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Sample records for cytoplasmic tail reveals

  1. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation revealed cytoplasmic tail is dispensable for IZUMO1 function and male fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Samantha A M; Miyata, Haruhiko; Satouh, Yuhkoh

    2016-01-01

    manipulation system of CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon, producing mice with truncated IZUMO1. Mice without the cytoplasmic tail of IZUMO1 showed normal fertility but decreased the amount of protein, indicating that whilst this region is important for the expression...

  2. Cytoplasmic tail of coronavirus spike protein has intracellular targeting signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIBIN SADASIVAN; MANMEET SINGH; JAYASRI DAS SARMA

    2017-06-01

    Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spikeprotein is localized in the ER or ERGIC compartment and OC43 spike protein is predominantly localized in thelysosome. Differential localization can be explained by signal sequence. The sequence alignment using Clustal Wshows that the signal sequence present at the cytoplasmic tail plays an important role in spike protein localization. Aunique GYQEL motif is identified at the cytoplasmic terminal of OC43 spike protein which helps in localization in thelysosome, and a novel KLHYT motif is identified in the cytoplasmic tail of SARS spike protein which helps in ER orERGIC localization. This study sheds some light on the role of cytoplasmic tail of spike protein in cell-to-cell fusion,coronavirus host cell fusion and subsequent pathogenicity.

  3. Detailed topology mapping reveals substantial exposure of the "cytoplasmic" C-terminal tail (CTT sequences in HIV-1 Env proteins at the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy surrounds the membrane topology of the HIV-1 gp41 C-terminal tail (CTT. While few studies have been designed to directly address the topology of the CTT, results from envelope (Env protein trafficking studies suggest that the CTT sequence is cytoplasmically localized, as interactions with intracellular binding partners are required for proper Env targeting. However, previous studies from our lab demonstrate the exposure of a short CTT sequence, the Kennedy epitope, at the plasma membrane of intact Env-expressing cells, the exposure of which is not observed on viral particles. To address the topology of the entire CTT sequence, we serially replaced CTT sequences with a VSV-G epitope tag sequence and examined reactivity of cell- and virion-surface Env to an anti-VSV-G monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the CTT sequence is accessible to antibody binding on the surface of Env expressing cells, and that the CTT-exposed Env constitutes 20-50% of the cell-surface Env. Cell surface CTT exposure was also apparent in virus-infected cells. Passive transfer of Env through cell culture media to Env negative (non-transfected cells was not responsible for the apparent cell surface CTT exposure. In contrast to the cell surface results, CTT-exposed Env was not detected on infectious pseudoviral particles containing VSV-G-substituted Env. Finally, a monoclonal antibody directed to the Kennedy epitope neutralized virus in a temperature-dependent manner in a post-attachment neutralization assay. Collectively, these results suggest that the membrane topology of the HIV gp41 CTT is more complex than the widely accepted intracytoplasmic model.

  4. Cytoplasmic RNA: a case of the tail wagging the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Chris J

    2013-10-01

    The addition of poly(A) tails to eukaryotic nuclear mRNAs promotes their stability, export to the cytoplasm and translation. Subsequently, the balance between exonucleolytic deadenylation and selective re-establishment of translation-competent poly(A) tails by cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases is essential for the appropriate regulation of gene expression from oocytes to neurons. In recent years, surprising roles for cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase-related enzymes that add uridylyl, rather than adenylyl, residues to RNA 3' ends have also emerged. These terminal uridylyl transferases promote the turnover of certain mRNAs but also modify microRNAs, their precursors and other small RNAs to modulate their stability or biological functions.

  5. Modulation of cell surface transport and lipid raft localization by the cytoplasmic tail of the influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Silvia; Imkeller, Katharina; Jolmes, Fabian; Veit, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas; Schwarzer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Viral glycoproteins are highly variable in their primary structure, but on the other hand feature a high functional conservation to fulfil their versatile tasks during the pathogenic life cycle. Typically, all protein domains are optimized in that indispensable functions can be assigned to small conserved motifs or even individual amino acids. The cytoplasmic tail of many viral spike proteins, although of particular relevance for the virus biology, is often only insufficiently characterized. Hemagglutinin (HA), the receptor-binding protein of the influenza virus comprises a short cytoplasmic tail of 13 amino acids that exhibits three highly conserved palmitoylation sites. However, the particular importance of these modifications and the tail in general for intracellular trafficking and lateral membrane organization remains elusive. In this study, we generated HA core proteins consisting of transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic tail and a minor part of the ectodomain, tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Different mutation and truncation variants of these chimeric proteins were investigated using confocal microscopy, to characterize the role of cytoplasmic tail and palmitoylation for the intracellular trafficking to plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus. In addition, we assessed raft partitioning of the variants by Foerster resonance energy transfer with an established raft marker. We revealed a substantial influence of the cytoplasmic tail length on the intracellular distribution and surface exposure of the proteins. A complete removal of the tail hampers a physiological trafficking of the protein, whereas a partial truncation can be compensated by cytoplasmic palmitoylations. Plasma membrane raft partitioning on the other hand was found to imperatively require palmitoylations, and the cysteine at position 551 turned out to be of most relevance. Our data shed further light on the tight interconnection between cytoplasmic elements and intracellular trafficking and

  6. Lengthening of the Stargazin Cytoplasmic Tail Increases Synaptic Transmission by Promoting Interaction to Deeper Domains of PSD-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Penn, Andrew C; Grillo-Bosch, Dolors; Retailleau, Natacha; Poujol, Christel; Philippat, Amandine; Coussen, Françoise; Sainlos, Matthieu; Opazo, Patricio; Choquet, Daniel

    2015-04-22

    PSD-95 is a prominent organizer of the postsynaptic density (PSD) that can present a filamentous orientation perpendicular to the plasma membrane. Interactions between PSD-95 and transmembrane proteins might be particularly sensitive to this orientation, as "long" cytoplasmic tails might be required to reach deeper PSD-95 domains. Extension/retraction of transmembrane protein C-tails offer a new way of regulating binding to PSD-95. Using stargazin as a model, we found that enhancing the apparent length of stargazin C-tail through phosphorylation or by an artificial linker was sufficient to potentiate binding to PSD-95, AMPAR anchoring, and synaptic transmission. A linear extension of stargazin C-tail facilitates binding to PSD-95 by preferentially engaging interaction with the farthest located PDZ domains regarding to the plasma membrane, which present a greater affinity for the stargazin PDZ-domain-binding motif. Our study reveals that the concerted orientation of the stargazin C-tail and PSD-95 is a major determinant of synaptic strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

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    Mahmoud, Nora F. [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Jasirwan, Chyntia [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia (Indonesia); Kanemoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Aika; Wang, Bochao; Hata, Yuuki [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Nagamata, Satoshi [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Kawabata, Akiko [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Tang, Huamin [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Mori, Yasuko, E-mail: ymori@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.

  8. Structural insights into the recognition of β3 integrin cytoplasmic tail by the SH3 domain of Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Priya; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga

    2013-10-01

    Src kinase plays an important role in integrin signaling by regulating cytoskeletal organization and cell remodeling. Previous in vivo studies have revealed that the SH3 domain of c-Src kinase directly associates with the C-terminus of β3 integrin cytoplasmic tail. Here, we explore this binding interface with a combination of different spectroscopic and computational methods. Chemical shift mapping, PRE, transferred NOE and CD data were used to obtain a docked model of the complex. This model suggests a different binding mode from the one proposed through previous studies wherein, the C-terminal end of β3 spans the region in between the RT and n-Src loops of SH3 domain. Furthermore, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of β3 prevents this interaction, supporting the notion of a constitutive interaction between β3 integrin and Src kinase.

  9. Subcellular localization of frizzled receptors, mediated by their cytoplasmic tails, regulates signaling pathway specificity.

