepting the strategic and conceptual social policy solutions. The probability of the scenario of negative development (critical scenario of Czech social policy is more than ninety percent. This scenario is based on a deep economic crisis, the collapse of the entire system of social policy and great social unrest. The created scenarios are useful for actors of social policy which can reverse the negative development of Czech social policy.

  1. Comparative Advertising in the Czech Republic: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative advertising had been traditionally banned in most EU countries and was allowed by the European law just relatively recently. That is why in the EU this form of advertising is relatively new, as opposed to the situation in the US, where comparative advertising has been widely used and well accepted by consumers for decades. The literature has been silent on the topic of the effectiveness of comparative advertising in the Czech Republic, as well as in other Central and Eastern European countries. The goal of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of comparative advertising campaigns in the Czech Republic. Using an online survey with 160 Czech respondents, we found that the attitude towards comparative advertising is rather positive in the Czech Republic. We also identified that the gender of the recipient influences the general perception of comparative advertising. On the other hand, the age of the recipient does not seem to be a moderator of the attitude towards comparative advertising, in general. The results also do not signal any impact of the gender and the age of the recipient on the change of the perception of any of the brands involved in the campaign. Managerial implications target mainly marketing and advertising managers responsible for Central European markets.

  2. Drought events in the Czech Republic: past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jiří; Tolasz, Radim; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Dolák, Lukáš

    2017-04-01

    Droughts are, together with floods, the most important natural extremes in the Czech Republic. In the last c. 20 years even some irregular alternations of years with severe droughts on the one hand (2000, 2003, 2007, 2011-2012, 2014-2015) and severe floods on the other (1997, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2013), reflecting greater variability of the water cycle, can be observed. Great attention devoted to the study of past, present and future of droughts in the Czech Republic in a few last years allowed to obtain basic knowledge related to long-term spatial-temporal variability of droughts, combining dendrochronological, documentary and instrumental data, synoptic causes and climate forcings of droughts, case studies of important drought anomalies with significant social-economic consequences (like drought of 1947), impacts of droughts in agriculture, forestry or water management, and future droughts according to model estimates. Basic results obtained are summarised and documented by several typical examples. Such level of drought knowledge became a basis for formulation of the new research project, trying to analyse the climate forcings and triggers involved in the occurrence, course and severity of drought events in the Czech Republic in the context of Central Europe and explanations of their physical mechanisms, based on a 515-year series of drought indices reconstructed from documentary and instrumental data. Presentation of this new project for 2017-2019 is included in the second part of the paper. (This work was supported by Czech Science Foundation, project no. 17-10026S "Drought events in the Czech Republic and their causes".)

  3. SMEs Growth in the Czech Republic: Some Macroeconomic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nedu Osakwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are seen as a vehicle for employment generation, wealth creation, economic growth and development in countries that have a sound investment climate. SMEs, account for approximately one-third of GDP, over 50% of the value added, 99% of the share of total registered enterprises, and represent 60% of total employment in the Czech Republic. In the light of this background, the paper explores the influence of some macroeconomic variables on SMEs growth in the Czech Republic for the period 1995–2013. In order to assess the impacts of these critical macroeconomic variables (e.g., rate of unemployment, economic growth, credit provided by the financial sector on SMEs growth, we employed an econometric technique. Our findings suggest a concave relationship between unemployment and SMEs growth in the Czech Republic. More precisely, it signifies that beyond a turning point, unemployment is likely to slow down SMEs growth in the country. Our results further hint at a positive relationship between economic growth and SMEs growth. However, our empirical estimates showed an insignificant relationship between domestic credit provided by the financial sector and SMEs growth in the country. The government of the Czech Republic should continue to provide an enabling investment climate and support for bolstering a sustainable SMEs development within the country. Similar to the extant literature, we have also implored the Czech government to do more with regard to the provision of easier access and affordable credits/loans to SMEs. We have also called for the reduction of bureaucratic bottlenecks that might have to do with SMEs legislations in the country.

  4. Family Business in the Czech Republic: Actual Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia PETLINA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to define the actual situation of family business on the market, particularly focused on qualities of family business and its strengths or weaknesses. The object of research is the family business as an economical phenomenon. The study includes two subjects: firstly, to find out a specification of the family business, to analyze family ties within the business in accordance with the laws of the Czech Republic or to find out the current economic situation in family business and, secondly, to identify the features of family business as well as the difficulties faced thereby, lying in a base of two main components, namely the family system and the same of entrepreneurship. Methodology/methods: The article was prepared on the basis of general theoretical scientific methods, particularly on those of analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, generalization and deduction, or the method of expert estimates. For the analysis of the actual situation in big Czech family business enterprises, it was decided to use the secondary data of a top research-journal for this area, namely the Forbes.cz. In accordance with one of the paper goals, a SWOT analysis was applied to find out the basic strengths and weaknesses of family business. It was decided to verify the received information by interviewing several representatives of the family business in the Czech Republic. Scientific aim: The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family business from the perspective of difficulties faced by family business and its economic perspectives. Findings: The results of this study have allowed the finding of a definition for the family business based on family ties and the laws of the Czech Republic. Another finding is that family business as a motor of the Czech economy has a real potencial for its development and it is able to enhance the Czech economy competitiveness on the world market. In

  5. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  6. [Current issues of assisted reproduction in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventruba, P; Žáková, J; Trávník, P; Crha, I; Mrázek, M; Rumpík, D; Štěpán, J; Režábek, K; Mardešić, T; Malenovská, A; Veselá, K; Brandejská, M

    2013-08-01

    Participants of the lunch table discussion held during the 22nd symposium of assisted reproduction in Brno discussed some current topics of assisted reproduction. DISCUSSED TOPICS: More than 150 participants at round tables discussed 10 topics: 1. IVF in native AR cycle,2. observation of the embryo development dynamics, 3. evaluation and support of endometrial receptivity,4. increased number of elective single embryo transfers (eSET), 5. transport of gametes and embryos in the Czech Republic and between the Czech Republic and abroad, 6. National registry of assisted reproduction,7. new view on sperm pathology, 8. problems with the SAR membership records, 9. surogacy motherhood and 10. preimplantation genetic diagnosis and preimplantation genetic screening. All findings were presented in the afternoon session. Some of the topics brought concrete results. Some topics could not be clearly concluded and will be the subject of further discussions. A brief summary of those discussion conclusions presents this paper.

  7. Occurrence of nepoviruses in Rubus species in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, J; Kubelková, D; Honetslegrová-Fránová, J

    1997-06-01

    The occurrence of arabis mosaic virus (AMV), raspberry ringspot virus (RRV), tomato black ring virus (TBRV), strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV) and cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) in cultivated and wild plants of raspberry and blackberry has been studied in the Czech Republic in 1993-1996. Five hundred and seventy samples were collected at 51 localities and assayed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The results represent the first evidence on the occurrence of AMV, RRV, TBRV and SLRV in cultivated Rubus species in the Czech Republic. Isolates AMV M20 and TBRV ML15 which were successfully transmitted by mechanical inoculation and characterized by reactions of differential host plants and by electron microscopy are the first isolates from Rubus from this territory. CLRV was not detected in either cultivated or wild Rubus species.

  8. Comparison of particular logistic models' adoption in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbová, Petra; Cempírek, Václav

    2016-12-01

    Managing inventory is considered as one of the most challenging tasks facing supply chain managers and specialists. Decisions related to inventory locations along with level of inventory kept throughout the supply chain have a fundamental impact on the response time, service level, delivery lead-time and the total cost of the supply chain. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyse the share of a particular logistic model adopted in the Czech Republic (Consignment stock, Buffer stock, Safety stock) and also compare their usage and adoption according to different industries. This paper also aims to specify possible reasons of particular logistic model preferences in comparison to the others. The analysis is based on quantitative survey held in the Czech Republic.

  9. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. (orig.)

  10. [Cross-border healthcare in European Union and Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barták, Miroslav; Rogalewicz, Vladimír; Jílková, Jiřina; Jeřábková, Silvie

    Currently, the cross-border healthcare still represents a marginal part of the Czech healthcare system's performance, though. Compared to the total healthcare expenditures in the Czech Republic that accounted for CZK 299.9 billion in 2014, the costs of the treatment provided to Czech patients abroad constitute mere 0.27%, and the (subsequently refunded) costs of the treatment provided to foreign patients in the Czech Republic 0.24%.Although data on changes in the volume and reimbursements of healthcare due to the Directive 2011/24/EU have not been published yet, we can expect rather evolutionary than revolutionary development of cross-border healthcare volumes. Taking into account all available data, we can conclude that the cross-border healthcare, as specified by the directive currently in force, is important in our conditions above all in relation to our neighbours, i. e. Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Poland.Key words: cross-border healthcare, patient mobility, international reimbursements EU health policy, Directive 2011/24/EU.

  11. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  12. Radar-based summer precipitation climatology of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bližňák, Vojtěch; Kašpar, Marek; Müller, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2018), s. 677-691 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-23773S; GA MZe QJ1520265 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : weather radar * rain gauges * adjustment * precipitation climatology * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.5202/full

  13. Natality and abortion rate in Czech republic since 1960

    OpenAIRE

    Klubalová, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic fights a declining birth rate as almost every European country. The declining birth rate is a phenomenon that affects the future development of a state. For several years it has been under the protection of natural reproduction with no changes in mortality rates. The birth rate closely relates to abortion. The development of abortion is affected by abortion laws. The first abortion law was issued in 1958 and the second in 1988. Another factor that affects the abortion rate ...

  14. Analysis of e-commerce products in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Holík, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of e-commerce products in Czech Republic from the users point of view and view of enterpreneur as a support in run a business. Bachelor thesis is divided into three chapters. First chapter is focusing on detailed description of the main parts of e-commerce category. Next chapter describes functions of every single technology and their connection with praxis, their pros and cons. Final charter is conclusion of previous parts with commentary of autor and ...

  15. Cigarette Demand and Cigarette Taxation in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaček, Jan

    2011-01-01

    5 Abstract: This thesis addresses to the cigarette demand and excise tax on cigarettes in the Czech Republic The aim is to describe behavior of smokers and especially their reaction to the changes in price of cigarettes. Data for household spending are used for this purpose. First part of this thesis is dedicated to description of the cigarette market and socio-demographic characteristics of smokers. Second part concerns with question whether smokers are rational or myopic and how price elast...

  16. Personality correlates of music preferences in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Franek, Marek

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the structure of music preferences in the sample of participants from the Czech Republic (n=521), differences in structure of music preferences among various age groups and the associations between these preferences and certain personality characteristics. The exploratory factor analysis revealed five music preference dimensions. Further analysis addressed the question how music preferences are related to personality characteristics. Preferences for these music dimensions ...

  17. Economic characteristic of sport clubs in the Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pavlík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The economic situation and other characteristic of sport clubs are quite unrevealed in the Czech Republic. The sport is traditionally one of activities supported by the public sector; however we know surprisingly little about sport clubs as recipients of this support. We emphasize the municipality level because public authorities are the most typical partners for sport clubs. AIMS: The aim of this research was to reveal the economic situation of sport clubs and gather data about their cooperation with municipalities. METHODOLOGY: We present results of a questionnaire which was completed during spring 2011. We address 1,567 sport clubs and received 430 question-form filled. RESULTS: We found that the economic situation of sport clubs is quite poor, but it cannot be proved as a result of insufficient support from public resources. As the key variable for the quality of relationship between sport clubs and municipalities as well as the grants strategy were proved by the number of inhabitants. We set a necessity of future research especially at the field of analysis of impact grants policy. CONCLUSION: We proved that most municipalities prefer an allocation of a lower sum of funds than it was asked. Short term impacts can be positive - more applicants are satisfied but there is a risk of "inflation" of a grant request in the long term view. Applicants will anticipate the cut, and they will ask for more money. It could cause the pressure on public budgets and the illusion of the lack of funds.

  18. Value Added Tax Gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stavjaňová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an estimation of tax evasion of value added tax in the Czech Republic during 2006–2012. For the estimation I have used the concept of tax gap which is based on a comparison of the theoretical tax liability in the economy with the actual tax receipts. According to my results the VAT gap in the Czech Republic gradually increased during the observed period and it is more than CZK 100 billion in the last three years. The most significant growth of VAT gap occurred between the years 2007 and 2008 and between 2011 and 2012 when the reduced VAT rate was increased by 4 percentage points. The second part of the paper focuses on impact of my estimates on tax policy of the Czech Republic. I discuss two different possibilities how the additional revenue gained from VAT gap reduction could be used – either to decrease the government deficit and therefore to meet the Maastricht criteria or to decrease tax burden on labour which influences particularly low income workers.

  19. Characteristics of Morphological Parameters of Donkeys in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kosťuková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The donkey population in Central Europe and Czech Republic is very variation, which is a consequence of the donkeys originating from various areas of Europe. This has been proved to affect their body conformation. In this work, we are focusing on the population of donkeys in the Czech Republic and its analysis.The main aim of our work was to determine the values morphological parameters in the donkey population in the Czech Republic. Altogether, 23 body dimensions were taken and further processed to calculate 6 hippo metric indexes. The sample group we analyzed consisted by a total of 70 individuals, out of there were 23 stallions and 47 mares. The results were then processed using the methods of general linear model (GLM and multiple comparisons.We managed to prove a statistically significant influence of the sex factor for the following body measurements: shin length of the front limbs, chest width, withers height measured by tape, shin circumference on both front and pelvic limbs and also for weight index. Also, we have found a statistically significant difference in the scapula length when considering the age factor.

  20. Changes in the Pattern of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Czech Republic

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    Petr Broulík

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is currently the most common endocrine disorder in Czech Republic after diabetes and thyroid diseases particularly in postmenopausal women. Over the past 40 years PHPT has changed from a rare severe disease of the bones and kidneys to common disease with hypertension, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, easy fatigue and proximal muscle weakness. During 43 years we have examined one of the greatest groups of patients with PHPT. In the early 1970 the estimated incidence of PHPT in former Czechoslovakia was approximately 8 cases per 100 000 persons per year. Our data showed that the incidence of PHPT increased sharply to 24 cases per 100 000 persons per year in same community with the introduction of automated serum calcium and iPTH measurement. The disease is four times more frequent in women as in man. The ratio women to men did not changed since 1981. However the incidence of PHPT changed in Czech Republic from previous years, it develops around the fifth decade of life and is increasingly discovered with advancing age. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis and peptic ulcer among patients with PHPT is higher as compared with the incidence of these diseases in the general population. However there are still patients suffering from bone and renal complication of PHPT. Removing the adenoma by an experienced surgeon is the first choice of treatment of patients with PHPT. The study offers valuable data on the actual state of hyperparathyroid patients in the Czech Republic.

  1. Certification of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is in the focus of many companies in recent years. It becomes a way of sustainability for many companies on the market. It expresses a voluntary commitment of companies to behave responsibly to their surroundings within three pillars: economic, social and environmental one. The issue of social responsibility is developing in many European countries and European Commission is aiming at support for national CSR strategies. There are countries with highly developed CSR, on the other hand there are countries, such as the Czech Republic, where a public policy is being reformed, including discussions about CSR. This paper supports the idea that states should encourage social responsibility, as it allows businesses to become sustainable which leads to the stability of the economy. CSR activities can be focused on philanthropy, the care of the employees, the environment and transparency of economic activities. The process of CSR certification is important in the development of CSR in the Czech Republic. It allows companies to demonstrate their activities and visible achievements in this field. This paper describes the most popular types of certifications that are used in the Czech Republic and standards that do not have certification purposes, but they are very important. These are standards SA 8000, ISO 26000, ISO 9001, ISO 9004, ISO 9000, ISO 14001, ISO 14004, OHSAS 18001, IQNet SR 10 and the National Quality Policy.

  2. Mr. Eduard Zeman, Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Mr Eduard Zeman (third from left), Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic, visiting CERN's permanent exhibition, Microcosm, with (from left to right) Dr Rupert Leitner, ATLAS Tile Calorimetry Project Leader; Mr P. Cink, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport; Dr Ivan Lehraus, Committee for Collaboration of the Czech Republic with CERN; and H.E. Mr Milan Hovorka, Ambassador, permanent representative of the Czech Republic to the United Nations in Geneva.

  3. Sustainability of Rural Nonprofit Organizations: Czech Republic and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Valentinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of nonprofit organizations is a key concern for today’s nonprofit scholars and practitioners. Building upon the nonprofit economics literature, the present paper introduces the distinction between the demand-side and supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability and makes the case for the discrepancy between them. This discrepancy presents not only a generic conceptual explanation of the nonprofit sustainability problems but is also applicable to the context of the European rural nonprofit sector. Three arguments are advanced. First, the notorious implementation problems of LEADER partnerships can be explained as a manifestation of the above discrepancy. Second, and related, the rural context implies the tendency of the supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability to undermine the demand-side ones. Third, recent empirical findings from the Czech Republic show that this tendency does not necessarily imply the possibility of a clear classification of the demand-side and supply-side sustainability determinants. Rather, those features of rural areas and communities that significantly affect the size of the local nonprofit sector exhibit a controversial entanglement of demand-side and supply-side identities.

  4. eGovernment readiness assessment of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Andrýsková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern information technologies has entered all spheres of human activities, public administration authorities are not exceptions. There has been significantly increasing tendency in using information and communication technologies since beginning of the century in public administration. Despite of some indicators, progress of public administration information systems is too slow. Several organizations are engaged of eGovernment assessment at the international level. We can find some variations in the methodologies that cause different ranking of some countries in international comparison. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and assess the present state of Czech Republic eGo­vern­ment with using both external indicators and internal indicators. eGovernment index, developed by United Nations, will be the main external indicator of eGovernment quality of the Czech Republic. It includes both potential for eGovernment development and its implementation, and it‘s the most complete international ranking at present. It is defined as average of the telecommunication infrastructure index, the human capital index and the web measure index. It represents overall country ability to engage and implement eGovernment. Internal ranking of the Czech Republic eGovernment will be based upon eGovernment level coefficient, that is defined as multi-dimensional model based on technology and communication facility index, Internet using index, using of public administration services by persons and companies, poviding obligatory information, existence of electronic re­gis­try on web pages, web pages accessability and language mutations. Selected statistic data are related to information society and using information technologies in public administration and were published on Czech Statistical Office or evaluated on the bases of previous years‘ development.

  5. Structural seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M. [DAVID Consulting, Engineering and Design Office, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Several Nuclear Power Plants of the VVER type has been constructed during the past years in former Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them has been already put in operation and some of them are under construction. Nuclear Power Plants V1(2 units of VVER 440/230), V2(2 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Dukovany (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Czech republic are in operation. NPP Mochovce (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Temelin (4 units reduced now to 2 units VVER 1000) have been already almost completed, but still under construction. All above cited NPPs have not been either explicitly designed against earthquake or the design against earthquake or its input data must be upgraded to be compatible with present requirements. The upgrading of seismic input as well the seismic upgrading of all structures and technological equipments for so many NPPs has involved a lot of comprehensive work in Czech as well as in Slovak republics. The upgrading cannot be completed in a short time and as a rule the seismic upgrading has been usually performed in several steps, beginning with the most important arrangements against seismic hazard. The basic principles and requirements for seismic upgrading has been defined in accordance with the international and particularly with the IAEA recommendations. About the requirements for seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics will be reported in other contribution. This contribution is dealing with the problems of seismic upgrading of NNPs civil engineering structures. The aim of this contribution is to point out some specific problems connected firstly with very complicated concept of Versa structures and secondly with the difficult task to increase the structural capacity to the required seismic level. (J.P.N.)

  6. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  7. Institutional Determinants of Private Equity Market in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Skalická Dušátková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A well-functioning private equity and venture capital market is affected by a range of institutional aspects. This study intends to answer the question on what is the current tax and legal environment for private equity and venture capital investments in Czech Republic as previous studies have emphasized that a rather poor scope of resources available. Qualitative data with content analysis proved to be the best way to assess the institutional framework. Data collection methods cover a comparative analysis of scientific literature documents and reports, as well as primary data from interviews with experts in the industry. The results of both secondary and primary data analysis were categorized and serious gaps in the institutional framework were identified and discussed. Our results indicate that the issue of legal and organisational structure suitable for private equity and venture capital funds may be resolved through a national equivalent to a Limited Partnership which has already been adopted into Czech law. However, a tax handicap was identified implying that it is necessary to amend the tax legislation so that the legal regulation extends the tax exemption. Another amendment should then be directed towards eliminating or mitigating the barriers imposed on pension. We believe that our findings provide valuable implications for the government, banks, stock exchanges and venture capital industry while formulating new strategies how to increase the level of investments in this specific environment of Czech Republic.

  8. Development of the agricultural insurance market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vávrová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proactive approach to risk management of agriculture companies is the way to ensure the efficiency of agricultural production even affected by natural disasters, to ensure the continuity of agricultural business and ultimately affect the level of development of rural regions. The instrument that solves the problem of reduction and elimination of risks associated with agricultural production is a systemic approach to the insurance of agricultural production, both crop insurance and livestock insurance, linked to a support program for SME in agriculture.This presented paper aims to identify and discuss the possibility of eliminating risks possibly threate­ning the agricultural production and to analyze forms of covering risks associated with agricultural production on the commercial insurance market in the Czech Republic. The paper analyzes the current situation and current development of the agricultural insurance on the insurance market in the Czech Republic.This paper was written as a part of the research project MSM 6215648904, carried out by the Faculty of Business and Economics, under the title „The Czech economics in the processes of integration and globalization, and the development of the agriculture and service sector in the new conditions of the integrated European market“, following the goals and methodology of the research project.

  9. The approaches to the didactics of physics in the Czech Republic - Historical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žák, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe approaches to the didactics of physics which have appeared in the Czech Republic during its development and to discuss mainly their relationships with other fields. It is potentially beneficial to the understanding of the current situation of the Czech didactics of physics and to the prognosis of its future development. The main part of the article includes a description of the particular approaches of the Czech didactics of physics, such as the methodological, application, integration and communication approaches described in chronological order. Special attention is paid to the relationships of the didactics of physics and physics itself, pedagogy and other fields. It is obvious that the methodological approach is narrowly connected to physics, while the application approach comes essentially from pedagogy. The integration approach seeks the utilization of other scientific fields to develop the didactics of physics. It was revealed that the most elaborate is the communication approach. This approach belongs to the concepts that have influenced the current didactical thinking in the Czech Republic to a high extent in other fields as well (including within the didactics of socio-humanist fields). In spite of the importance of the communication approach, it should be admitted that the other approaches are, to a certain extent, employed as well and co-exist.

  10. Geographical Perspectives on Agritourism in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Ondřej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides more traditional tourist enterprises, tourists in Western Europe and North America regularly seek out even more specific forms of tourist opportunities, such as products of rural tourism. Within rural tourism, agritourism has been developed in these countries as a particular subset, and its significant enhancement in post-socialist European countries was widely anticipated (especially after their integration into the European Union. While considerable and focused attention was devoted to the implementation of agritourism strategies and the characterization of agritourist space with respect to particular countries (e.g. Poland and Slovenia, in Czech geographical literature it has remained a noticeably absent topic. In this paper, central attention is paid to selected characteristics of agritourist space in the Czech Republic, analyzed on the basis of a compiled database of farms diversified into tourism at the municipality level.

  11. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    -firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate several hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition, decentralized wage bargaining, skill-biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. Domestic competition is found to lower within......-firm inequality whereas we find no evidence that increased international trade at the industry level is associated with higher betweenor within-firm wage inequality. The key factors driving the observed increase in wage inequality are increased educational sorting and the inflow of foreign firms to the Czech......This paper makes use of a linked employer–employee dataset to examine the evolution of wage inequality in the Czech Republic during 1998–2006. We find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality and document sharp increases in both within...

  12. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Spatial synoptic classification (SSC) is here first employed in assessing heat-related mortality and morbidity in Central Europe. It is applied for examining links between weather patterns and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity in an extended summer season (16 May-15 September) during 1994-2009. As in previous studies, two SSC air masses (AMs)—dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)—are associated with significant excess CVD mortality in Prague, while effects on CVD hospital admissions are small and insignificant. Excess mortality for ischaemic heart diseases is more strongly associated with DT, while MT has adverse effect especially on cerebrovascular mortality. Links between the oppressive AMs and excess mortality relate also to conditions on previous days, as DT and MT occur in typical sequences. The highest CVD mortality deviations are found 1 day after a hot spell's onset, when temperature as well as frequency of the oppressive AMs are highest. Following this peak is typically DT- to MT-like weather transition, characterized by decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. The transition between upward (DT) and downward (MT) phases is associated with the largest excess CVD mortality, and the change contributes to the increased and more lagged effects on cerebrovascular mortality. The study highlights the importance of critically evaluating SSC's applicability and benefits within warning systems relative to other synoptic and epidemiological approaches. Only a subset of days with the oppressive AMs is associated with excess mortality, and regression models accounting for possible meteorological and other factors explain little of the mortality variance.

  13. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Spatial synoptic classification (SSC) is here first employed in assessing heat-related mortality and morbidity in Central Europe. It is applied for examining links between weather patterns and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity in an extended summer season (16 May-15 September) during 1994-2009. As in previous studies, two SSC air masses (AMs)—dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)—are associated with significant excess CVD mortality in Prague, while effects on CVD hospital admissions are small and insignificant. Excess mortality for ischaemic heart diseases is more strongly associated with DT, while MT has adverse effect especially on cerebrovascular mortality. Links between the oppressive AMs and excess mortality relate also to conditions on previous days, as DT and MT occur in typical sequences. The highest CVD mortality deviations are found 1 day after a hot spell's onset, when temperature as well as frequency of the oppressive AMs are highest. Following this peak is typically DT- to MT-like weather transition, characterized by decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. The transition between upward (DT) and downward (MT) phases is associated with the largest excess CVD mortality, and the change contributes to the increased and more lagged effects on cerebrovascular mortality. The study highlights the importance of critically evaluating SSC's applicability and benefits within warning systems relative to other synoptic and epidemiological approaches. Only a subset of days with the oppressive AMs is associated with excess mortality, and regression models accounting for possible meteorological and other factors explain little of the mortality variance.

  14. Undeclared Work in the Czech Republic and its Implications for the Czech Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strielkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the issue of undeclared work in the Czech Republic and to explain the burdens it represents for the national economy. It also describes what measures can be undertaken in order to tackle undeclared work and uses some real-life examples to illustrate their outcomes. Undeclared work and the so-called “švarc systém” (the employer-employee relations with a person exercising the employer's normal activities not being an employee in legal terms but acting as an independent entrepreneur are among the biggest issues on the Czech labor market nowadays. According to some estimations, the Czech state loses about five billion CZK annually in the form of uncollected taxes, unpaid revenues and health and social insurance payments. New changes to the Czech labor legislation that came into force in 2012 were envisaged to tackle undeclared work, reduce tax evasions, fight shadow practices on the labor market, and to prevent social deprivation and other threats for the society by shifting the competences to conduct random checks, and controls of firms and businesses were transferred to the State Labor Inspection Offices (SLIO. The changes in the legislation facilitated the identification of the undeclared work and penalizing of its bearers, which minimized the losses from the illegal employment.

  15. Legends as a mirror to cultural identity and quality practice in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Mansfield, George; Edgeman, Rick L.

    1998-01-01

    This study is one in a series of investigations into quality improvement practices and trends in Europe. In the present piece historical influences on quality in the Czech Republic are examined. Examples from various business sectors are provided. The Czech Republic is confronted by serious...

  16. Linaria pelisseriana (L. Mill. – a new alien species in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocián Petr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a find of the Mediterranean species Linaria pelisseriana at the cargo terminal of Kopřivnice freight station (NE Moravia, Czech Republic, which is the first record of this species in the Czech Republic.

  17. Pharmacy Practice and Education in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigal, Petr; Šimůnek, Tomáš; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-10-09

    The PHARMINE ("Pharmacy Education in Europe") project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU member state. Part of this work was in the form of a survey of pharmacy education, practice, and legislation in the various member states. We will publish the individual member state surveys as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy education, training, and practice in the Czech Republic. Czech community pharmacies sell and provide advice on Rx and Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines; they also provide diagnostic services (e.g., blood pressure measurement). Pharmacists (lékárník in Czech) study for five years and graduate with a Magister (Mgr., equivalent to M.Pharm.) degree. The Mgr. diploma is the only requirement for registration as a pharmacist. Pharmacists can own and manage community pharmacies, or work as responsible pharmacists in pharmacies. All practising pharmacists must be registered with the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists. The ownership of a community pharmacy is not restricted to members of the pharmacy profession; the majority of pharmacies are organised into various pharmacy chains. There are two universities providing higher education in pharmacy in the Czech Republic: the Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, which was established in 1969, and the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno, which was established in 1991. The pharmacy curriculum is organized as a seamless, fully integrated, five-year master degree course. There is a six-month traineeship supervised by the university, which usually takes place during the fifth year. Thus, the pharmacy curriculum is organised in accordance with the EU directive on sectoral professions that lays down the

  18. The atractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kudová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of attractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic using the Industry attractiveness evaluation matrix according to the methodology of Higgins and Vincze (1989. It identifies the key criteria for evaluation of attractiveness from five fields: market factors, competition factors, financial and economic factors, technological factors, and socio-political factors. The key criteria are described in detail and evaluated from the viewpoint of a producer operating in the apple production industry. The text comes from the papers from the field of fruit production and apple production published by Kudová (2003, 2004, 2005 and Chládková (2003. Application of these methods on other industries was applied by Žufan et al. (2001 and Tomšík, and Žufan (2004.According to the data of the Division of Perennial Plants of the Central Institutte for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (CISTA, the number of subjects (firms and growers operating intensive orchards reaches 1 238 on the area of 18 998 ha. In 2003 the number of subjects was 1 243 on the area of 19 514 ha. The total sales in fruit production were in decline from 1999 to 2005, and the decline of sales of apples grown in intensive orchards in 2005 was 34% in comparison with 2004. In the foreign trade, there significantly prevail imports above exports, and from 2002 to 2004 the imports of apples grew by 220%. The biggest growth of area of orchards was in 2004 – by 211 ha of mature apple-trees, which amounts only for 2% of the total area. In connection with this growth, there grew also the yield. Diversity of the market is based on varietal structure of apple-trees grown. According to the data of CISTA, the current varietal structure is not suitable and its change is very slow. Most of apples are grown in Central Bohemia, which amounts for 11% of the total area, which is more than 2000 ha. We can conclude, that even though the average market price of

  19. [Prenatal diagnostics of chromosomal aberrations Czech Republic: 1994-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, V; Sípek, A; Sípek, A; Horácek, J '; Langhammer, P; Petrzílková, L; Calda, P

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of chromosomal aberrations in the Czech Republic in 2007. Update of 1994-2007 data according to particular selected diagnoses. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of pre- and postnatal chromosomal aberrations diagnostics and its efficiency. Data on pre- and postnatally diagnosed birth defects in the Czech Republic during 1994-2007 were used. Data on prenatally diagnosed birth defects (and for terminated pregnancies) were collected from particular departments of prenatal diagnostics, medical genetics and ultrasound diagnostics in the Czech Republic, data on birth defects in births from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics). Total numbers over the period under the study, mean incidences of selected types of chromosomal aberrations and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiencies were analyzed. Following chromosomal aberrations were studied: Down, Edwards, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and syndromes 47,XXX and 47,XYY. A relative proportion of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes as well as other autosomal and gonosomal aberration is presented in figures. Recently, trisomies 13, 18 and 21 present around 70% of all chromosomal aberrations in selectively aborted fetuses, in other pregnancies, "other chromosomal aberrations" category (mostly balanced reciprocal translocations and inversions) present more than 2/3 of all diagnoses. During the period under the study, following total numbers, mean relative incidences (per 10,000 live births, in brackets) and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiency (in %) were found in following chromosomal syndromes: Down syndrome 2,244 (16.58) and 63.37%, Edwards syndrome 521 (3.85) and 79.93%, Patau syndrome 201 (1.49) and 68.87%, Turner syndrome 380 (2.81) and 79.89%, 47,XXX syndrome 61 (0.45) and 59.74%, Klinefelter syndrome 163 (1.20) and 73.65% and 47,XYY syndrome 22 (0.16) and 54.76%. The study gives updated results of

  20. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...-1237 (Preliminary)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea... China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel... (November 2013), entitled Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea...

  1. Private equity and venture capital: investment fund structures in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zinecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A working private equity and venture capital market (PE/VC market stimulates the business environment in a positive manner and impacts the level of economic growth of national economies. A study of the Austrian Private Equity and Venture Capital Organisation/AVCO (2004, p. 6 defines prerequisites for a correct operation of the PE/VC market. It views the legislative provision for suitable legal fund structures for PE/VC investments and their tax treatment as a key factor. In its publication, Private Equity & Venture Capital in the Czech Republic (2010, p. 14, the Czech Venture Capital Association/CVCA stresses that legal barriers are an important reason behind the limited scope of resources available to domestic PE/VC funds. Legal barriers prevent the establishment of a standard PE/VC fund in the territory of the Czech Republic, which fact in turn has a negative impact on the level of development of the domestic PE/VC market (fundraising, investment volumes, establishment of the infrastructure required for the operation of PE/VC funds. The purpose of this article is, based on an analysis of the relevant information sources, to assess how the current Czech legislation regulates the legal fund structures for PE/VC investments and their tax treatment. Proposals for a potential improvement of the situation are based on a comparison of the legislative framework applicable in the Czech Republic and the requirements defined by the European Venture Capital Association/EVCA, as well as the AVCO study (2004, 2006.

  2. Environmetal aspects of cost management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radan Hojná

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industry is continuously developing and so environmental protection is becoming more and more important. An important role in environmental protection is played by the European Union, which is placing particularly emphasis on systematic approaches so as to prevent devastation of the environment. Within the framework of environmental protection, entrepreneurial entities (not only in the Czech Republic utilize statutory and voluntary environmental tools. Implementation of one of the voluntary environmental tools – environmental management accounting (EMA – has become an important part of internal cost management. EMA is a very important environmental policy tool. Its application leads to reducing the negative impacts of an enterprise’s activities on the environment, to increasing the efficiency in the utilization of production inputs and to improving the enterprise’s economic management. A great advantage of EMA lies in its versatility; it can be, therefore, used in large, medium-sized and small enterprises, in various industries as well as in the service sector. EMA makes it possible to accurately establish what part of the total costs is related to environmental issues. In management accounting, environmental costs are hidden as a part of overhead costs. Their correct identification is important for the purpose of costing with respect to individual products. Questionnaire responses were used to examine whether enterprises utilize internal accounting and whether they monitor environmental costs within the framework of their internal accounting. Acceptance environmental costs was analysed on the basis of a division of the enterprises from the following points of view: ownership of the enterprise, the number of employees and the field of business.

  3. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in the Czech Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Czech Technical University in Prague jointly organised the Introduction to Accelerator Physics course in Prague, Czech Republic from 31 August to 12 September 2014.   The course was held in the Hotel Don Giovanni on the outskirts of the city, and was attended by 111 participants of 29 nationalities, from countries as far away as Armenia, Argentina, Canada, Iceland, Thailand and Russia. The intensive programme comprised 41 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials and 6 hours of guided and private study. A poster session and a 1-minute/1-slide session were also included in the programme, where the students were able to present their work. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. During the second week, the afternoon lectures were held in the Czech Technical University in Prague. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to vis...

  4. Liquidity and Stability of Agriculture in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lánský J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on empirical research and 2007–2012 statistical data from joint stock companies which were active in the agriculture sector of the Czech Republic. It deals with the wider aspects of liquidity and stability using suitable liquidity indicators and a vertical financial analysis over a sufficient period of time providing valid results for assessing liquidity and stability of agriculture in relation to cyclic fluctuations. The vertical financial analysis was performed to determine the liquidity structure at current assets and short term debts. Then convenient indicators of current ratio, quick ratio, and cash ratio were applied and interpreted in relation to cyclical deviations and agriculture specifics. From the viewpoint of liquidity measured using the current ratio, agriculture in the Czech Republic is stable and the current ratio values bear witness to solid liquidity, whereby the short-term assets exceed the short-term external funds. Research is to show whether the agriculture sector is liquid and whether the liquidity indicators provide the basis for solvency in the given field.

  5. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie JELINKOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  6. Analysis of foreign direct investment in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Domesová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investments are joined with the process of world globalisation. Foreign direct investments are carried out especially by multinational companies. The basic forms of the foreign direct investments are “greenfield” investments and “brownfield“ investments in the form of the privatization. The Czech Republic has shown mass inflow of foreign direct investments since 1998. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the inflow of foreign direct investments in the context of the balance of payments and the evaluation their impact on the outside economic equilibrium and gross value added in the Czech Republic. The subject of the analysis is the identification of the most important factors of foreign direct investments inflow and the classification of foreign direct investments inflow from the point of view of branches and technological intensity of production as well. The aim is fulfilled by analysis of selected indicators of the balance of payments, analysis of gross value added and international comparison of foreign direct investments inflow in countries of Visegrad Group. The results show the part of privatization in foreign capital inflow, increasing import intensity and export efficiency linked with foreign direct investments. The results are subject of research focused on the process of world globalisation and regional development.

  7. SUSTAINABLE FOOD CONSUMPTION – THE CASE OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš RATINGER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability challenges such as depletion of finite resources stem largely from an explosion in consumption. So far, most attention has been paid to socially efficient use of resources in production. However, the recent increase in demand for biomass and food followed by soaring food prices calls for reconsidering our approach and focusing on consumption too. This includes consuming less but mainly differently, and reducing and recycling wastes. Since food consumption is integrated with our life style it is important to understand socioeconomic and cultural contexts, the formal and informal institutions and government policy which form our food consumption behaviour. The paper refers to our ongoing research carried in the 7FP project PACITA on the technology assessment. We show main patterns and trends in food consumption and buying habits in the Czech Republic and initiatives promoting sustainable consumption in the country and in the selected EU member states. Possible reasons for so poor attention to sustainability of food consumption in the Czech Republic is discussed.

  8. Remuneration and Employee Benefits in Organizations in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment, the goal of organizations is to recruit, retain and sufficiently stimulate employees to give high quality performance, which may actually be achieved by a well‑developed system of remuneration and a wide range of suitably selected employee benefits. The article aims to identify and evaluate important factors influencing the area of employee remuneration and benefits offered in organizations in the Czech Republic. The research was carried out through a questionnaire survey that involved selected organizations in the Czech Republic (n = 402. The obtained primary data were processed using descriptive and multidimensional statistics. The factors examined in relation to the employee remuneration and benefits include: industries and sectors of organizations; markets in which they operate; the size of organizations by the headcount; the existence or absence of the Human Resource Department. The results confirm that the organizations that want to maintain a good position in the labour market pay attention to their personnel marketing, which is also helped by the right (suitable system of employee remuneration and fringe benefits thanks to which they retain their employees and can increase employee satisfaction and loyalty. Employee benefits are exactly what may distinguish the organizations from their competitors in the labour market.

  9. Factors Influencing Age Management in Organisations in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the topical issues of age management and population ageing in the Czech Republic and Europe. The main objective of the paper is to evaluate the importance of individual visions of age management according to Ilmarinen (2006 and Cimbálníková et al. (2012 in organisations in the Czech Republic and to identify factors that influence the implementation of individual visions in the organisation. The primary data (n = 549 was collected by means of a questionnaire technique. The research results have shown that the most important visions are as follows: (1 a fair attitude towards age, (2 knowledge about age issues and (3 a happy life and motivation. In order to evaluate the implementation of age management visions, a factor analysis was performed, on the basis of which two significant factors were identified: (1 organisational culture and (2 job performance and relationships. Based on the research results, organisations are recommended to focus on continuous analysis of their organisational culture, to adapt to changes in their environment, also to implement an effective employee performance appraisal system, and to explore the development of employees and relationships among generations of employees with emphasis on eliminating ageism.

  10. Municipal capital spending and debt in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Jílek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the contemporary issue of municipal finance. Municipalities in Czech Republic make up important part of public sector and influence the fiscal performance of Czech economy. Simultaneously, the capital expenditure of municipalities has a crucial role in shaping of the entrepreneurial environment and of an environment in the widest sense. The goal of this paper was to analyse the capital expenditure of municipalities in Czech Republic from the national economy point of view and to analyse the financing of capital expenditure between 1994 and 2003. The emphasis was given to the relation between the capital expenditure and the indebtedness of municipalities. The analysis reveals that the capital expenditure make significant share of overall public capital expenditure, the share exceeds 50%. The capital expenditure of municipalities also participate considerably on gross fixed capital formation (10.57% in 2003 and therefore on GDP formation (2.83% in 2003. However, considering the economic cycle, capital expenditure of municipalities has pro-cyclical effect. Analysis the structure of financing of capital expenditure, the operating surplus is very important resource. However, it is not sufficient one even considered together with capital incomes and capital subsidies. It results in using loans to finance the capital expenditure. This happened between 1994 and 2003, with the exclusions of 1998 and 1999. Because of the future high need of capital expenditure, it can be expected that municipalities will employ even more loans. The link between capital expenditure and indebtedness of municipalities can be identified. There is another factor in effect. The volume of operating (especially tax incomes is not sufficient. The state decentralizes significant portion of activities without providing municipalities with corresponding income. Municipalities then are not able to generate adequate operating surplus to finance the deficit on

  11. Feasibility study of high temperature reactor utilization in Czech Republic after 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losa, Evžen, E-mail: evzen.losa@fjfi.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Nuclear Reactors (Czech Republic); Heřmanský, Bedřich; Kobylka, Dušan; Rataj, Jan; Sklenka, Ľubomír [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Nuclear Reactors (Czech Republic); Souček, Václav; Kohout, Petr [AZIN CZ, s.r.o., Hanusova 3, 140 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) were examined as an option to intended future broadening of the nuclear energy production in Czech Republic. The known qualities as the inherent safety, high thermal utilization and non-electrical applications have been assessed in years 2009–2011 during the survey funded by Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. The survey of high temperature reactors with spherical fuel was initiated by reason of mature state of the art of this technology type in South Africa and in China, where in both countries pilot plants were planned. Unfortunately, the global financial crisis caused the decision of stopping the governmental support in South African programme was made. In China, however, the development still continues. Czech Republic has almost 60 years nuclear research history and the knowledge of operation of gas cooled and heavy water moderated reactor has been gained in the past. Nevertheless, the design of light water reactors was more developed in former Soviet Union, which provided Czech scientists by initial knowledge base; hence the research has been reoriented to this technology. But, the demands on future nuclear reactors application are still growing and the same or even higher living standard of next generations have to be taken into consideration. Therefore the systems, which can produce more energy and less waste, are getting into foreground of interest of Czech decision makers. The high temperature reactor technology seems to be the successful representative of the GEN IV reactor types, which will be operated commercially in the near future. The broad spectrum of utilization enables this system to be an option after 2030, when the electricity demand is planned to be covered from about 50% by nuclear in our country.

  12. Student's Work: Social Capital in the Czech Republic and Public Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodrážka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.

  13. Down syndrome, paternal age and education: comparison of California and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurova, Dagmara; Pikhart, Hynek

    2005-06-17

    The association between maternal age and risk of Down syndrome has been repeatedly shown in various populations. However, the effect of paternal age and education of parents has not been frequently studied. Comparative studies on Down syndrome are also rare. This study evaluates the epidemiological characteristics of Down syndrome in two culturally and socially contrasting population settings, in California and the Czech Republic. The observed live birth prevalence of Down syndrome was studied among all newborns in the California counties monitored by California Birth Defects Monitoring Program from 1996 to 1997, and in the whole Czech Republic from 1994 to 1998. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. A total of 516,745 (California) and 475,834 (the Czech Republic) infants were included in the analysis. Among them, 593 and 251, respectively, had Down syndrome. The mean maternal age of children with Down syndrome was 32.1 years in California and 26.9 years in the Czech Republic. Children born to older mothers were at greater risk of Down syndrome in both populations. The association with paternal age was mostly explained by adjusting for maternal age, but remained significant in the Czech Republic. The association between maternal education and Down syndrome was much stronger in California than in the Czech Republic but parental age influences higher occurrence of Down syndrome both in California and in the Czech Republic. The educational gradient in California might reflect selective impact of prenatal diagnosis, elective termination, and acceptance of prenatal diagnostic measures in Californian population.

  14. An approach to the implementation of European Directive 2007/60/EC on flood risk management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dráb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (the Flood Risk Directive signifies that flood risk analysis methods are gaining ground in EC Member States and, therefore, also in the Czech Republic (CR. Procedures of flood risk analysis have been developed in the Czech Republic since the catastrophic floods of 1997 in line with European and worldwide trends and have been tested and applied in hundreds of case studies to date. Currently, the Flood Risk Directive Guideline based on past experience with flood risk analysis applications is being processed.

    The aim of the paper is to present flood risk analysis procedures and specially developed techniques for the assembly of flood hazard, danger and flood risk maps. Methods related to flood risk management plans are briefly mentioned as well. The following particular problems are discussed in more detail: an application and extension of the "danger matrix" approach, the definition of residual danger, the formulation of efficiency criteria and preliminary multi-criteria flood risk assessment. These issues were tested in practical applications at pilot locations in the Czech Republic. Present experience provides evidence that the flood risk analysis methods used in the Czech Republic are in harmony with the requirements of the Flood Risk Directive. The proposed and applied methods are based primarily on existing available data such as flood extent maps, cadastral maps, the Register of Census Districts and Structures and others.

  15. Systemic Liquidity Shocks and Banking Sector Liquidity Characteristics on the Eve of Liquidity Coverage Ratio Application - The Case of the Czech Republic1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brůna Karel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the economic and regulatory concept of bank liquidity in the context of systemic liquidity shock. A formal model analysis shows that the application of liquidity coverage ratio (LCR based on Basel III will lead to a significant adaptation of banks liquidity management. LCR causes a change in bank’s liquidity allocation and funding to be less effective and more costly and restrictive for providing credits comparing with economic determinants. It is demonstrated that the application of LCR underestimates actual liquidity position of a bank and leads to allocation ineffectiveness. The empirical part contains simulation of impacts of systemic liquidity shock on the banking sector’s ability to withstand the unfavourable credit shock while solvency is maintained. The results confirm the robustness of the Czech banking system ensuing from the systemic surplus of liquidity, high volume of bank capital and its high profitability. The estimations of the VAR model show that the relations between liquidity characteristics of banks, sources of aggregate liquidity shock, interbank market illiquidity and the credit facilities of the Czech National Bank are relatively weak, supporting the conclusion that the banks face liquidity shocks of non-persistent character.

  16. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, Northern Moravia and Silesia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Henriksen, A.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    The governments of Norway and Czech and Slovak Federal Republic have signed a bilateral environmental protection agreement. This report describes Project 4.2 of the agreement: Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical load of acidity to surface waters and exceedance of critical load were estimated by using standard methods modified for the sampling area. Water samples were mainly taken from small forest streams, which were the only available surface waters with negligible pollution from local sources. High critical loads were calculated, averaging 20 times higher than the corresponding value for southern Norway. The deposition of acidifying components in the region was high, but did not exceed the critical load and so there is a reserve for additional acid deposition. Scattered water analyses from several other parts of The Czech Republic indicate both low critical loads and exceedance of critical load in various regions (e.g. Bohemia). 21 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Central Executive Bodies in the Czech Republic during the Decentralization and Regionalisation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Haydanka

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency of state administration system, including decentralization processes at a central executive level in Czech Republic has been elicited. In the course of the period under study the Czech Republic demonstrates rather high efficiency level and state administration decentralization level. The author points out that the contemporary system of the central executive bodies in the Czech Republic has occurred as a consequence of purposeful state policy aimed at public administration decentralization. Divaricate system of central executive bodies which operation is intended to support regional development operates in the country.

  18. e-Learning trends in Central Europe: The case of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvík Eger; Dana Egerová

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with expert predictions on the development of e-learning in the Czech Republic, a country in Central Europe. The first part of the paper describes the development of e-learning with specific feature in the Czech Republic in relation to the implementation of Information and communication technologies (ICT) to schools and the business sector. The second part of the paper presents a survey with selected experts, conducted in the years 2012 and 2013 in the Czech Republic, aiming a...

  19. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

    2003-04-01

    The floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic were caused by very intensive and large-scale rainfall that hit mainly the southern and western part of the country. There were two following rainfall events, the first on the {6th} and {7th} August and the second on the {11th} and {12th} August. The total sum of areal rainfall was 150 to 200 mm; in mountain areas more than 250 mm and in some localities even more than 300 mm. Such large-scale rainfall amounts are extraordinary for Czech conditions. The first wave of rainfall caused floods in the majority of rivers. There were 10 to 20 year floods, exceptionally 100-year (and more) floods on rivers in the southern and western part of the country. When the second wave of rainfall followed the first one, rivers were already full of water and soils were saturated: therefore the runoff response was rapid and massive. Water levels in all rivers rose very quickly again and they reached their historical maxima in many places. Peak discharges in most streams reached or exceeded a 100-year flood and in some rivers a 1000-year flood. The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Moldau and the Berounka (left hand tributary of the Moldau). The flow in the Moldau River can be partly controlled by operation of many reservoirs in the upstream reaches of the river (the Moldau cascade), the flow in Berounka is not influenced. During the first flood event the major part of the wave was retained by the reservoirs and the discharge in Prague was reduced. During the second event the inflow into the reservoir system was so high that reservoirs were filled before the peak occurred. The peak flow from the Berounka River coincided with the maximum outflow from the Moldau. As a consequence, on 14th August the peak discharge in Prague was about 5200 {m3/s} (the long-term mean discharge is 150 {m3/s}) and is preliminarily judged to be a 500-year flood. The influence of the Moldau cascade on the

  20. Loss in Public Budget from Sportsmen’s Employment in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues of taxation of sportsmen in the Czech Republic. Categories of sportsmen are defined in the theoretical introduction, divided into amateurs, semi-professionals and professionals. These categories are then linked to specific sections of Act on Income Taxes, which are applicable to the taxation of sports activity. The theoretical part is followed with quantification of income tax, social security and health insurance, using a model example with various levels of taxable incomes. All the calculations apply both to the situation where the sportsman assumes the position of an employee, i.e. he has an employment contract, and where he is a self-employed person. Tax incidence on various groups of people involved as well as effects on the public budget are measured within the defined categories. In the context of the public budget we work with the concept of tax evasion which arises from the utilization of one or the other form of relationship between the sports club and the sportsman.The model example is followed with concrete measurements of tax evasion in football in the Czech Republic. We work with specific publicly available data concerning taxable incomes of professional football players in the top Czech football competition - Gambrinus liga. In conclusion, the interdependence of defined quantities is measured using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient.

  1. Higher Education Finance Reform in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. McMullen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and especially the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, universities and governments are evaluating ways to finance higher education other than the current dominant model of almost total government support. With government pressure to use limited funds in other areas (e.g., health care, environment, and the like higher education institutions are being encouraged to become more economically self-sufficient. Some of these reforms have included establishing closer ties with regional businesses and introducing tuition and user fees to offset some of the costs of university operations. The particular focus of this report is on the new methods of financing higher education in the Czech Republic.

  2. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  3. Model strategy for village development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav ROLÍNEK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The model strategies discussed in this article represent different ways of possible village development in the Czech Republic. We used typologies of strategies from business strategic management for their definition. Twenty municipalities, where structured interviews were carried out with their mayors, were chosen randomly from among 100 villages where a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 (Faltová Leitmanová, et al., 2012. Based on the qualitative analysis of the structured interview summaries, eight model strategies were ascertained. These include integration strategy, service differentiation, spending cuts, usage of municipal property, stabilization of village population, business support, fundraising, and identification of the inhabitants with the village (village pride. The most commonly applied model strategy is integration, followed by village population stabilization.

  4. The recent priorities of radiation protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, K.; Drabova, D. [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    The radiation protection in Czech Republic is after ten years of the intensive development in the stage when the system is in reliable routine operation guaranteed by the highly developed infrastructure and legislation. Nevertheless the concerns and problems with the different level of the importance could be always identify. The priorities are set up and stepwise handled. Some of them need further discussions also on the international level where the national particular experiences should be reflected and best expressed in the form of the recommendations or guidance. It is obvious that the current challenges of radiation protection will merge more and more into the area of the management and searching of the processes of the effective control under the conditions given by the actual situation and needs. The possibilities of the society and interest of different stakeholders will play important role. (authors)

  5. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-07-07

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae.

  6. Port Regionalization and Landlocked Hinterland: The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Rodrigue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the European Union (EU and economic growth have propelled the development of intermodal transportation and logistics activities in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Yet, the inland location of most CEE economies requires improved connectivity to port terminals on both the Atlantic/Baltic and Mediterranean/Black Sea ranges. The paper provides a broader research perspective on inland logistics platforms focusing on the CEE region, particularly as it concerns the role of the public sector in port hinterland infrastructure development. The paper identifies the current bottlenecks in logistics activity in regard to the whole range of the national transport chains. A dual regionalization process is taking place between the ports of the Northern and Mediterranean ranges and that the Northern Range is more effective at servicing the CEE region, including the Czech Republic, in spite of the proximity advantage of Mediterranean ports.

  7. Pornography and sex crimes in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Milton; Jozifkova, Eva; Weiss, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence. Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change. As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse.

  8. Principles of Workplace Democracy: Cases from The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vopalecký Andy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the concept of management of democratic companies in the Czech Republic with a focus on the principles of workplace democracy. The analysis is based on four case studies of democratic companies. The case studies have been drawn up on the basis of a questionnaire survey among the workers of companies and interviews with their executives. The research has shown the importance of even a high rate of implementation of the various principles in all surveyed companies. The best rated principle is “dialogue and listening”. In the case of the principle of “reflection and assessment”, it will show certain deficiencies in the provision of feedback. Principles of workplace democracy identified in interviews mostly agree with the principles referred to in the literature. Resulting from the research, it proposes recommendations and suggestions for further research.

  9. Reverse logistics in the Czech Republic: Barriers to development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Škapa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents empirical survey results concerning two objectives. The first objective was to describe barriers of reverse logistics (RL development in Czech companies. The other one was to research whether there are different views of these barriers between company experts and top managers. The analyses are based on data obtained through a questionnaire survey of 102 representatives of companies operating in the Czech Republic. The study applied basic statistical methods used in quantitative research.Based on answer frequencies of respondents, the main internal barrier of RL development is its little importance in comparison with other activities, followed by the lack of systematic management, and unskilled workforce. On the other hand, customers are regarded as the most significant external barrier due to their careless handling with products and packaging as well as their pressure on the sale price. The obtained data also speak volumes about the differences in the view of the RL importance (in the second part of the article. Employees whose work is directly connected with reverse flows report the insignificance of RL as a barrier less frequently than top managers, who quoted this opinion in 50% cases.

  10. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

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    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To outline the history and evaluate the development and current situation of miniinvasive surgery in the Czech Republic (CR.Material and methods: The authors discuss their experience with the introduction of miniinvasive surgery in CR. Questionnaires used repeatedly in surgical departments in CR provide the data for the evaluation of the development and current status of endoscopic surgery.Results: In the Czech Republic laparoscopic surgery was first performed in 1991, and by 1997 laparoscopic interventions were performed at all surgical departments. The proportion of the laparoscopic approach within overall abdominal surgery increased between 1997 and 2002 from 22% to 37%. The most frequent laparoscopic (L treatment applied today is cholecystectomy (CH, which is a method used at all departments. Nowadays, the proportion of LCH within all cholecystectomies performed is between 71% and 76%. CH is followed by appendectomy (A, which is carried out in 94-97% of surgical departments; the proportion of LA is between 38% and 41%. Laparoscopic herniotomy (H is performed at 85-87% of surgical departments, and its proportion within all herniotomies reached 19%. In 1997-1999 resection of the colon was performed at 9% of surgical departments, in 2004 at 26%, and in 2006 at as many as 58% of surgical departments. Between 2004 and 2006 the proportion of laparoscopic management of resection of colorectal carcinoma increased from 7% to 15%. A smaller number of departments perform highly specialized endoscopic surgery. In 2006 we recorded 365 gastric bandings for the treatment of obesity, 90 resections of the stomach, 139 resections of the liver, 60 splenectomies, and 70 adrenalectomies. Video-assisted thoracoscopic interventions also became routine: in 2006 we recorded 953, in 2007 there were 1214 this procedures performed, and in 2008 the number increased to 1163.Conclusions: The proportion of endoscopic surgery within all forms of surgical management has

  11. Returning HEU Fuel from the Czech Republic to Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky

    2010-09-01

    In December 1999, representatives from the United States, Russian Federation, and International Atomic Energy Agency began working on a program to return Russian supplied, highly enriched, uranium fuel stored at foreign research reactors to Russia. Now, under the Global Threat Reduction Initiative’s Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program, this effort has repatriated over 800 kg of highly enriched uranium to Russia from over 10 countries. In May 2004, the “Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning Cooperation for the Transfer of Russian Produced Research Reactor Nuclear Fuel to the Russian Federation” was signed. This agreement provides legal authority for the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program and establishes parameters whereby eligible countries may return highly enriched uranium spent and fresh fuel assemblies and other fissile materials to Russia. On December 8, 2007, one of the largest shipments of highly enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together. In February 2003, Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their highly enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This article discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  12. Analysis of Tourism and Agrotourism Management in the Czech Republic and Austria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ŠŠimková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    .... After theoretical description of a system approach to rural tourism development, the author continues by a practical part where she compares tourism and agrotourism management in the Czech Republic and Austria...

  13. The Macroeconomic Context of Investments in the Field of Machine Tools in the Czech Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucie Povolná; Jena Švarcová

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on the macroeconomic analysis of production, export, import and investment in machine tools in the Czech Republic in the context of the initiative of Industry 4.0. Machine tools (MT...

  14. Is the Czech Republic on its Way to Semi-Presidentialism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vít Hloušek

    2014-01-01

    .... The author investigates whether and how Miloš Zeman, the first directly elected president of the Czech Republic, influences relations among the key political institutions in the direction of the model of a semi-presidential democracy...

  15. Mr Jaroslav Basta, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Czech Republic.

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    CERN welcomed the first deputy-minister of foreign affairs, Jaroslav Basta, from the Czech Republic, for the first time on 20 June. ATLAS spokesperson, Peter Jenni, along with CERN physicist, Ivan Lehraus, accompanied Basta to the ATLAS underground cavern.

  16. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Nome, Siri; Dobiášová, Karolína; Zvolský, Miroslav; Henriksen, Roger; Tulupova, Elena; Kmecová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The Czech Republic is characterized by high alcohol consumption and is well known as the world's biggest consumer of beer. In contrast, the alcohol consumption in Norway is relatively low. In this article, we describe and discuss alcohol policy development in the Czech Republic since the mid-1980s to the present and its impact on the alcohol consumption and compare our findings, including the dynamics of the total alcohol consumption and the development of drinking patterns among young people, with the situation in Norway. The study uses the methodology of "process tracing". Selected national statistics, research outcomes and related policy documents were analyzed to identify possible relations between the alcohol consumption and the alcohol policy in two different environments and institutional/policy settings. There was a clear difference in alcohol consumption trends in both countries in the last three decades. Norway was characterized by low alcohol consumption with tendency to decline in the last years. In contrast, the Czech Republic showed an upward trend. In addition, alcohol consumption among Czech youth has been continuously increasing since 1995, whereas the opposite trend has occurred in Norway since the late 1990s. The results revealed that the alcohol-control policies of the Czech Republic and Norway were significantly different during the study period. Norway had a very restrictive alcohol policy, in contrast to the liberal alcohol policy adopted in the Czech Republic, in particular after political transition in 1990. Liberalization of social life together with considerable decline of alcohol price due to complete privatization of alcohol production and sale contributed to an increase of the alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Persistently high alcohol consumption among general population and its growth among young people in the Czech Republic pose social, economic and health threats. Norway could provide the inspiration to Czech politicians

  17. Teachers and School Culture in the Czech Republic before and after 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of research on school culture in post-totalitarian society in the Czech Republic. The research explored restructuralisation and reculturalisation in the Czech school education system through analysis of school culture in one school located in a midsized town in the central part of the country. In-depth…

  18. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  19. Key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Černíková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates their importance in the industry and their influence on the following development of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic.The current most important key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic are identified: changes in the long-term industry growth rate and marketing innovations. There is space for growth of the industry – the average consumption of the milk products in the Czech Republic per inhabitant 225,1 kg in 2002 is almost by 17% lower than in 1989 (269 kg per inhabitant and also by 10% lower than the current average consumption in the EU countries (250 kg per inhabitant. There is also space for increase exports from the Czech Republic into the EU countries. The liberalization of the foreign trade with cheeses and curds – “double-zero variation” was positive for the Czech Republic in the first year after the introduction. The share of the import of cheeses and curds on the total export from the EU decreased from 24.6% to 15.5%, and the share of the export of cheeses and curds on the total export from the CR into the EU increased from 10.1% to 19.7%.The key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic also are changes in the cost effectiveness; the foreign capital; and key forces resulting from the factors in the macro-environment – the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union, the government interventions and changes in the government policy.

  20. Ten years of eLearning within the Engineering Education in the Czech Republic

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    Ivana Simonova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the process of eLearning implementation in engineering education. It is structured into four parts which (1 analyze this process in the Czech Republic, (2 evaluate the contribution of eLearning seminars, conferences and competitions held at the Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic, (3 provide reflection of the situation in current research activities in this field and (4 present data collected at the University of Hradec Kralove.

  1. The Family as an Externality within a Market Economy: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sivková, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The Family as an Externality within a Market Economy: Evidence from the Czech Republic Abstract The dissertation thesis deals with an issue of fertility decline in developed countries from a perspective of relationship between the family and the market economy. The family is perceived as an externality with respect to theoretical economic framework as well as to real economy of the Czech Republic in the period of economic transition. In other words, neither theory nor applied policy fully ref...

  2. Ski training courses in primary and secondary school in the Czech republic

    OpenAIRE

    Binterová, Barbora

    2008-01-01

    Title: Ski training courses in primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic Objective To assess the current status of ski training courses in primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic Purpose of the study The design for the study of this subject originated from results of previous research carried out since1990. This research indicated that since 1990, interest in ski training courses, as demonstrated by school pupils, administrators and teachers, has declined. The purpose of...

  3. Attitudes toward domestic violence in the Czech Republic and in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Soudková, Šárka

    2008-01-01

    violence in the Czech Republic and the United States of America. It surveys professional and public approaches to the domestic violence - the theoretic conceptions, reflection of this topic by the legal system, by nongovernmental organizations and by the public opinion. Consequently it brings the comparison of the perception of the domestic violence in the Czech Republic and the USA. Although domestic violence is not a new phenomenon at all, it was explicitly first labeled by the women's move...

  4. Family Relationships and its Influence on Family Wine Firms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Murinova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: There are many a studies by universities and various companies regarding the phenomenon of family business. However, a clear interpretation of the family business does not exist. Thus, the purpose of this paper is clarify the question of family relationships existing within the family business in the Czech Republic. Methodology/methods: As the wine family business is a bright representative of the oldest and traditional economic activities, it was decided to analyze the family relationships of 108 representatives of the wine family firms in the Czech Republic within the secondary research. For primary research the case study method was used. Representatives of wine family firms were interviewed to confirm the obtained results and add the details. Scientific aim: The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family firm’s base from the perspective of family relationships. Findings: Coming out of the definition by Arquer (1979 and taking the applicable Civil Code of the Czech Republic into account, the author has created a definition regarding the family business to be transferred to the next generation. Accordingly, there were identified four dominant groups of family relationships within the wine trading family business. A representative interviewed among others has confirmed the existence of traditional wine trading family business saying that it is not only a mere marketing tool for the customer acquisition. Besides that, case studies make clear beyond the veil the influence of family relationships on the firm’s performance. Conclusions: This study has contributed to the theoretical body of family business research providing an important first step to gaining insights into the understanding of family relationships of the family business influencing its effective functioning.

  5. Consumer Behavior of College Students in the Czech Republic

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    Horakova Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a follow-up to the topic of consumer behavior which is analyzed from the economic theory perspective on microeconomic as well as a macroeconomic level. The main objective of the article is to reveal the structure of college students’ consumer basket determined according to disposable income and its changes. In this article, the methodology of a consumer basket was used. The division of it was done by Czech Statistical Office to calculate the inflation rate in the environment of the Czech Republic. In this article, the analysis of college students’ consumer basket was done. The pressure on having a higher qualification in tertiary education is a typical trend across Europe, which is also one of strategic goals of EU Strategy 2020 and its concept. There is clear evidence of a growing segment of college students that represents a significant demand group on the product and service market. The knowledge of their consumer habits is definitely beneficial for companies regarding their competitive advantage and reaching higher incomes from the products offered. The market product consumption is dependent on the total disposable income mainly. That is fundamentally dependent on hours of paid work or other fund contributions. The current disposable income shows the differences regarding consumption expenditures of a consumer basket and its various categories. A lower disposable income is typical for flowing the highest consumer expenditures from class 1 (Food and non-alcoholic beverages to class 4 (Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels of a higher disposal income. If the current disposable income of college students increases, there would be higher consumption expenditures regarding classes 9, 3 and 5 (Recreation and culture; Clothing and footwear; Furnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance. On the contrary, a lower disposable income would mean lower expenditures regarding classes 3, 2 and 9

  6. Private Rate of Return on Human Capital Investment in the Czech Republic: Differences by Study Fields

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    Savina Finardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on approaches to the measurement of the returns of private investments on human capital in the Czech Republic. In the last ten years, there is observed a significant increase in number ofstudents at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs and an increasing number of HEIs graduates is also expected in the Czech Republic in forthcoming years. Using data from the research project “REFLEX”, fromthe Czech Statistical Office and from EUROSTUDENT IV survey, the paper provides the methodology and the experimental computations of the rates of return on private investment in the tertiary education broken down by study fields.

  7. POST-INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC – A GIS ASSISTED SEARCH FOR PRESENT STATE

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    JAROMIR KOLEJKA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-industrial landscapes in the Czech Republic – A GIS assisted search for present state. Using additional datasets on industrial areas in CORINE, brownfields, human-made landforms, undermined sites, open air mining sites, contaminated sites and industrial architectural heritage, 128 examples of postindustrial landscapes (PILs were identified on the Czech territory. All the adopted data sets were preprocessed for the GIS mapping procedure. These PILs were subdued to the genetic classification. One- to four-word-names were applied to describe individual PIL types. Their geographic distribution was analyzed in the Czech Republic and their location compared with selected natural landscape features.

  8. The Development of Mental Health Policies in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic since 1989

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    Dobiášová Karolína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the key events in the development of mental health care policies after 1990 in the two countries and identify the main reasons for stagnation or incremental changes to the institutional setting in the field of mental health care. The process of mental health care reform is explained using the framework of historical institutionalism. The explanation shows that the lack of political interest in combination with the tradition of institutional care resulted in poor availability of psychiatric care, outdated network of inpatient facilities and critical lack of community care facilities in both countries. Even though Slovak Republic adopted national programme at the governmental level, it still struggles with its implementation. The ongoing reform attempt in the Czech Republic may bring some change, thanks to a new approach towards strategic governance of the mental health care system and the mechanism of layering that the promoters of the reform use.

  9. The Czech Republic – impacts of and experience with EU membership

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    Ivo ŠLOSARČÍK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the post-accession experience of the Czech Republic in the years 2004-2011. In particular, it focuses on the integration into the EU internal market, preparation for Eurozone accession, transfers from the EU budget and the formulation of the EU energy policy. In each policy area, both the impact of the existing EU regulatory framework and Czech preferences for its reforms are covered. The last section of the paper (chapter 6 describes the Czech institutional adaptation to the EU membership, in particular the 2009 Czech presidency experience.

  10. The Czech Republic Sugar Market Development in the Context of the Phasing out of Sugar Quota

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    Kateřina Kovářová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess the current position and situation of the Czech sugar market actors. The new situation is expected due to the declared phasing of out of sugar quota with the EU Common Agriculture Policy. The analysis is based on secondary date from the statistics of the Czech Statistical Office and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. Czech Republic has a long strong tradition in sugar production. It lost a leading position in the sugar market in the past. The sugar industry has been affected by various factors during several periods. The last big challenge for the market was the restricting system of the Common Agriculture Policy of the European Union. The expected development of the sugar market in the no-quota environment could be a good opportunity for both Czech sugar beet producers and sugar beet manufacturers (sugar producers.

  11. The Austria-Czech Republic co-operation in the field of radiation-emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouza, Z; Drabova, D; Moltasova, J; Hohenberg, J-K; Hofer, P

    2004-01-01

    An overview on the long-term information exchange and co-operation between Austria and the Czech Republic in the field of radiation emergency preparedness and evaluation of radiological consequences of NPP accidents is provided. Initiated by the 'Melk Protocol' between the Czech and Austrian governments in December 2000 and its follow-up activities, the information exchange and co-operation between the Czech Republic and Austria in the field of radiation-emergency preparedness have been extended. Among others, a Working Group to compare radiological consequences of Beyond Design Basis Accident with a detailed inter-comparison program concerning atmospheric dispersion models, dose assessment methods and counter- measures was established. Based on this experience, an area for future co-operation in the field of emergency preparedness and information exchange between the Czech Republic and Austria is discussed. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  12. On-line Shopping on B2C Markets in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilík Michal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the e-commerce theory and is aimed primarily at its usage in business-toconsumer markets. On-line purchasing management is increasing not only in the Czech Republic but also in Europe and all over the world. The customers who think rationally use on-line shopping because of money saving, speed delivery and the possibility of product comparison. This paper presents the results of a project financed by the Czech Science Foundation P403/11/ P175: The factors influencing customers’ on-line behaviour in e-commerce environment on B2C and B2B markets in the Czech Republic. 89 % of respondents use e-shops for buying products in the Czech Republic. 32 % of them use the Internet for regular purchases and 57 % of them irregularly. 11 % of respondents have not used e-shops yet.

  13. The beginning of therapeutic communities in the Czech republic: Biographical narration of founders of therapeutic communities for drug addiction in the Czech republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Polzová, Alžběta

    2012-01-01

    The work focuses on the emergence of therapeutic communities for drug addicts in the Czech Republic. Describes the history of addiction treatment in 1989 and subsequently the emerging system of care for drug addicts in 1989. It charts the evolution of the concept of therapeutic community and using the oral history brings experience and individual stories of each of the founders of therapeutic communities.

  14. Catalogue of alien animal species in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šefrová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of alien animal species registered in the Czech Republic, with data on their origin, date on the first observation, way of introduction (accidental, deliberate, spontaneous, invasive status (casual, non-invasive, post-invasive, invasive, habitat (eusynanthropic, urban, agricultural, natural, trophic requirements and possible influences (plant or stored-product pest, biodiversity influence. In total 595 species are listed, i.e. 1.8% of the fauna of this country; of these, 22 species of molluscs (8.8% of the local fauna, 451 spp. of arthropods (1.5%, 383 spp. of insects (1.4%, and 55 spp. of vertebrates (9.2%. Among the registered species, 248 spp. (41.8% are confined to closed and heated spaces by their occurrence, and 287 spp. have become naturalized (48.2%. Of these 113 spp. are considered invasive (19% of alien spp.. 65 spp. (10.9% of aliens are pests of stored products, 84 spp. (14.1% are parasites of important animals, 53 spp. (8.9% are pests of plants grown in heated rooms (above all, glasshouses, 28 ssp. (4.7% are agricultural or forest pests, and 39 spp. (6.6% may influence local biodiversity. The origin of the naturalized alien species is mostly in North America (70; 24.4%, the Mediterranean (61; 21.3%, E Asia (44; 15.4%, Central and SW Asia (43; 15%, and S or SE Asia (30; 10.5%.

  15. Spectrum of teaching styles in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šafaříková

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The AIESEP International Conference, June 9–12, 2016, sponsored by the University of Wyoming in Laramie, will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the “Spectrum of Teaching Styles”. Although this pedagogical theory was first published in 1966 by Muska Mosston, it has continuously influenced and internationally contributed to the field of Physical Education. The 50th anniversary celebration is an appropriate occasion to briefly acknowledge the history of the Spectrum’s international journey. The following historical account acknowledges the introduction and influence of the Spectrum in the former Czechoslovakia, beginning in 1971 and continuing into the Czech Republic era. The first section of this article acknowledges the contributions of the Spectrum and its international acceptance. The second section focuses on Prague and the active role of the many scholars who studied, implemented, and researched the Spectrum. The third section presents some teaching style research results conducted by Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University (UK FTVS.

  16. Employer Organisations and Business Groups in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinková Aneta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a case study focusing on employer organisations and business organisations in the Czech Republic. In legal terms, employer organisations are a specific type of interest group with special regimes of registration and record keeping. Unlike business groups, they are endowed with certain privileges and, in particular, can participate in collective bargaining. This study analyses the relations between these two types of groups. The database originates from a questionnaire-based survey undertaken in 2010 among 91 groups representing businesses and employers. The analysis focuses on the relationship between a group’s registration as an employer organisation and its orientation towards employer and business interests. It also investigates similarities between the two organisation types in terms of secondary organisation and strategies used. The analysis suggests that the differences between these two types are minimal and that the possibility of participating in collective bargaining and in tripartite counselling bodies remains the only relevant distinction. This holds true even when we take into account these groups’ self-perceived primary role, i.e. defending their members as employer or as business organisations.

  17. Production Analysis of Biogas Plant in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an agriculture production analysis of biogas plant in the Czech Republic and evaluates the effect of input-factors and their relevance. Cobb-Douglas functions for crop, livestock and total agriculture production are used. Econometric models are used for structure and magnitude determination of land and labour factors at individual farms, which lead to an increase of production defined in scenarios. Estimations are based on cross-section data. Results indicate statistical significance and the economically highest effect of land and fixed assets on the total agriculture production. The results of first period model show, that there is preferably a need for an increase of fixed assets when enlarging the livestock production. There is an increase of the importance of wages in total and livestock production in 2011 compared to 2010. The crop production is dependent on land are in the most, but the model must be rejected because of parameters intensity and economic justification. Quantification of relationships among variables can be used for planning of the whole production or its components.

  18. Employee Turnover and Knowledge Management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vnoučková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy regards employee knowledge as a most important asset. It is a priority task to ensure systematic knowledge continuity of those employees who are the holders of critical knowledge. The aim of the article is to analyse the causes of mobility of knowledge workers and categorise types of employees and mobility according to the future development of an employee’s career. The research areas, i.e. ensuring knowledge continuity and employee turnover were analysed based on the premise of significant relation between those two areas. The data were collected in organizations in the Czech Republic. Surveys were drawn across sectors to ensure representativeness of the outcomes. The outputs revealed two basic approaches to maintaining knowledge inside organizations. Employees can be divided into knowledge workers and remainder, who seek only security. A knowledge worker who decides to transfer is not motivated by the amount of salary (they do not mind a lower level of remuneration; on the contrary they suffer due to an unclear vision on the part of the organization, where they used to work; they cannot stay in conditions where there is no possibility to participate on personal growth. Future research in this area should focus on the return of investments in the knowledge and employee learning, training and retention.

  19. Income differentiation of agricultural households in regions of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Procházková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis. This fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008. The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, and age. The analysis and subsequent problem solving of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type. Household income is one of the decisive factors determining the style of family life, their priorities, meeting their needs, and ensure-time activities. Differences between regions determine preferences and identify opportunities.

  20. [West Nile virus transmission risk in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, J; Rupeš, V; Horáková, D; Kollárová, H; Holý, O

    2015-06-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, capable of sucking blood on birds and mammals, most often by mosquitoes of the genus Culex. In humans, the virus was first identified in 1937 in the West Nile region, Uganda, Africa. Later, the virus spread and caused more or less severe epidemics of West Nile fever in North Africa, Europe, Asia, and North and South America. During the last two decades, WNV has been on the rise and is currently ranked as one of the most prevalent arboviruses in the world. In humans, WNV infection mostly occurs as asymptomatic, but may have a more severe or even fatal course in older and weakened patients. Humans may become infected not only by mosquitoes that acquire the virus from infected birds, but also through a blood transfusion, organ transplant, breast milk and transplacental transmission, or contact with infected animals, their blood, and tissues. The first autochthonous human case of West Nile fever in the Czech Republic was reported from South Moravia in 1997. In 2013, another case of West Nile fever emerged in this country, in the Ostrava area. The issue of WNV has recently been studied from many different perspectives, as evidenced by many original and review papers. This article briefly reviews the essential knowledge about this virus and its spread.

  1. Loyalty Programmes of Selective Grocery Retailers in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Solarová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with long term loyalty programmes of selective grocery retailers who operate in the market within the Czech Republic. Only those loyalty programmes designed for the end customers are taken into account, so this study is concerned with the B2C area. A long term loyalty programmes last at least for one year, i.e. twelve months (this time determination is valid for purposes of this paper. The main aim of this paper is to identify the single elements and principles occurring in long term loyalty programmes and then to develop an illustrative model. The presented output is a model of long term loyalty programmes that captures the three following phases: the establishment, development (or building and termination of the relationship. In addition, from the empirical research, an interesting fact has emerged: two of the analysed long term loyalty programmes were launched at a similar time. This could be explained through the tendency for companies to copy the successful activities insigated by their competitors. Furthermore, the next remarkable phenomenon is that one grocery chain runs two long term loyalty programmes at the same time and the target groups of these programmes overlap. A possible explanation could be that the chain is making efforts to interest as many as possible of its different customers.

  2. A research on CRM systems in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management (CRM is seen as a holistic framework for interaction of organizations with their customers. It is focused on gaining customers’ loyalty through providing the value positively perceived by the customers and usually incorporates information and communication technologies in the form of CRM systems. The paper discusses various aspects of CRM phi­lo­so­phy and utilization of information and communication technologies in relation to CRM. A survey that was conducted among three hundred organizations in the Czech Republic (among them some major companies, such as ČEZ, T-Mobile, Česká spořitelna and others. The objective of the survey was to discover the scope and level of using CRM systems, factors influencing decisions about CRM, understanding the CRM concept, evaluating CRM benefits, issues related to implementation and ot­hers. Organizations mostly perceive CRM as a profitable approach although they do not see it as a global philosophy but rather as a set of separated tools. The most relevant argument for CRM implementation include better contact management, better understanding the customers, higher number of retained customers, longer relationships with customers and higher customer satisfaction.

  3. Remote sensing of forest decline in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardoe, J.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes the localization and quantification of deforestation and forest damage in Norway spruce forests in northern Czech Republic using Landsat data. Severe defoliation increases the spectral reflectance in all wavelength bands, especially in the mid infrared region. These spectral differences allow the separation of three damage categories with an accuracy of 75% using TM data and regression based relationships. Estimating the same categories using an artificial neural network, multi temporal TM data and topographic data yields slightly higher accuracy (78%). The methods are comparable when using identical input data, but the neural network more efficiently manage large input data sets without pre.processing, The estimated coniferous deforestation in northern Bohemia from 1972 to 1989 reveals especially affected areas between 600 and 1000 m.a.s.l. and on slopes facing south and southeast. The sector downwind a large source of sulphur dioxide was strongly deforested. Comparing regional forest damage statistics to three methods estimating harmful effects of sulphur dioxide on Norway spruce yielded significant relationships versus level of forest damage and accumulated salvage felling. Quantifying the effect of data uncertainties permit mapping the probabilities of areas to be significantly over or below thresholds for harmful effects on spruce forests. Satellite based estimation of coniferous forest health is a good complement to field surveys and aerial photography 137 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Projected changes of rainfall event characteristics for the Czech Republic

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    Svoboda Vojtěch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes of warm season (May–September rainfall events in an ensemble of 30 regional climate model (RCM simulations are assessed for the Czech Republic. Individual rainfall events are identified using the concept of minimum inter-event time and only heavy events are considered. The changes of rainfall event characteristics are evaluated between the control (1981–2000 and two scenario (2020–2049 and 2070–2099 periods. Despite a consistent decrease in the number of heavy rainfall events, there is a large uncertainty in projected changes in seasonal precipitation total due to heavy events. Most considered characteristics (rainfall event depth, mean rainfall rate, maximum 60-min rainfall intensity and indicators of rainfall event erosivity are projected to increase and larger increases appear for more extreme values. Only rainfall event duration slightly decreases in the more distant scenario period according to the RCM simulations. As a consequence, the number of less extreme heavy rainfall events as well as the number of long events decreases in majority of the RCM simulations. Changes in most event characteristics (and especially in characteristics related to the rainfall intensity depend on changes in radiative forcing and temperature for the future periods. Only changes in the number of events and seasonal total due to heavy events depend significantly on altitude.

  5. Alternative Methods of Collective Disputes Resolution in the Czech Republic

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    Hamuľáková Klára

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On 11 June 2013, the Commission issued the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning the violations of rights granted under Union law. The main areas where private enforcement of rights granted under Union law in the form of collective redress is of value are consumer protection, competition, environment protection, protection of personal data, financial services legislation and protection of investments. Point 13 of the Recommendation concurrently emphasises that the principles it puts forward relate both to judicial and out-of-court collective redress. The Member States should ensure that judicial collective redress mechanisms are accompanied by appropriate means of collective alternative dispute resolution available to the parties before and throughout the litigation. Point 25 et seq. of the Recommendation then contains special regulations concerning collective alternative dispute resolution and settlements. The purpose of this article is to evaluate if the current legislation on alternative dispute resolution in the Czech Republic meets the principles encompassed in the Recommendation or if radical legal changes need to be adopted.