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    Jun Wu

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Frizzled (Fz; called here Fz1 and Fz2 receptors have distinct signaling specificities activating either the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway or Fz/planar cell polarity (PCP signaling in Drosophila. The regulation of signaling specificity remains largely obscure. We show that Fz1 and Fz2 have different subcellular localizations in imaginal disc epithelia, with Fz1 localizing preferentially to apical junctional complexes, and Fz2 being evenly distributed basolaterally. The subcellular localization difference directly contributes to the signaling specificity outcome. Whereas apical localization favors Fz/PCP signaling, it interferes with canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Receptor localization is mediated by sequences in the cytoplasmic tail of Fz2 that appear to block apical accumulation. Based on these data, we propose that subcellular Fz localization, through the association with other membrane proteins, is a critical aspect in regulating the signaling specificity within the Wnt/Fz signaling pathways.

  10. The cytoplasmic tail of FcgammaRIIIAalpha is involved in signaling by the low affinity receptor for immunoglobulin G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, X; Dietrich, J; Geisler, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The low affinity receptor for IgG, FcgammaRIIIA, is a multimeric receptor composed of the ligand binding subunit FcgammaRIIIAalpha (CD16) in association with the signal-transducing subunits zeta or gamma. Previous studies suggested that the cytoplasmic tail of FcgammaRIIIAalpha was not required...

  11. An essential role for the proximal but not the distal cytoplasmic tail of glycoprotein M in murid herpesvirus 4 infection.

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    Janet S May

    Full Text Available Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 provides a tractable model with which to define common, conserved features of gamma-herpesvirus biology. The multi-membrane spanning glycoprotein M (gM is one of only 4 glycoproteins that are essential for MuHV-4 lytic replication. gM binds to gN and is thought to function mainly secondary envelopment and virion egress, for which several predicted trafficking motifs in its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail could be important. We tested the contribution of the gM cytoplasmic tail to MuHV-4 lytic replication by making recombinant viruses with varying C-terminal deletions. Removing an acidic cluster and a distal YXXPhi motif altered the capsid distribution somewhat in infected cells but had little effect on virus replication, either in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, removing a proximal YXXPhi motif as well completely prevented productive replication. gM was still expressed, but unlike its longer forms showed only limited colocalization with co-transfected gN, and in the context of whole virus appeared to support gN expression less well. We conclude that some elements of the gM cytoplasmic tail are dispensible for MuHV-4 replication, but the tail as a whole is not.

  12. Crystallographic characterization of the radixin FERM domain bound to the cytoplasmic tail of adhesion molecule CD44

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    Mori, Tomoyuki; Kitano, Ken; Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Maesaki, Ryoko; Hakoshima, Toshio, E-mail: hakosima@bs.naist.jp [Structural Biology Laboratory, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Keihanna Science City, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    The radixin FERM domain complexed with the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide has been crystallized. A diffraction data set from the complex was collected to 2.1 Å. CD44 is an important adhesion molecule that specifically binds hyaluronic acid and regulates cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Increasing evidence has indicated that CD44 is assembled in a regulated manner into the membrane–cytoskeletal junction, a process that is mediated by ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins. Crystals of a complex between the radixin FERM domain and the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of CD44 have been obtained. The crystal of the radixin FERM domain bound to the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.70, b = 66.18, c = 86.22 Å, and contain one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å.

  13. The D-6 mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes the CD74 cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genève, Laetitia; Gauthier, Catherine; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    The invariant chain (Ii; CD74) is a multifunctional protein of the immune system and a major player in the presentation of exogenous antigens to T cells. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Ii assists the folding and trafficking of MHC class II molecules. In the present study, we characterized the recently commercialized D-6 monoclonal antibody (MAb) made against a polypeptide spanning the entire sequence of the p33 isoform of human Ii. Using transgenic mice expressing the human p35 isoform, we showed by flow cytometry that D-6 only slightly cross-reacts with mouse Ii in permeabilized splenocytes. Analysis of the human B lymphoblastoid cell line LG2 revealed that D-6 recognizes Ii only upon membrane permeabilization. Variants of Ii bearing specific mutations or deletions were transfected in human cells to map the D-6 epitope. Our results showed that this MAb binds to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of Ii and that the epitope was destroyed upon mutagenesis of the two leucine-based endosomal targeting motifs. Thus, D-6 cannot be used for rapid flow cytometric assessment of CD74 cell surface expression and would be ineffective as a drug conjugate for the treatment of hematological malignancies.

  14. Interleukin 7 receptor functions by recruiting the tyrosine kinase p59fyn through a segment of its cytoplasmic tail.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Engagement of the cell surface receptor for interleukin 7 (IL-7R) provokes protein tyrosine phosphorylation, although the receptor lacks a kinase catalytic domain in its cytoplasmic tail. The molecular basis of this response is not known. Here we report that the IL-7R functions by recruiting p59fyn, an intracellular tyrosine kinase of the src family. Treatment of pre-B cells with IL-7 causes an enhancement of the catalytic activity of p59fyn, but not of the related kinase p62yes. IL-7-depende...

  15. Differential Regulation of Two Palmitoylation Sites in the Cytoplasmic Tail of the β1-Adrenergic Receptor*

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    S-Palmitoylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a prevalent modification, contributing to the regulation of receptor function. Despite its importance, the palmitoylation status of the β1-adrenergic receptor, a GPCR critical for heart function, has never been determined. We report here that the β1-adrenergic receptor is palmitoylated on three cysteine residues at two sites in the C-terminal tail. One site (proximal) is adjacent to the seventh transmembrane domain and is a consensus ...

  16. Increased infectivity in human cells and resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization by truncation of the SIV gp41 cytoplasmic tail

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    Takeo eKuwata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of antibodies in protecting the host from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is of considerable interest, particularly because the RV144 trial results suggest that antibodies contribute to protection. Although infection of nonhuman primates with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV is commonly used as an animal model of HIV-1 infection, the viral epitopes that elicit potent and broad neutralizing antibodies to SIV have not been identified. We isolated a monoclonal antibody (MAb B404 that potently and broadly neutralizes various SIV strains. B404 targets a conformational epitope comprising the V3 and V4 loops of Env that intensely exposed when Env binds CD4. B404-resistant variants were obtained by passaging viruses in the presence of increasing concentration of B404 in PM1/CCR5 cells. Genetic analysis revealed that the Q733stop mutation, which truncates the cytoplasmic tail of gp41, was the first major substitution in Env during passage. The maximal inhibition by B404 and other MAbs were significantly decreased against a recombinant virus with a gp41 truncation compared with the parental SIVmac316. This indicates that the gp41 truncation was associated with resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization. The infectivities of the recombinant virus with the gp41 truncation were 7900-fold, 1000-fold, and 140-fold higher than those of SIVmac316 in PM1, PM1/CCR5, and TZM-bl cells, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the gp41 truncation enhanced the incorporation of Env into virions. The effect of the gp41 truncation on infectivity was not obvious in the HSC-F macaque cell line, although the resistance of viruses harboring the gp41 truncation to neutralization was maintained. These results suggest that viruses with a truncated gp41 cytoplasmic tail were selected by increased infectivity in human cells and by acquiring resistance to neutralizing antibody.

  17. Vpu downmodulates two distinct targets, tetherin and gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope, through shared features in the Vpu cytoplasmic tail.

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    Tiffany M Lucas

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env. We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in

  18. Vpu Downmodulates Two Distinct Targets, Tetherin and Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Envelope, through Shared Features in the Vpu Cytoplasmic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Edward B.; Johnson, Marc C.