  6. Down syndrome, paternal age and education: comparison of California and the Czech Republic

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    Dzurova Dagmara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between maternal age and risk of Down syndrome has been repeatedly shown in various populations. However, the effect of paternal age and education of parents has not been frequently studied. Comparative studies on Down syndrome are also rare. This study evaluates the epidemiological characteristics of Down syndrome in two culturally and socially contrasting population settings, in California and the Czech Republic. Methods The observed live birth prevalence of Down syndrome was studied among all newborns in the California counties monitored by California Birth Defects Monitoring Program from 1996 to 1997, and in the whole Czech Republic from 1994 to 1998. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 516,745 (California and 475,834 (the Czech Republic infants were included in the analysis. Among them, 593 and 251, respectively, had Down syndrome. The mean maternal age of children with Down syndrome was 32.1 years in California and 26.9 years in the Czech Republic. Children born to older mothers were at greater risk of Down syndrome in both populations. The association with paternal age was mostly explained by adjusting for maternal age, but remained significant in the Czech Republic. The association between maternal education and Down syndrome was much stronger in California than in the Czech Republic but parental age influences higher occurrence of Down syndrome both in California and in the Czech Republic. Conclusion The educational gradient in California might reflect selective impact of prenatal diagnosis, elective termination, and acceptance of prenatal diagnostic measures in Californian population.

  7. European wine policy and perceptions of Moravian winemakers: a pilot study in the Czech Republic

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    Petr Koráb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European wine policy is a significant factor influencing winemakers in the European Union. This paper examines perception of this policy by winemakers and other persons working in Czech wine sector on the sample of respondents. Methodological triangulation consisting of non-structured interview and semantic differential was chosen. Field research was carried out, therefore the study uses primary data. Application of the methodology along with the method of evaluation of data creates an original approach which may be applied on several other research questions. General perception of European Wine Policy is complemented with its impact on competitiveness, practical running of vineyards and winery and on future development of winery. Data is statistically evaluated within categories of respondents. Special emphasis is placed on direct payments as a controversial factor of the policy. The policy is perceived as bureaucratic (“all respondents” x = 4.56, and among micro winemakers discriminating (x = 4.5, selfish (x = 4.5 and malfunctioning (x = 3.5. “Professional” winemakers perceive the impact on competitiveness in the Czech market as rather positive (x = 2.67. This study represents pilot research on perception of European Wine Policy by owners of wineries, viticulturists, micro winemakers, a sommelier and a representative of marketing-supporting institution, conducted in the Czech Republic. The author also outlines further direction of research, as the topic is not paid enough scientific attention.

  8. Several notes about food e-commerce in the Czech Republic

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    Ladislav Skořepa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution concentrates on a special form of food sale. It solves several attributes of connection of food sale and electronic commerce. Firstly it describes experiences got by foreign companies like Tesco or Ahold – leaders of food commerce. Strategies and achievements in the field of electronic commerce of theirs were introduced.Following part of the work is devoted to leading Czech e-shops. Vltava e-shop and e-shops of its group (Cybex.cz and others were assessed. Several market researches were introduced (about number of internet accesses in the Czech Republic, about time dedicated to PC and internet, knowing e-commerce or its use in practice. In the last part of the first section are mentioned foreign e-shop targeting Czech e-commerce market.In the third part are advantages of e-shopping summarized. Time saving, opening time, goods comparisons are briefly mentioned.The application part was aimed to Jednota’s future e-shop. That means that existing retail chain was chosen. So the foundation of e-shop is rather easier. Than the assortment of Czech e-shops was described, especially in connection with customers’ preferences. Customers’ shopping behavior was exa­mi­ned. So possible ways out could be founded.Following part takes care of implementation of food e-shop. Supply, logistic solution, payment solution, strategy of gaining and maintenance customers, contracting, information technologies, solutions and investment return were mentioned or solved.Results of the contribution are summarized in the conclusion. Relationship between theory of e-commerce and its application was highlighted as a necessary condition of its functioning in real world.

  9. Reported and intended behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P; Csémy, L; Janoušková, M; Mladá, K; Bankovská Motlová, L; Evans-Lacko, S

    2015-09-01

    This is one of the first studies, which compares the level of stigmatizing behaviour in countries that used to be on the opposite sides of the Iron Curtain. The aim was to identify the prevalence of reported and intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and to compare these findings with the findings from England. The 8-item Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) was used to assess stigmatising behaviour among a representative sample of the Czech population (n=1797). Results were compared with the findings of an analogous survey from England (n=1720), which also used the RIBS. The extent of reported behaviour (i.e., past and present experiences with those with mental health problems) was lower in the Czech Republic than in England. While 12.7% of Czechs reported that they lived, 12.9% that they worked, and 15.3% that they were acquainted with someone who had mental health problems, the respective numbers for England were 18.5%, 26.3% and 32.5% (Pbehaviour towards those with mental health problems is considerably higher in the Czech Republic. Out of maximum 20 points attached to possible responses to the RIBS items 5-8, Czechs had a lower total score (x=11.0, SD=4.0) compared to English respondents (x=16.1, SD=3.6), indicating lower willingness to accept a person with mental health problems (Pbehaviour in the Czech Republic is worrying. Both, further research and evidence based anti-stigma interventions, should be pursued in order to better understand and decrease stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic and possibly across the post-communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. ON EFFICIENT OPERATIONAL CONCEPT OF FUTURE HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    Michal Drábek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to elaborate a layout of the first operational concept of Rapid Services with 1 hour system travel time between Praha and Brno. Two basic methods are used – Integrated Periodic Timetable (periodic rendezvous of all services in IPT-nodes and Operational Concept Economy Approach, as defined below by the author. In this paper, three recent high-speed railway concepts for the future so-called Rapid Services network of the Czech Republic are followed-up. The first one is an operational traffic planning study by Kalcík, Janoš et al. on behalf of Czech Ministry of Transport from 2010. The second one is the high-speed railway promoting book High Speed Rail Even in the Czech Republic by Šlegr et al. from 2012, with likely the most detailed concept of Rapid Services network. The third one is a paper on progress of the official spatial-technical studies for some future Czech high-speed lines by Šulc from 2014. The importance of achievement of 1 hour travel time between the largest agglomerations is briefly presented. The presented methodological approach, although soft and manager-oriented, comprises some firm principles: segmentation of high-speed train offer, so that more expensive rolling stock is not wasted by operation on long conventional line sections, consideration of system travel times for efficient rolling stock circuit, restriction of need for links from high-speed to conventional lines, and utilization of high-speed lines as a "rail highway". This approach is intended to be particularized iteratively, with every application. So, in this paper, first version of Operational Concept Economy Approach is introduced. The key idea is that passengers should be offered such travel times and service intervals (headways and such number of direct services, which are adequate to their potential demand, but as much synergistic effect as possible should be strived to be achieved for every proposed construction (new or

  11. Reverse logistics and 3PL in the Czech Republic

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    Alena Klapalová

    2012-01-01

    companies. The paper contributes to a better understanding of present knowledge targeted at RF management practices and offers the first existing knowledge of the utilization of 3PL for RL practices in the Czech Republic.

  12. New records of Psilidae, Piophilidae, Lauxaniidae, Cremifaniidae and Sphaeroceridae (Diptera from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of eight rare species of the families Psilidae (4, Piophilidae (1, Lauxaniidae (1, Cremifaniidae (1 and Sphaeroceridae (1 from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria are presented and their importance to the knowledge of the biodiversity of local faunas is discussed along with notes on their biology, distribution and identification. Psilidae: Chamaepsila tenebrica (Shatalkin, 1986 is a new addition to the West Palaearctic fauna (recorded from the Czech Republic and Slovakia; Ch. andreji (Shatalkin, 1991 and Ch. confusa Shatalkin & Merz, 2010 are recorded from the Czech Republic (both Bohemia and Moravia and Ch. andreji also from Austria for the first time, and Ch. unilineata (Zetterstedt, 1847 is added to the fauna of Moravia. Also Homoneura lamellata (Becker, 1895 (Lauxaniidae and Cremifania nigrocellulata Czerny, 1904 (Cremifaniidae are first recorded from Moravia and Copromyza pseudostercoraria Papp, 1976 (Sphaeroceridae is a new addition to faunas of both the Czech Republic (Moravia only and Slovakia, and its record from Moravia represents a new northernmost limit of its distribution. Pseudoseps signata (Fallén, 1820 (Piophilidae, an endangered species in the Czech Republic, is reported from Bohemia for second time. Photographs of Chamaepsila tenebrica (male, Pseudoseps signata (living female, Homoneura lamellata (male, Cremifania lanceolata (male and Copromyza pseudostercoraria (male are presented to enable recognition of these species.

  13. CZECH REPUBLIC BEHIND THE STEERING WHEEL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: EXPLORING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE FIRST CZECH EU PRESIDENCY

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    David Král

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic will be only the second of the EU members that joined in 2004 to preside over what is viewed as the most powerful and influential institution within the European structures – the Council. While technical preparations have been well underway for several years, the current political constellation inside the EU seems to be leaving certain signs of nervousness among Prague-based decision makers. The uncertainty surrounding the future of the Lisbon Treaty with the Irish ‘no’ and uncompleted ratification in the Czech Republic itself, recent controversy between the EU and Russia and not least highly complicated political situation at home are all likely to have an impact on the first, and – in the current form – perhaps also the last Czech presidency of the EU. This article will try to have a look at a critical assessment of the preparations for the Czech presidency, various factors, both internal and external, that are likely to influence its execution, as well as at its priorities as they are tabled at the moment.

  14. CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF CZECH CITIZENS IN THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

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    Jiří Čeněk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the process of adaptation of Czech citizens to Turkish culture. The article explores the perception of Turkish culture by Czech citizens, problems they encounter in the Turkish society and the ways of their adjustment to the host culture. The empirical research on 10 Czech citizens was conducted using the method of semi-structured interviews. The article addresses the most important issues connected with the process of cultural adaptation.

  15. ICT in the retail in the Czech Republic

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    Aleš Hes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides agricultural primary production, the food industry and all other branches of the economy /services/ it is the information and communication technology used in retail that is one of the factors that markedly influence food retail. Therefore it is necessary to analyse the effect of electronic tran­sa­ctions that are used by food retail to attract and acquire other target groups of the consumers purchasing food. Though globally the retail companies (for ex. in Great Britain invest in this technology heavily in order to increase their competitiveness on the market the food e-business in the Czech Republic has been more or less stagnating, though the recent years have been showing slight increase of interest in this form of shopping. This article identifies both the positive and the negative reasons of this situation. The technological level of computer network and its high accessibility proven by the fact that the vast majority of consumers can use internet for purchasing any kind of goods incl. food can be considered the positive reason. On the other hand the poor offer of food presented on the internet by retailers who – for fear of low demand for other kinds of food – focus mainly on be­ve­rages and dry food can be considered one of the negatives. The weakest point here is the timely delivery of goods in unchanged quality. Despite these facts the purchasing of food via internet can still serve well for busy or handicapped customers with limited mobility.

  16. The Trends in anti-Semitism in the Czech Republic 2004-2014

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    Eva Taterová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the current trends in anti-Semitism in the Czech Republic in 2004-2014. This period maps the changes that appeared since the end of Second Palestinian intifada to the year 2014 which is the last year with available set of data of anti-Semitism in Czech society. The article shall examine whether there is a direct link between the contemporary important events in the Middle East and the changing number of anti-Semitic incidents in the Czech Republic. The attention shall also be given to the issue which groups of Czech society are mostly associated with anti-Semitism and what is their main motivation to participate in the anti-Semitic campaign

  17. How Far Along is Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic? Benefits for Businesses Still Remain

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    Mojmír Helísek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to assess the reasons for the current negative position of the Czech Government towardeuro adoption and to find out whether the expected benefits of euro adoption for Czech companies still remain. Thepostponement of euro adoption in the Czech Republic has mainly been caused by the current problems of the euroarea. The benefits arising from euro adoption are subject to the reduction of the exchange rate volatility and of thetransaction costs, whereas they also depend on the degree of integration with the euro area. These benefits may stillbe expected – neither the financial crisis nor the economic recession has affected them. The integration of the Czecheconomy with the euro area is high and still growing. Therefore, euro adoption will lead to the stimulation of mutual tradeof the Czech Republic and the euro area.

  18. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in the Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, north-eastern Bohemia and northern Moravia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.; Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses estimates of critical loads of acidity to surface waters and their exceedances, for north-eastern Bohemia and Moravia in The Czech Republic. The survey covers 13 400 km{sup 2}, or 17% of the area of the country. Varying critical loads were observed within the examined region. 19% of the examined area showed exceedance of critical load and another 11% was close to exceedance. The survey should continue in Bohemia. 24 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Geospatial Data for Computerisation of Public Administration in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cada, V.; Mildorf, T.

    2011-08-01

    The main aim of the eGovernment programme in the Czech Republic is to enhance the efficiency of public administration. The Digital Map of Public Administration (DMVS) should be composed of digital orthophotographs of the Czech Republic, digital and digitised cadastral maps, digital purpose cadastral map (ÚKM) and a technical map of municipality, if available. The DMVS project is a part of computerisation of public administration in the Czech Republic. The project enhances the productivity of government administration and also simplifies the processes between citizens and public administration. The DMVS project, that should be compliant with the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) initiative, generates definite demand for geodata on the level of detail of land data model. The user needs that are clearly specified and required are not met due to inconsistencies in terminology, data management and level of detail.

  20. Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: current state of knowledge

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the occurrence of representatives of the families Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera in the Czech Republic and Slovakia is presented based on literary data and recently obtained records. Strongylophthalmyia pictipes Frey, 1935 (Strongylophthalmyiidae is a new addition to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Its record from the Jizerské hory Mts is the second from Central Europe and represents a new southwestern most distribution limit of the species. Biology, distribution, faunistics in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and importance for nature conservation (with evaluation of degree of jeopardy are discussed for all species, including also Strongylophthalmyia ustulata (Zetterstedt, 1847, Tanypeza longimana Fallén, 1820 (Tanypezidae and Megamerina dolium (Fabricius, 1805 (Megamerinidae.

  1. The occurrence of branchiobdellidans on stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium in the Czech Republic

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    Vlach Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stone crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank, 1803 is one of only two native crayfish species in the Czech Republic. Epibiotic branchiobdellidans present on this crayfish species have not been studied before in the Czech Republic. Here we evaluate the occurrence, and basic population characteristics of branchiobdellidans inhabiting A. torrentium in 12 small streams in the Czech Republic. Three Branchiobdella species were found: Branchiobdella parasita, and B. pentadonta dominated. B. hexadonta was found only exceptionally, as we did not focus on species inhabiting the gill chamber. The overall abundance varied between 0.3 and 17 individuals per crayfish. The mean length of B. parasita was 3.58 (1.1–7.1 mm, of B. pentadonta 2.00 (0.9–4.9 mm, and of B. hexadonta 1.73 (1.4–2.2 mm.

  2. Road Tax in the Czech Republic during the Period 1993 – 2011

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    ANDRLÍK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides descriptive analysis of the road tax performance in the CR in connection to relevant legal amendments to the Act No. 16/1993 Coll. Data on road tax from 1993 to 2011 were used in this analysis and are available from the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic. Road tax in the Czech Republic represents only a small part of the total tax revenue and its collection provides insufficient funds for maintenance and development of road infrastructure in the Czech Republic. Road tax collection is expected to grow in the future as a result of ongoing replacement and modernization of vehicle fleet, growing number of vehicles, strengthening of environmental aspects of taxes and internalisation of costs of transport.

  3. Interdisciplinary Approach for Assessment of Continental River Flood Risk: A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiyama, Tomoki; Kwak, Youngjoo; Ledvinka, Ondřej; Iwami, Yoichi; Danhelka, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In this research, GIS-based hydrological model-driven approach produces the distribution of continent-level flood risk based on national-level GIS data. In order to reveal flood hazard, exposure, and vulnerability in a large river basin, the system employs the simplified model such as GFiD2M (Global Flood inundation Depth 2-dimension Model) to calculate the differential inundation depth and the economic loss by pixel-based statistical processing, considering climate and socioeconomic scenarios, the representative concentration pathways emissions and the shared socioeconomic pathways, despite current limitations of data collections and poor data availability. We need new approaches to seek the possibility of its national-scale application, so that the framework can bring (1) improved flood inundation map (i.e., discharge, depth, velocity) using rainfall runoff inundation model, based on the in-situ data (rain-gauge and water level), validated with Earth Observation data, i.e., MODIS, (2) advanced flood forecasting using radar and satellite observed rainfall for national-level operational hydrological observations, (3) potential economic impact with the effect of flood hazard and risk under climate and socioeconomic changes based on rainfall from general circulation model. The preliminary examinations showed the better possibility of a nation-wide application for integrated flood risk management. At the same time, the hazard and risk model were also validated against event-based flood inundation of a national-level flood in the Czech Republic. Within the Czech Republic, although radar rainfall data have been used in operational hydrology for some time, there are also other products capable of warning us about the potential risk of floods. For instance, images from Europe's Sentinel satellites have not been evaluated for their use in Czech hydrology. This research is at the very beginning of a validation and its evaluation, focusing mainly on heavy rainfall and

  4. The Assessment of the Character Profile of Wood-based House Users in the Czech Republic

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    Josef Lenoch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2012–2014 the authors carried out an extensive marketing research among users of wood-based buildings in the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey had 1,000 respondents – Czech households using a wood-based house. The survey was conducted separately in each region of the Czech Republic (40–100 questionnaires per region. The results were evaluated separately for each region and for the Czech Republic as a whole. Questionnaires consisted of four thematic groups of questions. This paper deals with processing and evaluation of results of the first group of questions. This group addresses characteristics of people using wood-based family houses. The results are evaluated for individual regions and for the whole Czech Republic. The evaluation covers seven characteristics of adults using the surveyed buildings: age of users, type of the buildings’ ownership, educational attainment, sector of employment, profession, type of previous housing, and the size of municipality of the previous housing. The aim of the paper is to create profile of a “common user” of wood-based buildings. The results of the marketing research can be used to enhance competitiveness of companies in the woodworking and construction sector.

  5. The Macroeconomic Context of Investments in the Field of Machine Tools in the Czech Republic

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    Povolná Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the macroeconomic analysis of production, export, import and investment in machine tools in the Czech Republic in the context of the initiative of Industry 4.0. Machine tools (MT are among traditional industries in the Czech Republic and the industry has an innovative and growth potential. However, the economic crisis may disrupt or modify this trend. The article focuses on the analysis of correlations between GDP growth and production of MT, MT exports and investments in MT in the Czech Republic after the accession to the European Union in 2004 during the economic crisis of 2009 and the post-crisis development until 2014. The results show that production and exports are directly related to fluctuations in GDP and the economic cycle, but domestic investment in machine tools did not show this dependence. It is necessary to capture new trends to increase the competitiveness of the MT industry. The course of recovery of Czech economy after the economic crisis of 2009 indicates signals of qualitative changes in the traditional field of machine tool production. Comparing the years 2013 and 2014, it shows that export MT (SITC 731 fell in 2014, although the total exports from the Czech Republic to Europe and to the world grew significantly.

  6. Factors Affecting Development of Rural Areas in the Czech Republic: a Literature Review

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    Jakub Straka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is a topic that is frequently discussed, but there is no consensus on how to measure it. Various criteria exist such as economic, social, cultural or environmental, which can be used to assess rural development. Therefore the main question addressed in this paper is to identify what factors and indicators are suitable for scrutinizing development of rural areas under the conditions of the Czech Republic. For this purpose, articles focused on Czech rural regions were analysed. Fourteen most frequently used indicators were identified based on the comprehensive analysis of the selected Czech studies.

  7. Current State of Agile Methodologies Worldwide and in the Czech Republic

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    Martin Tománek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to compare the current state of agile methodologies in the world and in the Czech Republic. The comparison is executed as the comparative analysis of two publicly available researches conducted in 2013 and published in 2014. The comparison is further enriched by the results of the unpublished survey in the global logistics company which was conducted also in 2013. The potential trend for agile methodologies in the Czech Republic is also discussed with regard to the worldwide trend.

  8. Approaches to the Economization of Cultural Heritage in Context of Destination Management in the Czech Republic

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    Gajdosik Tomas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultural monuments are one of the strongest stakeholders at the regional level of tourism in the Czech Republic. There is a huge potential for cooperation between destination management and cultural monuments at the regional level. However, these possibilities are not fully established yet. The article is based on the survey conducted among managers of cultural monuments in the selected region of the Czech Republic to demonstrate the importance of cooperation between these two subjects. On the basis of the survey and analysis of the possibilities of cooperation between tourism industry and cultural monuments at the regional level, the new ways of cooperation are recommended.

  9. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doruska, J. [Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech, Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  10. Data Flow in Relation to Life-Cycle Costing of Construction Projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolek, Vojtěch; Hanák, Tomáš; Marović, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Life-cycle costing is an important part of every construction project, as it makes it possible to take into consideration future costs relating to the operation and demolition phase of a built structure. In this way, investors can optimize the project design to minimize the total project costs. Even though there have already been some attempts to implement BIM software in the Czech Republic, the current state of affairs does not support automated data flow between the bill of costs and applications that support building facility management. The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate the current situation and outline a future framework that should allow for the use of the data contained in the bill of costs to manage building operating costs.

  11. Assessment of municipal environmental protection expenditure: Case study in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Soukopová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local authorities need simple economic tools and methodology how to evaluate public expenditure efficiency. There are a lot of ways for measuring efficiency of public expenditure however methods or economic tools which get actual information about efficiency of current public spending are rare. The paper presents new methodology for evaluating current municipal environmental protection expenditures based on a weighted assessment of multiple economic, social and environmental criteria. This methodology has issued from OECD methodology however it is a more complex tool and addresses the three pillars of sustainable development and following interdisciplinary approaches of Environmental Mainstreaming. The paper presents also case study, where is investigated environmental protection expenditure evaluation in the city of Brno, the second largest city in the Czech Republic. The results of this case study show the correct state of expenditure efficiency in the city of Brno and indicate possible improvements applicable for new investment to environmental protection and sustainable development.

  12. Research of causes of low IPO number in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding development of the company through the “Initial Public Offering” has a high representation globally, the Czech Republic unlike, and belongs to traditional methods of raising funds necessary for development of business in the developed capital markets. In the United States of America, Japan and in the Western Europe countries the method of company funding through IPO has been ap­p­lying for several decades already. The first public stock offerings began to be applied in these markets in higher volumes from the beginning of the 60th of the last century. From that period importance of IPO goes up globally and the initial public stock offerings begin to be applied more and more even in the Central and Eastern European countries. Under the conditions of the Czech capital market this way funding of development of the company, connected with its entering into the capital market, is not very usual. The Strategy of Sustainable Development of the Czech Republic considers this situation the weakness of the Czech economy, and its resolving has to be paid a due care. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis identifying the causes of the low numbers of IPOs in the Czech Republic. These causes were analyzed in a comprehensive way covering the period of time from the beginnings of the modern-day capital market in the Czech Republic until the present times. In order to reach the objective, the secondary research of the literature sources, focused on the issue in question and the primary research in the Czech companies was carried out.

  13. Properties of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    Although shale gas-bearing deposits have a markedly lower gas content than coal deposits, great attention has recently been paid to shale gas as a new potential source of fossil energy. Shale gas extraction is considered to be quite economical, despite the lower sorption capacity of shales, which is only about 10% of coal sorption capacities The selection of a suitable locality for extracting shale gas requires the sorption capacity of the shale to be determined. The sorption capacity is determined in the laboratory by measuring the amount of methane absorbed in a shale specimen at a pressure and a temperature corresponding to in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption. According to the principles of reversibility of adsorption/desorption, this amount should be roughly related to the amount of gas released by forced degassing. High pressure methane sorption isotherms were measured on seven representative samples of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic. Excess sorption measurements were performed at a temperature of 45oC and at pressures up to 15 MPa on dry samples, using a manometric method. Experimental methane high-pressure isotherms were fitted to a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum measured excess sorption parameter and the Langmuir sorption capacity parameter were used to study the effect of TOC content, organic maturity, inorganic components and porosity on the methane sorption capacity. The studied shale samples with random reflectance of graptolite 0.56 to 1.76% had a very low TOC content and dominant mineral fractions. Illite was the prevailing clay mineral. The sample porosity ranged from 4.6 to 18.8%. In most samples, the micropore volumes were markedly lower than the meso- and macropore volumes. In the Silurian black shales, the occurrence of fractures parallel with the original sedimentary bending was highly significant. A greater proportion of fragments of carbonaceous particles of graptolites and bitumens in the

  14. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of

  15. Income Situation of the Households in the Slovak and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUBICOVÁ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the income situation of households in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic in the years 2005 - 2OO8.The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic have recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis; this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of the life-style. Accession of the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic to the EU opened up the new opportunities not only in the formation of incomes but also in changes of consumer habits of the population in both states. The basis for these changes was given before 1989, since when it has been possible to monitor realization of reforms. In this process, a new structure of income and expenditures was gradually formed. Assessment of the standard of living of the population and its development is affected by several indicators. The key indicators that allow assessment of the standard of living and its development are the money income, consumption and expenditure for food, housing, culture, education and health care. Data on the household incomes and the household expenditures for the stated needs point at the standard of living of the population as well as various social groups. The reciprocal comparison of the differences in expenditures for basic living needs of the household is important, too.

  16. The Entreprenurial Perception of SME Business Environment Quality in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljucnikov Aleksandr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article defines and quantifies important factors of the quality of the business environment for small and medium-sized firms (SMEs in the Czech Republic.To do so, itcompares the attitudes of entrepreneurs categorized by gender, education, age and firm size. A study of the business environment was conducted in 2015 from a sample of 1,141 respondents (the owners of companies, and the results were analyzed. It was found that only 10% of the entrepreneurs positively evaluated the applicable forms of state financial support. The study also demonstrated no statistically-significant response differences among the designated social groups. 64% of Czech entrepreneurs feel the support of their surroundings while doing business,45% think that SMEs have restricted access to external sources of financing, and over half note the intensive influence of market risk. It was also determined that there are statistically-significant differences in the pattern of responses between men and women and between micro-enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises.

  17. Innovative activity in chosen branches of the tertiary sector in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Jiraskova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview on innovation in services and their approach to the protection of intellectual property. The submitted article summarizes preparing part of a starting project mostly focused on investment environment. The area of interest is companies providing services in the territory of the Czech Republic. The aim of the project is supporting actions of promoting investment and innovative environment. It is necessary to exactly define innovation in services and to analyze innovative activity first so the aim could be achieved. A partial aim of the project will be finding out whether branches which report higher revenues from innovative activities are actively using the opportunity to patent their service because innovations are closely connected to the protection of intellectual property as well. The described part concerns innovations in selected branches of tertiary sector whereas all the branches which have been registered by Czech Statistical office, because of a validation of application for patent proceeding at least in two examined periods since 1993 are examined. Furthermore a possible dependency between an amount of patents in single regions and an amount of revenues coming from innovative companies to a region.

  18. The use of taxation records in assessing historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-10-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data are often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in the periods 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. A number of uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and restriction to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data have considerable potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  19. The rainfall erosivity factor in the Czech Republic and its uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the rainfall erosivity factor (R factor for the area of the Czech Republic is assessed. Based on 10 min data for 96 stations and corresponding R factor estimates, a number of spatial interpolation methods are applied and cross-validated. These methods include inverse distance weighting, standard, ordinary, and regression kriging with parameters estimated by the method of moments and restricted maximum likelihood, and a generalized least-squares (GLS model. For the regression-based methods, various statistics of monthly precipitation as well as geographical indices are considered as covariates. In addition to the uncertainty originating from spatial interpolation, the uncertainty due to estimation of the rainfall kinetic energy (needed for calculation of the R factor as well as the effect of record length and spatial coverage are also addressed. Finally, the contribution of each source of uncertainty is quantified. The average R factor for the area of the Czech Republic is 640 MJ ha−1 mm h−1, with values for the individual stations ranging between 320 and 1520 MJ ha−1 mm h−1. Among various spatial interpolation methods, the GLS model relating the R factor to the altitude, longitude, mean precipitation, and mean fraction of precipitation above the 95th percentile of monthly precipitation performed best. Application of the GLS model also reduced the uncertainty due to the record length, which is substantial when the R factor is estimated for individual sites. Our results revealed that reasonable estimates of the R factor can be obtained even from relatively short records (15–20 years, provided sufficient spatial coverage and covariates are available.

  20. Retro Reappropriations. Responses to 'The Thirty Cases of Major Zeman' in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pehe, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe first post-1989 rerun of the 1970s television series Třicet případů majora Zemana (The Thirty Cases of Major Zeman) in the Czech Republic generated a heated controversy in the media. This article will examine why Major Zeman became such a contested topic and present an analysis of

  1. Capital market imperfections, uncertainty and corporate investment in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Sterken, E

    2000-01-01

    In this study we examine private investment behavior of firms in the Czech Republic. A special feature of the study is that the investment equations include variables which may give some more insights into the role of capital market imperfections as well as the effect of uncertainty. Our results

  2. Project Risk Management in Educational Organizations: A Case from the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Ludvík; Egerová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The past 20 years have been a period of reforms for school systems in Visegrad countries. However, the successful implementation of educational reforms requires effective leaders and managers and, to produce effective leaders, changes in the system of leadership and management programmes need to be adopted. From 2004, the Czech Republic saw a…

  3. Effects of afforestation on soil structure formation in two climatic regions of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Podrazsky; O. Holubik; J. Vopravil; T. Khel; W. K. Moser; H. Prknova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of agricultural land afforestation on soil characteristics. Two sites in two regions of the Czech Republic were evaluated, at lower as well as higher submountain elevations: in the regions of the Orlicke hory Mts. and Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, afforested, arable and pasture lands were compared for basic chemical and...

  4. Soil moisture trends in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Brázdil, R.; Možný, M.; Štepánek, P.; Dobrovolný, P.; Zahradníček, P.; Balek, J.; Semerádová, D.; Dubrovský, Martin; Hlavinka, P.; Eitzinger, J.; Wardlow, B.; Svoboda, M.; Hayes, M.; Žalud, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 13 (2015), s. 3733-3747 ISSN 0899-8418 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : soil moisture * drought assessment * drought climatology * water balance * climate dice * observed climate change * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015

  5. Well-being in the Czech Republic in an Aggregate Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Kamila; Štika, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 70-87 ISSN 1213-2446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/1521 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : well - being * sustainability * subjective life satisfaction Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://nho.econ.muni.cz/15-2015/1-2015/ well - being -czech-republic-aggregate-perspective

  6. Autochthonous Hepatozoon infection in hunting dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Steinbauer, V.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 11 (2016), s. 4167-4171 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hepatozoon canis * dogs * red foxes * Czech Republic * autochthonous infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  7. 75 FR 2858 - Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: DoD is contemplating a Reciprocal...

  8. The development and projection of exports of selected agricultural and alimentary commodities from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents partial results of a statistical analysis of export indicators of selected agricultural and alimentary categories of products from the Czech Republic according to countries in a reference period 1993−2002. The analysis includes short-run prediction based on applied modes of developmental tendencies of assessed phenomena.

  9. Managing Cognitive Dissonance: Experience from an Environmental Education Teachers' Training Course in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of seven in-service environmental education teacher training courses conducted in the Czech Republic in 2009-2011. The evaluation applied a grounded theory approach. 14 focus groups, 13 interviews and two post-programme questionnaires were used. The evaluation describes a process of managing cognitive…

  10. Report of a Vegetables Network : Second Meeting, 26–28 June 2007, Olomouc, Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astley, D.; Bas, N.; Branca, F.; Daunay, M.C.; Keller, J.; Dooijeweert, van W.; Treuren, van R.; Maggioni, L.; Lipman, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Second Meeting of the Vegetables Network (VEGNET) of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources (ECPGR) was held on 26-28 June 2007 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. The meeting was organized jointly with the Third Meeting of the ECPGR Working Group on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

  11. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munich, Daniel; Jurajda, Stepan; Cihak, Martin

    The current recession in the Czech Republic is driven by aggregate demand, unsustainable growth of wages, weak enforcement of the legal system, non-operational bankruptcy law, and poor corporate governance. The wage dispersion has been growing continuously, and wage setting has become increasingly more responsive to market forces. Education has…

  12. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  13. Financial Stress in the Czech Republic: Measurement and Effects on the Real Economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Malega, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 3 (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10331S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : financial stress indicator * vector autoregression * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/horvath-0466511.pdf

  14. Food Self Sufficiency in Selected Crops in the Czech Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kotyza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a member of the EU, today the Czech Republic is not entirely dependent on domestic production of food and farming commodities. Since borders inside the EU are open, particular commodities can flow without any tariff measures. But food self-sufficiency belongs to internal factors of national security and therefore it deserves sufficient attention. The aim of this article is to evaluate, based on an analysis, the self-sufficiency rate of the Czech Republic and Poland in selected commodities of crop production between marketing years 2000/2001–2009/2010, with special attention to the most important and cultivated commodities – basic cereals, oilseeds, corn and potatoes. Based on analyses of self-sufficiency rate it can be concluded, that both countries can be considered as stabilised with restpect to rate of self-sufficency of selected crops – none of the presented groups falls under 80%. For most described commodities the trend of self-sufficiency rate in the Czech Republic and Poland is stabilised or growing. Only production of potatoes is coming close to critical treshhold in CZ, therefore national strategies should be put in place to maintain the self-sufficiency rate above the critical limit. After an analysis of internation trade it can be concluded that the Czech Republic is specialised exporter of not-processed commodities but country significantly falls behind Poland in competitiveness of processing of commodities.

  15. Private Tutoring Lessons Supply: Insights from Online Advertising in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štastný, Vít

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of the world, shadow education has become a major enterprise. Such is the case of the countries of the former Eastern Bloc, including the Czech Republic, which is in scope of this article. The study analyses the Internet supply of private tutoring lessons in academic subjects and assesses the micro- and macro-factors influencing the…

  16. Institutional Arrangement of Financial Markets Supervision: The Case of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Musílek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with institutional arrangement of financial supervision in the Czech Republic. Financial markets are composed of partial financial segments specialized in individual types of financial instruments and individual customer groups. Financial institutions gradually transform into financial supermarkets. There are several models of institutional arrangement of financial supervision (integrated financial supervision model, sectional financial supervision model, financial supervision...

  17. Assessing impact of land use and climate change on regulating ecosystem services in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorencová, Eliška; Harmáčková, Veronika Zuzana; Landová, L.; Pártl, Adam; Vačkář, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2016), č. článku e01210. ISSN 2332-8878 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Czech Republic * drivers * ecosystem services * InVEST * modeling * scenarios * Special Feature: Ecosystem Management in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Related Aspects: Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important drivers of increasing greenhouse gas emissions are increasing world’s population, economic development resulting in higher level of productions and consumption, but also unanticipated increases in the energy intensity of GDP and in the carbon intensity of energy. The EU committed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 20% until 2020 or 40% until 2030 compared to 1990 levels of the Kyoto Protocol. The Czech Republic enlarged EU in 2004 as a country from Eastern Europe where usually the heavy industries or agriculture prevail over other sectors. The aim of the paper was an evaluation of the development of greenhouse gas emissions and related aspects in the industry of the Czech Republic. Based on the results was concluded that although greenhouse gas emissions of the Czech Republic are deeply below the Kyoto targets, there are areas for improvements e.g. in case of energy intensities, as well as in case of carbon intensity and carbon productivity, where the Czech Republic reaches worse results than the EU28. Therefore is recommended to decrease greenhouse gas emission and increase gross value added generated by each NACE sector. Both those factors will impact on improvement of energy intensity, carbon productivity as well as greenhouse gas emissions per capita.

  19. Braconid (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) parasitoids of bark beetles in upland spruce stands of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aural Lozan; Jiri Zeleny

    2003-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles occur frequently in the upland spruce forests of the Czech Republic; some of them are serious pests that may cause vast destruction of forest stands. In the last decade, a complex of several species from the genera Ips, Pityogenes and Polygraphus contributed to large-scale devastation of thousand...

  20. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, I.-M.; Sandholm, K.; Ekdahl, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1. The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between...

  1. Foreign workers in the labour market in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Čižinský, Pavel; Čech Valentová, Eva; Hradečná, Pavla; Holíková, Klára; Jelínková, Marie; Rozumek, Martin; Rozumková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    The publication we have prepared for you concerns a relatively narrow issue: the position of foreign workers in the labour market in the Czech Republic and in several other selected countries of the European Union. Our original intention was to address mainly the question of job safety for these persons, as well as work accidents and occupational diseases.

  2. Regions and media from quantitative and qualitative perspectives: the case of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sucháček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Media become increasingly important in co-creating the image of spatial units at various scales. The situation is even more intriguing in transition/post-transitions countries, which were exposed to modernization trends in rather short, almost compressed periods. The article aims at showing how media shape the image of NUTS III regions in the Czech Republic. Comparisons show TV coverage embodies media agenda in a satisfactory manner as it has one of the highest impacts on the public on the one hand and is representative enough on the other. That is why TV coverage at the national level with contributions related to individual NUTS III in the Czech Republic was chosen as a point of departure. Thus, the objective of the paper is to analyze and interpret TV news related to NUTS III regions in the Czech Republic. This will be accomplished from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. Quantitative analysis is focusing on the number of contributions related to the size of the region in question. Nonetheless, self-governing regions in the Czech Republic will be evaluated also from qualitative perspective when the composition of TV news will be accentuated. Although it is stated only seldom media analysis is of utmost importance in relation to regional development. In order to quantify and evaluate afore mentioned dependencies the methods of regression and correlation analysis will be utilized. Moreover, correspondence analysis and analysis of contingency tables will be used in the qualitative part of our research.

  3. Perception of Urban Renewal: Reflexions and Coherences of Socio-Spatial Patterns (Brno, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, J.; Navrátil, J.; Tonev, P.; Frantál, Bohumil; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Havlíček, M.; Černík, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 66-77 ISSN 2065-4421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : urban environment * revitalization * perception * Brno * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2014/07_kunc.pdf

  4. Professional Preparation of Students of Social Pedagogy in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincová, Jana; Andrysová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the professional preparation of future teachers of social pedagogy (social educators) in the context of current tasks which the social pedagogy in the Czech Republic still has. Based on the results of the research which aims to present the professional characteristics of students of social pedagogy, we propose an innovation of…

  5. Household measures for river flood risk reduction in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, B.; Vikhrov, Dmytro; Kelman, I.; Stojanov, R.; Juřička, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 253-266 ISSN 1753-318X Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : Becva river basin * Czech Republic * flood damage Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  6. Development of forest carbon budget and wood production in the Czech Republic until 2060

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cienciala, E.; Exnerová, Z.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the scenarios of likely development of carbon pools in managed forest ecosystems of the Czech Republic. The analysis was based on a matrix scenario model (EFISCEN), adopting a novel parameterization based on forest stand site types and forest typology. The model was constrained

  7. Personality and Religion among Secondary School Pupils in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Quesnell, Michael; Lewis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The short-form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,780 boys and 1,634 girls attending secondary schools in the Czech Republic, together with the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity. On the one hand, two of the findings are consistent with those from a series of studies employing the same measure of religiosity…

  8. Impact of Activity-Based Costing on Financial Performance in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pokorná

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking for factors affecting business performance is one of a central concern of business economists for several years. Activity-Based Costing (ABC is a management tool that provides additional and more accurate information on the costs and company performance, thus contributes to better manager decision making, and thus has potential to affect the financial performance. This paper aims to investigate the link between the use of ABC among corporations in the Czech Republic and improvement in corporate financial performance. The empirical survey was carried out among 548 Czech medium-sized and large companies from various economic sectors. Financial performance was measured by standardized Return on Assets from 2005 to 2011. The ABC expansion among enterprises in the Czech Republic is currently comparable with neighbouring countries, although the extent of its use is lower. Surprising but statistically significant results show that businesses that use ABC have on average the same or even lower financial performance than businesses without ABC.

  9. Organisational arrangement of human resources management in organisations operating in Slovakia and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stacho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition of effective functioning of human resources management in an organisation is the creation of adequate organisational conditions including the existence of a human resources management department, its size, composition and responsibility, which are formed following particular conditions of the given organisation. Competitive environment of organisations operating in Slovakia and Czech Republic is growing with the process of world economy globalisation, and it brings the need of flexibility in management, and therefore we have to get used to changes also in the sphere of human resources management, and learn to cope with new impulses and situations. At present, that predominantly includes spreading effects of global financial and economic crisis, influencing all spheres of life in Slovakia and in Czech Republic too. Handling this situation presupposes flexibility in assessment of changes in environment where organisations operate, ability to detect all positive as well as negative impacts and situations, and formulation of measures to enhance their own position sensibly and cautiously. Due to the need of focusing of organisations on comprehensive arrangement of human resources management, in questionnaire researches, we focused on finding out whether and to what extent organisations operating in Slovakia (n = 340 and in Czech Republic (n = 109 focus on human resources management arrangement. The objective of the article is to compare results in the sphere of human resources in organisations operating in Slovak and Czech Republics. The results show that 67% organisations in Slovakia and only 43% in the Czech Republic had a human resources management department which realised followed human resources management functions and personnel strategy.

  10. New religious movements and their perception as conflict religious groups: the case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Václavíc

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At first sight, both the role and the position of religion in the Czech Republic may appear to confirm the secularization thesis. The results of sociological surveys and census statistics show a clear decline in religious faith and practice. According to last national census of 2001 more than 59 per cent of Czech people declared themselves to be ‘non-believers’, while only 32 per cent of Czechs declared themselves to be ‘believers’. And if we look at the statistics that concern the intensity of religious life, we can see a more ‘secularized picture’ of Czech society. For example, only 5 per cent of the Czech population attends religious services regularly, and only 20 per cent of population is willing to contribute 1,50 euro a month to a religious group or church. But do these data present a true picture of secularization in Czech society? What exactly is the attitude of Czech society towards religion? These and other questions are examined in this article.

  11. Subjective Social Status in select Ukrainians, Vietnamese, and Mongolians living in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Veleminsky, Milos; Brabcová, Iva; Záleská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998. SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05. When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency). The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to

  12. Migrants' health and access to healthcare in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Dobiásová, Karolina

    2011-09-01

    The article is dealing with current state of Czech health policy in relation to migration. Overall migration information, available data on migrants' health status as well as accessibility of healthcare are provided. Some health risks connected with migration are mentioned and discussed. Authors concluded that the most urgent problem of Czech health policy in relation to migrants remains the insufficient guarantee of legal entitlement to health care. This concerns a large group of migrants with long-term residence, since the current legal regulation is disadvantageous to migrants coming from countries outside the EU.

  13. Corruption and System Change in the Czech Republic: Firm-Level Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koudelková Petra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a widespread phenomenon in all countries undergoing market transition. However, the Czech Republic stands apart, with its incredible entanglement of corruption, politics and business. Although corruption on the firm level in the Czech Republic is heavily criticized, the results of our in-depth interviews conducted with Czech SMEs showed that almost every firm has encountered some form of corruption and even used corruption to either increase sales, help negotiations, or increase production. Most of our respondents admitted that corruption was useful for day-to-day business. This article aims to obtain information about the state of corruption in enterprises in the Czech Republic and map the behaviour of entrepreneurs in companies. Our results offer ways to fight corruption: apart from highlighting the negative traits of corruption, emphasis should be made on determining to what extent corruption would be acceptable for firms and their clients. This could be useful for designing various state policies that might influence system change and market development in CEECs and both directly and indirectly influence the volume of corruption.

  14. Is the Czech Republic on its Way to Semi-Presidentialism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hloušek Vít

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to contribute to the bourgeoning debate on semipresidentialism, its definition, and its characteristic features, with analysis of the empirical example of the Czech Republic, a country which, according to Elgie´s standard definition, shifted to semi-presidentialism in 2012. The author investigates whether and how Miloš Zeman, the first directly elected president of the Czech Republic, influences relations among the key political institutions in the direction of the model of a semi-presidential democracy. The paper sets out the working concept of semi-presidentialism first and, through the lenses of process tracing, analyses the goals and acts of Zeman after he entered office in January 2013. The case study of the Czech Republic sheds light not only on the recent development(s in the Czech political system, but it can be seen as an interesting example of how strong political personalities are attempting to expand their influence on politics in a parliamentary democracy and what the possible limits of this effort are.

  15. Could there be a luxury brand originating from the Czech Republic? The case of the Czech watchmaker Prim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Král

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Europe, due to its history, is not perceived as a region from which a luxury brand could originate while luxury is traditionally connected to Western European countries (such as France, Italy or Switzerland. Country of origin (COO plays an important role in perception of any brand but for luxury brands the COO is usually even more important than for mainstream brands because it is an important part of the brand´s heritage. But despite their unfavorable origin we could observe in the last years that brands which originate from CEE region position themselves on the luxury market. The goal of this article is to investigate the COO effect for luxury brand originating in the Czech Republic- namely the watchmaker Prim- and its impact on the marketing strategy of this brand. The main research method used in this article is the case study method which combines the findings of in- depth interviewing and observations together with findings of the secondary research. The managerial implications mainly target brand managers of luxury or premium market brands originating from the Czech Republic and other countries in Central Europe.

  16. The development of the Czech Republic electric industry - Reliable, safe and responsible source mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Miroslav; Jez, Jiri; Ptacek, Jiri

    2010-09-15

    The paper focuses on the development of the Czech Republic electric industry in close perspective and the prediction of its expected future in period up to 2030. The goal of the paper is to specify methods and procedures applied within periodic assessment of Czech electric power sector balance outlook for the State authorities. A necessity to respect economic recession and politicization of the issue of power sector development has invoked that these items are added to commonly used procedures. A key criterion is the reliable and safe electricity supply by adequate source mix for acceptable prices and environmental aspects.

  17. Business Ethics and CSR in Pharmaceutical Industry in the Czech Republic and Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Lőrinczy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How do business ethics and CSR form part of pharmaceutical business in the Czech Republic and Hungary? The question was analyzed through empirical studies where surveys were the main tool. The research investigated business ethics, CSR, ethical code, ethical involvement of employees as factors that might be important to achieve ethical behaviour in the pharmaceutical industry. Results showed that, with 69.4% response rate, that Czech and Hungarian original companies are more towards ethical behaviour and the employees know more about the organization they work for. The data were compared with parametric statistical analysis based on Mann-Whitney U calculator.

  18. Preliminary situation analysis of wine production industry in the Czech Republic since 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available External environment factors influencing Czech wine production industry went have been significantly changing in the past 20 years. Objective of this paper is to identify and describe selected external environment factors influencing this industry.Changes in the Czech Republic in 1989 significantly influenced all industries in the Czech eco­no­my, including wine production. The most significant include the transition from planned socialistic economy to the market economy, establishment of the Czech Republic (January 1, 1993, entrance European Union (May 1, 2004. For the wine production industry it brought for example opening the domestic market to competition, simplifying international trade with EU-member countries, stabilization of the area of vineyards including the ban on their extension, establishment of the Wine Fund, establishment of non-governmental organisations supporting activities of wine producers (e.g. Union of wine producers of the Czech Republic, National Wine centre, Moravín, Partnership foundation, etc. Significant changes can be found also in the field of wine-marketing and promotion of wines. Wines from the Czech Republic are sold in foreign markets and achieve awards within international trade fairs and wine exhibitions, Czech Republic organises wine trade fairs, e.g. Vinex or Wine and distilled products, Wine fund have registered the trademark „Svatomartinské víno“ (St. Martin Wine, etc. Other significant factors identified within macro-environment analysis include con­ti­nuous changes in wine production technology. Here we can expect that in the future, there will grow the use of PET bottles, which could replace the classical glass bottles, just as it happened in the soft-drinks production industry. Changes happened also in the field of legislature, and were connected with updating the law on winegrowing and wine production, change of the VAT to 19 %, cancellation of the consumption tax on wine or new titles

  19. Assessment of Environmental Determinants of Physical Activity: a Study of Built Environment Indicators in Brno, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová; Klimusová, Helena; Hruška, Dalibor; Prokopová, Alice; Burjanek, Aleš; Wulff, Krauff Rainer Schwanhaeuser

    2015-11-01

    Research on physical activity in relation to obesity gradually becomes more focused on environmental determinants, which can potentially influence people's health choices. The present article addresses the topic of physical activity from a wider sociological perspective. Our pilot study was designed with the objective of testing the applicability of a method included in the EC 6th Framework Programme EURO-PREVOB, in the Czech context. The method examines specific determinants of the built environment that can have an impact on physical activity at the population level. In addition, the study aims to analyze possible differences in built environment indicators and their relation to the physical activity of people living in neighbourhoods with areas of varying socioeconomic status. The field study was carried out in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 5 neighbourhood quintiles, i.e. areas divided according to the socioeconomic status of local residents. In each quintile, we evaluated the quality of the built environment according to the quality, aesthetics and safety of segregated cycle facilities, playgrounds/playing areas, public open spaces, marked road crossings and pavements as well as signs of incivilities and devastation. Between the five quintiles, significant differences were found in the quality of parks and playgrounds/playing areas, pavements, marking of pedestrian crossings, and in general aesthetics, i.e. signs of incivilities and devastation of the built environment. No differences were found in the quality and use of cycle facilities. The method we used for the evaluation of the built environment proved highly applicable in Czech populated areas. Monitoring of built environment indicators in the Czech Republic should provide a basis for health maps, showing potential associations between the prevalence of high-incidence, non-infectious diseases and various social determinants of physical activity. This information might help in achieving an

  20. A statistical analysis of aggregates of the total economic account for agriculture of the Czech Republic in 1998–2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodečková, Božena; Maca, Erich

    Results of the statistical analysis of the of the total economic aggregate account for the Czech Republic enabled, in addition to the quantification of its performance, also to asses the developmental...

  1. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the Czech labor market, and its wage structure in particular, using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. Estimating conventional earnings equations we find evidence of diminishing...... gender inequality, decreased returns to human capital, especially to education. Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and short-term variations around a constant level of between-firm dispersion. Next, we...... investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition and an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining to explain these patterns. We find some support for that the three mechanisms - increased international competition, further...

  2. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of firms' wage structures using a linked employer-employee dataset, which has longitudinal information for firms and covers a large fraction of the Czech labor market during the period 1998-2006. We first look at the evolution of individual wage determination...... and find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality. We then document sharp increases in both within-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate various hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition......, an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining, skill biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. We find some support for that all these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, and that increased sorting is strongly associated with the observed...

  3. Ethical and moral aspects of business in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Protivová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with theme of morality and ethics, especially in business area. Theoretical part describes methods and instruments of integration of ethics into business. Practical part consists of three parts. First part is focused on evaluation of Czech business environment from ethical point of view. In second part author describes results of her survey, which examines primarily ethics code issues. Final part is concentrated on description of small company's business practices and on stak...

  4. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of grain-oriented electrical steel (``GOES''), provided... United States, that are alleged to be subsidized by the Government of China and imports from China, Czech...

  5. The Influence of the Institutions on Entrepreneurship Development: Public Support and Perception of Entrepreneurship Development in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Hlavacek; Marta Zambochova; Tomas Sivicek

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the research of entrepreneurship development in the frame of institutional environment in the Czech Republic. The example of the Czech Republic shows similar problems and specifics of post-transformation economies in Central and Eastern Europe. The goal is to discover the impact of specific institutional barriers on entrepreneurship development from the perspective of entrepreneurs and willingness to start own business. The surveys revealed that institutional barriers ...

  6. Koncept společenské odpovědnosti v podniku Iveco Czech Republic, a. s.

    OpenAIRE

    Kličková, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Kličková A., Concept of corporate social responsibility in company Iveco Czech republic, Ltd.. Brno: Mendel University, 2015. This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of corporate social responsibility. Corpo-rate social responsibility is the value of responsibility of companies for their im-pacts on society and is based on voluntary commitment. The aim of thesis is based on business analysis devise and appropriate strategy for the company Iveco Czech Republic, Ltd. in CSR. The result is an ...

  7. Research and development expenditure and cooperation of public and private sector in r&d in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Szarowská, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Successful transformation the Czech Republic on knowledge-based economy is conditioned by high-guality incomes, especially by efficient investments and qualified human sources. Process of creation new knowledges very strictly influences on macroeconomic productivity and stability of economy. For that reason sufficient investment for research and development (R&D) are essentials. A serious deficiency of research and development in the Czech Republic is the insufficient linkage and cooperation ...

  8. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dolejš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies, of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; L. creticus Dobroruka, 1977; L. erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; L. evae Dobroruka, 1958; L. magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; L. purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; L. tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; L. tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; M. krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; P. hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan. The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  9. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  10. Analysis of Tourism and Agrotourism Management in the Czech Republic and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva ŠŠimková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the importance of rural tourism and sustainable rural areas development. It highlights the role of tourism in dealing with problems of rural areas and agriculture sector in the Czech Republic. After theoretical description of a system approach to rural tourism development, the author continues by a practical part where she compares tourism and agrotourism management in the Czech Republic and Austria. Austria has been chosen as a representative of a state with developed tourism system and tourism management. Selected aspects of management systems are then compared and proposed for improvement in tourism/agrotourism. Critical key factor for successful development of activities in rural areas (therefore including agrotourism services are then presented.

  11. The Models of Estimated Development of Labour Market in the Czech Republic up to 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Nývlt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing will considerably influence economic and social structure of the population. The labour market will change completely. The lower number of persons in productive age and the rise of proportion of older age groups will speed up ageing after 2030. The future development of labour market will face a challenge of reduction of the negative initial demographic conditions. The main problem of the labour market in the Czech Republic is the exclusion of all groups of population due to the lack of flexible jobs, mainly part-time jobs (for example students, mothers with children and elderly people. The analysis shows a possible way of measuring these reserves on the labour market. The comparison with labour indicators (mainly specific em­ployment rates by gender and age of other European countries is the aim of this approach. This offers a pos­sibility to construct the scenarios of the future development in the Czech Republic.

  12. Investigation of spiders (Araneae of the Nature Monument Jesličky (South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Faunistic records of spiders (Araneae in the Nature Monument Jesličky (South Moravia, Czech Republic are presented. Spiders were collected by pitfall trapping in 2009 and by sweeping of the herb vegetation in 2011. During the both periods a total of 847 specimens were collected, from which 617 adult spiders were determined. We found 88 species belonging to 20 families. Seven species listed on the Red List of Invertebrates of the Czech Republic were recorded: Titanoeca schineri L. Koch, 1872, Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841, Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866, Ozyptila pullata (Thorell, 1875, Ozyptila simplex (O.P-Cambridge, 1862 and Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846. To the most significant finding belongs a very rare and endangered (EN Micaria guttulata (C. L. Koch, 1839. A significant and rich finding of bioindicators of the well preserved steppe habitats Atypus piceus (Sulzer, 1776, Eresus kollari Rossi, 1846 and Alopecosa sulzeri (Pavesi, 1873 are to be mentioned.

  13. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereuawilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobiusalenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobiuscorrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobiuscreticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobiuserythrocephalusmohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobiusevae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiusmagurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobiuspurkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobiustatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiustatricusmonounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobiushomolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobiuskrali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymeriumdilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymeriumhanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendraaztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamiaolympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  14. E-business Development: The Comparative Study of the Czech Republic and the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoriya Kulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the current basis for e-business development in the EU with the focus on the Czech Republic with comparison with the associated Ukraine. After description of managerial and accountancy aspects for the e-commerce way of selling goods and services and after summarizing the legislative framework there is an analyses for future Human Resources Management according to the needs of Industry 4.0 introduced. After this theoretical part there you can find the comparison of the particular tools for e-business support and training of employees in related services between the Czech Republic and the Ukraine. As conclusion there is a list of recommendation summarized with the focus on how to improve the situation of e-business in nowadays Ukraine.

  15. Generation Y Attitudes towards Shopping: A Comparison of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapilova Krbova Petra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study focused on Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000 behavior in two neighboring European countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This article identifies and describes basic characteristics of this generation’s general behavior as well as defines specifics of their shopping behavior by examining their attitudes towards retailers, brands, sales and discount offers. The sample consisted of 380 respondents: 162 from Slovakia and 218 from the Czech Republic. Results of the analysis indicate that shopping is perceived as an entertaining and pleasurable leisure activity. A particular product is chosen before the shopping place. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents search for information online, but quite a large percentage prefer both offline searching and purchasing. Brands are considered to be the symbols and guarantors of quality, but also uselessly expensive. Finally, a positive attitude towards sales and discount offers was observed.

  16. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  17. National Time Trends in Bullying among Adolescents in the Czech Republic from 1994 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarková, Mária; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    Bullying in school is a public health concern which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in bullying behaviour among school-aged children in the Czech Republic. Data were obtained from cross-sectional self-report surveys in the years 1994-2014 as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) from a representative sample of 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds. The highest proportion of children who bullied others (20-47%) occurred during the years 1994 and 1998. The logistic regression models showed significant decreasing trends in bullying others and also in being bullied, regardless of age and gender. The decreasing trend in bullying may be the consequence of a preventive policy in the Czech Republic, but also a change in the understanding of the concept of bullying in society.

  18. AUDIT OF MUNICIPALITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS - THE CASE STUDY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Public economics examines the influence of the state on economic equality and efficiency, and on conduction of business entities in connection with the various tax systems and individual behavior in private consumption. To manage the public economy is thorough knowledge of the real decision-making and allocation mechanisms. From a budgetary perspective, the public economy in the Czech Republic is characterized mainly by the state budget, 6,249 municipal budgets and 14 budgets of local government units. These all units are together subject to annual statutory audit, which mainly represents the analysis of the system of the Audit informative and monitoring indicators (ASIMI. The paper analyzes the outcome of the audit with the use of absolute and relative indicators and suggests possible changes and consolidation of municipal and local government budgets in the Czech Republic.

  19. Selected haematological and biochemical indices in donkeys in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Sedlinská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish normal reference values of biochemical and haematological indices of donkeys in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Blood samples were obtained from 112 clinically healthy donkeys (37 males and 75 females. The haematological indices examined were: red blood cells, white blood cells, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelets, segmented neutrophils, neutrophil bands, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. The biochemical properties examined were: total protein, albumin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, lactate. The results reported in this study could serve as reference ranges for the donkey population in the Czech and Slovak Republics.

  20. ROLE OF SPORTS MANAGEMENT IN PREPARATION FOR FOOTBALL REFEREES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Racek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In our article we present the preparation of football referees, who are duly registered under the banner of the FACR - Football Association of the Czech Republic. We deal with referees who participate in various educational programmes and seminars led by teachers and other practitioners. The main communication represents the structure of competition in the Czech Republic, a way of organizing football referee and course preparation at individual levels of performance, which is unique within Europe. Introducing individual education programmes that the FACR used for education and training of referees. We also describe the content of curricula for football referees. An integral part of the article is also showing the claims that are arbitration subject to performance levels.

  1. Organizational and Sociodemographic Determinants of Job Satisfaction in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Franěk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of personal and work-related factors on job satisfaction based on a sample from the Czech Republic. The study, which was based on a questionnaire survey of 1,776 respondents in organizations in the Czech Republic, proposed a number of hypotheses related to demographic and organizational variables and tests using ANOVA. Results of the data analysis revealed similarities to findings in Western countries, in which men show higher job satisfaction than women. Age does not seem to have a significant effect on job satisfaction. There is low job satisfaction in public/governmental organizations and among young people entering the job market. It is suggested that it is necessary to develop a human resources strategy for the public/governmental sector that will not only increase its social prestige but also increase positive feelings among its employees. The need to better prepare undergraduates for the demands of the job market is also discussed.

  2. Estimation of Regional Price Levels in the Districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kocourek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to suggest and to apply a method for estimation of the regional price levels in Czech districts. Its purpose is to enable an assessment of spatial differences in the regional price levels and thereby to provide an instrument for more precise and more realistic comparison of standard of living of households across the regions of the Czech Republic. Authors use data from the extensive price surveys carried out by the Czech Statistical Office and regionalize them by an original approach derived from the Eurostat-OECD International Comparison Program and certified by the Ministry of Regional Development of the Czech Republic. The results reflect regional differences in market prices of goods, services, as well as housing and rentals. The findings underpin the need of a more accurate specification of economic and social disparities on a regional level originating in the recent shifts of regional policies from localities-and-areas-centered to local-people-centered.

  3. Intersectional Discrimination of Romani Women Forcibly Sterilized in the Former Czechoslovakia and Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gwendolyn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews domestic and international activism seeking justice for Romani and other women harmed by coercive, forced, and involuntary sterilization in the former Czechoslovakia and Czech Republic. Framed by Michel Foucault’s theory of biopower, it summarizes the history of these abuses and describes human rights campaigns involving domestic and international litigation, advocacy, and grassroots activism, as well as the responses of the Czech governments. The paper describes how legal and policy work during the past decade has led to recognition of coercive, forced, and involuntary sterilization as a present-day human rights issue worldwide, to the adoption of new guidelines on female sterilization, and to a joint statement on the issue by seven UN agencies. Relying on academic literature, reports by domestic and international human rights groups, state investigations, judgments from Czech courts and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), media reports, and the experience of the authors, who have been allies of the Romani women harmed in the Czech Republic since 2005 and 2012, respectively, the paper describes the current state of play with respect to achieving redress for them, including current conceptual, legal, political, and social obstacles and their antecedents in 20th century notions of population control. PMID:29302160

  4. Market Entry Strategies of Passenger Carmakers – The Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Machková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Czech automotive industry had a record-breaking year with 1 278 000 motor vehicles manufactured. This was a result of the investment of three major carmakers, who entered into the Czech Republic, because they believed in the industrial capacity of the country and its strategic location in Central Europe. The goal of this article is to analyze the different entry strategies into the Czech market and to compare the results of different strategic approaches for both foreign private investors and the recipient country. The main research method used in this article is a case study. In our case studies, we will analyze the cases of the Volkswagen group and its acquisition of the manufacturer Škoda, the greenfield investment of Hyundai, and the strategic alliance of the French car producer PSA with Japanese Toyota who had founded the TPCA joint venture in the Czech Republic. All three case studies show examples of good practices and prove that foreign direct investment (FDI has the potential to generate employment, raise productivity, transfer skills and technology, enhance exports and contribute to the long-term economic development of the country.

  5. Changes in the Cost Structure of Hogs Feeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Tamáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern hog breeding has a long tradition in the Czech Republic it is the stable branch of livestock production. Its main task is to produce high quality pork meat, which must meet all requirements of the processors and the final consumer. Pork meat occupies for decades in Czech Republic first place in consumption per one inhabitant (per year and it forms more than 50% of the total annual meat consumption. This branch also plays an important role for producers of cereals, which largely contributes to the overall size and stability of the agricultural sector. The increasing imports were the main reason why many Czech hog breeding farms has been reduced or completely eliminated. Reducing numbers of pigs in the last decade is a reflection of supply and demand for pigs. The objecvive of this paper is to evaluate the changes in the cost structure for fattening of hogs and indicate how these changes are reflected in the competitiveness of Czech agriculture enterprises. Choice of optimal strategy of breeding and hog feeding already affects not only the requirements of food security, requirements of quality and affordability. Currently are also very important requirements for animal welfare and environmental protection with an emphasis on the sustainability of production and high hygiene standards. These measures require high investmens and operational costs are reflected in the worsening economy of pork meat production.

  6. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

      In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital....... Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly...

  7. Changes in Wage Inequality in the Czech republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital....... Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly...

  8. Central Executive Bodies in the Czech Republic during the Decentralization and Regionalisation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Y. I. Haydanka

    2017-01-01

    The processes of the level of political decentralization and regionalization by means of investigating administrative and government system of the central executive bodies in Czech Republic have been explained. It has been pointed out that in the structure of the central executive bodies, settlement of the most controversial issues connected with decentralization and national strategy implementation, lies within the competences of the Ministry for Regional Development. High efficiency of s...

  9. A curse of coal? Exploring unintended regional consequences of coal energy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Nováková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal energy * environmental injustice * resource curse * spatial analysis * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2014 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2014_02.pdf

  10. Mothers or Institutions? How Women Work and Care in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka; Dobrotić, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 409-427 ISSN 1478-2804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1839; GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Slovenia * Czech Republic * ideals of care Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14782804.2011.610610

  11. Compensations for the losses caused by bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pospíšil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 when the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE was identified in the Czech Republic, a total of 27 infected cows have been detected. A single outbreak of BSE in 2007 confirms that, in the Czech Republic, the disease incidence has a decreasing trend, which is in agreement with the situation in other EU countries. In order to conrol the disease and in the interests of human health protection, the killing of infected animals and related cohorts (groups of potentially infected animals, as well as eliminaton of specified risk material (SRM were commenced. To reduce the negative impact of these measures on agricultural production it was possible, on the basis of the Veterinary Act No. 166/1999, to compensate the relevant costs to the farmers involved; these were covered by the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic from the budgedary chapter „General Treasury Administration“. Between the outbreak in 2001 and 2007, a total of 1 181 296 cows were examined and, based on the finding of 27 BSE-positive animals, 3 994 cows were subsequently slaughtered. BSE exa­mi­na­tion, killing and decontamination costs amounted to 18.9 million CZK, compensation costs for killed animals reached almost 163.9 million CZK and compensation for unaccomplished production accounted for over 13.6 million CZK. Together with other additional costs, the total financial compensations paid out during the period of BSE presence were almost 197 million CZK. The findings of this study are discussed and compared with rather sparse information available on the costs related to BSE abroad. The available data suggests that the compensations for BSE-related costs paid to farmers in the Czech Republic were proportional to those in the European Union, USA or Canada.

  12. SOME CASES OF MACRO-EPIBIOSIS ON THE INVASIVE CRAYFISH ORCONECTES LIMOSUS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    DURIS Z.; HORKÁ I.; KRISTIAN J.; KOZÁK P.

    2006-01-01

    Several cases of epibiosis by macro-invertebrates on Orconectes limosus were recorded during our research on the biology of populations of this invasive crayfish species in the Czech Republic. (1) In 2001, we observed a high infestation of O. limosus by native species of branchiobdellidan worms (Annelida: Branchiobdellidae) in the river Elbe at Obríství (Central Bohemia). Four European Branchiobdella species were collected and identified from three crayfish specimens: B. pentodonta (52%), B. ...

  13. Enterprise social networks as a meeting tool in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Školudová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Meetings are an essential prerequisite for successfully communicating and transferring internal information. The question is whether or not businesses in the present day are organizing and leading meetings effectively. The goal of this paper is to conduct a comparison of the requirements for effective meeting leadership with the current state of businesses in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, the paper aims to answer a research question relating to the feasibility of using enterprise social ne...

  14. Paving the Road to Prosperity. Management Education in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Grayson, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey, evaluate, and analyze management education efforts in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Poland since 1989, and make recommendations. The author deals with a broad range of institutions providing undergraduate, MBA-type, and executive education, some of which are university-affiliated and others not, in various areas of the countries under discussion. As reforms progress, countries need managers who can operate in a market environment or...

  15. Performance level and sexual harassment prevalence among female athletes in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Knorre, Nada

    2010-01-01

    The results presented in this article are from a larger research project on issues related to women in sport in the Czech Republic. The article tries to answer research questions related to whether there are any relationships between the experience of sexual harassment among female athletes inside and outside sport, and at different sport performance levels. The sample, totalling 595 women, was divided into three performance groups: elite, competing and exercisers. No significant differences ...

  16. Performance level and sexual harassment prevalence among female athletes in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Knorre, Nada

    2010-01-01

    © 2010 National Association for Girls & Women in Sport This article investigates whether there is a relationship between the sport performance level of female athletes inside the sport (at clubs, competitions, or training events) and outside sport (in family or community settings) and the likelihood that they will be victims of sexual harassment. The study sample consisted of 595 women from the Czech Republic and was divided into three performance groups: elite, non-elite/co...

  17. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Yu; Dalia Streimikiene; Tomas Balezentis; Rimantas Dapkus; Radislav Jovovic; Veselin Draskovic

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sect...

  18. Sporophyte records of the moss Dicranum tauricum Sapjegin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoupá Zuzana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporophytes were for the first time recorded in three populations of Dicranum tauricum in the Czech Republic. Until now, such records were extremely scarce in Central Europe. Two populations observed concurrently at nearby localities were found in markedly different phenophases, whereas two populations observed at different localities in spring and autumn seemed to develop synchronously. The sporophytes are illustrated with conventional and SEM photography.

  19. An Analysis of Mission Statements of Leading Companies Operating in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pernica, Karel

    2014-01-01

    The master's thesis focuses on detailed mission statements analysis of leading companies operating in Czech republic. The aim of the thesis is to provide the comprehensive view on the current situation in field of mission statements and to examine the relationship between mission statement and firm performance. Theoretical part introduces the topic, basic charasteristics of mission statements and describes research methods used in practical part. In second part is performed content analysis, ...

  20. E-government Policy and its Implementation in the Czech Republic: Selected Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špaček David

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the specifics and challenges of e-government policy, and then discusses the apparent shortcomings of policy implementation and challenges for further development in the Czech Republic. It draws attention to problems in national e-government policy and in practical policy implementation (instability of governance, low quality of evaluation, low involvement of stakeholders in project design, and public procurement issues.

  1. Summer air temperatures in Ljubljana (Slovenia and Olomouc (Czech Republic in the period 1961-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jurek

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses daily maximum temperatures in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Olomouc, Czech Republic, in the summer months 1961–2000 in order to validate the assumption on global warming affecting climate in Central Europe. Data on maximum temperatures were processed to reveal trends in temperature variability as well as in the frequency of summer days (days with maximum temperature 25.0°C or higher and tropical days (tmax 30.0°C or higher.

  2. A new locality of orchid Orchis purpurea Huds. in Cieszyn Foothills (Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Beczała Tomasz; Chmura Damian; Jonderko Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec) in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest des...

  3. Characterisation of Trichodorus similis (Nematoda: Trichodoridae associated with potato from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshishka M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodorus similis associated with potato in the Czech Republic was described and illustrated. This study provides additional information on morphometrical and morphological characters of T. similis and integrates morphological and genetic data obtained by species-specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing (ITS1 and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA. The knowledge on morphological variability and genetic diversity is extended, and a rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics was successfully applied.

  4. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  5. Measuring preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing elective surgery in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlína Homzová; Renáta Zeleníková

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The main aim of the study was to measure preoperative anxiety in patients in the Czech Republic before elective surgery, using the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A). Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: The sample consisted of 344 patients undergoing elective surgery. The day before surgery patients completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic data, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and the VAS-A. Spearman correlation was use...

  6. The Health-related Market in Czech Republic and Denmark:An Exploration of Consumption Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Chytková; Dorthe Brogård Kristensen

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rise in consumers’ “health-conciousness”, the health-related market has become one with the most potential. However, most studies on health-related consumption have been carried out within the Western world, while the evolution of health management in Central and Eastern Europe has been radically different. This paper builds on two separate qualitative studies of consumers’ perception and practices in the sphere of health and food in Denmark and the Czech Republic. Each of these...

  7. Land category in the National Forest Inventory of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Kučera

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the land categorization with special focus on the definition of category FO­REST in the National Forest Inventory of the Czech Republic (NFI CR). Definitions of land categories used in the first cycle of forest inventory in 2001–2004 are evaluated. The first task is to assess the appropriateness of existing land categorization and definition of category FOREST in terms of suitability of used parameters defining individual categories and their values. Their compatibility...

  8. Non-indigenous and Endangered Animal Record Keeping in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jarolímek; M. Stočes

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, the method of data collection, processing and visualization of the occurrence of non-indigenous and endangered animal species in the Czech Republic is described. Our new software enables easy data entry about the observation of monitored species to the expert public. The data obtained is then used by expert and scientific institutions in order to search for optimal solutions of nature protection and population management and results are open to the public. This analytic and...

  9. Current state of the employee performance appraisal system in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Venclová; Martina Königová; Jiří Fejfar

    2013-01-01

    Employee performance appraisal is one of the most important human resource management tools. The first part of the article concentrates on the theoretical background. The second part evaluates the results of the quantitative survey. The aim of the article is to evaluate the use of formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic and to test dependencies between selected qualitative characteristics. The results of the survey show that only 12.3% of agricultural...

  10. Material Flows and Environmental Impacts of s-WEEE in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Polák, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study describing and quantifying material flows of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the Czech Republic; specifically the material flow of small waste electric and electronic equipment (s-WEEE) as well as representative substances. The studied material flows were estimated regarding aspects of the environmental impact. The End-of-Life mobile phone is seen as a typical representative of s-WEEE ; therefore material flows of mobile phones are descri...

  11. First evidence of a paedomorphic population of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Gvoždík

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Facultative paedomorphosis is an environmentally induced polymorphism that is well known for many caudate species including newts. Although facultative paedomorphosis has been documented in some smooth-newt populations, records of entirely paedomorphic populations outside the Balkans are limited. Here we present the first evidence of a paedomorphic population of the smooth newt in the Czech Republic with discussion of potential causes that need to be further tested.

  12. [Mass disasters with higher quantity of dead bodies and DVIT concept in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, M; Pilin, A; Bendl, P; Zikmund, P

    2010-07-01

    Authors deal with problems related to identification of higher number of dead bodies in cases of mass disaster, organization and DVI (disaster victim identification) teams assignment in the Czech Republic, interoperation with so-called Integrated Rescue System and cooperation between experts by mass disaster solution. The paper comes out from investigation of the research project and the main principles for organization of operations in victims identification of mass disaster are mentioned.

  13. Stabilization and Structural Reform in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic; First Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Bijan B. Aghevli; Eduardo Borensztein; Tessa Van der Willigen

    1992-01-01

    On January 1, 1991, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic launched a comprehensive reform program designed to establish a market economy. This paper charts the progress of the reform program in the context of Czechoslovakia's prewar history as a major industrial power, its subsequent slow economic decline under Communism, and its recent integration into the world economy following the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of mean daily wind speeds in the Czech Republic, 1961-2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Zahradníček, Pavel; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Tolasz, R.; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72 (2017), s. 197-216 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11805S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mean daily wind speed * spatial variability * temporal variability * wind stilling * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.578, year: 2016

  15. Comparison of point injection and top-dressing application of nitrogen fertilizers with sulphur addition in winter rape (Brassica napus L. in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Peklová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are analyzing the yield and yield parameters of winter rape, fertilized using CULTAN system (Controlled Uptake Long Term Ammonium Nutrition in comparison with top-dressing application of nitrogen fertilizers, which were studied on Haplic Luvisol over 5 years. No significant differences in seed yields between the two systems of fertilization were observed in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The effect of sulphur on a higher seed yield was proved in 2010 and 2012. The seed yield was higher by 11.4% in the treatments with sulphur amendment regardless of the system of fertilization in 2010. The seed yield was higher by 18.2 % in the CULTAN treatment with sulphur adittion in comparison to CULTAN treatment with no sulphur added in 2012. Nitrogen supply was ample in the first flowers open growth stage of winter rape in 2009, 2010 and 2012. The plant height was significantly lower after CULTAN method and as well as higher values of 1000 seed weight were recorded in comparison to top-dressing application in 2009. Nitrogen uptake by seed dry matter was the highest in the year 2009, which corresponds to the achieved seed yields this year.

  16. Analysis of development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kučerová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of changes in the development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic, which cohere with the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union. The attention is paid on size of the market, growth rate, life cycle, development of prices and development of foreign trade. The total domestic consumption reached 2111.1 million litres in 2004. The industry is in the maturity. The excess of supply exists in the industry; the growth rate is low, under 5% per year. The integration of the Czech Republic into the EU didn’t bring about changes in the development of basic characteristics – size of the market, growth rate, and life cycle. The volume of production changed. The total volume of purchase of raw milk for production went down by 1.4% to the value in 2000. And all prices in the product vertical – milk and milk products (prices of agricultural producers, production prices and consumer’s prices rose.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, No. MSM 6215648904.

  17. Factors Influencing the Implementation of the CSR Concept in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kučerová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase of the companies’ engagement in the concept of social responsibility in the Czech Republic. However, the engagement is still at a lower level when compared to other countries of Western Europe. The use and knowledge of the CSR concept in the companies in the Czech Republic was the subject of the research realized at the end of 2013 and in the first half of 2014. This paper deals with the question which factors influence the engagement of enterprises in the CSR in the Czech Republic. The statistical testing proved that the company size and the form of ownership have a significant influence on the company’s engagement in the CSR activities. P-value is always < 0.001, Pearson coefficient is in the interval of 0.35 – 0.37 and Cramer coefficient is in the interval of 0.37–0.39. The dependence between the category of economic activity and the region of the headquarters was not proved as significant; p-value only < 0.05.

  18. e-Learning trends in Central Europe: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík Eger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with expert predictions on the development of e-learning in the Czech Republic, a country in Central Europe. The first part of the paper describes the development of e-learning with specific feature in the Czech Republic in relation to the implementation of Information and communication technologies (ICT to schools and the business sector. The second part of the paper presents a survey with selected experts, conducted in the years 2012 and 2013 in the Czech Republic, aiming at identifying the trends of e-learning. Special attention is paid to applying e-learning in the corporate sector. Our survey provides a better understanding of the current and future trends of e-learning to a wide range of stakeholders interested in using e-learning. Understanding the existing and future state of e-learning should be a starting point for further development of any e-learning strategy, in both education and corporate sectors. Therefore, the findings of our survey have important practical implications. The survey also proves that identification of the e-learning trends at the national level is influenced by political, economic, social and technological factors.

  19. Customer Orientation and Marketing in Containerized Freight Distribution and Logistics – Czech Republic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jirsák

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the forthcoming research is to analyze the logistics providers (3PLs, global shipping lines´ and multimodal transport operators´ (MTOs perception of their customers and their customer service policy in the Czech Republic. To evaluate customer orientation in the market of transport and logistics is highly complex task. To obtain the data necessary for an informed analysis, the open interviews will be made and questionnaires will be distributed to the relevant companies´ managers in the Czech Republic. Due to the concentration of container and logistics activity within a relatively small number of important market players active in the country´s market, the approach of market characteristics will be case study based. Moreover, the research will offer an important analysis of the shipping lines´ and logistics providers´ services in terms of customer service policy in the Czech Republic.The conceptual paper focuses on the literature review, methodology and anticipated results only.

  20. Largest enterprises in the Czech Republic: A spatio-temporal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sucháček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on spatial structure of one hundred largest enterprises in the Czech Republic from evolutionary perspective. The location of large enterprise headquarters in the Czech Republic and its implications for country’s economic spatial profile and unevenly distributed economic power is discussed thoroughly. The whole analysis is pragmatically accomplished at the level of self-governmental NUTS III regions. As it is shown, intense concentration processes in the location of largest enterprise headquarters were observed during the analyzed period between 1995 and 2010. The capital city with its surroundings proved to be the winners of this process. Currently, the spatial pattern of afore mentioned head offices is basically stabilized. On the other hand, weight of large enterprises of many regions is almost negligible and subsequently, rank of individual regions can be rather volatile. Generally speaking, economic map of the Czech Republic is not entirely in compliance with country’s settlement system. Simultaneously, fundamental factors determining the location of large enterprise head offices are evaluated also from qualitative perspective. Traditional hard location factors, such as infrastructure, geographical location or agglomeration economies turned out to be decisive for location decision-making. Apart from Prague, headquarters of large enterprises tend to prefer other big towns in the country, such as Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc, Hradec Králové or Plzeň.

  1. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sector (industry, transport, households, agriculture, services, activity, demography, lifestyles, structural effects, energy savings etc. The results show that the reduction in final energy consumption in most EU members states before and after year 2008 can be related to the decline in energy intensities within endusers sectors. At the same time, the increase in final energy intensity after the year 2008 is attributed to expansion of energy demand sectors. Comparison of final energy consumption trends and drivers in Latvia and Czech Republic indicated that Czech Republic implemented more policies and measures in industry and tertiary sector and this provided for final energy consumption decreased and huge energy savings in these sectors.

  2. [Incidence of amputations among patients with diabetes mellitus in the Czech Republic from 2010 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piťhová, Pavlína; Honěk, Petr; Dušek, Ladislav; Pavlík, Tomáš; Kvapil, Milan

    2015-11-01

    Information about the incidence of organ-affecting complications of diabetes, including the diabetic foot syndrome, can be obtained from the documents of the Institute of Health Information in the Czech Republic. Assessment of the development of high amputations and minor surgical procedures on the lower limb from 2010 to 2014 in a representative sample of the population of patients with DM kept in the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic database. We identified all individuals in the VZP database who had a record of DM diagnosis (E10-E16 based on ICD 10) or any antidiabetic therapy prescribed (ATC group A10) in the period of 2010-2014. A set of patients who had an agent from A10 group prescribed at least once in the given year was extracted for analysis. In the next step we identified individuals, who in the period of 2010-2014 also underwent a surgical procedure on the lower limb due to diabetic foot. An absolute number of lower limb amputations remains at a stationary level. The submitted analysis presents the first assessment of the development of surgical treatment of diabetic foot in the Czech Republic. The amount of surgical procedures on the diabetic foot remains stable, regarding both high amputations and lower limb minor surgical procedures. In the context of an absolute increase of patients treated for diabetes mellitus, the stationary state is an indication of a relative decrease, which is favourable in particular with regard to the amputation of long bones.