    2012-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor) and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein) both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env). We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in different cellular

  19. Role of the beta1-integrin cytoplasmic tail in mediating invasin-promoted internalization of Yersinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Anna; Armulik, Annika; Brakebusch, Cord

    2002-01-01

    Invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis binds to beta1-integrins on host cells and triggers internalization of the bacterium. To elucidate the mechanism behind the beta1-integrin-mediated internalization of Yersinia, a beta1-integrin-deficient cell line, GD25, transfected with wild-type beta1A, beta......1B or different mutants of the beta1A subunit was used. Both beta1A and beta1B bound to invasin-expressing bacteria, but only beta1A was able to mediate internalization of the bacteria. The cytoplasmic region of beta1A, differing from beta1B, contains two NPXY motifs surrounding a double threonine...... site. Exchanging the tyrosines of the two NPXYs to phenylalanines did not inhibit the uptake, whereas a marked reduction was seen when the first tyrosine (Y783) was exchanged to alanine. A similar reduction was seen when the two nearby threonines (TT788-9) were exchanged with alanines. It was also...

  20. Roles of integrin β3 cytoplasmic tail in bidirectional signal transduction in a trans-dominant inhibition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiansong; Zhou, Yulan; Su, Xiaoyu; Lyu, Yuanjing; Tao, Lanlan; Shi, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ping; Long, Zhangbiao; Ruan, Zheng; Xiao, Bing; Xi, Wenda; Zhou, Quansheng; Mao, Jianhua; Xi, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the roles of calpain cleavage-related mutations of the integrin β3 cytoplasmic tail in integrin αIIbβ3 bidirectional signaling using a trans-dominant inhibition model. Chimeric Tac-β3 proteins (i.e., Tac-β3, Tac-β3Δ741, Tac-β3Δ747, Tac-β3Δ754, Tac-β3Δ759, and Tac-β3ΔNITY) consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of human IL-2 receptor (Tac) and the human integrin β3 cytoplasmic domain were stably expressed in the 123 CHO cells harboring human glycoprotein Ib-IX and wild-type integrin αIIbβ3. The different cells were assayed for stable adhesion and spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, and for binding soluble fibrinogen representing outside-in and inside-out signaling events, respectively. The chimeric protein Tac-β3 inhibited, and Tac-β3ΔNITY partially attenuated stable adhesion and spreading. Tac-β3, Tac-β3Δ759, Tac-β3ΔNITY, and Tac-β3Δ754, but not Tac-β3Δ747 or Tac-β3Δ741, impaired the soluble fibrinogen binding. Results indicated that the bidirectional signaling was significantly inhibited by Tac-β3 and Tac-β3ΔNITY, albeit to a much lesser extent. Moreover, only inside-out signaling was impaired in the 123/Tac-β3Δ759 and 123/Tac-β3Δ754 cells in contrast to an intact bidirectional signaling in the 123/Tac-β3Δ747 and 123/Tac-β3Δ741 cells. In conclusion, the calpain cleavage of integrin β3 resulted in the regulatory effects on signaling by interrupting its interaction with cytoplasmic proteins rather than altering its conformation, and may thus regulate platelet function.

  1. Mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic tail of the human transferrin receptor. Identification of a sub-domain that is required for rapid endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironès, N; Alverez, E; Seth, A; Lin, I M; Latour, D A; Davis, R J

    1991-10-05

    It has been reported that the sequence Tyr20-X-Arg-Phe23 present within the cytoplasmic tail of the transferrin receptor may represent a tyrosine internalization signal (Collawn, J.F., Stangel, M., Kuhn, L.A., Esekogwu, V., Jing, S., Trowbridge, I.S., and Tainer, J. A. (1990) Cell 63, 1061-1072). However, as Tyr20 is not conserved between species (Alvarez, E., Gironès, N., and Davis, R. J. (1990) Biochem. J. 267, 31-35), the functional role of the putative tyrosine internalization signal is not clear. To address this question, we constructed a series of 32 deletions and point mutations within the cytoplasmic tail of the human transferrin receptor. The effect of these mutations on the apparent first order rate constant for receptor endocytosis was examined. It was found that the region of the cytoplasmic tail that is proximal to the transmembrane domain (residues 28-58) is dispensable for rapid endocytosis. In contrast, the distal region of the cytoplasmic tail (residues 1-27) was found to be both necessary and sufficient for the rapid internalization of the transferrin receptor. The region identified includes Tyr20-X-Arg-Phe23, but is significantly larger than this tetrapeptide. It is therefore likely that structural information in addition to the proposed tyrosine internalization signal is required for endocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether a heterologous tyrosine internalization signal (from the low density lipoprotein receptor) could function to cause the rapid endocytosis of the transferrin receptor. It was observed that this heterologous tyrosine internalization signal did not allow rapid endocytosis. We conclude that the putative tyrosine internalization signal (Tyr20-Thr-Arg-Phe23) is not sufficient to determine rapid endocytosis of the transferrin receptor. The data reported here indicate that the transferrin receptor internalization signal is formed by a larger cytoplasmic tail structure located at the amino terminus of the receptor.

  2. Transcriptomic Changes Due to Cytoplasmic TDP-43 Expression Reveal Dysregulation of Histone Transcripts and Nuclear Chromatin.

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    Alexandre Amlie-Wolf

    Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is normally a nuclear RNA-binding protein that exhibits a range of functions including regulation of alternative splicing, RNA trafficking, and RNA stability. However, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 is abnormally phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved, and is mislocalized to the cytoplasm where it forms distinctive aggregates. We previously developed a mouse model expressing human TDP-43 with a mutation in its nuclear localization signal (ΔNLS-hTDP-43 so that the protein preferentially localizes to the cytoplasm. These mice did not exhibit a significant number of cytoplasmic aggregates, but did display dramatic changes in gene expression as measured by microarray, suggesting that cytoplasmic TDP-43 may be associated with a toxic gain-of-function. Here, we analyze new RNA-sequencing data from the ΔNLS-hTDP-43 mouse model, together with published RNA-sequencing data obtained previously from TDP-43 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO knockdown mice to investigate further the dysregulation of gene expression in the ΔNLS model. This analysis reveals that the transcriptomic effects of the overexpression of the ΔNLS-hTDP-43 transgene are likely due to a gain of cytoplasmic function. Moreover, cytoplasmic TDP-43 expression alters transcripts that regulate chromatin assembly, the nucleolus, lysosomal function, and histone 3' untranslated region (UTR processing. These transcriptomic alterations correlate with observed histologic abnormalities in heterochromatin structure and nuclear size in transgenic mouse and human brains.

  3. Shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization of protease-activated receptor 1 can be separated by mutation of putative phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic tail.

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    Hammes, S R; Shapiro, M J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-07-20

    The thrombin receptor PAR1 becomes rapidly phosphorylated upon activation by either thrombin or exogenous SFLLRN agonist peptide. Substitution of alanine for all serine and threonine residues in the receptor's cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail ablated phosphorylation and yielded a receptor defective in both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. These observations suggested that activation-dependent phosphorylation of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail is required for both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. To identify the phosphorylation site(s) that are necessary for these functions, we generated three mutant receptors in which alanine was substituted for serine and threonine residues in the amino-terminal, middle, and carboxyl-terminal thirds of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. When stably expressed in fibroblasts, all three mutated receptors were rapidly phosphorylated in response to agonist, while a mutant in which all serines and threonines in the cytoplasmic tail were converted to alanines was not. This result suggests that phosphorylation can occur at multiple sites in PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. Alanine substitutions in the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the tail had no effect on either receptor shutoff or agonist-triggered internalization. By contrast, alanine substitutions in the "middle" serine cluster between Ser(391) and Ser(406) yielded a receptor with considerably slower shutoff of signaling after thrombin activation than the wild type. Surprisingly, this same mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type in agonist-triggered internalization and degradation. Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and GRK3 "suppressed" the shutoff defect of the S --> A (391-406) mutant, consistent with this defect being due to altered receptor phosphorylation. These results suggest that specific phosphorylation sites are required for rapid receptor shutoff, but phosphorylation at multiple alternative sites is sufficient for agonist

  4. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail binding protein-1 (MTCBP-1) acts as an eukaryotic aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the methionine salvage pathway.