  3. TILIA-DOMINATED CALCICOLOUS FORESTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC FROM A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

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    M. CHYTRY

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae is described as a new association of the calcicolous forests in the Czech Republic. It includes species-rich Tilia cordata or T. platyphyllos dominated forests with a mixture of mesophilous forest species and thermophilous oak-forest species in the field layer, confined to shallow soils of the upper slopes. During the postglacial period, these forests probably developed from Sesleria albicans-grassland and Corylus avellana-scrub and preserved a number of relict species. Comparative analysis of selected literature data on Central European calcicolous forests dominated by Tilia species yielded 6 major floristically defined groups and a few communities of local importance. These groups include: (1 Asperulo taurinae-Tilietum of Swiss föhn valleys, (2 Aceri-Tilietum of central and southern Germany and NW Switzerland, (3 Aceri-Carpinetum aconitetosum vulpariae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-rich habitats, (4 Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-poor habitats, (5 Mercuriali-Tilietum of the Hungarian Central Range, (6 Tilio- Fraxinetum excelsioris of the Carpathian fringes in Hungary and Romania.

  4. TILIA-DOMINATED CALCICOLOUS FORESTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC FROM A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SADLO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae is described as a new association of the calcicolous forests in the Czech Republic. It includes species-rich Tilia cordata or T. platyphyllos dominated forests with a mixture of mesophilous forest species and thermophilous oak-forest species in the field layer, confined to shallow soils of the upper slopes. During the postglacial period, these forests probably developed from Sesleria albicans-grassland and Corylus avellana-scrub and preserved a number of relict species. Comparative analysis of selected literature data on Central European calcicolous forests dominated by Tilia species yielded 6 major floristically defined groups and a few communities of local importance. These groups include: (1 Asperulo taurinae-Tilietum of Swiss föhn valleys, (2 Aceri-Tilietum of central and southern Germany and NW Switzerland, (3 Aceri-Carpinetum aconitetosum vulpariae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-rich habitats, (4 Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-poor habitats, (5 Mercuriali-Tilietum of the Hungarian Central Range, (6 Tilio- Fraxinetum excelsioris of the Carpathian fringes in Hungary and Romania.

  5. The progress of the regional GDP in the regions of the Czech Republic with regard to the methodological aspects

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    Monika Nováková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional GDP is used in the European Union as the important indicator to the distribution of the European funds. However in the Czech Republic this indicator has had only a short history because regional GDP started to be constructed in the half of the ninetieth. The aims of the paper are to present and evaluate the progress in the process of the regionalization of the GDP in the Czech Republic, review economic productivity of the Czech regions (level NUTS 2 and NUTS 3 and finally point out the persisting weaknesses of the regionalization of the GDP in the Czech Republic. First part of the paper describes problematic beginnings of the process of the regionalization of the GDP, evaluates changes of the methodology and discusses the actual state of this affair. Second part of the paper describes the variability of GDP among the Czech regions at level NUTS 2 and NUTS 3. Alternative modifications of the indicator GDP (for example GDP, GDP per capita, rate of growth are used in this regional analysis. Consecutively relative positions of individual regions in the Czech Republic are discussed. There are pointed out some contradictions in the Czech regional statistics in this paper. The defined drawbacks indicate possible way of the research into the future.

  6. Monetary and exchange rate regimes changes: The cases of Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores (former transition economies, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and the Republic of Serbia, concerning abandonment of the exchange rate targeting and fixed exchange rate regimes and movement toward explicit/implicit inflation targeting and flexible exchange rate regimes. The paper identifies different subperiods concerning crucial monetary and exchange rate regimes, and tracks the changes of specific monetary transmission channels i.e. exchange rate channel, interest rate channel, indirect and direct influences to the exchange rate, with variance decomposition of VAR/VEC model. The empirical results indicate that Polish monetary strategy toward higher monetary and exchange rate flexibility has been performed smoothly, gradually and planned, compared to the Slovak and, especially, Czech case. The comparison of three former transition economies with the Serbian case indicate strong and persistent exchange rate pass-through, low interest rate pass-through, significant indirect and direct influence to the exchange rate as potential obstacles for successful inflation targeting in the Republic of Serbia.

  7. Reading strategies of primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

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    Veronika Najvarová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on reading with comprehension – an activity of the readerwhich is seen as an interaction between the author and the recipient. In order tounderstand a text better, a reader may employ various techniques and strategies. Thearticle consists of three parts. In the first part, categories reading strategy and readingskill and the relationship between them are defined. In the second part, classificationsof reading strategies are presented and sorted according to various criteria. The thirdpart summarises the findings of a research project that concentrated on the readingstrategies of primary school pupils in Czech primary schools in the 2005/06 schoolyear. The findings indicate primary school teachers’ preferred procedures of using textsin teaching and pupils’ preferred reading strategies by the end of primary education.

  8. Workplace bullying and legal protection of employees in the Czech Republic

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    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying is a subtle manifestation of disturbed relationships in the working collective. This form of victimization of employees in the Czech Republic has, according to independent surveys, expanding dimensions. Empirical evidence generally tends to reveal the prevalence, forms and direction of aggression as well as numerous psychological, health and other consequences of victimization, especially in terms of various socio-demographic indicators. The presented study verifies extensive psychological survey on the sample of N = 3746 employees from the private, public and non-profit sectors in the Czech Republic, using a questionnaire of negative acts NAQ (Negative Act Questionnaire and a status questionnaire. The research confirmed a 12, 14% prevalence of bullying in the workplace in the Czech Republic. There is a balanced representation of men and women in the incidence of bullying, while the highest rates of bullying are reported within the state sector. Victimization in the workplace affects mostly ordinary workers, aged around 42 years, with secondary or higher education. The Czech Republic has not yet made workplace bullying an illegal practise, especially in comparison with other industrialized countries, where since 1990, mobbing is considered a criminal offense. Existing laws in the Czech Republic also do not recognise the concept of mobbing or bossing and therefore do not define these concepts closer. The prohibition of bullying in the workplace necessarily derives from the general provisions of the Anti- Discrimination Act, of the Civil Code, the Labour Code and the laws arising from administrative law. Victims of workplace bullying also get protection by some provisions of the Criminal Code, which protects the victim from aggressor offenses. The relevant legal norm is intended to act as a social regulator, partly preventively in terms of taking measures for the successful identification and elimination of conditions of a

  9. Practical Experience of Operational Diagnostics and Defectoscopy on Photovoltaic Installations in the Czech Republic

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    Petr Mastny

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental changes concerning the development of photovoltaic (PV installations in the Czech Republic (CR have occurred after 2010. The limits (and subsequent termination of support for the newly installed PV power plants (cancellation of purchase prices for produced electricity were the most important. This change of approach was advised by the relevant state authorities before the end of the year 2010 and resulted in a massive increase in PV installations during 2010. The goal of investors was to get more favorable conditions for the purchase of the electricity produced. A considerable amount of PV installations had been registered by the end of 2010, which do not reach the projected operating performance—this is caused by errors during installation and in many cases by inappropriately used (poor quality components. This paper is focused on the operation of PV power plants in the conditions of the CR. A final analysis of the operational measurements performed and potential approaches and methods applicable to operational diagnosis of defects on PV panels are presented. A brief mention is also made of the economic situation of PV systems operating in the current legislative conditions in the CR.

  10. Current state of the employee performance appraisal system in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic

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    Kateřina Venclová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee performance appraisal is one of the most important human resource management tools. The first part of the article concentrates on the theoretical background. The second part evaluates the results of the quantitative survey. The aim of the article is to evaluate the use of formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic and to test dependencies between selected qualitative characteristics. The results of the survey show that only 12.3% of agricultural organizations (n = 332 use formal appraisal of employees. They also confirm that the application of the formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations depends on the size of the agricultural organization (p-value 0.006, Phi coefficient 0.151 and the existence of a personnel department (p-value 0.000, Phi coefficient 0.210. 49.1% of agricultural organizations did not consider formal appraisal important. Only 5.8% of agricultural organizations that do not use any system of formal employee performance appraisal plan its implementation, despite the fact that currently people are considered to be the most important strategic asset of any organization for achieving a competitive advantage.

  11. Selected areas of health and health care utilization by immigrants living in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Iva; Kajanová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined to what extent a selected group of immigrants in the Czech Republic receive healthcare for primary prevention and inpatient care. A partial aim of the research was to confirm the connection between immigrant health and their social situation. Using a quantitative study technique, 1,014 legally established immigrants (Vietnamese, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, and Slovak) between 18-65 years of age were interviewed. The selection of respondents was conducted using purposive selection. The stratification of the group was determined by nationality, age, and gender. Long-term illnesses were found significantly more frequently among Ukrainian immigrants and less frequently among Vietnamese immigrants. About half of the respondents had visited a GP and dentist in the previous year and 11.5% of respondents had been hospitalized in inpatient departments. Most of the surveyed immigrants had public health insurance (77.9%), one-fifth had contractual health insurance (19.6%) and 2.5% did not have health insurance. In statistical terms, Vietnamese, Ukrainian, and Russian immigrants had commercial insurance more often than Polish and Slovak immigrants. The utilization of public health insurance and healthcare among immigrants grew significantly in correlation with length of residency. The use of GPs for preventive health care also grew in correlation with knowledge of the Czech language. We found that less than nine percent of immigrants reported needing hospitalization for an illness, but were not hospitalized. Currently, immigration represents one of the most burning and sensitive global challenges. The outcome of this research clearly shows that improving immigrant Czech language skills and giving all legally established immigrants access to Czech public health insurance are important steps needed to increase access to healthcare for immigrants in the Czech Republic.

  12. Alzheimer's disease and its treatment costs: case study in the Czech Republic

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    Mohelska H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hana Mohelska,1 Petra Maresova,2 Martin Valis,3 Kamil Kuca4,5 1Department of Management, 2Department of Economy, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové, 3Department of Neurology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové and University Hospital Hradec Králové, 4Biomedical Research Centrum, University Hospital Hradec Králové, 5Center for Basic and Applied Research, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of the costs, applied, for example, when treating specific diseases – an important aid in prioritizing the process of resource allocation. In our review, the specific disease is dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease. This paper aims to provide more information on the partial costs per patient that are calculated according to the aggregated data from publicly available sources as well as from the results of authors’ own investigation. The University Hospital in Hradec Králové and the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic participated in this research. The elementary research objective was to compare the costs per patient diagnosed early onset, to those of the patient diagnosed later. The Czech Republic lacks information regarding dementia. Therefore, these issues require attention. The methods used in this paper included time series analyses, methods of direct questioning, interviews with experts, and analyses of medical documentation. These methods were combined to exploit their particular advantages and to ensure the issues discussed, were covered. The investigation showed that the underpinning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease at early onset is advantageous from an economic perspective, because the cost of outpatient care is much lower compared with that of inpatient care. The international comparisons of the volume of care provided should be

  13. [Characteristics of a population of drug dependent pregnant women in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrinková, B; Binder, T; Zivný, J

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the population of drug abused pregnant women in Czech republic and chart their socioeconomic situation. Prospective study. The Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the General Teaching Hospital and the 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague. This prospective study coursed since January 1998 till the end of the year 2000. This study covered a group of pregnant women addict on illegal drugs (heroin, pervitin). The group was set in close cooperation with Prague's contact anti-drugs centers (DROP-IN, K-centrum, Sanopin), Dependence therapy department and Department for genetics Teaching hospital Prague and of course in cooperation with the district gynaecologists. During 3 years we succeeded in gathering 41 addict women for prenatal care. Twenty of them were heroin and 18 pervitin addict. The control groups were selected by method of accidental choice. We compared each group with its control and both groups of addicted mutually. We focused mainly on characteristics which could have a negative impact on the course of pregnancy, labour and lying-in period and the health condition of the foetus and the neonate (age, status, employment, parity, length of drug abuse, mode of application, attempt of therapy or abstinence, STD, hepatitis B and C, quality of prenatal care). We proved, that drug abused pregnant women are statistically significantly younger than pregnant women from control groups (by equal parity), mostly single and unemployed. The majority of them prefer intravenous way of drug application. The heroin--addict choose this type of application statistically significantly more often (94.4%) and also more often they report efforts at abstinence or therapy. A big part of drug abused pregnant women has insufficient prenatal care. 33% of heroin-addict and 25% of pervitin-addict never attended the obstetrician during their pregnancy. We revealed a significantly higher incidence of HBsAg a mainly anti HCV and

  14. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V. [Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  15. Practices of Talent Management in Organisations in the Czech Republic

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    Lucie Vnoučková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As theory still lacks consistent definition of successful talent management, the praxis is characterized by dissimilar interpretations of the term talent. The lack of integrity of definitions appears to be the reason to analyse talent management practices. The article focuses on consistency of suggested practices in management of organisational strategies. The aim is to reveal current approach of Czech organisations towards talent management practices and to specify the main factors affecting employee development in talent management in the tested organisations. Bivariate and multivariate statistical methods and analyses were used to lower the number of possible single approaches and practices. Analyses formed valid factors, which influence and determine employee development as key principles of talent management: alignment with strategy, internal consistency, cultural embeddedness, management involvement, and employer branding through differentiation. Results identified and verified different ways of support of talented employees. Firstly, it is Talent management in its original shape (25.9%, secondly, Learning organisation based on common learning (23.5% and the third factor name is Plain promises (12.4%. Organisations grouped in the factor only declare possibility of development, but do not practically use it.

  16. [Zoonotic potential of raw cow's milk in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, J; Ondrusková, J; Oslíková, M; Vyroubalová, S

    2012-04-01

    To assess current microbiological risks of raw cow's milk. The presented work reports the prevalence of selected bacteria on Czech dairy farms in 2010 and compares the results with a similar study in 2002. The prevalence of bacteria was studied by culture methods using milk filters made from non-woven fabric collected from dairy farms throughout the year 2010. Together 260 filters from 65 dairy farms were tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O 157 and Salmonella spp. in filters was tested. In staphylococci, genes encoding enterotoxin-production were studied. In Campylobacter spp., resistance to antibiotics was ascertained. In 2010, the prevalence rates of selected bacteria on farms were as follows: Campylobacter spp. 3%, Escherichia coli O 157 0.4%, Salmonella spp. 0.8%, Listeria monocytogenes 10% and Staphylococcus aureus 31%. In 12% of the tested filters, S. aureus with the genetic make-up for enterotoxin production was isolated. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from dairy farms is different from that in human or poultry isolates. Raw cow's milk contains bacteria capable of causing human alimentary tract diseases. The above microbiological risks for consumers are eliminated by proper storage conditions (below 10 degrees C) and heat treatment (boiling) of raw milk.

  17. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Adults: The Czech Republic Experience

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    Olga Dzupova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Listeria monocytogenes (LM is currently the third most frequent pathogen of bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods. A prospective study of patients with LM meningitis in a Czech tertiary care hospital, carried out from 1997 to 2012. Results. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with LM meningitis, which was 7% of a total of 440 adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM over a 16-year period. Their median age was 63 years, range 26–80 years. Nineteen patients (61% had underlying immunocompromising comorbidity; 15 patients (48% were older than 65 years. Fourteen patients (45% had arterial hypertension. The typical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status was present in 21 patients (68%. The median count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leukocytes was 680/L, protein level 2.6 g/L, and glucose ratio 0.28. Four patients (13% died, and nine (29% survived with moderate to severe sequelae. Conclusion. LM meningitis is known to affect immunosuppressed and elderly patients. Arterial hypertension seems to be another important predisposing factor. Clinical symptoms, CSF findings, and disease outcomes, did not significantly differ from other community-acquired ABM in our study, although the CSF leukocyte count was lower. Ampicillin showed good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in the majority of patients.

  18. Pro-environmental Behaviour of Households in the Czech Republic

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    Marie Prášilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the positive effects, which are reflected in the relative improvement of the quality of life, the way households satisfy their needs has a direct impact on many environmental problems. Among them are global climatic changes, air, soil and water pollution, excessive usage of natural resources and loss of biodiversity. Sustainable consumption belongs to the key elements of global movement for sustainable development. It can be characterized as consumer behaviour which satisfies the needs of current and future generations. Czech households influence the environment every day by doing their shopping, consuming and using various kinds of products and services, the way they spend their leisure time, by commuting to work and travelling in general and, last but not the least, by producing waste. Both the location and the size of the household significantly influence the environment as well. 30 to 40% of environmental problems are caused by households. Thus, pro-environmental movements warn of the necessity to eliminate negative impacts of households’ behaviour. This paper analyses development tendencies of relevant indicators of household operations which have impact on the environment. The attention is paid primarily to consumption of electrical energy, water and food by households, usage of personal means of transport and production of communal waste. Time series statistical methods were used when assessing development tendencies.

  19. The Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic

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    Václav Čada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information is often not effectively handled and used, e.g., in public administration. The key reason is that information about what spatial data exists, and where and under which circumstances it can be used, is missing. This leads to a situation whereby data are gathered and maintained multiple times. In October 2014, the Czech government approved the conception of The Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic to 2020 (GeoInfoStrategy, which serves as a basis for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI. Furthermore, in June 2015 the GeoInfoStrategy Action Plan was approved. The vision of the GeoInfoStrategy is that the Czech Republic will use spatial information effectively by 2020. The innovative approach of the GeoInfoStrategy to build the NSDI includes cooperation between all parties—not only public administration, but also the private sector, academia, professional associations and user communities. The principles defined in the GeoInfoStrategy are general and can serve as best practice for other countries building an NSDI that should meet the requirements of all target groups working with spatial information.

  20. Analysis of selected indicators of winegrowing and wine-production industries in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with industry analysis of winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria and in the Czech Republic. The analysis is more focused on winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria with the aim to present the less known information.The annual production of wine in Bulgaria amounts for about 2 million hectoliters, being mostly proce- ssed by industrial producers, even though the area of productive vineyards is decreasing by almost 33% to the level of 100 000 hectares. Czech Republic has a lower area of vineyards than Bulgaria, and thanks to the higher yields per hectare it produces about 0.5 million hectoliters of wine. Wine consumption is also different – Czech Republic reaches about 75% of consumption in Bulgaria.Bulgaria, unlike the Czech Republic, belongs to the wine-export countries, especially focusing on exports of bottled red wine. The most important importers of Bulgarian wine – bottled and cask – are Poland, Russia, Great Britain, and Germany. The average prices of exported bottled wine oscillated around USD 1 per liter, in the monitored period. In case of the cask wine, the prices are almost 50% lower. The prices of wines imported to Bulgaria are slightly lower than prices of wines being exported from Bulgaria. Most of the wine was imported from Moldova and Macedonia, Hungary, and Poland.The wine foreign trade balance of Bulgaria and Czech Republic is active for Bulgaria, which exports about 24 thousand hectoliters of wine to the Czech Republic. Exports of Czech and Moravian wines to Bulgaria are minimal.

  1. Consumer Demand for Wine and Beer in the Czech Republic, and Their Mutual Influences

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    Pavel Syrovátka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses consumer demand for wine and beer in the Czech Republic in the period of 1991–2013. The objective of this research was to evaluate the elasticity of consumption of wine and beer in reaction to a change of prices and further to a change in the level of a household income. Based on the dynamic models of the gross demand for wine and beer there were determined the coefficients of direct and cross price elasticity, and income elasticity coefficients. In accordance with the identified sizes, respectively, after evaluating their statistical significance, there was carried out the economic analysis of observed demand functions. Analysis of demand functions has shown that the consumptions of wine and beer by the Czech households were not linked on a statistically significant level, in the examined period. Dynamic model of the gross demand for wine showed a statistically insignificant sensitivity of wine consumption to a change of the household income. Wine consumption of Czech households was significantly formed only by its price. Dynamic model of the gross demand for beer has shown that beer consumption by the Czech households responded significantly only to change in household income. Whereas in the case of wine, there was identified an influence of previous consumption on the current one, this was not confirmed in the case of beer.

  2. Retail food prices in the Czech Republic – the influence of selected factors

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    Luboš Smutka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade (2000–2010, we have witnessed an unprecedented rise in food prices, especially from the world and European market viewpoint. The article aims to analyze the development of prices in the food market in the Czech Republic and to identify the influence of global and European prices development on domestic food price development and price development of selected food products. The article focuses primarily on the sensitivity of Czech food price development and especially on sensitivity of the selected commodity aggregations price development on the global and European market price growth. Furthermore, it is analyzed the impact of changes in value added tax rate from 10% to 14% on food prices in general and then on the prices of selected food products in retails network. The results of the analysis are following. The Czech food market reacts sensitively to changes in food prices on the global market as well as on the EU market but the EU price development is determining for the CR. In terms of price response to change in the VAT rate, it appears that the growth rate is not absorbed on the production side but it is largely transferred to consumer prices. The selected food sample also showed high responsiveness in the development of prices to changes in the EU market prices but there are certain variations given by specifics of the Czech market.

  3. Impact of reference groups on the teenagers’ buying process of clothing in the Czech Republic

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    Jana Turčínková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our research was to suggest recommendations for Czech producers of clothing for brand building and marketing communication strategies with Czech consumers in age group 13 to 19 years, therefore, our goal was to analyze consumer behavior of Czech youth when buying and using clothing and to analyze factors influencing their behavior, with the emphasis on reference groups and these results are presented in this paper. The target group (consumers 13–19 years old was selected because it’s often been neglected in recent marketing researches. The research consisted of primarily qualitative research (n = 96 in the form of in-depth interviews and pilot quantitative research (n = 200 in a form of online survey. The data collection was conducted in time period March 17–April 22, 2011. On the basis of data analysis, authors suggested general recommendations for improving marketing communication strategy of fashion producers in the Czech Republic. The results hint differences in the buying behavior of clothing between respondents in the age 13–15 and 16–19 years. The group of 13–15 years old teenagers doesn’t consider clothing brands as a very important criterion when choosing particular piece of clothing, while for the older group brands matter. The 16–19 year old ones are significantly more influenced by their friends and opinion leaders, while the for the younger group this influence comes not from their peers, but mostly parents.

  4. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy.

  5. Consumer Decision-Making Styles and Local Brand Biasness: Exploration in the Czech Republic

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    Wanninayake W.M.C.Bandara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern marketer shows a growing interest in the research of consumer decision-making styles to understand how an individual makes his/her buying decisions in the competitive environment. This concept is important because it determines the behavioral patterns of consumers and is relevant for market segmentation. Most of the previous researchers have adapted to Consumer Style Inventory (CSI introduced by Sproles and Kendall in 1986 as a common tool for assessing the decision-making styles of customers. Though researchers have validated CSI in different cultural and social contexts, very limited studies were carried out to explore the relationship between consumer decision-making styles and their domestic brand biasness. Therefore, the present study mainly focuses on exploring the impact of consumer decision-making styles on their preference towards domestic brands in the context of the Czech Republic. The sample for this study was drawn from adult customers who live in the Brno, Zlín, and Olomouc regions in the Czech Republic. A group of students from the Bachelor’s degree programme in Management and Economics, Tomas Bata University in Zlín were selected as enumerators for data collection. Altogether 200 questionnaires were distributed and 123 completed questionnaires were taken in for final analysis. The decision- making styles were measured using Sproles and Kendall’s (1986 CSI instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha values of each construct confirmed that there is a good interring reliability associated with the data. Principle Component Analysis was employed to determine the decision-making styles of Czech customers and the one-way ANOVA was used for testing hypotheses. The findings revealed that seven decision-making styles are appeared among Czech customers and fashion consciousness, recreational orientation, impulsiveness, and price consciousness of customers show a direct relationship with the domestic brand biasness. Other styles did not

  6. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: the case study of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polák, Miloš; Drápalová, Lenka

    2012-08-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets targets on collection and recycling of WEEE in general, but no specific collection target for EoL mobile phone exists. In the year 2010 only about 3-6% of Czech EoL mobile phones were collected for recovery and recycling. If we make similar estimation using an estimated average EU value, then within the next 10 years about 1.3 billion of EoL mobile phones would be available for recycling in the EU. This amount contains about 31 tonnes of gold and 325 tonnes of silver. Since Europe is dependent on import

  7. Analysis of development of buldings societies market in the Czech Republic

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    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses market trends of the building societies in the Czech Republic in years 1995–2003. The main aim of the contribution is to verify the following thesis:1.\tIn previous development, it comes to the permanently increasing growth in the market of deposits and loans of building saving.2.\tConcentration in the market of building saving decreases.Analyses is made on two partial markets : deposit market and market of building saving loans. Growth rate index was chosen for the evaluation of the growth of both submarkets. Herfindahl-Hirchman index was chosen for evaluation of concentration trends. Analyses of the building saving market using the stated methodical approaches enables to enunciate the findings for the appointed hypothesis.Both submarkets do not show permanent increasing of growth rate in the period 1995–2003. The growth rates of both markets are declining in the first part of the period, the growth rates are increasing in the second part of the period. The concentration level of both markets is decreasing in years 1998–2003. This trend in the building societies market was influenced namely by general trend of market rate of interest in this period, by increasing exploitation of the real estate credit as a form of housing financing and by more activ credit policy used by minority building societies.The concentration development in the market of deposits and loans of building saving is not identical with the development of concentration in the market of deposits and loans in the whole bank sector. It may be deduced, that the development in the whole bank sector has been affected by the factors that have not operated in the market of building saving – decrease of banks in the bank sector of Czech Republic and educing of the part of redressed bank assets out of Czech Republic bank sector.

  8. Business Angels Environment in the Czech Republic and the USA – Case Study

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    Hana Bortlova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Mapping and comparing the investors’ environment in the USA and in the Czech Republic. To focus on characteristics of Business Angels in both markets, the Czech Republic and the USA and highlight the main differences. Methodology/methods: The used research methods are adjusted to the aim of the article. A case study was used as a method of this paper, in order to describe the investors and find out their similarities and dissimilarities. The research was conducted with 50 investors (41 investors from the USA and 9 investors from the CR. In order to provide the triangulation, the author chose three methods of data collection. More specifically, questionnaire, archival data (data on the internet and interview. The same investors took part in questionnaire as well as in interview. Scientific aim: The aim of this paper is to map the investors’ characteristics in the Czech Republic and in the USA. Findings: Based on outcomes of used methods, the following facts were found out. Business Angels (BA in the USA tends to be older, with more experience and higher education than BA in the CR. Investing is considered as their full-time job and based on that fact their portfolio is wider. In the USA, the investors have approximately 8 companies in their portfolio, while in the CR only 2. Source of motivation for the US investors is knowledge transfer to young entrepreneurs (for almost 90% of investors. Conclusions: In the CR, there is lack of collaboration among BA, which leads to less investments. The solution for improving the situation might be perceived in establishing the syndicates of BA. Moreover, it is necessary to present good quality projects to BA, consequently the young entrepreneurs need more initiatives and opportunities to gain the required knowledge and practice. However, the author suggest that the deeper research with more respondents should be done in order to provide validate data which presents the whole field.

  9. SOCIAL CLIMATE PERCEPTION BY THE POPULATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC (ALMOST 20 YEARS AFTER THE VELVET REVOLUTION IN 1989)

    OpenAIRE

    ŠÁRKA BRYCHTOVÁ

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the social climate perception by the population of the Czech Republic. It is written on the basis of a survey carried out in 2008 and it tries to interpret the opinion of the Czech population on the current development of the society from the economic, political and social perspectives. It tries to encompass the current atmosphere and certain intergenerational nuances of the views of the presented topic.

  10. Ethical Management in Companies in the Czech Republic and Ukraine - Comparison of the Presence of a Code of Ethics

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    Caha Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the commonness of a code of ethics as the most important ethical management tool in the business sector in two post-communist countries, namely the Czech Republic and Ukraine. The hypothesis that a code of ethics is much more widespread in the economically more developed country, which is the Czech Republic, and also the assumption that the occurrence of a code of ethics is in relation to the company size, were examined on the base of a questionnaire survey. The results definitely confirmed that a code of ethics is much more widespread in the Czech Republic than in Ukraine. The survey results have also confirmed that the commonness of a code of ethics grows with the company size. This was not confirmed in micro and small companies in Ukraine.

  11. Some new records of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae from the Czech Republic

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    Bitušík Peter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Six chironomid species: Paraboreochlus minutissimus (Strobl, 1894, Trissopelopia longimanus (Staeger 1839, Boreoheptagyia monticola (Serra-Tosio, 1964, Cricotopus (s.str. similis Goetghebuer 1921, Heleniella serratosioi Ringe, 1976, Krenosmittia camptophleps (Edwards, 1929, were recorded in Czech Republic for the first time. The pupal exuviae were collected in July 2009 from Otava River in the vicinity of Rejštejn village in the central part of the Bohemian Forest. The notes on known distribution and ecology of the species are presented.

  12. YouTubers and their influence on teenager's values in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Marek

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "YouTubers and their influence on the values and development of teenagers in the Czech Republic" aims to determine the influence of people producing and presenting their own videos on the video-sharing website YouTube, the so-called YouTubers, on the social and educational development of teenagers. YouTube is a phenomenon of today's young generation which spends much more time on social networks than in front of television or print media, so the impact of this media on young people...

  13. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  14. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the watercourses of Elbe basin in Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Židková, Monika; Kramulová, Barbora; Tauchen, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 171, MAR (2017), s. 97-105 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014; European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : chromatography-mass-spectrometry * gas-chromatography * human pharmaceuticals * waste - water * surface- water * risk-assessment * diclofenac * ibuprofen * products * plants * NSAID Surface water * Pharmaceuticals * GCxGC-TOFMS Elbe basin * Czech Republic Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  15. Does Hysteresis Exist in Unemployment? New Findings from Fourteen Regions of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The present study chose 14 regions of the Czech Republic as case studies to examine the existence of unemployment hysteresis. To carry out the empirical analysis, it used the SURADF test and the FADF test. The empirical findings from the ADF tests suggested that unemployment in all 14 regions could be described as a non-stationary process. However, the results obtained from the more powerful SURADF test and the non-linear FADF test indicated that the unemployment rates in nine regions could h...

  16. Estimating the value of public construction works in Poland and Czech Republic

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    Edyta Plebankiewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the legislation concerning the methodology of estimating the value of works in Poland and the Czech Republic. In both countries it is necessary for the public investor to respect the law governing public procurement, which defines the structure of compulsory documents needed for the tender documentation, but not directly the way of their preparation. In both countries, though, there exist model proceeding schedules for the calculation of the value of a public procurement for construction works. To illustrate and compare the calculation methods a sample calculation of the procurement value is presented for a selected thermal efficiency improvement project.

  17. Using Business Information Systems available in the Czech Republic for Marketing Strategies Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of current situation on the market of business information systems in the Czech Republic from the point of view of their utilization in marketing strategies creation. Based on requirements on marketing information system the structure of these systems and possibilities of their usage are evaluated. It is also pointed out to discovered insufficiencies and the architecture solving these problems is suggested. The main angle of view is three-layer architecture and on each layer the set of requirements and design proposal are summarized.

  18. Selected aspects of worksite health promotion (WHP in the Czech republic

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    Radim Šlachta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation (WHO and other internationally active Worksite Health Promotion (WHP organizations co-ordinately aim to implement a healthy lifestyle by health programmes. They also specify general principles to prevent the mass occurrence of non-infectious diseases in the world. Recommended programs are in developed countries usually implemented by administrative institutions and authorities and their results are evaluated. This paper aims to evaluate the implementation of recommended programmes in the Czech Republic by specific aspects - cultural, legislative, medical, economic etc. The paper is an introductory study in a complex and comprehensive interdisciplinary field of human health in the context of workplace and sustainable social development.

  19. CHANGES OF COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOUR IN ICT OF SENIORS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Celer, Čeněk; Janska, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is an analysis of communicative behavior changes in ICT for people over 55 years of age in terms of psychological and demographic segmentation. To fulfill the article’s objective, a secondary data analysis was performed on the professional literature and studies dealing with this issue. As the primary data source there are used the results of a survey that examined the impact of ICTs on the behavior of seniors in the Ústecký Region of the Czech Republic. The survey take...

  20. Catching of spiders in shallow subterranean habitats in the Czech Republic

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    Růžička, Vlastimil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spiders occurring in soils and fissured rocks were investigated using pipe traps. Four microphthalmic species, namely Hahnia microphthalma, Porrhomma egeria, P. microps and P. cambridgei were collected. Hahnia microphthalma is reported from the Czech Republic for the first time. The importance of collecting material by complex pipe traps (consisting of a perforated pipe and a set of removable cups to record the depth distribution of spiders in subterranean habitats is stressed. The importance of the soil and fissure network formed by sandy marlite bedrock and of alluvial soils for the life of subterranean spiders is documented.

  1. A new locality of orchid Orchis purpurea Huds. in Cieszyn Foothills (Czech Republic

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    Beczała Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest deserves to be protected area due to abundant occurrence of many orchids.

  2. Attitudes of Companies to Sport Sponsorship in the Czech Republic during the Economic Crisis

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    Eva Čáslavová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes of Companies to Sport Sponsorship in the Czech Republic during the Economic Crisis This research presents the approach of companies to sport sponsorship in the period of time of the economic crisis in the European territory, specifically in the Czech Republic. The research included 100 companies based in the Czech Republic and the method chosen was electronic mail survey of managers responsible for this marketing activity. The results show trends in sport sponsorship from the viewpoint of companies and can serve as a base for strategic decisions about new ways of sport financing in 2012–2020 with which the relevant authorities of the public administration of the Czech Republic are currently dealing at this time. Postoje firem ke sponzorování sportu v České republice v období ekonomické krize Tento výzkum prezentuje přístup firem ke sponzorování sportu v období ekonomické krize v evropském teritoriu, konkrétně v České republice. Výzkum zahrnoval 100 firem působících v České republice. Byla uplatněna metoda elektronického dotazování manažerů odpovědných za tuto marketingovou činnost. Výsledky výzkumu ukazují trendy ve sponzorování sportu ze strany firem a mohou sloužit jako podklad pro strategické rozhodování o nových cestách financování sportu na léta 2012–2020, které v tomto období řeší příslušné orgány státní správy České republiky.

  3. Ochratoxin A exposure biomarkers in the Czech Republic and comparison with foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Roubal, Tomas

    2012-11-01

    Among ochratoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) occupies a dominant place and represents significant risk for human and animal health which also implies economic losses around the world. OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic mycotoxin. OTA exposure may lead to formation of DNA adducts resulting to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (human carcinogen of 2B group). Now it seems that OTA could be "a complete carcinogen" which obliges to monitor its presence in biological materials, especially using the suitable biomarkers. In this article, OTA findings in urine, blood, serum, plasma and human kidneys (target dose) in the Czech Republic and comparison with foreign countries are presented.

  4. Morava River floodplain development during the last millennium, Straznicke Pomoravi, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Grygar, Tomáš; Světlík, Ivo; Ettler, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Diehl, J. F.; Beske-Diehl, S.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2009), s. 499-509 ISSN 0959-6836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130801; GA AV ČR IAA3013201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : floodplain deposits * river activity reconstruction * last millenium * Morava River (Czech Republic) * expandable clay minerals * Cu-trien analysis * mineral magnetic measurements * lead isotope analysis * Holocene fluvial records * land -use change * pollution sources * isotopic-ratios * clay minerals * soil-erosion Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 2.481, year: 2009

  5. A Country Profile of the Czech Republic Based on an LADM for the Development of a 3D Cadastre

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    Karel Janečka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a country profile for the cadastre of the Czech Republic based on the ISO 19152:2012 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM. The proposed profile consists of both legal and spatial components and represents an important driving force with which to develop a 3D cadastre for the Czech Republic, which can guide the Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic to 2020. This government initiative emphasizes the creation of the National Set of Spatial Objects, which is defined as the source of guaranteed and reference 3D geographic data at the highest possible level of detail covering the entire territory of the Czech Republic. This can also be a potential source of data for the 3D cadastre. The abstract test suite stated in ISO 19152:2012—Annex A (Abstract Test Suite and the LADM conformance requirements were applied in order to explore the conformity of the Czech country profile with this international standard. To test their conformity, a mapping of elements between the LADM and the tested country profile was conducted. The profile is conformant with the LADM at Level 2 (medium level and can be further modified, especially when legislation is updated with respect to 3D real estate in the future.

  6. Pricing Electric Power in the Czech Republic and in Selected Countries

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    Eva Mazegue Pavelková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on state intervention in the pricing of electricity from renewable power sources in the Czech Republic when compared with the pricing in the Slovak Republic, Germany, France and Italy. In these countries the state intervention is implemented in different forms, but the critical part of the price is regulated everywhere by the state. The price of electricity is determined by its production costs, which depend on the source from which electricity is produced. The highest cost of electricity is required to generate renewable energy, particularly solar power, while the lowest costs of power are associated with its production by coal-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants. However, hydroelectric power plants attain clearly the lowest cost for generating electricity. State intervention includes supporting power generation from renewable power sources by guaranteeing purchase prices.

  7. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  8. Evaluation of the regions of the Czech Republic on the basis of demographic characteristics in the year 2006

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    Jaroslav Dufek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic evolution in the Czech Republic is not spatially homogeneous but displays regional differences. In the set of 14 regions of the Czech Republic, numerical characteristics showing level, variability, skewness and kurtosis for 30 demographic indicators from the year 2006 are calculated and evaluated. Frequency counts for some of these have been shown using histograms. On the basis of factor analysis, five representative indicators were chosen and assigned weights, with the ranks of regions determined by normalized values. The best position was obtained by the City of Prague and Středočeský Region, with last position occupied by the Zlín Region.

  9. First report of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle prussica parasitising a fish host in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

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    Kvach Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Examination of western tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris from the River Dyje (Czech Republic, Danube basin for metazoan parasites revealed the presence of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle prussica Mühling, 1896 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae in both muscle tissue and the peritoneal cavity. This is the first time that tubenose gobies have been reported as an intermediate host for C. prussica, and the first time that C. prussica metacercariae have been registered parasitising fish hosts in the Czech Republic. Here, we describe the morphology of metacercariae and five-day preadults, cultivated in vitro, and discuss the importance of recently established, non-native species as suitable hosts for this parasite.

  10. Patient rights protection in the Czech Republic: challenges of a transition from Communism to a modern legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, O

    2007-03-01

    The post-Communist countries in Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, underwent a rapid transformation of their legal systems, within which the concept of patient rights passed through revolutionary changes. This process however often left significant gaps in patient rights protection. There are practical difficulties for patients in defending their rights before the courts, such as problems with obtaining evidence and independent expert opinions, long delays and high costs of court proceedings, strict burden of proof rules and low compensation levels. Modern patient rights often collide with the systems of health care provision that are still unprepared for patient autonomy and responsibility. The experience gained in the transition process might be applicable also to other countries that undergo changes from traditional to modern system of patient rights protection.

  11. Approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna (Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibinger, Jakub

    2017-05-01

    The research was focused on approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna, situated near the location Osecna, region Liberec, Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic, by analysis of numerical experiment results. To approximate the clogging of the leachate collection system after fifteen years of landfill operation (1995-2009) were successfully tested modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga transient drainage theory. This procedure allows application of the reduction factors to express clogging of the leachate collection system in Osecna landfill. The results proved that the modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga method with reduction factors can serve as a good tool for clogging approximation in a leachate collection system in Osecna landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The National Forest Programme of the Czech Republic: An introduction of the 1993–2010 development

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    Marta Urbanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1992 UNCED Conference in Rio de Janeiro, National Forest Programmes (NFPs have been attracting a worldwide attention as a voluntary participatory-based policy instrument to support the sustainable forest management at the country level. This paper reports on the 1993–2010 development of the Czech NFP. During this time, four NFP-related processes have taken place: first, the 1995 NFP drafted by the National Forestry Committee (a non-governmental document; second, the 1998 Forestry Programme of the Ministry of Agriculture (a ministerial document; third, the 2003 National Forest Programme of the Czech Republic (a governmental document, abbreviated as NFP I; and fourth, the 2008 National Forest Programme for the Period until 2013 (a governmental document, abbreviated as NFP II. The reasons are introduced which led to initiation of the respective processes; drawn up is the process chronology. Each process is scrutinised with regard to process design, with a special focus on process participation and intersectoral cooperation. Document analyses, exploratory expert interviews and participant observations were applied to reconstruct the development of the Czech NFP.