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    Hirano, Wakako; Gotoh, Isamu; Uekita, Takamasa; Seiki, Motoharu

    2005-06-01

    MTCBP-1 was identified as a protein that binds the cytoplasmic tail of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Since MTCBP-1 has a putative beta-barrel structure, it is presumably a member of the recently proposed cupin superfamily that contains tremendously diverged functions of proteins in spite of their well-conserved beta-barrel structure. MTCBP-1 shows significant homology to the bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the cupin family, which is an enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle). Since it is difficult to speculate the functions of cupin proteins simply based on their sequence homology, we examined whether the eukaryotic ARD homologs surely function in the methionine metabolism. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, yeast could grow when substrate of MTA cycle was provided. Disruption of the yeast ARD homolog, YMR009w gene, abolished ability of the cells to grow in this culture condition. Re-expression of either the YMR009w or MTCBP-1 gene restored the cell growth. Mutation analysis revealed that the glutamic acid residue in the beta-barrel fold and the N-terminal extension from the beta-barrel fold were found to be important for the activity to restore the growth. Thus, MTCBP-1 isolated as a binding protein for MT1-MMP was demonstrated to function as an ARD-like enzyme in the MTA cycle in yeast.

  5. Constitutive activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR by mutating Ile691 in the cytoplasmic tail segment.

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    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (ADNAH is a rare genetic disorder of the endocrine system. Molecular genetic studies in ADNAH have revealed heterozygous germline mutations in the TSHR. To data, mutations leading to an increase in the constitutive activation of the TSHR have been described in the transmembrane segments, exoloops and cytoplasmic loop of TSHR. These mutations result in constitutive activation of the G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/inositol phosphate (IP pathways, which stimulate thyroid hormone production and thyroid proliferation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we reported a new TSHR mutation located in the C-terminal domain of TSHR, which results in a substitution of the conserved Ile(691 for Phe. In this study, to address the question of whether the I691F mutated receptor could be responsible for G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/IP constitutive activity, wild-type and TSHR mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells to determine cAMP constitutive activity and IP formation. Compared to the cell surface with expression of the A623V mutated receptor as positive control, the I691F mutated receptor showed a slight increase of cAMP accumulation. Furthermore, I691F resulted in constitutive activation of the G(αq/11/IP signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Ile(691 not only contributes to keeping TSHR inactive in the G(αs/cAMP pathways but also in the G(αq/11/IP cascade.

  6. Functional analysis of the leading malaria vaccine candidate AMA-1 reveals an essential role for the cytoplasmic domain in the invasion process.

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    Moritz Treeck

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A key process in the lifecycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the fast invasion of human erythrocytes. Entry into the host cell requires the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1, a type I transmembrane protein located in the micronemes of the merozoite. Although AMA-1 is evolving into the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate, its precise role in invasion is still unclear. We investigate AMA-1 function using live video microscopy in the absence and presence of an AMA-1 inhibitory peptide. This data reveals a crucial function of AMA-1 during the primary contact period upstream of the entry process at around the time of moving junction formation. We generate a Plasmodium falciparum cell line that expresses a functional GFP-tagged AMA-1. This allows the visualization of the dynamics of AMA-1 in live parasites. We functionally validate the ectopically expressed AMA-1 by establishing a complementation assay based on strain-specific inhibition. This method provides the basis for the functional analysis of essential genes that are refractory to any genetic manipulation. Using the complementation assay, we show that the cytoplasmic domain of AMA-1 is not required for correct trafficking and surface translocation but is essential for AMA-1 function. Although this function can be mimicked by the highly conserved cytoplasmic domains of P. vivax and P. berghei, the exchange with the heterologous domain of the microneme protein EBA-175 or the rhoptry protein Rh2b leads to a loss of function. We identify several residues in the cytoplasmic tail that are essential for AMA-1 function. We validate this data using additional transgenic parasite lines expressing AMA-1 mutants with TY1 epitopes. We show that the cytoplasmic domain of AMA-1 is phosphorylated. Mutational analysis suggests an important role for the phosphorylation in the invasion process, which might translate into novel therapeutic strategies.

  7. Recognition of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor cytoplasmic domain by 47-kDa tail-interacting protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, Joke G.; Sincock, Paul M.; Krise, Jeffrey P.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    Tail-interacting 47-kDa protein (TIP47) binds the cytoplasmic domains of the cation-dependent (CD) and cation-independent (CI) mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) and is required for their transport from endosomes to the Golgi complex. TIP47 recognizes a phenylalanine-tryptophan signal in the CD-MPR. We show here that TIP47 interaction with the 163-residue CI-MPR cytoplasmic domain is highly conformation dependent and requires CI-MPR residues that are proximal to the membrane. CI-MPR cytoplasmic domain residues 1–47 are dispensable, whereas residues 48–74 are essential for high-affinity binding. However, residues 48–74 are not sufficient for high-affinity binding; residues 75–163 alone display weak affinity for TIP47, yet they contribute to the presentation of residues 48–74 in the intact protein. Independent competition binding experiments confirm that TIP47 interacts with the membrane-proximal portion of the CI-MPR cytoplasmic domain. TIP47 binding is competed by the binding of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor at (and near) residues 24–29 but not by AP-1 binding at (and near) residues 160–161. Finally, TIP47 appears to recognize a putative loop generated by the sequence PPAPRPG and other hydrophobic residues in the membrane-proximal domain. Although crystallography will be needed to define the precise interaction interface, these data provide an initial structural basis for TIP47–CI-MPR association. PMID:10908666

  8. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  9. Epitope tags beside the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail of human BST-2 alter its intracellular trafficking and HIV-1 restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mingyu; Wang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingyao; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhu, Yingzi; Zuo, Tao; Liu, Donglai; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Jiaxin; Zhang, Haihong; Yu, Bin; Wu, Hui; Zhao, Xinghong; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui

    2014-01-01

    BST-2 blocks the particle release of various enveloped viruses including HIV-1, and this antiviral activity is dependent on the topological arrangement of its four structural domains. Several functions of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of BST-2 have been previously discussed, but the exact role of this domain remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the impact of truncation and commonly-used tags addition into the CT region of human BST-2 on its intracellular trafficking and signaling as well as its anti-HIV-1 function. The CT-truncated BST-2 exhibited potent inhibition on Vpu-defective HIV-1 and even wild-type HIV-1. However, the N-terminal HA-tagged CT-truncated BST-2 retained little antiviral activity and dramatically differed from its original protein in the cell surface level and intracellular localization. Further, we showed that the replacement of the CT domain with a hydrophobic tag altered BST-2 function possibly by preventing its normal vesicular trafficking. Notably, we demonstrated that a positive charged motif "KRXK" in the conjunctive region between the cytotail and the transmembrane domain which is conserved in primate BST-2 is important for the protein trafficking and the antiviral function. These results suggest that although the CT of BST-2 is not essential for its antiviral activity, the composition of residues in this region may play important roles in its normal trafficking which subsequently affected its function. These observations provide additional implications for the structure-function model of BST-2.