  13. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  15. Association between obesity and cancer incidence in the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máchová, Lucie; Cízek, Ludek; Horáková, Dagmar; Koutná, Jirina; Lorenc, Jirí; Janoutová, Gabriela; Janout, Vladimír

    2007-11-01

    Excess body weight was shown to be associated with risk of several types of cancer. In the Czech Republic, malignant tumors are the second leading cause of death. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the most frequent types of cancer and obesity. A case-control study was accomplished, using data from the National Cancer Registry and from a preventive oncologic checkup database. Cases were defined as persons from the studied population who developed skin, breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, kidney, ovarian, urinary bladder, stomach, pancreatic, or gallbladder cancers from 1987 to 2002. Controls were cancer-free men and women from the population. Among the cancer patients and healthy controls, proportions of obese, overweight, and nonobese individuals were compared, and odds ratios (OR) were computed. After adjustment for confounders, obese men had a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.56-2.76) and kidney cancer (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.14-3.24). Obese women were at higher risk of endometrial cancer (OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.65-6.37). An inverse association was observed between obesity and lung cancer (in men: OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.37-0.66; in women: OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21-0.80). Obesity is associated with several frequent types of tumors and represents an important preventable cause of cancer in the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic.

  16. Rpas Accuracy Testing for Using it in the Cadastre of Real Estates of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housarová, E.; Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, interest in the collection of data using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) has sharply risen. RPAS technology has a very wide area of use; one of its main advantages is its accuracy, timeliness of data, frequency of collecting data and low operating costs. RPAS can be used for the mapping of small, dangerous and inaccessible areas in contrast with ordinary aerial photogrammetry. In the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic, it is possible to map out areas by using aerial photogrammetry, so it has been done in the past. However, this is a relatively expensive and complex technology, and therefore we are looking for new alternatives. An alternative would be to use RPAS technology for data acquisition. The testing of the possibility of using RPAS for the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic is the subject of this paper. When evaluating results we compared point coordinates measured by geodetic method, GNSS technology and RPAS technology.

  17. Family Business as Source of Municipality Development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Rydvalová

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the family businesses in the Czech Republic. The main aim is to answer the question of whether the family entrepreneurship can be seen as an instrument of municipality development. First, the term family entrepreneurship based on foreign and domestic sources is defined. The sources are complemented by a legal viewpoint under the new Civil Code of the Czech Republic. Furthermore, a regional definition of a municipality and the country is specified. Then, a result of the research investigation focused on the link between the family entrepreneurship and economic development of communities is presented. Finally, the next steps of the team at the Faculty of Economics, Technical University of Liberec in the given area are unveiled. The novel idea is to use such a tool that allows its residents to find the meaning of life in the country and accept a certain level of inequality associated with it. Just at this moment, regional disparities can be removed and support for the development of rural areas can be successfully implemented. Also, family businesses can be a source of developing business environment, especially in small municipalities in rural areas.

  18. RPAS ACCURACY TESTING FOR USING IT IN THE CADASTRE OF REAL ESTATES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    E. Housarová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, interest in the collection of data using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS has sharply risen. RPAS technology has a very wide area of use; one of its main advantages is its accuracy, timeliness of data, frequency of collecting data and low operating costs. RPAS can be used for the mapping of small, dangerous and inaccessible areas in contrast with ordinary aerial photogrammetry. In the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic, it is possible to map out areas by using aerial photogrammetry, so it has been done in the past. However, this is a relatively expensive and complex technology, and therefore we are looking for new alternatives. An alternative would be to use RPAS technology for data acquisition. The testing of the possibility of using RPAS for the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic is the subject of this paper. When evaluating results we compared point coordinates measured by geodetic method, GNSS technology and RPAS technology.

  19. The Shadow Economy of Czech Republic and Tax Evasion: The Currency Demand Approach

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    Dennis Nchor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shadow economy of Czech Republic and the associated losses in tax revenue. The presence of a shadow economy may not necessarily be bad for the economies in which they prevail but they could cause huge losses to government revenue and could also constitute serious violation of labour regulations. The study uses the Currency Demand Approach. It measures the size of the shadow economy in two stages: a the econometric estimation of an aggregate money demand equation b the calculation of the value of the shadow economy through the quantity theory of money. The key variables in the study include: the total currency held outside the banking system, the number of automatic teller machines, the deposit interest rate, GDP deflator, the average tax, velocity of money, nominal GDP and nominal money supply. The results from the study show that the shadow economy of Czech Republic on the average is about 20.9 % as at the end of 2013 and the country loses an average tax revenue of about 7.2 % of GDP yearly. The data was obtained from the World Bank country indicators and the International Financial Statistics.

  20. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC DISCOURSE IN THREAT FRAMING: THE CASE OF ISLAMOPHOBIA IN CZECH REPUBLIC

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    Donatella BONANSINGA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception and interpretation of risks do not always come from a direct experience but are filtered by the mass media and political discourse. The message they spread and the interpretations of reality they suggest have a profound impact on the (misperceptions developed by citizens. Currently all over the European Union the Islamic threat, as linked to terrorism, is conceived and perceived as a fundamental threat to security. But is there a real threat? By means of a discursive analysis, this paper aims at exploring the dynamics of threat construction as related to the framing of Islam as an issue of security concern, by focusing on the role of public discourse and by providing some insights from Czech Republic (CZ. Czech Republic is an interesting case to study misperceptions, insecurity complexes and the manipulation of public discourse, as the percentage of Muslim population in the country is tantamount to zero but Islamophobic feelings are gathering momentum and rising consistently. The fundamental question driving the research aims at explaining why a country with a numerically negligible Muslim minority is experiencing growing public hostility, manifested through the raising mobilization of citizens against Islam. The hypothesis suggests that the exposure of public opinion to specific media representations and political rhetoric may induce misperception and the development of Islamophobic sentiments. The paper will firstly go through an overview of the literature on the topic; it will then analyze the general trends in Islamophobic discourse in CZ, through the lens of the securitization theory.

  1. Long-term variations in phenological phases and growing season indexes in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Potop, V.; Hajkova, L.; Bares, D.; Stalmacher, M.; Trnka, M.; Bartosova, L.; Zalud, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Phenological phases reflect weather conditions immediately prior to their onset and are therefore very important documentary record of the impact of climate on plants in a particular region. We analyze the results of phenological observations in the Czech Republic in the years 1931-2010. Air temperature increases were associated with an earlier onset of phenological phases; not just the beginning of the growing season but also the interval between successive phenological phases was shorter. Spatial variability of average phenophase onset were executed by GIS methods, the maps use horizontal resolutions of 500 meters. To quantify the rate and timing of changes in canopy development was utilized Growing Season Index (GSI), which was calculated from conventional meteorological measurements. Finally, we used the GSI index for producing global maps that distinguish regional differences in the current phenological development in the Czech Republic. GSI index can be used in modeling of CO2 exchange at the interface of biosphere and atmosphere. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Ministry of education, youth and sports project OC10010, LD11401 and National Agency for Agriculture Research project Q191C054.

  2. Aspects of Private Labels Development in the Segment of Organic Food in Czech Republic

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    Olga Kutnohorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with various aspects of the private labels building. It primarily focuses on organic food market in the Czech Republic, but on this market it illustrates the general trends, both in brand building, as well as in the importance of a brand in purchasing decisions. Organic food market is specific as there is high importance of product attributes, which are based on customer's confidence. Many of the important criteria for the decision to purchase (the way of cultivation and processing of food, freshness, taste, etc. are not possible to be objectively assessed before buying. A brand name plays a large role in the confidence based attributes. Consumers perceive it as a certain guarantee of the expected quality. In the field of organic food there are still not strong brands but there is the space and the need to differentiate organic from conventional foods, in particular. A suitable option could be the retail chain private labels, which are already partially developed as far as for consumers subconscious expectations are concerned. The final part of the article provides an overview of the current offer of organic food private labels in the Czech Republic.

  3. Container Shipping Market Dimensions and Customer Orientation in the Czech Republic

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    Petr Kolář

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The forthcoming research characterises and analyses the key market players (shipping lines, their customer service policy together with the implications the container transport bottlenecks have for the market in the Czech Republic with customer orientation being one of these. Evaluating companies´ customer orientation and analyzing container shipping dimensions in the market of transport and logistics is a highly complex task, especially in the times of the changes in the market. To obtain the data necessary for an informed analysis, open interviews with selected customer service managers will be made and questionnaires distributed in the Czech Republic. Due to the concentration of container and logistics activity within a relatively small number of global shipping lines present in the countries with substantial market share, the approach of market characteristics will be case study based. It must be stressed this is a conceptual paper only, the data has not been collected yet; therefore, there is no conclusion on the research. It is focused primarily on methodology applied and a literature review.

  4. Economic sentiment indicator and its information capability in the Czech Republic

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    Radka Martináková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the indicators of economic agents’ perceptions in the Czech Republic. We assume that these information are provided by economic sentiment indicator surveys based on the Joint Harmonised EU Programme. The aim of this paper is to offer the alternate methodology of qualitative data transformation (balance statistic data in relation with the macroeconomic quantitative indicators. In the empirical analysis we distinguished between the indicators of confidence in industry, construction, retail and consumer confidence indicator. We found link between the aggregate economic sentiment indicator and economic activity. Especially, aggregate economic sentiment indicator copies the development of the GDP. However, partial indicators does not follow changes in the specific sectors of the economy. We also found that economic agents underestimate the intensity of the economic recession after the year 2007.Finally, we cannot recommend the economic sentiment indicator as the leading indicator of the future economic activity in the Czech Republic. Our methodological contribution is in quantifying of the consumer survey results by standardization.

  5. Firm-specific factors and financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic

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    Pathirawasam Chandrapala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the role of internal factors in generating financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic. The paper examines the impact of firm specific factors on company financial performance of 974 firms in the Czech Republic over the period 2005 to 2008, using data in the Albertina database. Pooled and panel cross-sectional time series techniques are used for the data analysis. Return on Assets (ROA is the dependent variable of the model and eight firm specific factors are introduced as the explanatory variables. Using Return on Assets as the dependent variable, it is established that the firm size, sales growth and capital turnover are having significant positive impact on financial performance of firms. At the same time, debt ratio and inventory reflect significant negative impact on financial performance of firms. Overall explanatory powers of the two models are low and further research is necessary to increase the statistical power of the model. The results from the present study may be very encouraging and useful for managers as well as investors to plan investment and operational activities to achieve profitability objectives more efficiently and effectively. The findings have important managerial implications.

  6. Occurrence of Potato virus X on hybrid dock in Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzik, K

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid dock of Uteush (Rumex patientia L. x Rumex tianschanicus A. Los., the family Polygonaceae) is a perspective high productive crop and in the last decade its farming area has continuously grown in Czech Republic. However, the introduction of this non-native perennial crop into a present plant production creates a new potential reservoir for some plant viruses. Also, the hybrid dock could become a host of currently uncommon or insignificant viruses. We screened two dock-farming localities situated in south-west and north-east part of the Czech Republic for the presence of potyviruses, potexviruses, and carlaviruses. In the south-west part of the country, we detected a high incidence of Potato virus X (PVX, the genus Potexvirus). In contrast, in the north-east part of the country we did not detect any dock plants infected with PVX. Next, two other viruses, Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) were mechanically inoculated and tested for their survival capacity and multiplication in the hybrid dock. Both viruses were detected 9 months after inoculation in the infected plants.

  7. Aviation Demand and Economic Growth in the Czech Republic: Cointegration Estimation and Causality Analysis

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    Bilal Mehmood

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to empirically examine the aviation-led growth hypothesis for the Czech Republic by testing causality between aviation and economic growth. We resort to econometric tests such as unit root tests and test of cointegration purposed by Johansen (1988. Fully Modified OLS, Dynamic OLS and Conical Cointegration Regression are used to estimate the cointegration equation for time span of 42 years from 1970 to 2012. Empirical results reveal the existence of cointegration between aviation demand and economic growth. Graphic methods such as Cholesky impulse response function (both accumulated and non-accumulated and variance decomposition have also been applied to render the analysis rigorous. The positive contribution of aviation demand to economic growth is similar in all three estimation techniques of cointegration equation. Finally, Granger causality test is also applied to find the direction of causal relationship. Findings help in lime-lighting the importance of aviation industry in economic growth for a developing country like the Czech Republic.

  8. Occurrence of Neophytes in Agrophytocoenoses – Field Survey in the Czech Republic

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    Michaela Kolářová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neophytes belong to a group of non‑native plants, which were introduced by man either intentionally or unintentionally in different ways. The discovery of America is a historical milestone for non-native plant research. Most scientists use the term neophyte for species introduced after the year 1500. Neophytes became progressively more numerous in arable fields and their proportion significantly increased during the second half of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of neophytes in arable fields in the Czech Republic in terms of applied management systems, crops, and environmental site conditions at different altitudes. In the years 2006 to 2008, a phytocoenological survey was conducted on selected farms across the Czech Republic under various climate and soil conditions in spring and winter cereals and in wide‑row crops. Totally, 172 weed species were found. Among these species, 8 % were considered as neophytes (13 species. In respect of their stage of invasiveness, 6 neophytes were considered as invasive, 6 species as naturalized and 1 species was considered as casual. Frequencies of neophyte species we found ranged between 0.3 – 31 % from all relevés. Environmental site conditions associated with altitude were the most important factors correlated with the occurrence of neophytes. The incidence of neophytes is primarily concentrated at lower altitudes and is mainly associated with stands of spring wide‑row crops, especially root crops and vegetables. A higher proportion of neophytes was found in organic farming.

  9. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

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    Aleš Urban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects.

  10. Differences in financial statements of business entities in the Czech Republic

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    Jana Gláserová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ministry of Finance in the Czech Republic identifies and defines four types of accounting entities that are engaged in business activities. These are the “normal” business entities, business entities as banks, commercial insurance companies and health insurance companies. For each of these types of entities the Ministry of Finance issued relevant regulations that contain specific accounting policies arising mainly from the specifics of the scope of business activities of these entities. The effects of these specifics are ultimately shown also in the individual parts of the financial statement closing. In contrast the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and also generally accepted accounting principles of the United States (U.S. GAAP are valid for all listed entities regardless of their size and scope of activities. The ongoing globalization of the world, transnational mergers and acquisitions of various companies brings the requirements for unification of accounting policies in order to achieve comparability of financial statements closing of companies from different countries, their transparency and completeness of published information in the individual countries. This paper deals with the definition of significant differences in the items of financial statement closing of different types of business entities in the Czech Republic and with the formulation of proposals for individual types of entities, which would contribute to easier orientation and grater comparability for the needs of different users of accounting information.

  11. Current distribution and habitat preferences of red deer and eurasian elk in the Czech Republic

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    Dušan Romportl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we determine the distribution, numbers and habitat preferences of two of the largest species in the family Cervidae present in the Czech Republic, red deer and Eurasian elk. Red deer occurs predominantly in vast areas of forest, i.e. mainly in the mountains bordering this country and several large forest units in the interior. The range of this species has been increasing along with the size of its population. Areas of its permanent occurrence may be generally characterized as regions largely covered with deciduous and coniferous forests and pastures, and regions with a more diverse landscape. Red deer does not occur in areas that are mainly arable or urban, or in areas covered with extensive water bodies and wetlands. As these animals prefer large forests, they occur mainly at high altitudes where the terrain is rugged. The Eurasian elk permanently occurs in the Czech Republic in a single area located between the state border and the right bank of the Lipno Dam. Its home range has been diminishing, presumably along with its numbers. The area of its permanent occurrence is characterized by an abundance of coniferous trees, some pastures and water bodies. The Eurasian elk does not occur in areas covered with arable and urban land but also surprisingly in areas with mainly deciduous forest. Both species prefer high altitudes, but Eurasian elk prefers areas with little difference in the terrain vertically.

  12. The Turn into Dangerous Meat: Case Study of Horsemeat Food Fraud in the Czech Republic

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    Eva Kotašková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze context and strategies to decrease the alternative use of safe food product that does not fit into the market system. This process is revealed in a case study of a horsemeat food fraud in the Czech Republic that took place in 2013. Unlike many other European countries, in the Czech Republic food products containing undeclared horsemeat were not given to charities or used as a source of fuel but were classified as dangerous and thus turned to a category of non-edible food. How can we understand this way of processing and what can this case say about attitudes towards classification of food? Following a story of products containing undeclared horsemeat, a network of context and strategies that are relevant in this case is developed. The analysis is inspired by Science and Technology Studies, mainly the study of classification and standards. The horsemeat case shows that categories of waste and food are consequences of depoliticization of politics, market regulation, technologies, and understanding of objects. Together with various strategies of decreasing the possibilities to negotiate leads to preservation of prevailing standards and classifications.

  13. Family archives as a source of information about past hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2014-05-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (hydrometeorological extremes - HMEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, as well as it was in the past. For the study of their temporal and spatial variability in periods with only natural forcing factors in comparison with those combining also anthropogenic effects it is essential to have the longest possible series of HMEs. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. There exist different types of documentary evidence used in historical climatology and hydrology, represented by various sources such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence (of economic and administrative character) has particular importance (e.g. taxation records). Documents in family archives represent further promising source of data related to HMEs. The documents kept by the most important lord families in Moravia (e.g. Liechtensteins, Dietrichsteins) are located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno. Besides data about family members, industrial and agricultural business, military questions, travelling and social events, they contain direct or indirect information about HMEs. It concerns descriptions of catastrophic phenomena on the particular demesne (mainly with respect to damage) as well as correspondence related to tax reductions (i.e. they can overlap with taxation records of particular estates). This contribution shows the potential of family archives as a source of information about HMEs, up to now only rarely used, which may extend our knowledge about them. Several examples of such documents are presented. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern

  14. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

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    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  15. Active surveillance study of adverse events following immunisation of children in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danova, Jana; Kocourkova, Aneta; Celko, Alexander M

    2017-02-06

    Despite the undisputed public health benefits of routine vaccination, adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) remain a concern. As most adverse events are mild, they may be under-reported; this may underlie the wide range of AEFI rates reported in the literature. We investigated the rates of AEFI related to routine vaccination of children 0-10 years old in the Czech Republic. The study reviewed patients' records in a sample of 49 paediatric GP practices covering all 12 administrative regions of the Czech Republic between 2011 and 2013. Adverse events following routine immunisation of children aged 0-10 years were identified and recorded. The overall rate of AEFI was 209/100,000 doses; this was 6 times higher than the rate reported to the Czech State Institute for Drug Control (34/100,000 doses). Over two fifths (44%) of all AEFI occurred after the booster dose of the combined diphteria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine in 5-year old children. The vast majority of AEFI were non-serious local events (e.g. redness) and fever. Most AEFI occurred the second day after the immunisation, lasted 4 days on average, and were treated by cold therapy, antipyretics and analgesics. The rate of AEFI identified in this study was considerably higher than the officially reported rate. Although the vast majority of AEFI were non-serious, health care providers and the public should be educated and encouraged to report AEFI to address the issue of underreporting, to increase the safety profile of vaccines, and to improve public confidence in immunisation programmes.

  16. Security of the Population in the Czech Republic from the Aaspect of Crime and Penitentiary System

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    Jiří Kamenický

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Th e empirical study concerning wide area of security of the Czech population deals with both its aspects –crime and prison population. First, we have the picture of macro-economic view on the issues through theinternational comparison of government expenditures on individual areas of public order and security. Morecomprehensive part of the paper maps out the development of registered and cleared-up crime in the CzechRepublic by main types, it pays attention to selected groups of perpetrators (children, juveniles, criminal repeatersand also its signifi cant regional dimensions, including attempts to explain it. Overwhelming quantitativeview on crime is extended also by subjective evaluation of security of population near their residence.Signifi cance of qualitative view increases mainly in attempt to make international comparison where traditional“hard“ data on crime hit diff erent legal environment also in geographically close countries within theEU. Social pathology and criminal legislation infl uence also the composition of prison population which isassessed from the aspect of sex, age, citizenship, education, the level of imposed sentence and criminal history.Increasing number of prisoners has recently negatively infl uenced the occupancy rate of prisons, which raisesquestions concerning sustainability of fi nancing of penitentiary system especially in the period of total economicdepression. Presidential amnesty in January 2013 released more than a quarter of all prisoners whichresulted in one-shot signifi cant decrease in occupancy rate. Th is event modifi ed also the structure of prisonpopulation. Th e position of the Czech Republic within EU improved signifi cantly in terms of occupancy rate,but still remained unfavourable as regards total rate of imprisonment of population.

  17. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  18. Factors Affecting the Transition of Fifth Graders to the Academic Track in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Jana; Greger, David; Soukup, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The Czech education system is characterised by early tracking and high educational inequalities. The most controversial element of the system is the academic track, which is attended by students after the completion of primary school. The paper focuses on fifth graders' application process and their success in entrance examinations. The process is…

  19. Czech Delegation visiting the LHC magnet string test

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    List of participants: Czech Technical University, Prague; Charles University, Prague; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and Association of Innovation Enterprising, Czech Republic

  20. Taxation records as a source of information for the study of historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-07-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data is often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the Rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. Certain uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data has great potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic as well, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  1. Trends in ambient ozone as recorded in the Czech Republic over the past two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hůnová, Iva; Bäumelt, Vit

    2017-04-01

    Despite several decades of control in North America, Europe and Japan, ambient ozone (O3) remains a serious air pollution problem (O3) of Northern Hemisphere, and still represents a major threat both for human health and ecosystems. In Europe, the critical levels of O3 are permanently exceeded over vast areas (EEA, 2016). In the Czech Republic (CR), monitoring of O3 has been operated since 1993, currently at 50 sites, including both rural and urban stations covering the country (CHMU, 2016). O3 exposures in the CR are relatively high (Hůnová, Schreiberová, 2012), and may result in negative endpoints, both regarding human health (Hůnová et al. 2013) and vegetation (Hůnová et al., 2011). O3 is highly meteorology dependent and shows considerable year-to-year variations. Nevertheless, a two-decade time series allows for a sound trend analysis. The aim of the contribution is to analyse measured O3 concentrations for trends at Czech long-term monitoring sites over 1995-2015. We used real-time O3 concentration data measured in the nationwide monitoring network by UV-absorbance, the EC reference method, with thorough quality control/ quality assurance procedures applied. We considered annual and summer means, the 98th percentiles and exposure index AOT40F. For trend analysis we used Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. Our results show that statistically significant decreasing trends were recorded at about one half of the examined sites, while the other half showed no trends. We obtained similar results both for urban and rural sites. There is an obvious geographical pattern in recorded O3 trends. Most of the sites with no significant trend are situated in North-western region of the CR, with numerous energy-producing large emission sources, which have been partly denitrified in recent years. Decrease in NOx emissions is expected to result in decreased titration of O3, and hence in higher O3 levels in the area. References: CHMU, 2016. Air Pollution in the Czech

  2. A spatial analysis of integrated risk: vulnerability of ecosystem services provisioning to different hazards in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pártl, Adam; Vačkář, David; Loučková, Blanka; Lorencová, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2017), s. 1185-1204 ISSN 0921-030X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MV(CZ) VG2012201591 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Ecosystems * Ecosystem services * Czech Republic * Integrated risk assessment * Vulnerability * GIS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2016

  3. Acquisition and ecological characterization of Lactuca serriola L. germplasm collected in the Czech Republic, , Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebeda, A.; Dolezalova, I.; Kristkova, E.; Dehmer, K.J.; Astley, D.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Treuren, van R.

    2007-01-01

    Expeditions were conducted in the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom in 2001 (partly 1998) to study Lactuca serriola L. (prickly lettuce, compass plant) geographic distribution, ecology, habitat characteristics and occurrence of diseases and pests on this species. During

  4. A new case of the enigmatic Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp (FU98) in a fox from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hodžić, A.; Mitková, B.; Modrý, David; Juránková, J.; Frgelecová, L.; Forejtek, P.; Steinbauer, V.; Duscher, G. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, 1 February (2017), s. 59-60 ISSN 0890-8508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. * 16S rRNA * groEL * blood * red fox * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.403, year: 2016

  5. Social developmnet of ecologically sensitive rural areas: Case studies of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) and the Devetashko Plato (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana; Stefanová, D.; Vaishar, Antonín; Stefanov, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Tcherkezova, E.

    3-4, 3-4 (2016), s. 65-84 ISSN 0204-7209 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : social development * rural sensitive areas * Devetashko Plato * Bulgaria * Moravian karst - Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://geoproblems.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2016_34/4_zapletalova.pdf

  6. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Primary Education--A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlásná, Pavla; Klímová, Blanka; Poulová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to explore the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in classes at the first stage of primary schools, specifically in the Czech Republic. Firstly, the authors discuss the current state of this research issue, and secondly, they describe their own research which should clarify how, why and how…

  7. Educational Transformation in the Czech Republic since 1989: Can a North American Model of Educational Change Be Applied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Annabelle; And Others

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to examine the process of transformation of education in the Czech Republic since the Velvet Revolution of 1989; and (2) to examine this experience within the framework of the educational change and reform literature, especially the work of Michael Fullan, to determine its utility within a Central European…

  8. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  9. Differentiation in the Making: Consequences of School Segregation of Roma in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Vera

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how various forms of ethnic segregation in education affect everyday life and future aspirations of Roma youth in three Central and Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia. It draws on a comparative European investigation about the diverging experiences and paths of ethnic minority youth in…

  10. Legislative Norms to Control Cannabis Use in the Light of Its Prevalence in Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čecho, Róbert; Baška, Tibor; Švihrová, Viera; Hudečková, Henrieta

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis control legislation ranks among key measures to prevent social-health impacts of its use. The article qualitatively analyses respective legislation in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary (Visegrad Four, V4) considering level of decriminalisation of cannabis use in relation to current epidemiological situation. Qualitative analysis of the cannabis control legislation in V4 countries from 1995 to 2016 focusing on criminal liability, differentiation of cannabis from other illicit substances, definition of a small amount intended for personal use, sentences for possessing and dealership of the drug. Results: Slovakia, Hungary and Poland share similar restrictive legislative approach throughout the studied period. In the Czech Republic, the situation has been different and since 2010 cannabis has been further decriminalised: possession of defined small amount of drug not being under prosecution and milder sentences for cannabis than for other illicit psychoactive substances. Slovakia, Hungary and Poland share similar restrictive legislative approach throughout the studied period. In the Czech Republic, the situation has been different and since 2010 cannabis has been further decriminalised: possession of defined small amount of drug not being under prosecution and milder sentences for cannabis than for other illicit psychoactive substances. Although the prevalence of cannabis use among adolescents is the highest in the Czech Republic, partial decriminalisation did not show further increase. Slovakia, Hungary and Poland show different trends in epidemiological situation despite of similar legislative approach. Results indicate that beside legislation other social factors play a role and measures to change attitudes and decrease social tolerance are important.

  11. Potential geo-ecological impacts of the proposed Danube–Oder–Elbe Canal on alluvial landscapes in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machar, I.; Kirchner, Karel; Pechanec, V.; Brus, J.; Kiliánová, H.; Šálek, L.; Buček, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2015), s. 38-46 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Geo-ecological assessment * hydrological impact * DOE Canal * river floodplain * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2015 http://www.geonika.cz/CZ/CZresearch/CZMgrArchive.html

  12. Brand Awareness and Access to Cigarettes among Children 8-12 Years Old in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučerová, Jarmila; Rameš, Jiří; Fraser, Keely; Králíková, Eva

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to assess smoking behaviour, knowledge of cigarette brands and access to cigarettes among children 8-12 years old in the Czech Republic. Between 2009 and 2012, a cross sectional survey was conducted among 4,439 children aged 8-12 years attending 51 primary schools in Prague and Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. Data including age, gender, ever smoking, parental and sibling smoking, knowledge of cigarette brands, sources of cigarettes, and smoking frequency were collected. Fifty nine percent of all children could name one or more cigarette brands, 62.8% of boys and 55.3% of girls (pbrands were Marlboro and the local brand Petra. Marlboro was better known among boys, while Petra was more known among girls. Children whose parents smoke showed higher brand awareness than children with non-smoking parents, 72.5% and 45.6%, respectively (pbrand awareness and ever smoking provide evidence that tobacco control policies in the Czech Republic do not adequately protect children. Tougher legislation and effective strategies in accordance with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are therefore required to better protect children from harmful effects of smoking and the influence of tobacco industry in the Czech Republic.

  13. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  14. Migratory Trends in the Czech Republic: “Divergence or Convergence” vis-a-vis the Developed World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drbohlav

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyse whether the geopolitical and socio-economic integration and “harmonisation” of the Czech Republic with Western Europe is accompanied by a divergence or convergence of the Czech migratory reality vis-a-vis the developed western world. When testing resemblance two kinds of measurements are used: 1 quantitative – (in terms of the numbers of international migrants, and 2 “qualitative” – a in terms of regularities linked with the migration itself and those that tackle mutual relationships among immigration, the socio-economic development of the destination country and subjective attitudes of the majority population towards minority groups: 3 hypotheses are tested in this regard; b in terms of migratory policies and practices. The results clearly show us that convergence rather than divergence is characteristic of the current migratory trends in the Czech Republic as compared to the developed world, mainly Western Europe.

  15. Flash floods in June and July 2009 in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercl, Petr; Danhelka, Jan; Tyl, Radovan

    2010-05-01

    Several flash floods occurred in the territory of the Czech Republic during the last decade of June and beginning of July 2009. These events caused vast economic damage and unfortunately there were also 15 fatalities. The complete evaluation of flash floods from the point of view of its meteorological cause, hydrological development and impacts was done under the responsibility of Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic. Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) coordinated this project. The results of the project contain several concrete proposals to reduce the threat of flash floods in the Czech Republic. The proposals were focused on possible future improvements of CHMI forecasting service activities including all other parts of Flood prevention and protection system in the Czech Republic. The synoptic cause of floods was the extraordinary long (12 days is longest in more than 60 years history) presence of eastern cyclonic situation over the Central Europe bringing warm, moist and unstable air masses from Mediterranean and Black Sea area. Very intensive thunderstorms accompanied by torrential rain occurred almost daily. Storm cells were organized in train effect and crossed repeatedly the same places within several hours. The extremity of the flood events was also influenced by soil saturation due to daily occurrence of rainstorms. The peak flows exceeded significantly 100-year of recurrence time in many sites. The observed and mainly unobserved catchments were affected. The detailed fields of rainfall amounts were gained from the adjusted meteorological radar observation. All of the available rainfall measurements at the climatological and rain gage stations were used for the adjustment. Hydraulic and rainfall-runoff models were used to evaluate the hydrological response. It was proved again, that the outputs from currently used meteorological forecasting models are not sufficient for a reliable local forecast of the strong convective storms and their

  16. Do they Compete Differently? Strategies of MNEs and Domestic Companies in the Environment of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylva Žáková Talpová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The Czech Republic is still considered an emerging economy and MNEs are important players in most of its markets. Hence, knowledge of their strategies is essential and valuable not only for companies already present on the Czech market, but also for those who intend to enter the Czech market. Methodology/methods: The analysis has centred on a sample of 155 foreign multinational and 118 Czech companies. Using the empirical data, a logistic regression model was subsequently employed to determine whether the strategies chosen by the firms are related to any of the environmental variables. I employed ANOVA and linear regression model to determine whether certain strategy choices are related to higher company performance for MNEs and DCs. Scientific aim: This study aims to examine the strategy-environment configuration of multinational and domestic companies in the Czech Republic and to ascertain which strategy is the most advantageous. Findings: When the environment is complex, MNEs tend to use prospector strategy to deal with such environment in the Czech Republic. For DCs, it is analyzer strategy. The findings also imply that in an emerging economy, an analyzer strategy for DCs and a prospector strategy for MNEs fit with dynamic and hostile environment, if the aim of these companies is to increase performance. In addition, a prospector strategy is related to higher performance for DCs. Conclusions: The results imply that the adoption of a heterogeneous strategy-environment configuration by MNE and domestic companies in smaller transition economy leads to better performance for both of them. This study offers a different insight into the strategic behaviour of companies and extends the existing knowledge by adding the ownership variable into the strategy-environment relationship. Output of this study can serve as the basis for decision-making in companies already active in the Czech marketplace and, particularly, as

  17. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marejková, Monika; Bláhová, Květa; Janda, Jan; Fruth, Angelika; Petráš, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) worldwide, but no systematic study of EHEC as the causative agents of HUS was performed in the Czech Republic. We analyzed stools of all patients with D+ HUS in the Czech Republic between 1998 and 2012 for evidence of EHEC infection. We determined virulence profiles, phenotypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and phylogeny of the EHEC isolates. Virulence loci were identified using PCR, phenotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using standard procedures, and phylogeny was assessed using multilocus sequence typing. During the 15-year period, EHEC were isolated from stools of 39 (69.4%) of 56 patients. The strains belonged to serotypes [fliC types] O157:H7/NM[fliC(H7)] (50% of which were sorbitol-fermenting; SF), O26:H11/NM[fliC(H11)], O55:NM[fliC(H7)], O111:NM[fliC(H8)], O145:H28[fliC(H28)], O172:NM[fliC(H25)], and Orough:NM[fliC(H250]. O26:H11/NM[fliC(H11)] was the most common serotype associated with HUS (41% isolates). Five stx genotypes were identified, the most frequent being stx(2a) (71.1% isolates). Most strains contained EHEC-hlyA encoding EHEC hemolysin, and a subset (all SF O157:NM and one O157:H7) harbored cdt-V encoding cytolethal distending toxin. espPα encoding serine protease EspPα was found in EHEC O157:H7, O26:H11/NM, and O145:H28, whereas O172:NM and Orough:NM strains contained espPγ. All isolates contained eae encoding adhesin intimin, which belonged to subtypes β (O26), γ (O55, O145, O157), γ2/θ (O111), and ε (O172, Orough). Loci encoding other adhesins (efa1, lpfA(O26), lpfA(O157OI-141), lpfA(O157OI-154), iha) were usually associated with particular serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated nine sequence types (STs) which correlated with serotypes. Of these, two STs (ST660 and ST1595) were not found in HUS-associated EHEC before. EHEC strains, including O157:H7 and non-O157:H7, are frequent causes of D+ HUS in the

  18. Summer half-year hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic: a long-term chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Zahradníček, Pavel; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Hailstorms are natural phenomena of local or regional significance causing great material damage in present time, similarly as it was in the past. In Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, it is necessary to search for other sources of information in order to create long-term series of hailstorms. Documentary evidence is used in this study to extend the hailstorm information before the period of systematic observations and to complement existing systematic data. It allowed to compile a long-term series of summer half-year hailstorms in South Moravia using various types of documentary evidence (out of them taxation records, family archives, chronicles and newspapers are the most important) and systematic meteorological observations in the station network. Although available hailstorm data cover the 1435-2015 period, incomplete documentary evidence allows reasonable analysis of fluctuations in hailstorm frequency only since the 18th century (the frequency of hailstorms increases with the number of surviving documents). The long-term series compiled from documentary data and systematic meteorological observations is used to identify periods of lower and higher hailstorm frequency. The best temporal coverage of summer half-year hailstorm days in South Moravia starts in 1925 with a general decreasing trend of -0.05 days per 10 years up to 2015, more evident after 1961 (-1.4 days per 10 years). Existing data may also be used for the study of spatial hailstorm variability which is demonstrated on four particularly damaging hailstorms (on 20 June 1848, 1 July 1902, 10 July 1902 and 19 July 1903). Finally, uncertainties in the hailstorm chronology are discussed and differences related to various aspects of hailstorms detected from documentary and meteorological data in three 40 year periods are analysed. Despite some bias in hailstorm data, South

  19. Projected changes in the evolution of drought assessed with the SPEI over the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potop, V.; Boroneana, C.; Stepanek, P.; Skalak, P.; Mozny, M.

    2012-04-01

    In previous studies the spatial and temporal evolution of drought events in the Czech Republic were extensively analyzed by comparing results from the most advanced drought indices (e.g. the SPI and SPEI), which take into account the role of antecedent conditions in quantifying drought severity. In the present study, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was adopted to assess and project drought characteristics in the Czech Republic based on the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulated data. The simulations were conducted at high resolution (10km) for the current (1961-2000) and two future climates (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). First, the observed data of air temperature and precipitation totals was transferred into a regular grid of ALADIN-Climate/CZ model. The bias correction was applied on the scenario runs. The bias correction method is based on variable correction using individual percentiles whose relationship is derived from observations and control RCM simulation. The SPEI was calculated based on observed monthly data of mean temperature and precipitation totals for the period 1961-1990, as reference period, and for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, as future climates under A1B SRES scenario. The SPEI were calculated with various lags, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months because the drought at these time scales is relevant for agricultural, hydrological and socio-economic impact, respectively. The study refers at the warm season of the year (April to September). As in the case of observational study, we have identified three climatically homogeneous regions, corresponding to the altitudes below 400 m, between 401 and 700 m and, above 700 m. For these three regions the frequency distribution of the SPEI values in 7 classes of drought category (%) were calculated based on grid point data falling in each region, both for the observed data and scenario runs. The paper presents the projected changes in frequency distribution of SPEI at

  20. Spatial analysis and retail saturation of the shopping centers in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with spatial analysis of the shopping centers according to individual regions in Czech Republic. The centers over 10 000 m2 were identified with their total retail space and gravitational model was utilized to determine the break point between two competing regions – the point at which a person residing in an intermediate community would be likely to travel to one region rather than the other. Next part is aimed to calculation of saturation indicators. First one is coefficient of shopping centers saturation – measured like portion of retail space in all shopping centers per ca­pi­ta in each region (the average in Czech Republic is 0,115 m2·cap−1.; the lowest ratio was determined in South-Bohemian region – 0,033 and next is Karlovy Vary – 0,035; Hradec Králové – 0,049 and Vysočina – 0,048 regions; the highest ratio was determined in Liberec region – 0,275 and next is Central-Bohemian including Prague – 0,253; South-Moravian – 0,182 and Plzen – 0,157 regions. The second one is index of retail saturation – the population of the region is multiplied by the monthly ex­pen­di­tu­re on the goods and services the retailer wants to sell in shopping centers and this is divided by the total retail space in all shopping centers in the given region (the average in Czech Republic is 77 094,77 CZK·(m2−1; the same rank was determined – the highest index in South-Bohemian region – 175 909 and the lowest index in Liberec region – 20 224. The main result is comparison of regions according to their shopping centers saturation and recommendation to possible investors, de­ve­lo­pers and retailers where is the best site to invest and build a new complex of retail stores according to given indicators of spatial analysis.