  10. The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Morgane; Masquelier, Cécile; Beraud, Cyprien; Rybicki, Arkadiusz; Servais, Jean-Yves; Iserentant, Gilles; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines. PMID:27598717

  11. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata,C. maxima,C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia--'Mexican' lime types of Tanaka's taxa), C. reticulata(for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka's taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' and 'Rough' lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon--yellow lemon types--varieties of Tanaka's taxa) or the C. maxima × C. reticulate hybrid (for C. limettioides--'Palestine sweet' lime types--and C

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hutchins

    Full Text Available Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Elizabeth D; Markov, Glenn J; Eckalbar, Walter L; George, Rajani M; King, Jesse M; Tokuyama, Minami A; Geiger, Lauren A; Emmert, Nataliya; Ammar, Michael J; Allen, April N; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Fisher, Rebecca E; Wade, Juli; DeNardo, Dale F; Rawls, J Alan; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Kusumi, Kenro

    2014-01-01

    Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  14. Cigarette smoke disrupts the integrity of airway adherens junctions through the aberrant interaction of p120-catenin with the cytoplasmic tail of MUC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Gallup, Marianne; Zlock, Lorna; Basbaum, Carol; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; McNamara, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) containing epithelial cadherin (E-cad) bound to p120-catenin (p120ctn) and β-catenin (β-ctn) play a crucial role in regulating cell–cell adhesion. Cigarette smoke abrogates cell–cell adhesion between epithelial cells by disrupting E-cad, a hallmark of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), yet the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We used an organotypic culture of primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with smoke-concentrated medium (Smk) to establish an essential role for the interaction between p120ctn and the cytoplasmic tail of MUC1 (MUC1-CT) in regulating E-cad disruption. Within the first 4 h of smoke exposure, apical MUC1-CT repositioned to the basolateral membrane of pseudo-stratified HBE cells, where it interacted with p120ctn. A time-dependent increase in MUC1-CT/p120ctn complexes occurred in conjunction with a time-dependent dissociation of p120ctn/E-cad/β-ctn complexes, as well as the coordinated degradation of p120ctn and E-cad. Interestingly, Smk induced a similar interaction between MUC1-CT and β-ctn, but this occurred 44 h after MUC1-CT’s initial interaction with p120ctn, and well after the AJs were destroyed. Blocking MUC1-CT’s interaction with p120ctn using a MUC1-CT dominant-negative peptide, PMIP, successfully abolished Smk’s disruptive effects on AJs and recovered apical-basolateral polarity of HBE cells. The MUC1-CT/p120ctn interaction was highly dependent on EGFR/Src/Jnk-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation (TyrP) of MUC1-CT. Accordingly, EGFR, Src or Jnk inhibitors (AG1478, PP2, SP600125, respectively) abrogated Smk-induced MUC1-CT-TyrP, MUC1-CT/p120ctn interaction, AJ disruption, and loss of cellular polarity. Our work identified MUC1-CT and p120ctn as important regulators of epithelial polarity and cell-cell adhesion during a smoke-induced EMT-like process. Novel therapeutics designed to inhibit MUC1-CT/p120ctn complex formation may prevent EMT in the smoker’s airway. PMID

  15. Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V; Troolin, Daniel R; Strand, Tyson

    2011-12-22

    Understanding how moving organisms generate locomotor forces is fundamental to the analysis of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow patterns that are generated during body and appendage oscillation. In the past, this has been accomplished using two-dimensional planar techniques that require reconstruction of three-dimensional flow patterns. We have applied a new, fully three-dimensional, volumetric imaging technique that allows instantaneous capture of wake flow patterns, to a classic problem in functional vertebrate biology: the function of the asymmetrical (heterocercal) tail of swimming sharks to capture the vorticity field within the volume swept by the tail. These data were used to test a previous three-dimensional reconstruction of the shark vortex wake estimated from two-dimensional flow analyses, and show that the volumetric approach reveals a different vortex wake not previously reconstructed from two-dimensional slices. The hydrodynamic wake consists of one set of dual-linked vortex rings produced per half tail beat. In addition, we use a simple passive shark-tail model under robotic control to show that the three-dimensional wake flows of the robotic tail differ from the active tail motion of a live shark, suggesting that active control of kinematics and tail stiffness plays a substantial role in the production of wake vortical patterns.

  16. Poly(A)-tail profiling reveals an embryonic switch in translational control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtelny, Alexander O.; Eichhorn, Stephen W.; Chen, Grace R.; Sive, Hazel; Bartel, David P.

    2014-04-01

    Poly(A) tails enhance the stability and translation of most eukaryotic messenger RNAs, but difficulties in globally measuring poly(A)-tail lengths have impeded greater understanding of poly(A)-tail function. Here we describe poly(A)-tail length profiling by sequencing (PAL-seq) and apply it to measure tail lengths of millions of individual RNAs isolated from yeasts, cell lines, Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, mouse liver, and zebrafish and frog embryos. Poly(A)-tail lengths were conserved between orthologous mRNAs, with mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins and other `housekeeping' proteins tending to have shorter tails. As expected, tail lengths were coupled to translational efficiencies in early zebrafish and frog embryos. However, this strong coupling diminished at gastrulation and was absent in non-embryonic samples, indicating a rapid developmental switch in the nature of translational control. This switch complements an earlier switch to zygotic transcriptional control and explains why the predominant effect of microRNA-mediated deadenylation concurrently shifts from translational repression to mRNA destabilization.

  17. Orientation selective DEER measurements on vinculin tail at X-band frequencies reveal spin label orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Christoph; Klose, Daniel; Dietrich, Franziska; Ziegler, Wolfgang H.; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Double electron electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has been established as a valuable method to determine distances between spin labels bound to protein molecules. Caused by selective excitation of molecular orientations DEER primary data also depend on the mutual orientation of the spin labels. For a doubly spin labeled variant of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin tail strong orientation selection can be observed already at X-band frequencies, which allows us to reduce the problem to the relative orientation of two molecular axes and the spin-spin axis parameterized by three angles. A full grid search of parameter space reveals that the DEER experiment introduces parameter-space symmetry higher than the symmetry of the spin Hamiltonian. Thus, the number of equivalent parameter sets is twice as large as expected and the relative orientation of the two spin labels is ambiguous. Except for this inherent ambiguity the most probable relative orientation of the two spin labels can be determined with good confidence and moderate uncertainty by global fitting of a set of five DEER experiments at different offsets between pump and observer frequency. The experiment provides restraints on the angles between the z axis of the nitroxide molecular frame and the spin-spin vector and on the dihedral between the two z axes. When using the same type of label at both sites, assignment of the angle restraints is ambiguous and the sign of the dihedral restraint is also ambiguous.

  18. Susceptibility to virus-cell fusion at the plasma membrane is reduced through expression of HIV gp41 cytoplasmic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Katharina; Luksza, Julia; Dittmar, Matthias T

    2008-06-20

    The cytoplasmic tail of the HIV transmembrane protein plays an important role in viral infection. In this study we analyzed the role of retroviral cytoplasmic tails in modulating the cytoskeleton and interfering with virus-cell fusion. HeLaP4 cells expressing different HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs showed reduced acetylated tubulin levels whereas the cytoplasmic tail of MLV did not alter microtubule stability indicating a unique function for the lentiviral cytoplasmic tail. The effect on tubulin is mediated through the membrane proximal region of the HIV cytoplasmic tail and was independent of membrane localization. Site-directed mutagenesis identified three motifs in the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail required to effect the reduction in acetylated tubulin. Both the YxxPhi domain and amino acids 21 to 45 of the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail need to be present to change the level of acetylated tubulin in transfected cells. T-cells stably expressing one HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail derived construct showed also a reduction in acetylated tubulin thus confirming the importance of this effect not only for HeLaP4 and 293T cells. Challenge experiments using transiently transfected HeLaP4 cells and T cells stably expressing an HIV cytoplasmic tail construct revealed both reduced virus-cell fusion and replication of HIV-1(NL4.3) compared to control cells. In the virus-cell fusion assay only virions pseudotyped with either HIV or MLV envelopes showed reduced fusion efficiency, whereas VSV-G pseudotyped virions where not affected by the expression of HIV derived cytoplasmic tail constructs, indicating that fusion at the plasma but not endosomal membrane is affected. Overexpression of human histone-deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and constitutively active RhoA resulted in a reduction of acetylated tubulin and reduced virus-cell fusion as significant as that observed following expression of HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs. Inhibition of HDAC6 showed a strong increase in acetylated tubulin and increase of

  19. Identification of Cytoplasmic Capping Targets Reveals a Role for Cap Homeostasis in Translation and mRNA Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrama Mukherjee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The notion that decapping leads irreversibly to messenger RNA (mRNA decay was contradicted by the identification of capped transcripts missing portions of their 5′ ends and a cytoplasmic complex that can restore the cap on uncapped mRNAs. In this study, we used accumulation of uncapped transcripts in cells inhibited for cytoplasmic capping to identify the targets of this pathway. Inhibition of cytoplasmic capping results in the destabilization of some transcripts and the redistribution of others from polysomes to nontranslating messenger ribonucleoproteins, where they accumulate in an uncapped state. Only a portion of the mRNA transcriptome is affected by cytoplasmic capping, and its targets encode proteins involved in nucleotide binding, RNA and protein localization, and the mitotic cell cycle. The 3′ untranslated regions of recapping targets are enriched for AU-rich elements and microRNA binding sites, both of which function in cap-dependent mRNA silencing. These findings identify a cyclical process of decapping and recapping that we term cap homeostasis.