  1. Street Law and Legal Clinics as Civic Projects: Situation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Krupová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been plenty of opportunities to learn law in the Czech Republic but unfortunately only a few of them are effective. Law has been established as compulsory subject at universities and it is taught at secondary schools as well. There are also other sources of legal education such as private courses. We want to show the impact of these methods on the legal literacy of the population. In our presentation we want also to illustrate other possible means the law is presented to non‐lawyers. One of the great methods is using the concept of Street Law, which, in the Czech Republic, is based on university students of Law who teach at secondary or primary schools. There are also projects such as Be Aware of your Civil Rights. We are kind to present the achievements as well as the possible improvements in legal education in the Czech Republic such as using interdisciplinary learning or showing the importance of law in ordinary life. Ha habido muchas oportunidades para aprender Derecho en la República Checa, pero, por desgracia, sólo unas pocas son efectivas. El Derecho se ha convertido en asignatura obligatoria en las universidades, y también se enseña en centros de enseñanza secundaria. Hay, además, cursos privados. Nosotros pretendemos mostrar el impacto de estos métodos en la alfabetización jurídica de la población, así como proponer otras vías de presentar el Derecho a personas no versadas. Una de las metodologías más importantes es la denominada Ley en la Calle. En la República Checa, ésta consiste en que estudiantes de Derecho enseñan en institutos o en escuelas de enseñanza primaria. Por otro lado, hay proyectos como Conozca sus Derechos Civiles. Nos complace presentar los logros obtenidos, así como las mejoras que se pueden implementar en la educación jurídica de la República Checa, como, por ejemplo, usar el aprendizaje interdisciplinario o mostrar la importancia del Derecho en la vida cotidiana. DOWNLOAD THIS

  2. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as Causes of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marejková, Monika; Bláhová, Květa; Janda, Jan; Fruth, Angelika; Petráš, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) worldwide, but no systematic study of EHEC as the causative agents of HUS was performed in the Czech Republic. We analyzed stools of all patients with D+ HUS in the Czech Republic between 1998 and 2012 for evidence of EHEC infection. We determined virulence profiles, phenotypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and phylogeny of the EHEC isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Virulence loci were identified using PCR, phenotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using standard procedures, and phylogeny was assessed using multilocus sequence typing. During the 15-year period, EHEC were isolated from stools of 39 (69.4%) of 56 patients. The strains belonged to serotypes [fliC types] O157:H7/NM[fliCH7] (50% of which were sorbitol-fermenting; SF), O26:H11/NM[fliCH11], O55:NM[fliCH7], O111:NM[fliCH8], O145:H28[fliCH28], O172:NM[fliCH25], and Orough:NM[fliCH25]. O26:H11/NM[fliCH11] was the most common serotype associated with HUS (41% isolates). Five stx genotypes were identified, the most frequent being stx2a (71.1% isolates). Most strains contained EHEC-hlyA encoding EHEC hemolysin, and a subset (all SF O157:NM and one O157:H7) harbored cdt-V encoding cytolethal distending toxin. espPα encoding serine protease EspPα was found in EHEC O157:H7, O26:H11/NM, and O145:H28, whereas O172:NM and Orough:NM strains contained espPγ. All isolates contained eae encoding adhesin intimin, which belonged to subtypes β (O26), γ (O55, O145, O157), γ2/θ (O111), and ε (O172, Orough). Loci encoding other adhesins (efa1, lpfAO26, lpfAO157OI-141, lpfAO157OI-154, iha) were usually associated with particular serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated nine sequence types (STs) which correlated with serotypes. Of these, two STs (ST660 and ST1595) were not found in HUS-associated EHEC before. Conclusions/Significance EHEC strains, including O157:H7 and non

  3. The economic burden of the care and treatment for people with Alzheimer's disease: the outlook for the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marešová, Petra; Zahálková, Veronika

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to specify the cost of treatment and care for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Czech Republic and also with a view to the future. Data availability is evaluated as well as the quality of cost comparison with other developed countries. Data for the Czech Republic will include data from the health insurance company regarding medicines and treatment, as well as a selected home caring for people with dementia and, ultimately, the Social Security Administration. The basic methods include an analysis of data from publicly available sources, direct interviews with the representatives of nursing homes caring for people with dementia and the representative of the Social Security Administration of the Czech Republic. Items will be specified within the category of direct costs. For the study, the indirect costs related to the loss of patient as well as caring person productivity are not considered. Costs for treatment and care are based from the data on 4162 patients, the costs of a bed from data on 391 beds in homes for the elderly. The average annual cost per patient with AD in the Czech Republic was calculated and came to the amount of 12,783 EUR. These items include outpatient care, inpatient care in a medical facility, inpatient care in homes and medications. In terms of share of these items on the direct costs, the largest item are services provided by special homes which contributes to the direct costs by 94 %, medications create 1 % and treatment (both outpatient and inpatient) 5 %. In the case of home care the total costs are lower at 4698 EUR. The Czech Republic as well as other developed countries are faced with the problem of unified accounting cost of people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This then causes the calculation of the economic burden to be very difficult and indicative values.

  4. Retro Reappropriations. Responses to 'The Thirty Cases of Major Zeman' in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pehe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first post-1989 rerun of the 1970s television series Třicet případů majora Zemana (The Thirty Cases of Major Zeman in the Czech Republic generated a heated controversy in the media. This article will examine why Major Zeman became such a contested topic and present an analysis of responses to the series. The paper suggests that the rescreening consolidated a particular ‘retro’ reception of the series, which reappropriates socialist popular culture and ascribes it with an ostensibly apolitical, postmodern, ironic sensibility. The paper will consider how such a response can be reconciled with more explicitly political approaches to the series, arguing that retro has a political agenda of its own.  

  5. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  6. Secondary Geodiversity and its Potential for Urban Geotourism: A Case Study from Brno City, Czech Republic

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    Kubalíková Lucie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary geodiversity (represented by anthropogenic landforms, which can be considered a significant part of geoheritage of certain area can be seen as an important resource for geotourism and geoeducational activities within urban areas. Brno city (Czech Republic is rich in these landforms as well as numerous urban areas. Some of them (especially old quarries and underground spaces are already used for recreation, tourism and leisure or they serve as excursion localities for the university students, some of them are unique from the geoscience point of view and they have also certain added values (historical, archaeological or ecological. However, in some cases, their potential is not fully recognised. The article describes the main anthropogenic landforms within Brno city and analyses their suitability for geotourism and geoeducational activities.

  7. Epigeic Spiders from Lowland Oak Woodlands in the South Moravia Region (Czech Republic

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    Kamila Surovcová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spider faunistics from abandoned coppice oak forest stands located along the South Moravia region. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012 by pitfall trapping at eight different localities. We collected 1945 adult spiders representing 20 families, 53 genera, and 90 species. More than one-third of all the species are known to be xerothermophilous with ecological restrictions to open and partly shaded habitats such as forest-steppe and sparse forests which belong to endangered habitats along central Europe. The most abundant species were Pardosa alacris, P. lugubris and Arctosa lutetiana from the family Lycosidae. In the surveyed area, 24 species were found listed in the Red List of Threatened Species in the Czech Republic (CR – 1 species, EN – 2 species, VU – 15 species, LC – 6 species. In general, we discovered a substantially diversified spider community with a large presence of rare and endangered species characteristic for open and xeric habitats.

  8. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

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    Zakaraya Alhasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  9. Minimal Adequate Model of Unemployment Duration in the Post-Crisis Czech Republic

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    Adam Čabla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.

  10. Genome-wide differential gene expression in children exposed to air pollution in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, D M; van Herwijnen, M H M; Pedersen, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Teplice area in the Czech Republic is a mining district where elevated levels of air pollution including airborne carcinogens, have been demonstrated, especially during winter time. This environmental exposure can impact human health; in particular children may be more vulnerable. To study....... This suggests an effect of air pollution on the primary structural unit of the condensed DNA. In addition, several other pathways were modulated. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that transcriptomic analysis represents a promising biomarker for environmental carcinogenesis....... the impact of air pollution in children at the transcriptional level, peripheral blood cells were subjected to whole genome response analysis, in order to identify significantly modulated biological pathways and processes as a result of exposure. Using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated...

  11. Phthalates in PM2.5 airborne particles in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Růžičková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial area of the Moravian-Silesian Region (the Czech Republic is highly polluted by air contaminants, especially emissions of particulate matter. Samples of PM2.5 particles were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of phthalates were determined for the winter season, transitional period and the summer season. The relative concentrations of phthalates in PM2.5 particles have the same proportion in both heating and non-heating season: di(2ethylexyl phthalate > di-n-butyl phthalate > diisononyl phthalate > diethyl phthalate. The most common increase in concentration in the winter season is from 5 to 10 times higher; the maximum of average concentration was 44 times higher than in the non-heating season.

  12. Effectiveness of Marketing Mix Activities in Engineering Companies in the Czech Republic

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    Milichovský František

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of marketing activities has become important, especially in the industrial environment. In an industrial environment, there is a prerequisite for the success of strategic marketing objectives in relation to corporate strategy. The main aim of the paper is to determine whether the realization of marketing activities is influenced by corporate size. For this reason, a questionnaire survey was used, focusing on engineering companies operating in the Czech Republic. To process the results of the questionnaire survey, both basic types of descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square test were used on the selected dataset. The data were processed using the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 22. The conclusions provide characteristics of the limitations of research and its potential further direction.

  13. The Price Convergence of the Czech Republic and Euro Zone Countries

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    Kovářová Jana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article was to study a price convergence of the Czech Republic (CR and Euro zone countries in the two aspects: spatial and time aspect. In the first one the convergence of selected economies to the Euro zone average price level was researched. In the second one the convergence or divergence process was studied in the individual years of the analysis. The main aim was to prove the hypothesis that the price level of the CR converged to the average price level of the Euro zone in the selected time period 1995-2010. An analysis was conducted by the panel data regression model. The data of comparative price levels of GDP (CPL used in the analysis were obtained in the Eurostat database.

  14. Ice Hockey Lung – A Case of Mass Nitrogen Dioxide Poisoning in The Czech Republic

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    Kristian Brat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas.

  15. Europeanisation and Implementation in Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

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    Lars Johannsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with the implementation capacity of public administration in four Central European countries: Slovenia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The author’s point of departure is that implementation diffi culties vary between sectors, i.e., that the process of transition and Europeanization on the one hand has a homogenizing eff ect between the countries, while on the other it generates a high level of variance across sectors, refl ecting the tasks assigned to each type of administration. An empirical test of this hypothesis is attempted: implementation diffi culties are treated as the dependent variable and distinction is made between the administrations that have production functions and the ones that have regulatory tasks. The discussion is supplemented with an analysis of the general patterns of experienced implementation diffi culties.

  16. Optimal set of agri-environmental indicators for the agricultural sector of Czech Republic

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    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of agri-environmental indicators evaluation (i.e., the measurement of environmental performance and farm reporting are discussed in the paper focusing on the agriculture sector. From the perspective of agricultural policy, there are two broad decisions to make: which indicators to recommend and promote to farmers, and which indicators to collect to assist in agriculture policy-making. We introduce several general approaches for indicators to collect to assist in policy-making (European Union, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in the first part of our paper and given the differences in decision-making problems faced by these sets of decision makers. We continue in the second part of the paper with a proposal of indicators to recommend and promote to farmers in the Czech Republic.

  17. A Curse of Coal? Exploring Unintended Regional Consequences of Coal Energy in The Czech Republic

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    Frantál Bohumil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on coal energy from a geographical perspective, the unintended regional consequences of coal mining and combustion in the Czech Republic are discussed and analysed in terms of the environmental injustice and resource curse theories. The explorative case study attempts to identify significant associations between the spatially uneven distribution of coal power plants and the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics and development trends of affected areas. The findings indicate that the coal industries have contributed to slightly above average incomes and pensions, and have provided households with some technical services such as district heating. However, these positive effects have come at high environmental and health costs paid by the local populations. Above average rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime indicate that the benefits have been unevenly distributed economically. A higher proportion of uneducated people and ethnic minorities in affected districts suggest that coal energy is environmentally unjust.

  18. Micronuclei in lymphocytes from radon spa personnel in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoelzer, Friedo; Freitinger Skalicka, Zuzana; Havrankova, Renata [Southbohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiology and Toxicology; Hon, Zdenek; Rosina, Jozef [Southbohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiology and Toxicology; Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Humanities and Medicine; Navratil, Leos [Southbohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiology and Toxicology; Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Humanities and Medicine; Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Radiobiology; Skopek, Jiri [Southbohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiology and Toxicology; Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Radiobiology

    2013-08-15

    To assess the radiation exposure of radon spa personnel in Ja'chymov, Czech Republic. The frequency of micronucleus-containing cells and the percentage of centromere-free micronuclei (micronuclei containing only acentric fragments) was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 42 individuals working at the Jachymov spa and 42 control individuals. There was a highly significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus-containing cells as well as the percentage of centromere-free micronuclei in the lymphocytes of spa personnel versus controls. No individual dosimetry data were available. A comparison with results from currently active uranium miners suggests that the individuals examined at the Jachymov spa had accumulated effective doses in the order of several tens of mSv, very similar to those of the miners. The spa personnel in Jachymov needs to be monitored on an individual level.

  19. Clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of obesity in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Slabá, S; Fried, M; Málková, I

    1998-01-01

    Guidelines for the management of obesity include recommendation about diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and bariatric surgery in the comprehensive management of an obese patient. It is emphasized that the treatment of obesity should be individually tailored according to the age of the patient, degree and phase of obesity, body fat distribution and an expression of risk factors and comorbidities. The new realistic goals in obesity management do not focus on the weight loss per se but mainly on the risk factors reduction which accompanies even modest weight loss. The system of obesity management introduced in the Czech Republic includes obesity management centres attached to major teaching hospitals, obesity out-patient clinics (led by an obesity specialist), primary care physicians and weight reduction clubs. Postgraduate training in obesity management should be recognized by health authorities as a function specialty. A time demanding therapeutic strategy in obesity management should be taken into account by both health policy makers and health insurance companies.

  20. How to Avoid the Usual Price Rule on the Fuel Market in the Czech Republic

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    Pavel Semerád

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with value added tax evasions on the fuel market in the Czech Republic. This commodity is used in carousel fraud. In the chains of taxpayers there are missing traders who fail to meet their tax obligations. Their business strategy is based on quick sales at unusually low prices which do not allow honest parties to compete. Tax administrators should focus on unusual prices which constitute a higher probability of tax evasions. This paper aims to verify whether or not there are ways to evade the measure, focusing specifically on applying methods which could help achieve lower sales prices while avoiding the possibility to require unpaid tax from the recipients of taxable supply. The weaknesses thus found are described and demonstrated in more detail in the paper. During a research some ways were found which could be used for avoiding this specific measure. Methods of Cash Back and Free Shipping were identified and described.

  1. An analysis of university subjects from the field of adapted physical activity in the Czech Republic

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    Ladislav Baloun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inclusion of students with special educational needs is a process, which faces many challenges. An essential condition for the success of inclusion is the competence of physical educators. We suggest that it is necessary to establish courses focused on adapted physical activity as part of the university education for physical education (PE teachers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze courses focused on adapted physical activity within teacher preparation programs. METHODS: We conducted quantitative and qualitative content analysis of subjects which was focused on adapted physical activity at selected public universities in the Czech Republic. In total, subjects from the six faculties met the conditions. RESULTS: The results show the lack of emphasis for this area in the current PE teacher preparations programs, which is one of basic requirements for success of the inclusion process.

  2. Micronuclei in lymphocytes from radon spa personnel in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdeněk; Skalická, Zuzana Freitinger; Havránková, Renata; Navrátil, Leoš; Rosina, Jozef; Škopek, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    To assess the radiation exposure of radon spa personnel in Jáchymov, Czech Republic. The frequency of micronucleus-containing cells and the percentage of centromere-free micronuclei (micronuclei containing only acentric fragments) was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 42 individuals working at the Jáchymov spa and 42 control individuals. There was a highly significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus-containing cells as well as the percentage of centromere-free micronuclei in the lymphocytes of spa personnel versus controls. No individual dosimetry data were available. A comparison with results from currently active uranium miners suggests that the individuals examined at the Jáchymov spa had accumulated effective doses in the order of several tens of mSv, very similar to those of the miners. The spa personnel in Jáchymov needs to be monitored on an individual level.

  3. The popularity of organic products among young people in the Czech Republic

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    Martina Zámková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming and foods, which have been very promisingly evolving over the recent years, are areas of economy that are not only of interest for farmers themselves but also for economists. Recent trends in this sector indicate an ongoing increase in the demand for organic production. The first part of this paper is devoted to introducing the concept of organic farming and gathering all the factors influencing the consumer’s decisions in purchasing organic products. Based on these findings, a marketing research has been carried out. The aim of this research is to identify different shopping patterns among young males and females in the Czech Republic concerning organic products and new upcoming trends in this area. In the second part of this paper, the results of this research are summed up and used to give advice to producers and merchants of organic production on improving their marketing strategies.

  4. Comparison and Evaluation of Bank Efficiency in Austria and the Czech Republic

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    Svitalkova Zuzana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares and evaluates the efficiency of the banking sector in Austria and the Czech Republic in the period 2004-2011. The paper is divided into the following parts. It begins with a literature review dealing with the bank efficiency generally and then with the efficiency of the banking sector in chosen countries. The second section provides an overview of used methodology. The non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA with undesirable output is used for estimating the efficiency. The undesirable output is usually omitted by current authors. Simultaneously were used CCR and BCC models that differ in returns to scale. Section three summarizes the results, discusses them and compares the estimated efficiency rates in both states. This study also attempts to further identify the main sources of inefficiency.

  5. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

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    Yvona KOSTELECKÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additionalinformation about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specificcharacteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  6. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona Kostelecka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specific characteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  7. System Solutions for Social Readaptation of Prisoners in the Czech Republic

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    Miloslav Jůzl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the programmes for the treatment of prisoners aimed at facilitating and accelerating prisoners’ return to society. These programmes include the following aspects: intellectual education, moral education, education through labor, aesthetic education and physical education. The author highlighted and stressed the importance of comprehensive diagnosis, containing a social, psychological, pedagogical and medical assessment of convicts in the process of programming individual remedial interactions, including the recognition of risk factors of recidivism. An important part of the standard procedure is to organize activities in free time by developing interests, hobbies and preferences of the convict. In addition, the article presents the electronic project SARPO, a post-penitentiary care system, as well as an assessment of the effects of the recent amnesty in the Czech Republic.

  8. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period

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    Sychra O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in prebreeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds.

  9. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychra, O; Literák, I; Podzemný, P; Harmat, P; Hrabák, R

    2011-02-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in pre-breeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds.

  10. Selection for profit in cattle: I. Economic weights for purebred dairy cattle in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kvapilík, J; Kica, J

    2007-05-01

    A bioeconomic model for dairy cattle production was used to estimate economic values of 18 traits for dairy sires in purebred Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh populations. Economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a closed production system with dairy cow herds and integrated fattening of bulls. All revenues and costs associated with cows calving in the herds within one year and with their progeny were discounted at 5% per annum back to the date of calving. Calculations were carried out for the situation in the Czech Republic in 2005 (scenario 1: market quotas for milk yield and fat percentage) and for the expected situation in 2015 (scenario 2: free market). The relative economic importance of each trait was expressed as a ratio of the standardized economic value of that trait (its marginal economic value multiplied by its genetic standard deviation) to the standardized economic value of 305-d milk yield, with average fat and protein percentages. In addition to milk yield, somatic cell score was the second most important trait, achieving 32% to 43% of the value for milk yield in both scenarios. The relative importance of milk components differed notably between scenarios. The relative importance was approximately zero for protein and from -14 to -23% for fat percentage in scenario 1, but changed to 38% for protein and 27 to 31% for fat percentage in scenario 2. In both scenarios and for both breeds, the relative economic values for somatic cell score and length of productive life of cows were similar to those for fat and protein percentages in scenario 2. The smallest relative economic values (less than 4% of the relative importance of milk yield) were for birth weight, conception rate of heifers, and carcass traits. In conclusion, relative emphasis among traits in the breeding objective for Czech dairy cattle should be reassessed according to the expected situation after shifting to a free market economy

  11. Operational art in the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic and vision of its development

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    Ján Spišák

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article familiarizes readers with author´s perspective on status of the operational Art in the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (AF CR. He argues that the AF CR community of military “thinkers” has for a long time fallen behind of conceptual developments and discussion regarding operational art that have occurred in other NATO member´s countries. Although the “tactical experience” is vital, there exists “operational inexperience”. A recovery of Czech operational art is necessary because if the AF CR is faced by a parallel requirement to be a global ‘security contributor’ and a possible regional ‘security leader’. Future operational art must seek to reflect a conceptual framework and to integrate both emerging functions. With the view of developing a appropriate construct of 21st century operational art, the AF CR must take a number of reforms. Such reforms include adopting a functional approach to operational concept development, improving doctrines, developing comprehensive operation planning and establishing significant reforms into the professional military education system.

  12. Granger Causalities Between Interest Rate, Price Level, Money Supply and Real Gdp in the Czech Republic

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    Tomáš Urbanovský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate relationships between selected macroeconomic variables – interest rate, price level, money supply and real GDP – in the Czech Republic in order to find out definite implications of its interactions and give recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. Two implemented vector autoregression models with different lag length reached slightly different conclusions. VAR(1 suggests that three pairs of Granger causality exist, in particular between price level and interest rate, between real GDP and interest rate and between real GDP and price level. VAR(2 uncovered two more pairs of Granger causality between money supply and interest rate and between money supply and price level. Despite better prediction power of VAR(2 in case of money supply, low correlation coefficient comprising variable money supply raises doubts about the factual existence of causality between money supply and other variables. However, both models allow forecasting the direction of change in case of variables interest rate and real GDP with the same success rate nearly 82 %. Both VARs also agreed that interest rate could be changed by change of price level and that interest rate could be changed by change of real GDP. These conclusions represent potential recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. For the purpose of further research, exchange rate variable will be included in the model instead of interest rate, because effect of interest rate turned out to be limited in times of weakened state of Czech economy.

  13. Radioactivity in mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čadová, Michaela; Havránková, Renata; Havránek, Jiří; Zölzer, Friedo

    2017-05-01

    137 Cs is one of the most important radionuclides released in the course of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and during accidents in nuclear power plants such as that in Chernobyl, Ukraine, or Fukushima, Japan. The aim of this study was to compare 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in particular species of mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest (Czech: Šumava), Czech Republic, where a considerable contamination from the Chernobyl accident had been measured in 1986. Samples were collected between June and October 2014. Activities of 137 Cs and 40 K per dry mass were measured by means of a semiconductor gamma spectrometer. The 137 Cs values measured range from below detection limit to 4300 ± 20 Bq kg -1 , in the case of 40 K from 910 ± 80 to 4300 ± 230 Bq kg -1 . Differences were found between individual locations, due to uneven precipitation in the course of the movement of the radioactive cloud after the Chernobyl accident. There are, however, also differences between individual species of mushrooms from identical locations, which inter alia result from different characteristics of the soil and depths of mycelia. The values measured are compared with established limits and exposures from other radiation sources present in the environment. In general, it can be stated that the values measured are relatively low and the effects on the health of the population are negligible compared to other sources of ionizing radiation.

  14. A functional interaction approach to the definition of meso regions: The case of the Czech Republic

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    Erlebach Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of functional meso regions for the territory of the Czech Republic is articulated in this article. Functional regions reflect horizontal interactions in space and are presented as a useful tool for various types of geographical analyses, and also for spatial planning, economic policy designs, etc. This paper attempts to add to the discussion on the need to delineate areal units at different hierarchical levels, and to understand the functional flows and spatial behaviours of the population in a given space. Three agglomerative methods are applied in the paper (the CURDS regionalisation algorithm, Intramax, and cluster analysis, and they have not been used previously in Czech geography for the delineation of functional meso regions. Existing functional regions at the micro-level, based on daily travel-to-work flows from the 2001 census, have served as the building blocks. The analyses have produced five regional systems at the meso level, based on daily labour commuting movements of the population. Basic statistics and a characterisation of these systems are provided in this paper.

  15. Healthy life style and food, beverages and cigarettes consumption in the Czech Republic

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    Miroslav Foret

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article, the authors analyze the term healthy life style. Information sources focusing on health and factors influencing it and having the final impact on it are mostly of medicine character. Together with the development of medicinal diagnostic and curing procedures, the importance of health conditions influenced by infectious diseases is decreasing. On the other hand, the importance of factors related to the life style (eating habits in particular is growing.In the second part of the article, the authors analyze and interpret the data of the Czech Statistical Office about the consumption of selected foods in the form of secondary analysis. The effort was to take into account the assessment of the trends as well as to deduce their possible impact on the health condition of the individual. From the analyses mentioned it is obvious that in the selected statistical data of the development of food and beverages consumption in the Czech Republic the tendencies towards healthy life style have not been unambiguous or significant within the last eight years.In certain areas such as consumption of alcoholic beverages, milk and diary products and meat there have been noted changes for better. In most of the areas analyzed (alcoholic beverages, fruit and vegetable, oil, fish these tendencies are not obvious or significant. Alarming is the growing consumption of cigarettes.

  16. The Health-Related Market in Czech Republic and Denmark: An Exploration of Consumption Experiences

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    Zuzana Chytková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rise in consumers’ “health-conciousness”, the health-related market has become one with the most potential. However, most studies on health-related consumption have been carried out within the Western world, while the evolution of health management in Central and Eastern Europe has been radically different. This paper builds on two separate qualitative studies of consumers’ perception and practices in the sphere of health and food in Denmark and the Czech Republic. Each of these studies explored in its own way, how consumers in each of the two cultural settings deal with consumption through different forms of governmentality. It shows how in the Danish setting the notion of agency and the reflexive self unfold as a theme where consumers depend on an inner voice and a “gut feeling”, while in the Czech context consumers increasingly seek guidance from expert systems. These findings thus enlighten the meanings and processes behind consumer choices, having significant implications for marketing of companies operating on these growing markets.

  17. Radioactivity in mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadova, Michaela; Havrankova, Renata; Havranek, Jiri; Zoelzer, Friedo [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Institute of Radiology, Toxicology and Civil Protection, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    {sup 137}Cs is one of the most important radionuclides released in the course of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and during accidents in nuclear power plants such as that in Chernobyl, Ukraine, or Fukushima, Japan. The aim of this study was to compare {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K concentrations in particular species of mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest (Czech: Sumava), Czech Republic, where a considerable contamination from the Chernobyl accident had been measured in 1986. Samples were collected between June and October 2014. Activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K per dry mass were measured by means of a semiconductor gamma spectrometer. The {sup 137}Cs values measured range from below detection limit to 4300 ± 20 Bq kg{sup -1}, in the case of {sup 40}K from 910 ± 80 to 4300 ± 230 Bq kg{sup -1}. Differences were found between individual locations, due to uneven precipitation in the course of the movement of the radioactive cloud after the Chernobyl accident. There are, however, also differences between individual species of mushrooms from identical locations, which inter alia result from different characteristics of the soil and depths of mycelia. The values measured are compared with established limits and exposures from other radiation sources present in the environment. In general, it can be stated that the values measured are relatively low and the effects on the health of the population are negligible compared to other sources of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  18. Teenage overweight and obesity: A pilot study of obesogenic and obesoprotective environments in the Czech Republic

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    Spilková Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Child overweight and obesity represent a serious health problem worldwide. The Czech Republic now ranks the fourth most obese country in Europe and obesity and overweight is becoming more and more frequent in children and teenagers. This pilot study estimates the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Czech teenagers aged 14–15 years in terms of neighbourhood characteristics, and assesses the effects of neighbourhood environmental quality versus family or personal-level factors on teenage obesity and overweight. The results show that unsafe environments result in the risk of lesser physical activity of their inhabitants, but since the vast majority (92% of the students felt safe in their neighbourhoods, mediation through safety of the neighbourhood is not at stake. Second, the housing estates demonstrate the most severe problems with both obesity and overweight and their built environments, but when perceptions of sporting facilities and similar opportunities for physical activity are factored in, they do not have low scores; therefore, mediation by physical activity is not a relevant response to the obesity problem. These findings imply that the most important obesogenic and obesoprotective factors are likely to be found within the family environment and personal life styles.

  19. Tachylyte in Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the Czech Republic and Iceland: contrasting compositional trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Teschner, Claudia; Řanda, Zdeněk; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Fediuk, Ferry; Adamovič, Jiří; Pokorný, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Tachylytes from rift-related volcanic rocks were recognized as: (i) irregular veinlets in host alkaline lava flows of the Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic, (ii) (sub)angular xenoliths in alkaline lava of the feeding channel of the Bukovec volcano, Czech Republic, and (iii) paleosurface of a tholeiitic lava flow from Hafrafell, Iceland. The tachylyte from Kozákov is phonotephrite to tephriphonolite in composition while that from Bukovec corresponds to trachyandesite to tephriphonolite. Both glass and host rock from Hafrafell are of tholeiitic basalt composition. The tachylyte from Kozákov, compared with the host rock, revealed a substantial enrichment in major elements such as Si, Al and alkalis along with Rb, Sr, Ba, Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U. The tachylyte from Bukovec displays contrasting trends in the incompatible element contents. The similarity in composition of the Hafrafell tachylyte paleosurface layer and parental tholeiitic basalt is characteristic for lavas. The host/parent rocks and tachylytes have similar initial Sr-Nd characteristics testifying for their co-magmatic sources. The initial ɛNd values of host/parent rocks and tachylytes from the Bohemian Massif (+3.4 to +3.9) and those from Iceland (+6.3) are interpreted as primary magma values. Only the tachylyte from Bukovec shows a different ɛNd value of -2.1, corresponding to a xenolith of primarily sedimentary/metamorphic origin. The tachylyte from Kozákov is a product of an additional late magmatic portion of fluids penetrating through an irregular fissure system of basaltic lava. The Bukovec tachylyte is represented by xenoliths originated during the interaction of ascending basaltic melt with granitoids or orthogneisses, whereas the Hafrafell tachylyte is a product of a rapid cooling on the surface of a basalt flow.

  20. Sepsis-related mortality in the Czech Republic: multiple causes of death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechholdová, M

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis represents an increasingly frequent complication in the survival of the hospitalized persons. The nation-wide burden of the sepsis-related mortality in the Czech Republic has not yet been analysed. The present study aims to assess the trends and the disparities in the sepsis-related mortality in the Czech Republic for the period 1998-2011 using multiple causes of death reported on the death certificates. Individual death records provided by the Institute for Health Information and Statistics were used to identify sepsis-related deaths based on the codes of the 10th revision of the International classification of the diseases (ICD-10). Frequencies, age-standardized rates and comorbidity patterns were studied. A total of 41,425 cases (3%) out of 1,456,539 deaths within the period 1998-2011 were associated with sepsis. In 2011, sepsis was reported in 8% of all in-hospital deaths. Sepsis is the most likely to be reported as immediate cause of death (66%), which results in its considerable underestimation in the underlying cause of death statistics. The sepsis-related mortality almost tripled between 1998 and 2011, and the most of the increase is attributable to persons aged 65 and over. In 44% of cases, circulatory disease or cancer was reported as the underlying cause of death. Significant associations with sepsis were however found for infectious diseases, diseases of skin, and metabolic or musculoskeletal disorders. Multiple cause of death analysis of sepsis-related mortality revealed that sepsis represents a growing burden related to the population ageing and increased prevalence of complications of chronic diseases. The observed upward trends, as well as the expected continuation of the ageing process, may result in further increase of sepsis-related mortality. Preventive measures in the clinical management of sepsis are recommended.

  1. Measurement of Effectiveness of Personal Income Tax in the Tax System of the Czech Republic

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    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the issues of effectiveness of personal income tax in the Czech Republic. The personal income tax in the Czech Republic, referred to as the tax on income of natural persons, represents a significant part of the public budget revenue (23.35% of all tax revenues in 2012. One of the principles of a good tax system is the principle of its effectiveness. The effectiveness of a particular tax is measured by various methods. The theory distinguishes between two types of costs expended on the collection of taxes, i. e. administrative costs (direct or indirect and excessive tax burden. In the case of direct administrative costs the measurement compares the total volume of a particular tax revenue with the costs of its collection. The amount of the tax levied is thus not a net income of the public budget, due to the fact that it must be reduced by the costs of the public sector which are necessary for obtaining such amount.In this contribution we shall focus on the measurement of direct administrative costs. The measurement of effectiveness of income tax on natural persons is performed with the use of the full-time equivalent (FTE method, which is based on the classification of revenue authorities’ staff according to their jobs and on the determination of conversion coefficients in order to identify costs related to the collection of a particular tax.A separate part of the article deals with measurements of tax system effectiveness in the international scope. We cite an important international study, “"Paying Taxes 2013: The Global Picture”", annually prepared by the World Bank and PricewaterhouseCoopers, which analyses demands of tax systems in different countries of the world.

  2. Determinants of Gratuity Size in the Czech Republic: Evidence from Four Inexpensive Restaurants in Brno

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    Kvasnička Michal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first study exploring what factors influence tipping in restaurants in the Czech Republic. It shows that the tipping norm evolved here into a form that has some features similar to the tipping norms known in the USA, Canada, and Israel, but there are also striking differences. As in the three countries, the gratuity increases with the bill size but the gratuity as percentage of the bill is much lower here. The bill size explains here a lower part of the gratuity variability too. Also, the service quality results in customers being more generous with their tips, and though the increase in gratuity seems to be small, it rises with a group size. Strikingly, the regular patrons tip significantly less in the Czech Republic and they stiff more often. This supports the hypothesis that the relationship between the customer frequency and the gratuity size is an artifact of a missing variable, and the regular patrons tip differently because they belong to a different social group than occasional customers. Also, the customers paying by card stiff more often here and the interaction between the amount on the bill and use of payment card is statistically insignificant. The group size lowers the percentage gratuity, which supports the diffusion of the responsibility hypothesis. There are differences between genders: Male customers leave bigger tips than female customers, and female waitresses earn more than their male colleagues. The time spent at the table, consumption of alcoholic beverage, and smoking do not change the gratuity size but it may be affected by the weather conditions. The customers tip less and stiff more often when they order a lunch special. They round the total expenditures, not the gratuities, which creates the magnitude effect.

  3. A Possible Contribution of an Integrated Geodetic Infrastructure to EPOS: Case Study the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Jaroslav; Filler, Vratislav; Kostelecky, Jan; Kostelecky, Jakub; Novak, Pavel; Palinkas, Vojtech; Plicka, Vladimir; Valko, Milos

    2010-05-01

    The Earth is subject to a multitude of dynamic processes that cover a broad variety of spatial and temporal scales and are driven by large interior and exterior forces. The need for a global monitoring of the Earth has been recognized by the UN which resulted in initiating several global observing systems. None of these systems explicitly includes a geodetic component nor it is directly connected to the Global Geodetic Observing System. Nevertheless, only geodetic techniques can provide both the reference frame for Earth system observations as well as observations of crucial parameters related to changes in the Earth's geometry, rotation and gravity field. To ensure a long-term stability of the terrestrial reference system on the accuracy level of 1E-9 in the global and continental scale, the interactions between different time-dependent influences of the system Earth to the terrestrial reference system have to be considered. Therefore, necessary observations of different observation techniques must be available. To achieve reliable results, observations must be completed with meteorological parameters and environmental data of different kinds (ground water level, soil moisture etc.). A possible contribution of a regional geodetic infrastructure is illustrated by an example of the Geodetic Observatory Pecný, the Czech Republic, which continuously provides time series of GNSS, gravity (based on the absolute and superconducting gravimeters), seismic, environmental, climatological and meteorological (including radiometric atmosphere profiling) observations. Parallel to it, several data and analysis centers of the IAG international scientific services and of international geodynamical and meteorological projects are running at the observatory. The observatory is also a reference station for the scientific and experimental GNSS network operated in the Czech Republic and a part of the regional seismic network. Some time series of observations are presented and

  4. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

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    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  5. The Perception of Governmental Support in The Context of Competitiveness of SMEs in the Czech Republic

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    Dobes Kamil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not an entrepreneur develops the enterprise successfully and increases competitiveness depends on many factors. All businesses, however, are inherently connected with the business environment which significantly influences their performance. In this regard, the state is among the most important factors. It also performs many other roles through which it may be either helpful or harmful in the eyes of a business owner, e.g. it determines the legislative framework of entrepreneurship, sets conditions for starting a business and regulates competition. The way the role of the state is perceived by small and medium-sized enterprises was researched in 2015 as a part of a project at Tomas Bata University in Zlín. The research analysed data from 1,141 respondents from all regions of the Czech Republic and included, among others, the question of the state’s role in the business environment. The presented paper covers three selected areas of the state’s influence on the business environment: creating favourable conditions for the business environment, governmental financial support of entrepreneurs, and administrative burden on entrepreneurs. These areas were also examined with the emphasis on the analysis of differences between the perception of entrepreneurs from different industries and entrepreneurs with different sizes of their businesses. It was revealed that entrepreneurs were very critical to the state’s role in the business environment; in particular, 60% of respondents disagree with the fact that the state creates favourable conditions for business in the Czech Republic. It was proved that the line of business of enterprises correlates with perception of the state’s role within the business environment. The research into perception of a governmental financial support was proved to be dependent on a company size which may signal the support of certain company sizes and influencing their competitiveness.

  6. Land category in the National Forest Inventory of the Czech Republic

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    Miloš Kučera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the land categorization with special focus on the definition of category FO­REST in the National Forest Inventory of the Czech Republic (NFI CR. Definitions of land categories used in the first cycle of forest inventory in 2001–2004 are evaluated. The first task is to assess the appropriateness of existing land categorization and definition of category FOREST in terms of suitability of used parameters defining individual categories and their values. Their compatibility with international definitions of category FOREST is also assessed. The second task is, based on data from the first cycle of NFI CR, to calculate the area of category FOREST according to the international definition of European National Forest Inventory Network (ENFIN and to determine whether the area of category FOREST is the same or varies from the area according to the definition FOREST defined in NFI CR.In the first part there is a list of used land classifications in the Czech Republic and there are also described used international classifications. Land categorization and definitions according ENFIN are presented. Further the parameters are chosen in the national definition of NFI CR, which are compared with analogous parameters defined by ENFIN, indicating differences. Subsequently, the area of category FOREST is calculated according to the parameters of national definition and ENFIN definition. Finally, suggestions are given for the land classification into categories for the second cycle of NFI CR, including the appropriate parameters and their values for the definition of category FOREST. Possible ways of their implementation into the methodology of NFI CR are listed.

  7. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  8. Extreme precipitation events in the Czech Republic: Comparison of events leading to floods in June 2013 and last 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriánová, Anna; Crhová, Lenka; Holtanová, Eva; Kašpar, Marek; Můller, Miloslav; Kyselý, Jan; Stříž, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of the quantity and extremity of extreme precipitation is important for many sectors, especially for hydrology and geology. In present contribution we focus on precipitation leading to the flood events during May and June 2013 in the Czech Republic. The first extreme precipitation event was connected with cyclone above central Europe. The significant precipitation occurred mainly in the western and central part of the Czech Republic. On 1/6/2013 we recorded in some places 1-day precipitation amounts over 100 mm. The return period of 1-day precipitation exceeded 100 years at some stations. The second extreme precipitation event on 24/6 and 25/6/2013 affected eastern and northern part of the Czech Republic. The precipitation amounts were not as high as in the beginning of June, but in some places 2-day precipitation amount exceeded 100 mm. We compare the extremity of observed precipitation amounts with those that caused the significant floods in 2010, 2002 and 1997 using the Weather Extremity Index which evaluates the extremity (based on return periods) and spatial extent of the meteorological extreme event of interest. The generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is used as the parametric model for annual maxima of 1-day to 7-day precipitation amounts. Parameters of the GEV distribution are estimated by the L-moment algorithm and the region-of-influence method. The work has been supported by the grant P209/11/1990 funded by the Czech Science Foundation.

  9. The quality of information on the internet relating to top-selling dietary supplements in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudischova, L; Straznicka, J; Pokladnikova, J; Jahodar, L

    2017-11-24

    Background The purchase of dietary supplements (DS) via the Internet is increasing worldwide as well as in the Czech Republic. Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of information on DS available on the Internet. Setting Czech websites related to dietary supplements. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving the analysis of information placed on the websites related to the 100 top-selling DS in the Czech Republic in 2014, according to IMS Health data. Main outcome measure The following criteria were evaluated: contact for the manufacturer, recommended dosage, information on active substances as well as overall composition, permitted health claims, % of the daily reference intake value (DRIV) for vitamins and minerals, link for online counseling, pregnancy/breastfeeding, allergy information, contraindications, adverse reactions, and supplement-drug interactions (some criteria were evaluated from both points of view). Results A total of 199 web domains and 850 websites were evaluated. From the regulatory point of view, all the criteria were fulfilled by 11.3% of websites. Almost 9% of the websites reported information referring to the treatment, cure, or prevention of a disease. From the clinical point of view, all the criteria were only met by one website. Conclusions The quality of information related to DS available on the Internet in the Czech Republic is quite low. The consumers should consult a specialist when using DS purchased online.

  10. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

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    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  11. Legal basis of the energy market in the Czech Republic; Grundlagen des Energierechts in der Tschechischen Republik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmik, T.; Macova, J. [Rechtsanwaltsbuero Fiala, Profous, Mainer a spol, Prag (Czech Republic)

    2002-07-01

    Legal foundations of liberalism of the electric power and gas market were laid in the Czech Republic with regards to the requirements of the European Union in 2000. The story deals with important definitions, framework conditions and specificities of an entrepreneurial activity on the Czech market with electric power and gas. [German] In der Tschechischen Republik wurden die rechtlichen Grundlagen fuer die Liberalisierung der Strom- und Gasmaerkte unter Beruecksichtigung der Anforderungen der Europaeischen Union im Jahr 2000 gelegt. Der Beitrag behandelt wichtige Definitionen, Rahmenbedingungen und Besonderheiten fuer unternehmerische Taetigkeiten im tschechischen Energiemarkt.

  12. A comparison of methodological guides for creating microregional strategies of Central European rural areas. Case study: Czech Republic

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    Jakub Trojan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the complementarity of methodological guides dealing with microregional development in Central Europe. As an example, the Czech Republic framework has been selected. This study compares seven common methodologies written in Czech, which the author has divided into three groups, namely manual-like methodologies, semi-scientific texts and hybrid texts dealing with other complementary aspects. The result is a comparison of methodologies, their usage and implications for the practices of regional development. The paper also includes a brief analysis of sustainable development elements incorporated into the methodological texts. The final part outlines links to the four-capital model of regional development.

  13. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  14. Political changes and trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech Republic, 1985-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, M; Skodova, Z; Pisa, Z; Poledne, R; Marmot, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases is substantially higher in central and eastern Europe than in the west. After the fall of communism, these countries have undergone radical changes in their political, social, and economic environments but little is known about the impact of these changes on health behaviours or risk factors. Data from the Czech Republic, a country whose mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are among the highest, were analysed in this report. OBJECTIVES: To examine the trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Czech population over the last decade during which a major and sudden change of the political and social system occurred in 1989, and whether the trends differed in relation to age and educational group. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 1985, 1988, and 1992 as a part of the MONICA project were analysed. The surveys examined random samples of men and women aged 25-64 in six Czech districts and measured the following risk factors: smoking, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. RESULTS: The numbers of subjects (response rate) examined were 2573 (84%) in 1985, 2769 (87%) in 1988, and 2353 (73%) in 1992. Total cholesterol and body mass index increased between 1985 and 1988 and decreased between 1988 and 1992. The prevalence of smoking was declining slightly in men between 1985 and 1992 but remained stable in women. There were only small changes in blood pressure. The decline in cholesterol and BMI in 1988-92 may be related to changes in foods consumption after the price deregulation in 1991. An improvement in risk profile was more pronounced in younger age groups, and the declines in cholesterol and obesity were substantially larger in men and women with higher education. By contrast, there was an increase in smoking in women educated only to primary level. CONCLUSION: Substantial changes in cholesterol, obesity, and women

  15. His Excellency Mr Zbigniew Czech, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2018-01-01

    Visit of His Excellency Mr Zbigniew Czech, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  16. Fungi of the Fusarium genus in the grains of conventional hybrids and transgenic Bt-hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.) in the Czech Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kmoch, Martin; Šafránková, Ivana; Holková, Ludmila; Polišenská, Ivana; Krédl, Zdeněk; Pokorný, Radovan

    .... This study focuses on determining the species range of Fusarium fungi in naturally infected stands of conventional hybrids and transgenic Bt-hybrids of maize in the Czech Republic during 2008 and 2009...

  17. Hospital antibiotic management in the Czech Republic--results of the ABS maturity survey of the ABS International group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindrák, Vlastimil; Urbásková, Pavla; Bergerová, Tamara; Buchta, Vladimír; Hanslianová, Markéta; Horníková, Magdaléna; Chmelík, Václav; Nyc, Otakar; Vanis, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Hospital antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programs are essential for ensuring long-lasting quality of antibiotic usage and for controlling antimicrobial resistance in the hospital setting. A questionnaire for self-assessment of a hospital's ABS maturity was sent to 80 Czech hospitals in May 2007. The survey was focused on diagnostic issues, control of antibiotic consumption, antibiotic-related organization and tools, antibiotic-related personnel development and antibiotic-related relationships to relevant environments. Of 80 addressed hospitals, 45 sent back processed questionnaires (response rate 56.3%). These 80 hospitals cover about 85% of the Czech population. All Czech university hospitals were included in the replying group. The listed diagnostic tools were declared available by all hospitals; 44 of 45 hospitals have surveillance systems for antibiotic resistance rates. Control of antibiotic consumption was available only partially in 42 of 45 hospitals. Some antibiotic tools need to be improved and must be used more frequently. Official recognition, job descriptions and better funding of antibiotic personnel are needed, as well as support for further development of ABS structures and functions. The basic structure of ABS is well developed in the Czech hospitals. A network of antibiotic centers focusing their services on optimization of antibiotic usage has been in place in the Czech Republic since the 1970s. Nevertheless, the survey revealed a clear need and many opportunities for further improvement. Control of antibiotic consumption is not implemented in all Czech hospitals and some of the essential antibiotic tools should be used more widely.

  18. The Integrated Rescue System Activity and the Protection of the Public from a Possible Importation of Highly Contagious Diseases into the Czech Republic by Air Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    TOUSECKÝ, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At present time of modern worldwide tourism using air transport, the risk of spreading an infectious disease in the Czech Republic cannot be underestimated. Air transport has become quite common way of travelling for Czech citizens so the travel time has shortened significantly. From this viewpoint Czech residents are at potential hazard of highly infectious diseases (HID). This Diploma thesis deals with biological agents which are divided into four risk groups on the basis of patogenes, a ha...

  19. Upper Pleistocene Gulo gulo (Linne, 1758) remains from the Srbsko Chlum-Komin Hyena den cave in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, with comparisons to contemporary wolverines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajus G. Diedrich; Jeffrey P. Copeland

    2010-01-01

    Wolverine bone material is described from the famous Upper Pleistocene cave Srbsko Chlum-Komin in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, along with an overview of recently known Czech sites. The Gulo gulo Linne material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens in Europe. As a result of non-systematic excavations, the taphonomy is partly unclear. Lower-...

  20. Acalyptrate flies (Diptera) on glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NE Czech Republic): most interesting records

    OpenAIRE

    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    Records of six species of the families Ulidiidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Milichiidae, Chloropidae and Curtonotidae from glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NW Czech Republic) are presented and their association with sandy habitats are discussed. Two thermophilous and/or xerophilous species, Anthomyza elbergi Andersson, 1976 (Anthomyzidae) and Desmometopa discipalpis Papp, 1993 (Milichiidae) represent new additions to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Two psammophilous or psammobio...

  1. HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND THE PLACE OF PRIVATE-OWNED UNIVERSITIES IN THIS SYSTEM: THE CASE STUDY OF COLLEGE OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT (VSEM)

    OpenAIRE

    WADIM STRIELKOWSKI

    2010-01-01

    The article brings a concise overview of the higher education system in the Czech Republic providing the breakdown of the organization of studies, awarded degrees and types of programmes. Further, it concentrates on the distinction between public and private higher education institutions and provides the case study of the College of Economics and Management in Prague, one of the leading private-owned universities in the Czech Republic.

  2. Physical activity of adult population in the Czech republic: overview of basic indicators for the period 2005-2009

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    Josef Mitáš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central European countries belonging to the former "communist bloc" show specificities and even unique things which should not be ignored in research and preventive measures. In addressing health issues it is desirable to observe the developmental patterns in economically developed countries to avoid easily predictable negative aspects in the development of population health. Therefore it is necessary to specify associations between gender, age, occupational classification, education, etc., and lifestyles in different conditions and environments. Simultaneously it is necessary maintain specific features of environment that are consistent with active lifestyles and encourage people to maintain high walkability. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity of the Czech population with regard to the size of the community and observe regional differences in physical activity (PA in men and women. METHODS: To determine the weekly level of PA we used randomized data set of 8256 inhabitants of the Czech Republic (3678 men and 4578 women. All respondents were reached personally by trained distributors (college students to participate in a research study using the Czech version of the IPAQ questionnaire (also as a part of ANEWS. Data collection was carried out regularly in Spring (March-May and Autumn (September- November periods from 2005 to 2009. Region of the Capital City of Prague has been excluded from the regional analysis. RESULTS: Regional comparisons of total weekly PA shows the minimum differences within the Czech Republic [H(15, 8256 = 103,55; p < 0,001; η2 = 0,01]. The lowest level of PA show both men and women in Ustecky and Moravskoslezsky region, highest level of PA represent population of the region consisted from regions Pardubicky, Kralovehradecky and Vysocina. Size of the community has a significant impact on the overall weekly PA in adult population of the Czech Republic. The results confirm the trend that

  3. Taxation of Non-profit Organizations in the Selected European Countries: the Proposal of the Changes for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of taxation of income of non-profit organizations, especially to associations (clubs in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. This paper is part of research, where the main emphasis is placed on the comparison of the tax benefits which are provided to non-profit organizations in different countries. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic where despite the changes that have occurred in connection with the new Civil Code, there is still missing clear legislation that would regulate the activities of the monitored organizations. Changes in the taxation of income of non-profit organizations are designed with regard to the elimination of deficiencies in order to prevent the abuse of the benefits and the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  4. A current view of copybooks (the font in the Czech Republic and in selected countries of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Iva Košek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research of mixed design, i.e. qualitative and quantitative nature is to draw a comparison of the most widely used copybooks – textbooks in the Czech Republic based on adapted evaluation criteria originally presented by [1] - content, graphic design, format and adequacy of writing tasks and range etc. and subsequently focus the research on an analysis of similar workbooks – copybooks (including the used font in selected European countries. The proposed research project is a follow-up of a research project realized in 2014 and designed to identify the publishing houses having the greatest numbers of sales of textbooks for 1st -3rd grades of primary schools as well as the reasons for which teachers choose the materials from a particular publishing house in the Czech Republic.

  5. Recent distribution, population densities and ecological requirements of the stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vlach

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stone crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank is one of five species of crayfish inhabiting waters in the Czech Republic, usually occupying small and medium-sized streams. The stone crayfish is protected by national and European laws. At present, stone crayfish are known to occur in 41 streams in the Czech Republic. For each of these streams, we measured the population density, sex ratio and age structure of the stone crayfish populations. The average population density varied between 0.3–4.72 spms·m−2, with a maximum estimated population density at some sites reaching 8.6 spms·m−2. The sex ratio was evaluated only in abundant populations (> 0.5 spms·m−2 and it did not significantly vary from the expected rate of 0.5 (0.3–0.72.

  6. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES......) and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance...

  7. Salvia verticillata L. in the Czech Republic – variability of morphological characteristics, seed quality and essential oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Dušek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lilac sage (Whorled sage, as one of the medicinal plants chosen as perspective for the recultivation of flowering meadows in the Czech Republic, was studied for the variability of its morphological cha­rac­ters, seed quality and content of essential oil. Seven particular populations of this genus were stu­died in the Czech Republic and there were found statistically significant differences in morphological characters (height and width of plants, length and width of leaves and length of inflorescences but not in the content of the essential oil. Studied populations reached only between 0.028 and 0.072% of essential oil in dry mass and also the quality of seeds was found very low (germination between 0–52% in the seeds from natural localities but this fact could be influenced by testing method.

  8. I Do It My Way: Analysis of the Permanent Representation of the Czech Republic to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galušková Johana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses development of the Permanent Representation of the Czech Republic to the European Union (PermRep from 2004, when the Czech Republic joined the European Union, until 2013. Its main aim is to test four concepts related to the three neoinstitutionalist theories – firstly, the path dependency and critical junctures models related to the historical neo-institutionalism, secondly principal-agent relation typical for the rational neo-institutionalism and the concept of the logic of appropriateness related to the sociological institutionalism. The authors try to determine which of these four models have the best explanatory potential when it comes to the development of the Czech PermRep. After analysing three independent variables (changes in executive, EU Council Presidency, EU strategies, and their impact on the dependent variable (character of the Czech PermRep, the authors conclude that particularly historical institutionalism and sociological institutionalism models have the greatest explanatory power while the contribution of rational institutionalism model of principal-agent is relatively weak.

  9. UTILIZATION OF DNA MARKERS BASED ON MICROSATELLITE POLYMORPHISM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF POTATO VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Nováková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007, there were one hundred and seventy-eight potato varieties enlisted in the Czech list of registered potato varieties. The classical morphometric approach to characterization is not effective for such a number of varieties especially for identification at the level of tubers. The needfulness of variety identification at the level of tubers is important mainly for trade aspect. The Czech law no.110/1997 Sb. about the food-stuff and tobacco products and the consequential ordinance (MZe č. 332 / 1997 Sb. require guarantee of variety declaration in commercial relation for table potato. In this study we analyzed twenty potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated in the Czech Republic. Every variety was represented by four independent replicates. This set of samples was analyzed by methods of PCR-SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats and PCR-ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats. We discovered that both of tested methods afford sufficient polymorphism for variety identification, but the method of PCR-ISSR is not utilizable, because we observed the variability within variety. For outright identification of the whole set of potato varieties cultivated in the Czech Republic we recommend to use SSR, AFLP and retrotransposene-based markers as well as morphological markers.

  10. Conservation potential of abandoned military areas matches that of established reserves: Plants and butterflies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, O.; Vrba, Pavel; Beneš, Jiří; Hrázský, Z.; Koptík, J.; Kučera, T.; Marhoul, P.; Zámečník, J.; Konvička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), e53124 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Grant - others:MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/153/08; MŽP(CZ) VaV620/2/03; GA JčU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterflies * millitary areas * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  11. Analysis of the development of export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the description of average level, variability and developmental trends the export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic with differentiation according to particular countries within the defined reference period 1993–2002. Thre is also presented the short-time point and interval extrapolation prediction of studied events. Methods of regression and correlation analysis and developmental trends were applied for the mathematical-statistical analysis.

  12. Long-term Development of Time Series in Foreign Trade of the Czech Republic According to SITC Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents results obtained by means of a time series analysis of import, export, turnover, balance of trade, coverage indicator of export with import, according to SITC classes (3rd Rev. in the Czech Republic for time interval 1993-2001. Along with description of dynamics of examined effects and their trends there following parameters were also classified: mean level, variability and percentage share of particular classification classes of foreign trade indicators.

  13. THE ROLE OF QUALIFICATION AND EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE SOLUTION OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES IN CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Jedlièka; Jaroslav Kovárník

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the specificities in the development of the unemployment of the schools graduates and the minors in the Czech Republic. Firstly, the authors analyze the size of this group of the unemployed and its share in the total unemployment. Through statistical data they demonstrate both the decrease in the total unemployment and the decrease in the unemployment of this chosen group. The data document a faster decrease in the unemployment of graduates in comparison with the decrease...

  14. Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-2009: adaptation to climate change?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2012), s. 437-453 ISSN 0165-0009 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC205/07/J044; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1985 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Mortality * hot spells * climate change * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.634, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/d437532820hx7451/fulltext.pdf

  15. Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of Solenodonsaurus janenschi Broili, 1924, from the Late Carboniferous of Nýřany, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Danto, M.; Witzmann, F.; Müller, J.

    2012-01-01

    The basal tetrapod Solenodonsaurus janenschi Broili, 1924, from Nýřany (Westphalian D, Late Carboniferous), Czech Republic, is redescribed and its phylogenetic position reevaluated. A distinct groove at the base of the maxillary teeth is regarded as an autapomorphic character, which is present in both the large and small specimens. Other characteristic features, which are not unique to S. janenschi, are: an extension of the lacrimal that forms the anteroventral margin of the orbit; a long pos...

  16. Comparing the eating habits of selected groups of elementary school children in the Czech Republic and Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Víchová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with nutrition and diet, especially at a young age. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and compare the dietary habits of selected pupils from the Czech Republic and Denmark. It is divided into theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part deals with the basic elements of nutrition, proper eating and water intake, general nutritional recommendations for children and adults, and nutrition of children. In addition the theoretical part of the thesis is focused on a...

  17. Relationships between the evaporative stress index and winter wheat and spring barley yieldanomalies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, M.; Hain, C.; Jurečka, František; Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Dulaney, W.; Otkin, J.; Johnson, D.; Gao, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, 2-3 (2016), s. 215-230 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1310123 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : evapotranspiration * drought * agriculture * remote sensing * crop yields * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.578, year: 2016

  18. Education as Employee Motivation and Retention Factor of the Companies Operating in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Němečková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial part of the article addresses the human potential of companies as well as the motivation and retention of employees, which play a key role in reaching a company’s commercial and financial goals. The article’s objective is answering questions concerning the importance of employee education as a significant tool of employee motivation and retention. The article’s author has set two hypotheses:H1: It is possible to identify common factors having an impact on employee motivation and retention from job descriptions and position in the management hierarchy’s point of view. It is also possible to find out and name the key factors in motivation and retention preferred by employees in the Czech Republic.H2: The possibility of further education and professional growth is a very important motivational factor for employees.The hypotheses were verified and confirmed through an anonymous questionnaire; the author conducted the research among employees of Czech companies. The research, which was of key importance for data collection, was supplemented by round table discussions with the respondents, helping to confirm and to be more accurate in interpretation of results delivered by the research.A clear result has come of the research; respondents valued further education the most out of sixteen offered benefits provided by employers. The article’s conclusion – referring to the fact of a drop in education investments by companies due to cost cutting pressures (a very dangerous and unhealthy trend from the long-term point of view, according to the article’s author – provides managers with recommendations.

  19. [Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as the cause of diarrhea in the Czech Republic, 1965-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marejková, M; Petráš, P

    2014-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the cause of diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The role of EHEC in the etiology of HUS in the Czech Republic has recently been described, but the prevalence, characteristics, and epidemiology of EHEC causing diarrhea have not been fully known. Therefore, this study analyzed the serotypes, stx genotypes, and virulence factors in EHEC strains isolated in 1965-2013 from patients with diarrhea or bloody diarrhea and their family contacts. In addition, we characterized diagnostically relevant phenotypes of EHEC strains, their antimicrobial susceptibility, seasonal trends, and distribution by administrative region. Serogrouped E. coli isolates from patients were referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for E. coli and Shigella for the detection of Stx. Specimens of both human and non-human origin were referred to the NRL for epidemiological investigation. Serotyping was performed by conventional and molecular methods, PCR was applied to stx genotyping and identification of non-stx virulence factors, and standard methods were used for phenotypic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The epidemiological link between the human and animal isolates was confirmed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of 50 EHEC strains, 24 were recovered from patients with diarrhea without blood, 19 from patients with bloody diarrhea, six from family contacts, and one from an epidemiologically linked animal. EHEC cases were reported during the whole year, with peaks in May through October, most often in the Central Bohemian and Hradec Králové Regions. EHEC outbreaks occurred in three families: in one of them sheep-to-human transmission of EHEC was detected. The EHEC strains were assigned to five serotypes, with more than half of them being non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) O157:H7/NM[fliCH7] and a third being strains O26:H11/NM[fliCH11]; serotypes O111:NM[fliCH8], O118:NM

  20. Mobile Learning Usage and Preferences of Vocational Secondary School Students: The cases of Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloš Antun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the current status of mobile device usage and mobile learning adoption in vocational education and training (VET secondary schools in three European Union countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany. The research focused on exploring students’ mobile device usage habits, their attitudes toward education in the context of mobile application support, and preferences regarding mobile learning features. The research confirmed a high level of mobile device usage among secondary school students on a daily basis; smartphones and laptops were the most commonly used devices. The vast majority of participants perceived themselves to be advanced mobile device users, but reported a deficit of ICT-assisted mobile learning experience. However, the majority of respondents with prior ICT-assisted education experience described it as a positive or very positive experience. In addition, study participants tended to agree that mobile learning will play a significant role in education in the future. The paper also explored the reported differences among the students in the three countries and suggested several implications for understanding students’ views of mobile learning. The findings provide insights into possibilities of m-learning implementation while creating a framework for m-learning application development in the VET secondary school environment.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in the indoor air of a theatre and museum in the Czech Republic: Inhalation exposure and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Eva; Audy, Ondřej; Booij, Petra; Melymuk, Lisa; Prokes, Roman; Klánová, Jana

    2017-12-31

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used to preserve the integrity of historical buildings or to protect collections of artefacts at potentially large volumes and often without detailed application records. Previous research has focused on the efficiency of remediation at contaminated sites (where identified), as well as improvement of preservation techniques and workplace health and safety. Few studies have assessed the human health risks from occupational exposure to OCPs in buildings of cultural and historical importance. Thus, potential risks may remain unidentified. In the present study, OCPs in indoor air were measured in a baroque theatre and a natural history museum in the Czech Republic, both of which had suspected past indoor application. In the theatre attic p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels in air were up to 190ngm(-3), confirming past indoor use of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT). There was also evidence of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) use in the theatre (max γ-HCH in air of 56ngm(-3)). Yet, the cancer risk (CR) from occupational exposure via inhalation (Expi) to OCPs in the theatre was low (CR1×10(-4)). Our results show the CR through Expi to OCPs in buildings, such as museums can still be significant enough to warrant mitigation measures, e.g., remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of a Maritime Versus a Land-Locked Tourism Dependent Economy: Croatia and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kokotovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of tourism revenue to their respected GDP is comparable in Croatia and the Czech Republic. Aside from having comparable levels of tourism dependency in respect to the percentage of tourism revenue in GDP, there are very few significant structural similarities between the economies of Croatia and that of the Czech Republic. The simple geographic difference of a land-locked versus a maritime economy does not seem to be the most dominant feature in differentiating these two economies. Rather, through Impulse Response Functions (IRFs and variance decompositions, this paper examines the relationship between the economic growth, public debt-to-GDP ratio, tourism revenue and the unemployment rate by implementing a Vector Autoregressive (VAR framework. Through this framework, this paper detects structural differences between the economies of Croatia and the Czech Republic. Most notably, this paper concludes that tourism revenue is unable to combat the difficulties presented by macroeconomic imbalances in Croatia. It further concludes that Croatia should strive towards a more diversified economy and attempt to contain the difficulties it faces regarding its public debt and budget deficit.

  3. Concentration of heavy and toxic metals in fish and sediments from the Morava river basin, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Petr; Andreji, Jaroslav; Mráz, Jan; Líšková, Zuzana Dvořáková

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring survey to assess the environmental pollution status of the river Morava--was carried out in 2014. This study presents the concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd) in the water, sediment and muscle tissue of fish from the middle and lower reaches of the Morava river basin (Bečva, Dřevnice, Haná, Kyjovka and Morava rivers), in the Czech Republic. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for the analysis of toxic metals. European chub (Squalius cephalus) was chosen as a reference fish species for the comparison of monitored localities. Results showed a positive significant correlation between concentration of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn in muscles and age of fishes (pmetals in European chub muscles were low Hg 0.049-0.402, Pb 0.005-0.035, Cd 0.006-0.026, Cr 0.016-0.042 and Zn 5.59-64.31 mg.kg(-1) wet weight basis and did not exceed the values of limits admissible in the Czech Republic. The contents of the analyzed metals in European chub muscles were low at monitoring sites and did not exceed the values of limits admissible in the Czech Republic.

  4. Glossostyles perspicua gen. et sp. nov. and other fungivorous Cecidomyiidae (Diptera new to the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sikora

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungivorous gall midges of the subfamilies Lestremiinae, Micromyinae, Winnertziinae and Porricondylinae were largely neglected in previous inventories of the Diptera faunas of the Czech and Slovak Republics. A taxonomic-faunistic study focusing on these subfamilies identified a total of 80 species, of which 49 are new records for the Czech Republic and 33 are new records for Slovakia. Species that have never before been found in central Europe are Aprionus dalarnensis Mamaev, 1998, A. oligodactylus Jaschhof, 2009, A. pigmentalis Mamaev, 1998, Asynapta inflata Spungis, 1988, Camptomyia gigantea Spungis, 1989, Cassidoides fulviventris (Mamaev, 1964, Claspettomyia hamata (Felt, 1907, Dendrepidosis longipennis (Spungis, 1981, Dicerura dispersa Jaschhof, 2013, Divellepidosis lutescens (Spungis, 1981, D. pallescens (Panelius, 1965, D. vulgata Jaschhof, 2013, Ekmanomyia svecica Jaschhof, 2013, Holoneurus ciliatus Kieffer, 1896, Monepidosis pectinatoides Jaschhof, 2013, Neocolpodia gukasiani (Mamaev, 1990, Neurolyga acuminata Jaschhof, 2009, Neurolyga interrupta Jaschhof, 2009, Parepidosis planistylata Jaschhof, 2013, Peromyia bidentata Berest, 1988, Porricondyla errabunda Mamaev, 2001, P. microgona Jaschhof, 2013, P. tetraschistica Mamaev, 1988, Schistoneurus irregularis Mamaev, 1964, Spungisomyia fenestrata Jaschhof, 2013, S. media (Spungis, 1981, Tetraneuromyia lamellata Spungis, 1987, T. lenticularis (Spungis, 1987, and Winnertzia parvispina Jaschhof, 2013. A new genus including a single new species of Porricondylini is described and named Glossostyles perspicua Jaschhof & Sikora gen. et sp. nov. on the basis of specimens collected in the Czech Republic and Sweden. Adult morphology suggests that Glossostyles gen. nov. is a close relative of Claspettomyia Grover, 1964.

  5. Soil moisture trends in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Wardlow, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Central Europe is generally not considered a drought-prone region, and the drought research and support is traditionally focused on the Mediterranean and southeastern part of the continent and drying trends there. However, Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, recently experienced a series of drought events with substantial impacts, especially on crop production. Because agriculture systems, and vegetation in general, have adapted to evenly distributed precipitation, the region is susceptible to even short-term droughts. The recent drought events may be the result of multi-decadal climate variability or a more general trend, with some studies showing a link to a more frequent occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to drought. This study introduces an innovation to the standard methodological approaches in evaluating drought climatology by analyzing soil moisture conditions over more than fifty years. This approach relies on state-of-the art observed weather data and tested soil moisture model, and focuses on the dynamic simulation of soil moisture content with high temporal (daily) and spatial (500 m) resolution in a diverse landscape. Statistically significant trends of decreasing soil moisture content were found, notably during May and June between 1961 and 2012. In contrast, trends toward higher soil moisture content were noted during the October-March time period. When the periods of 2001-2012 and 1961-1980 were compared, the probability of drought between April and June was found to increase by 50%. This indicates a loading of the "climate dice" toward drier conditions. The probability of extreme drought events has been also found to increase. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe under projected climate change and has been submitted to International Journal of Climatology. The study was funded by project "Establishment of International Scientific Team

  6. [Ethanol and other psychoactive substances in fatal road traffic accidents in the Czech Republic in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, Viktor; Zábranský, Tomás; Vorel, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    To map the recent prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in deceased victims of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample consisted of individuals autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine who died during traffic accidents in 2008 and were toxicologically tested for one or more of the following substances: ethanol, volatile substances, cannabis, opiates, stimulants, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0.2 g/kg and higher; with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; from cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the positive cases only those where substances were not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. The sample consisted of 1,040 persons deceased in traffic accidents, of whom 582 (56.0%) were toxicologically tested for one or more of the substances listed above. The sample has been divided into two subsamples--one of 778 (74.8%) active participants of road traffic accidents (pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers) and other subsample consisting of 262 (25.4%) non-active participants. Ethanol was found in 38.3% of 381 tested and at least one of other psychoactive substances was found in 11.7% of 384 tested active participants--of those, stimulants (mostly methamphetamine) were found most frequently (6.5% of 337 tested), cannabis (5.9% of 203 tested) and benzodiazepines (3.9% of 363 tested active participants). Drivers were positive for ethanol in 29.2% cases, for one or more of other psychoactive substances except ethanol in 12.7% cases, most frequently for stimulants (9.2%) and cannabis (6.2%). Professional drivers were found negative for ethanol and other psychoactive substance except of one case of methamphetamine (6.7%). The study confirms high prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, especially stimulants

  7. Private equity and venture capitalists' investment criteria in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zinecker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For investment decision making to be rational, the existence of investment criteria is required. In the theory of financial management, the effectiveness of investment is traditionally judged by the degree to which an investment proposal contributes to achieving the main financial goal of business, i.e. market value maximization of the firm.So far, potential businesses for Private Equity and Venture Capital financing in the Czech Republic have not had information regarding investment criteria and their significance, when considered by investors, at their disposal, which is due to absence of relevant research results.This article presents results of the research project whose aim is to establish which criteria are considered to perform an essential role in the selection of business proposals by firms investing Private Equity and Venture Capital in the Czech Republic as well as the most common reasons for rejecting the proposals. Based on practical experience of financing by Private Equity and Venture Capital, the research made it possible to identify the most significant criteria, namely characterization of mana­gement, market, product and the rate of investment capital appreciation. The results of the research are consequently compared with findings which were published in similar studies undertaken in the past (e.g. Tyebjee, Bruno, 1984; Fried, Hisrich, 1994; MacMillan et al., 1985, 1987; Muzyka et al., 1996; Eisele, 2002.The research supports the thesis that, when considering business proposals, above-average weight is attached to criteria concerning the characterization of management, i.e. experience and competencies in all stages of business life cycle. Nevertheless, the fulfilment of the criteria is not sufficient for investors to evaluate a business proposal positively. They also place an emphasis on selected criteria related to market and product. By publishing empirical data, an important signal regarding up-to-date evaluative criteria

  8. Preferences of men and women in the Czech Republic when shopping for food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Turčínková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buying behavior of men and women shows considerable differences. The individual stages of purchase decision-making process lead to convergence or conversely deepening of these differences. The paper provides results of analysis of chosen aspects of consumer behavior of men and women in the Czech Republic. It focuses on the grocery shopping in small-sized shops. Due to the complexity of the problem the research could not cover all aspects associated with this topic. It identifies who in a household is responsible for grocery shopping, how often and in what quantity of purchases. The paper examines to what extent is a purchase planned and by what a consumer is usually stimulated to an impulsive shopping. Further, it describes factors leading to a choice of shopping place and to a satisfaction with shopping conditions. The primary data was collected through a method of in-depth interviews conducted from January to March 2011 on a sample of 56 respondents in the three smaller stores in the Moravské Budějovice, and via questionnaire survey which took place in all regions of the Czech Republic (n = 5809 among respondents aged 12+. The results confirmed we can observe differences in shopping behavior of women and man, even though the importance of various factors taken into account when making a choice of a particular food product show significant differences from the gender perspective (none of the analyzed factors was found to have higher statistical significance than weak, p < .05. The qualitative research, however, revealed that women tend to make more frequent purchases and keep a certain level of supplies at home, while men tend to leave shopping till it becomes necessary, they are more likely to stick to their shopping list and more loyal to their favorite products. Women are more flexible when in need to replace a missing product with its substitute. The proportion of impulsively purchased items in a shopping basket is higher for women than

  9. The Identification of Landslide Phases Based on Documentary Data in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Raška, Pavel; Sedoník, Jiří

    2017-04-01

    This paper focuses on landslide phases, this being a somewhat neglected aspect of landslide research. These are events during which an increased number of individual landslides have been concurrently activated. Landslide phases are an important proxy as their occurrence indicates the presence of a triggering event which predominantly involves thresholding rainfall or snow thaw. The research area corresponds to the Czech Republic (Czechia), herein represented by two regions accounting for the highest socioeconomic impact due to landsliding in the past. The Outer Western Carpathians to the east are built on relatively weak Tertiary flysch rocks, while the areas in the north-west of the Czech Republic have a diverse lithology including Mesozoic sandstone, Tertiary volcanic rocks and basin sediments, thus predisposing both landsliding and rockfall. It should also be noted that the identified landslide phases certainly had a cross-border and even Central European extent. The primary focus was on older events as the most recent landslide phases (1997, 2006 and 2010) have been sufficiently evidenced, while the older ones have not as yet been investigated enough. Identification of those older landslide phases can be carried out using documentary data, including chronicles of the affected villages and towns, newspapers, protoscientific communications or aerial photographs. The database on landslide events currently includes more than 570 records on old (pre- 1989) landsliding. At least 12 old landslide phases (when at least 10 landslides were registered) were identified from this database. Each data source has its own specific drawbacks which will be addressed. Chroniclers occasionally had a different view of the importance of natural processes and their impacts. Newspaper sources are quite sensitive to landslide events, but their availability strongly differs across individual regions as is the case with old maps and protoscientific communications. Eyewitnesses and persons

  10. Reflection of the Change in VAT Rates on Selected Household Expenditures in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (2007–2013

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    Jan Široký

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union in the period of years 2007–2013 increased the rate of value added tax several times in an attempt to consolidate public budgets. While the Czech Republic is a typical representative of country changing VAT rates several times, Slovakia made practically only one change in the VAT rate. On the other hand, the Slovak Republic is a country where the reduced rate is applied only to the minimum of commodities. Changes in VAT are naturally reflected in household expenditures which are analyzed by the consumer basket, whose composition is also a subject of changes. Another factor that has an impact on household spending is swapping commodities between the rates of VAT.The aim of this paper is, based on the analytic-synthetic methods, to determine how are these changes differently manifested in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in reference to the share of commodity consumption included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and to the exempt transactions, and, in particular, to determine how they affected the VAT burden of the hypothetical household in both countries.

  11. STUDY ON THE INCIDENCE OF NATIONAL FISCAL POLICIES ON THE GROWTH OF ECONOMY IN POLAND, CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY

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    COSTACHE BIANCA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is mainly focused on a key subject of economic literature, respectively the way in which the fiscal policy impact economic growth of countries; therefore, these effects have been illustrated by taking into consideration the real economic context, within which they act as indicators of fiscal policy (direct and indirect taxes, as well as other sectors of economy (public debt, capital investments. The study contains the analysis and evaluation of the instruments’ effects of fiscal policy on the real growth rate within the 3 selected countries: Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary. I conducted the analysis through the regression model, more precisely through the least squares method, which reflects the effects of those six selected indicators: public debt, capital investments, direct taxes, indirect taxes, social benefits and revenues from the capitalization of public goods on real growth rate of the gross domestic product. The assumption for starting the research was the fact that fiscal policy’s instruments act different according to the nature of the indicator. Following the recording of the results which showed a negative effect drove by indicators like social benefits, capital investments, revenues from capitalization of public goods, indirect taxes, the hypothesis was confirmed. Also, the model proved to be statistically valid and that it has a liniar correlation between the variables after application of the econometric tests.

  12. The Food Quality Labels: Awareness and Willingness to Pay in the Context of the Czech Republic

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    Šárka Velčovská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with quality labels utilization in the food products sector from consumer point of view and presents the results of research study which was conducted in the Czech Republic by interviewing a sample of 250 respondents selected by quota sampling methods. The study was aimed at analysing the consumers’ awareness and perceived credibility of food quality labels, at revealing their willingness to pay a higher price for certified products, and at determining whether significant differences do exist in the way consumers perceive the food quality labels based on their socio-demographic characteristics. The findings revealed a low awareness of food quality labels. A higher level of recognition as well as perceived credibility was proven for national quality labels. As the main problem were identified a poor information about quality labels and lack of confidence that certified products have declared characteristics. Consumers show an interest in getting information about the topic, they also express a willingness to pay a slightly higher price for certified products if they trust them. Our findings confirmed that significant differences do exist between socio-demographic characteristics of respondents (gender, age, education, and responsibility for food purchases and their attitudes toward the labels; no significant difference was found based on income.

  13. Quantification of factors influencing the difference in household income in the Czech Republic

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    Jolana Kvíčalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Income inequalities, resulting from different income of economic entities and the level of redistribution (especially the amount and structure of taxes on one hand and transfer payments on the other and peculiarities of the market economy, have been increasing.Within the context of the economic crisis, the pressure (proved by election results in many countries to alleviate such differences, or at least to stop their deepening has been strengthening. The analysis of the increased income differentiation gets into attention of the theory of public finance.The paper theoretically deals with the ways of measuring such inequalities and then it focuses on the factors that may be regarded as significant for increasing income differences in particular conditions of the Czech Republic within the years 2006–2011 for the selected types of households. Based on the preliminary description, deduction and induction, the research objective was to determine, using the mathematic and statistical methods, the relevancy and -where appropriate- the level of dependence of the analyzed effects on particular elements of household income.

  14. Edible insects - species suitable for entomophagy under condition of Czech Republic

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    Martina Bednářová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002, when the first lecture on entomophagy took place at Mendel University in Brno, till today, participants of these educational lectures were asked to fill questionnaires in order to evaluate interest in entomophagy in Czech Republic and pick suitable species. Analyses of nutritional value of selected species were also performed during this time. The questionnaire was divided into several parts - suitable species, sensory properties, difficulty of breeding and processing and respondents own attitude to the consumption of insect species. For the purpose of this study the questionnaire was evaluated using the semantic differential, so to create a comprehensive picture of each insect species. Based on evaluation of more than 5,000 questionnaires, certain developmental stages of seven species of insect were selected for further evaluation: Tenebrio molitor (TM larvae, Zophobas morio (ZM larvae, Gryllus assimillis (GA nymphs, Locusta migratoria (LM nymphs, Galleria mellonella (GM larvae, Bombyx mori (BM Pupa, Apis mellifera (AM bee brood, while cockroaches were completely excluded for use in entomophagy. Although they are easy to breed and are available all year-round, consumers showed relatively great disgust. For all of these species, basic nutritional values were analysed, as well as content of amino acids and fattty acids. All parameters were statistically evaluated using ANOVA-1. Each species appears to be suitable for entomophagy for a different reason. Generally speaking, AM, TM and GA were best accepted considering the sensory aspect, nutritional values are interesting especially in BM and GM and TM wins with simplicity of its breeding.

  15. Abundance of Common Shrew (Sorex Araneus in Selected Forest Habitats of Moravia (Czech Republic

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    Martina Dokulilová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of common shrew (Sorex araneus was evaluated on selected forest sites in Moravia, Czech Republic. Six types of habitats were assessed: forest clearings and mature forests in lowlands (173 – 233 m, uplands (360 – 600 m, and mountains (600 – 1200 m. Data were collected over five‑year‑long periods; 2006 – 2010 (uplands and 2007 – 2011 (lowlands and mountains. Small terrestrial mammals were captured using snap traps laid in lines. In total, 200 individuals of common shrew were trapped. Relative abundance among different habitats was statistically evaluated. The highest relative abundance was found in mountain forest clearings (n = 132, rA = 0.719. Lower abundance was in upland forest clearings (n = 15, rA = 0.384, in mature mountain forests (n = 32, rA = 0.355, and in the lowland forest clearings (n = 9, rA = 0.109. The lowest abundance was in mature upland forests (n = 9, rA = 0.031 and in mature lowland forests (n = 3, rA = 0.011. Differences between sites were statistically significant. Among all altitudes, shrew populations in plantations were significantly more numerous than those in mature forests. Mountain forest clearings with dense herb layer proved to be the most suitable habitat while mature lowland forests with less developed herbaceous layer were the least suitable. Forest clearings proved to be an important refuge for the populations of common shrew.

  16. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy

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    Eva Voslářvá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union.

  17. Important characteristics of an entrepreneur in relation to risk taking: Czech Republic case study

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    Ludmila Kozubíková

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New businesses arising at the market usually operate in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises and account for a significant part of the whole global economy. Not only the success of a start-up company, but also its sequel within the SME sector are significantly influenced by entrepreneur's personality. The aim of this article is to explore the attitude to financial risk in relation to sociodemographic characteristics (gender, education, age and the most important personality traits of entrepreneurs (risk-taking, decisiveness, optimism. We have analyzed the data collected from 1141 respondents during 2015 in 14 regions of Czech Republic. Empirical results of our paper show that the researched entrepreneurs rather can't manage financial risks in their firms regardless their gender, education, age or personality traits. Most entrepreneurs consider the importance of financial risk to increase during the crisis period. These opinions differed in relation to age, gender and such personality traits as "decisiveness" and "optimism". The results also show that the entrepreneurs try to minimise the financial risk through building-up reserves in relation to such qualities as "risk-taking" and "decisiveness" in comparison to a rather negative attitude to "optimism".

  18. From Regional to National Clouds: TV Coverage in the Czech Republic.

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    Jan Sucháček

    Full Text Available Media, and particularly TV media, have a great impact on the general public. In recent years, spatial patterns of information and the relevance of intangible geographies have become increasingly important. Gatekeeping plays a critical role in the selection of information that is transformed into media. Therefore, gatekeeping, through national media, also co-forms the generation of mental maps. In this paper, correspondence analysis (a statistical method combined with cloud lines (a new visual analytics technique is used to analyze how individual major regional events in one of the post-communist countries, the Czech Republic, penetrate into the media on a national scale. Although national news should minimize distortions about regions, this assumption has not been verified by our research. Impressions presented by the media of selected regions that were markedly influenced by one or several events in those regions demonstrate that gatekeepers, especially news reporters, functioned as a filter by selecting only a few specific, and in many cases, unusual events for dissemination.

  19. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

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    Marek, Michal V., E-mail: marek.mv@czechglobe.cz [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic); Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Havrankova, Katerina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Veroslav [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Markova, Irena [Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: > Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). > The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). > Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. > Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

  20. Family entrepreneurship in the Czech Republic on the verge of first generation handover

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    Naděžda Petrů

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Family is an integral part of society in all cultures and time periods. Its mission is to raise the next generation, which will be able to continue and further develop knowledge and experience of the previous generation. The modern history of family entrepreneurship in Czech Republic restarted back in 1989, i.e., straight after the fall of the communist regime and restoration of the democratic system. People went into business with enthusiasm and the most successful ones among then now stand on the verge of generation handover. The literature review prepared using the desk-research method is mainly based on foreign professional sources – monographic publications, scientific articles published in professional magazines, accessed from Proquest, Web of Science, Ebsco, Scopus and some other databases. The objective of our quantitative research was to evaluate, based on parameter E (Experience, the generational representation of family members in relation to leadership and ownership of businesses. Quantitative research was based on the use of statistical and graphical data processing methods, including SPSS software, applied for the authors’ own empirical investigation based on the international methodology of family company review through the F-PEC scale, the Experience parameter (Astrachan et al., 2002. It was shown that accumulation of business experience in business families is still mainly concentrated on the founding generation of entrepreneurs. In the conclusion of the paper, deduction and generalisation methods have been applied.