  20. Amendments with organic and industrial wastes stimulate soil formation in mine tailings as revealed by micromorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanuzzi, A.; Arocena, J.M.; van Mourik, J.M.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings are inhospitable to plants and soil organisms, because of low pH and poor soil organic matter contents. Vegetation establishment requires a soil system capable of supporting the nutrient and water requirements of plants and associated organisms. The objective of this study was to

  1. Microarray analysis of cytoplasmic versus whole cell RNA reveals a considerable number of missed and false positive mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Heidi W; Cowper-Sal-lari, Richard; Sartor, Maureen A; Gui, Jiang; Heath, Catherine V; Renuka, Janhavi; Higgins, Azara-Jane; Andrews, Peter; Korc, Murray; Moore, Jason H; Tomlinson, Craig R

    2009-10-01

    With no known exceptions, every published microarray study to determine differential mRNA levels in eukaryotes used RNA extracted from whole cells. It is assumed that the use of whole cell RNA in microarray gene expression analysis provides a legitimate profile of steady-state mRNA. Standard labeling methods and the prevailing dogma that mRNA resides almost exclusively in the cytoplasm has led to the long-standing belief that the nuclear RNA contribution is negligible. We report that unadulterated cytoplasmic RNA uncovers differentially expressed mRNAs that otherwise would not have been detected when using whole cell RNA and that the inclusion of nuclear RNA has a large impact on whole cell gene expression microarray results by distorting the mRNA profile to the extent that a substantial number of false positives are generated. We conclude that to produce a valid profile of the steady-state mRNA population, the nuclear component must be excluded, and to arrive at a more realistic view of a cell's gene expression profile, the nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions should be analyzed separately.

  2. Deletion of the sequence encoding the tail domain of the bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor reveals a bone morphogenetic protein 7-specific gain of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Patricio A; Beppu, Hideyuki; Pappas, Alexandra; Martyn, Trejeeve M; Derwall, Matthias; Baron, David M; Galdos, Rita; Bloch, Donald B; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptor (BMPR2) has a long cytoplasmic tail domain whose function is incompletely elucidated. Mutations in the tail domain of BMPR2 are found in familial cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension. To investigate the role of the tail domain of BMPR2 in BMP signaling, we generated a mouse carrying a Bmpr2 allele encoding a non-sense mediated decay-resistant mutant receptor lacking the tail domain of Bmpr2. We found that homozygous mutant mice died during gastrulation, whereas heterozygous mice grew normally without developing pulmonary arterial hypertension. Using pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PaSMC) from heterozygous mice, we determined that the mutant receptor was expressed and retained its ability to transduce BMP signaling. Heterozygous PaSMCs exhibited a BMP7‑specific gain of function, which was transduced via the mutant receptor. Using siRNA knockdown and cells from conditional knockout mice to selectively deplete BMP receptors, we observed that the tail domain of Bmpr2 inhibits Alk2‑mediated BMP7 signaling. These findings suggest that the tail domain of Bmpr2 is essential for normal embryogenesis and inhibits Alk2‑mediated BMP7 signaling in PaSMCs.

  3. Microarray analysis of cytoplasmic versus whole cell RNA reveals a considerable number of missed and false positive mRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Heidi W.; Cowper-Sal-lari, Richard; Sartor, Maureen A.; Gui, Jiang; Heath, Catherine V.; Renuka, Janhavi; Higgins, Azara-Jane; Andrews,Peter; Korc, Murray; Moore, Jason H; Craig R Tomlinson

    2009-01-01

    With no known exceptions, every published microarray study to determine differential mRNA levels in eukaryotes used RNA extracted from whole cells. It is assumed that the use of whole cell RNA in microarray gene expression analysis provides a legitimate profile of steady-state mRNA. Standard labeling methods and the prevailing dogma that mRNA resides almost exclusively in the cytoplasm has led to the long-standing belief that the nuclear RNA contribution is negligible. We report that unadulte...

  4. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-08-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and in stands from the current zone of contact containing morphological hybrids. Cluster analyses were used to identify genetic discontinuities among groups of populations. A canonical analysis was also conducted to detect putative associations among cytoplasmic DNA variation, tree morphology, and site ecological features. MtDNA introgression was extensive and asymmetric: it was detected in P. banksiana populations from the hybrid zone and from allopatric areas, but not in P. contorta populations. Very weak cpDNA introgression was observed, and only in P. banksiana populations. The mtDNA introgression pattern indicated that central Canada was first colonized by migrants from a P. contorta glacial population located west of the Rocky Mountains, before being replaced by P. banksiana migrating westward during the Holocene. In contrast, extensive pollen gene flow would have erased the cpDNA traces of this ancient presence of P. contorta. Additional evidence for this process was provided by the results of canonical analysis, which indicated that the current cpDNA background of trees reflected recent pollen gene flow from the surrounding dominant species rather than historical events that took place during the postglacial colonization.

  5. Movements of HIV-1 genomic RNA-APOBEC3F complexes and PKR reveal cytoplasmic and nuclear PKR defenses and HIV-1 evasion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mariana; Golem, Sheetal; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David

    2016-02-02

    APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and viral genomic RNA (gRNA) occur in virions, polysomes, and cytoplasmic granules, but have not been tracked together. Moreover, gRNA traffic is important, but the factors that move it into granules are unknown. Using in situ hybridization of transfected cells and protein synthesis inhibitors that drive mRNAs between locales, we observed APOBEC3F cotrafficking with gRNA without altering its movements. Whereas cells with little cytoplasmic gRNA were translationally active and accumulated Gag, suprathreshold amounts induced autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), causing eIF2α phosphorylation, protein synthesis suppression, and gRNA sequestration in stress granules. Additionally, we confirmed recent evidence that PKR is activated by chromosome-associated cellular dsRNAs after nuclear membranes disperse in prophase. By arresting cells in G2, HIV-1 blocks this mechanism for PKR activation and eIF2α phosphorylation. However, cytopathic membrane damage in CD4- and coreceptor-positive cultures infected with laboratory-adapted fusogenic HIV-1LAI eventually enabled PKR entry and activation in interphase nuclei. These results reveal multiple stages in the PKR-HIV-1 battleground that culminate in cell death. We discuss evidence suggesting that HIV-1s evolve in vivo to prevent or delay PKR activation by all these mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modified cytoplasmic Ca2+ sequestration contributes to spinal cord injury-induced augmentation of nerve-evoked contractions in the rat tail artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dera, Hussain; Callaghan, Brid P; Brock, James A

    2014-01-01

    In rat tail artery (RTA), spinal cord injury (SCI) increases nerve-evoked contractions and the contribution of L-type Ca2+ channels to these responses. In RTAs from unoperated rats, these channels play a minor role in contractions and Bay K8644 (L-type channel agonist) mimics the effects of SCI. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying the facilitatory actions of SCI and Bay K8644 on nerve-evoked contractions of RTAs and the hypothesis that Ca2+ entering via L-type Ca2+ channels is rapidly sequestered by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) limiting its role in contraction. In situ electrochemical detection of noradrenaline was used to assess if Bay K8644 increased noradrenaline release. Perforated patch recordings were used to assess if SCI changed the Ca2+ current recorded in RTA myocytes. Wire myography was used to assess if SCI modified the effects of Bay K8644 and of interrupting SR Ca2+ uptake on nerve-evoked contractions. Bay K8644 did not change noradrenaline-induced oxidation currents. Neither the size nor gating of Ca2+ currents differed between myocytes from sham-operated (control) and SCI rats. Bay K8644 increased nerve-evoked contractions in RTAs from both control and SCI rats, but the magnitude of this effect was reduced by SCI. By contrast, depleting SR Ca2+ stores with ryanodine or cyclopiazonic acid selectively increased nerve-evoked contractions in control RTAs. Cyclopiazonic acid also selectively increased the blockade of these responses by nifedipine (L-type channel blocker) in control RTAs, whereas ryanodine increased the blockade produced by nifedipine in both groups of RTAs. These findings suggest that Ca2+ entering via L-type channels is normally rapidly sequestered limiting its access to the contractile mechanism. Furthermore, the findings suggest SCI reduces the role of this mechanism.

  7. Modified cytoplasmic Ca2+ sequestration contributes to spinal cord injury-induced augmentation of nerve-evoked contractions in the rat tail artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Al Dera

    Full Text Available In rat tail artery (RTA, spinal cord injury (SCI increases nerve-evoked contractions and the contribution of L-type Ca2+ channels to these responses. In RTAs from unoperated rats, these channels play a minor role in contractions and Bay K8644 (L-type channel agonist mimics the effects of SCI. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying the facilitatory actions of SCI and Bay K8644 on nerve-evoked contractions of RTAs and the hypothesis that Ca2+ entering via L-type Ca2+ channels is rapidly sequestered by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR limiting its role in contraction. In situ electrochemical detection of noradrenaline was used to assess if Bay K8644 increased noradrenaline release. Perforated patch recordings were used to assess if SCI changed the Ca2+ current recorded in RTA myocytes. Wire myography was used to assess if SCI modified the effects of Bay K8644 and of interrupting SR Ca2+ uptake on nerve-evoked contractions. Bay K8644 did not change noradrenaline-induced oxidation currents. Neither the size nor gating of Ca2+ currents differed between myocytes from sham-operated (control and SCI rats. Bay K8644 increased nerve-evoked contractions in RTAs from both control and SCI rats, but the magnitude of this effect was reduced by SCI. By contrast, depleting SR Ca2+ stores with ryanodine or cyclopiazonic acid selectively increased nerve-evoked contractions in control RTAs. Cyclopiazonic acid also selectively increased the blockade of these responses by nifedipine (L-type channel blocker in control RTAs, whereas ryanodine increased the blockade produced by nifedipine in both groups of RTAs. These findings suggest that Ca2+ entering via L-type channels is normally rapidly sequestered limiting its access to the contractile mechanism. Furthermore, the findings suggest SCI reduces the role of this mechanism.

  8. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Quigley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways. Gene networks related to specific cell types and signaling pathways, including sonic hedgehog (Shh, Wnt, Lgr family stem cell markers, and keratins, differed at these tissue sites, suggesting mechanisms for the differential susceptibility of dorsal and tail skin to development of skin diseases and tumorigenesis. The Pten tumor suppressor gene network is rewired in premalignant tumors compared to normal tissue, but this response to perturbation is lost during malignant progression. We present a software package for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL network analysis and demonstrate how network analysis of whole tissues provides insights into interactions between cell compartments and signaling molecules.

  9. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2016-11-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706) of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  10. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD. In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706 of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  11. Pyrodictium cannulae enter the periplasmic space but do not enter the cytoplasm, as revealed by cryo-electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Stephan; Hegerl, Reiner; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Rachel, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrodictium grows in the form of a macroscopically visible network. It consists of cells entrapped in an extracellular matrix of hollow tubules, the "cannulae." Here, we present the three-dimensional structure of a single cell in conjunction with two extracellular cannulae, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. To achieve this, the information from two independent tilt series of the same specimen was combined, with the specimen rotated in the second series. In the three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction, we were able to trace the two cannulae in their full length, in particular, also inside the cell. One cannula enters the periplasmic space, while the other cannula contacts the surface of the cell, the S-layer. This indicates that the cannulae interconnect individual cells with each other on the level of their periplasmic space; we do not, however, have evidence that they enter the cytoplasm of the cells. The implications of these data for possible functions of the cannulae are discussed.

  12. Stabilization of Nucleosomes by Histone Tails and by FACT Revealed by spFRET Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valieva, Maria E; Gerasimova, Nadezhda S; Kudryashova, Kseniya S; Kozlova, Anastasia L; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Hu, Qi; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Mer, Georges; Feofanov, Alexey V; Studitsky, Vasily M

    2017-01-06

    A correct chromatin structure is important for cell viability and is tightly regulated by numerous factors. Human protein complex FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) is an essential factor involved in chromatin transcription and cancer development. Here FACT-dependent changes in the structure of single nucleosomes were studied with single-particle Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) microscopy using nucleosomes labeled with a donor-acceptor pair of fluorophores, which were attached to the adjacent gyres of DNA near the contact between H2A-H2B dimers. Human FACT and its version without the C-terminal domain (CTD) and the high mobility group (HMG) domain of the structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) subunit did not change the structure of the nucleosomes, while FACT without the acidic C-terminal domains of the suppressor of Ty 16 (Spt16) and the SSRP1 subunits caused nucleosome aggregation. Proteolytic removal of histone tails significantly disturbed the nucleosome structure, inducing partial unwrapping of nucleosomal DNA. Human FACT reduced DNA unwrapping and stabilized the structure of tailless nucleosomes. CTD and/or HMG domains of SSRP1 are required for this FACT activity. In contrast, previously it has been shown that yeast FACT unfolds (reorganizes) nucleosomes using the CTD domain of SSRP1-like Pol I-binding protein 3 subunit (Pob3). Thus, yeast and human FACT complexes likely utilize the same domains for nucleosome reorganization and stabilization, respectively, and these processes are mechanistically similar.

  13. Stabilization of Nucleosomes by Histone Tails and by FACT Revealed by spFRET Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Valieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A correct chromatin structure is important for cell viability and is tightly regulated by numerous factors. Human protein complex FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription is an essential factor involved in chromatin transcription and cancer development. Here FACT-dependent changes in the structure of single nucleosomes were studied with single-particle Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET microscopy using nucleosomes labeled with a donor-acceptor pair of fluorophores, which were attached to the adjacent gyres of DNA near the contact between H2A-H2B dimers. Human FACT and its version without the C-terminal domain (CTD and the high mobility group (HMG domain of the structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1 subunit did not change the structure of the nucleosomes, while FACT without the acidic C-terminal domains of the suppressor of Ty 16 (Spt16 and the SSRP1 subunits caused nucleosome aggregation. Proteolytic removal of histone tails significantly disturbed the nucleosome structure, inducing partial unwrapping of nucleosomal DNA. Human FACT reduced DNA unwrapping and stabilized the structure of tailless nucleosomes. CTD and/or HMG domains of SSRP1 are required for this FACT activity. In contrast, previously it has been shown that yeast FACT unfolds (reorganizes nucleosomes using the CTD domain of SSRP1-like Pol I-binding protein 3 subunit (Pob3. Thus, yeast and human FACT complexes likely utilize the same domains for nucleosome reorganization and stabilization, respectively, and these processes are mechanistically similar.

  14. Volumetric flow imaging reveals the importance of vortex ring formation in squid swimming tail-first and arms-first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S; Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Williams, Sheila; Thompson, Joseph T

    2016-02-01

    Squids use a pulsed jet and fin movements to swim both arms-first (forward) and tail-first (backward). Given the complexity of the squid multi-propulsor system, 3D velocimetry techniques are required for the comprehensive study of wake dynamics. Defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry, a volumetric velocimetry technique, and high-speed videography were used to study arms-first and tail-first swimming of brief squid Lolliguncula brevis over a broad range of speeds [0-10 dorsal mantle lengths (DML) s(-1)] in a swim tunnel. Although there was considerable complexity in the wakes of these multi-propulsor swimmers, 3D vortex rings and their derivatives were prominent reoccurring features during both tail-first and arms-first swimming, with the greatest jet and fin flow complexity occurring at intermediate speeds (1.5-3.0 DML s(-1)). The jet generally produced the majority of thrust during rectilinear swimming, increasing in relative importance with speed, and the fins provided no thrust at speeds >4.5 DML s(-1). For both swimming orientations, the fins sometimes acted as stabilizers, producing negative thrust (drag), and consistently provided lift at low/intermediate speeds (swimming orientation, and η for swimming sequences with clear isolated jet vortex rings was significantly greater (η=78.6±7.6%, mean±s.d.) than that for swimming sequences with clear elongated regions of concentrated jet vorticity (η=67.9±19.2%). This study reveals the complexity of 3D vortex wake flows produced by nekton with hydrodynamically distinct propulsors.

  15. The X-ray Crystal Structure of the Phage Tail Terminator Protein Reveals the Biologically Relevant Hexameric Rang Structure and Demonstrates a Conserved mechanism of Tail Termination among Divrse Long Tailed Phages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pell, L.; Liu, A; Edmonds, L; Donaldson, L; Howell, L; Davidson, A

    2009-01-01

    The tail terminator protein (TrP) plays an essential role in phage tail assembly by capping the rapidly polymerizing tail once it has reached its requisite length and serving as the interaction surface for phage heads. Here, we present the 2.7-A crystal structure of a hexameric ring of gpU, the TrP of phage ?. Using sequence alignment analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that this multimeric structure is biologically relevant and we have delineated its functional surfaces. Comparison of the hexameric crystal structure with the solution structure of gpU that we previously solved using NMR spectroscopy shows large structural changes occurring upon multimerization and suggests a mechanism that allows gpU to remain monomeric at high concentrations on its own, yet polymerize readily upon contact with an assembled tail tube. The gpU hexamer displays several flexible loops that play key roles in head and tail binding, implying a role for disorder-to-order transitions in controlling assembly as has been observed with other ? morphogenetic proteins. Finally, we have found that the hexameric structure of gpU is very similar to the structure of a putative TrP from a contractile phage tail even though it displays no detectable sequence similarity. This finding coupled with further bioinformatic investigations has led us to conclude that the TrPs of non-contractile-tailed phages, such as ?, are evolutionarily related to those of contractile-tailed phages, such as P2 and Mu, and that all long-tailed phages may utilize a conserved mechanism for tail termination.

  16. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiapeng [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Mouveaux, Thomas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F. [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Tomavo, Stanislas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Ngô, Huân M., E-mail: h-ngo@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); BrainMicro LLC, 21 Pendleton Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The second crystal structure of a parasite protein preferentially enriched in the brain cyst of T. gondii has been solved at 2.75 Å resolution. Bradyzoite enolase 1 is reported to have differential functions as a glycolytic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator in bradyzoites. In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein in Toxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.

  17. The PHD finger of human UHRF1 reveals a new subgroup of unmethylated histone H3 tail readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Lallous

    Full Text Available The human UHRF1 protein (ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 has emerged as a potential cancer target due to its implication in cell cycle regulation, maintenance of DNA methylation after replication and heterochromatin formation. UHRF1 functions as an adaptor protein that binds to histones and recruits histone modifying enzymes, like HDAC1 or G9a, which exert their action on chromatin. In this work, we show the binding specificity of the PHD finger of human UHRF1 (huUHRF1-PHD towards unmodified histone H3 N-terminal tail using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry. We report the molecular basis of this interaction by determining the crystal structure of huUHRF1-PHD in complex with the histone H3 N-terminal tail. The structure reveals a new mode of histone recognition involving an extra conserved zinc finger preceding the conventional PHD finger region. This additional zinc finger forms part of a large surface cavity that accommodates the side chain of the histone H3 lysine K4 (H3K4 regardless of its methylation state. Mutation of Q330, which specifically interacts with H3K4, to alanine has no effect on the binding, suggesting a loose interaction between huUHRF1-PHD and H3K4. On the other hand, the recognition appears to rely on histone H3R2, which fits snugly into a groove on the protein and makes tight interactions with the conserved aspartates D334 and D337. Indeed, a mutation of the former aspartate disrupts the formation of the complex, while mutating the latter decreases the binding affinity nine-fold.

  18. Long-tailed distribution of synaptic strength reveals origin and functional roles of ongoing fluctuation in cortical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramae, Jun-nosuke

    2016-06-01

    Neurons in the cortical circuit continuous to generate irregular spike firing with extremely low firing rate (about 1-2 Hz) even when animals neither receive any external stimuli nor they do not show any significant motor movement. The ongoing activity is often called neuronal noise because measured spike trains are often highly irregular and also spike timings are highly asynchronous among neurons. Many experiments imply that neural networks themselves must generate the noisy activity as an intrinsic property of cortical circuit. However, how a network of neurons sustains the irregular spike firings with low firing rate remains unclear. Recently, by focusing on long-tailed distribution of amplitude of synaptic connections or EPSP (Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential), we successfully revealed that due to coexistence of a few extremely strong synaptic connections and majority of weak synapses, nonlinear dynamics of population of spiking neurons can have a nontrivial stable state that corresponding to the intrinsic ongoing fluctuation of the cortical circuit. We also found that due to the fluctuation fidelity of spike transmission between neurons are optimized. Here, we report our recent findings of the ongoing fluctuation from viewpoints of mathematical and computational side.

  19. Antibody-based analysis reveals “filamentous vs. non-filamentous” and “cytoplasmic vs. nuclear” crosstalk of cytoskeletal proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumeta, Masahiro, E-mail: kumeta@lif.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Hirai, Yuya; Yoshimura, Shige H. [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Horigome, Tsuneyoshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Takeyasu, Kunio [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-10

    To uncover the molecular composition and dynamics of the functional scaffold for the nucleus, three fractions of biochemically-stable nuclear protein complexes were extracted and used as immunogens to produce a variety of monoclonal antibodies. Many helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were identified as antigens, suggesting their dynamic contribution to nuclear architecture and function. Interestingly, sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform of certain cytoskeletal proteins; distinct molecular forms of keratin and actinin were found in the nucleus. Their nuclear shuttling properties were verified by the apparent nuclear accumulations under inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Nuclear keratins do not take an obvious filamentous structure, as was revealed by non-filamentous cytoplasmic keratin-specific monoclonal antibody. These results suggest the distinct roles of the helix-based cytoskeletal proteins in the nucleus. - Highlights: • A set of monoclonal antibodies were raised against nuclear scaffold proteins. • Helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were involved in nuclear scaffold. • Many cytoskeletal components shuttle into the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner. • Sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform. • Nuclear keratin is soluble and does not form an obvious filamentous structure.

  20. Essential function of the N-termini tails of the proteasome for the gating mechanism revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hisashi

    2014-09-01

    Proteasome is involved in the degradation of proteins. Proteasome activators bind to the proteasome core particle (CP) and facilitate opening a gate of the CP, where Tyr8 and Asp9 in the N-termini tails of the CP form the ordered open gate. In a double mutant (Tyr8Gly/Asp9Gly), the N-termini tails are disordered and the stabilized open-gate conformation cannot be formed. To understand the gating mechanism of the CP for the translocation of the substrate, four different molecular dynamics simulations were carried out: ordered- and Tyr8Gly/Asp9Gly disordered-gate models of the CP complexed with an ATP-independent PA26 and ordered- and disordered-gate models of the CP complexed with an ATP-dependent PAN-like activator. The free-energies of the translocation of a polypeptide substrate moving through the gate were estimated. In the ordered-gate models, the substrate in the activator was more stable than that in the CP. The conformational entropy of the N-termini tails of the CP was larger when the substrate was in the activator than in the CP. In the disordered-gate models, the substrate in the activator was more destabilized than in the ordered-gate models. The mutated N-termini tails became randomized and their increased conformational entropy could no longer increase further even when the substrate was in the activator, meaning the randomized N-termini tails had lost the ability to stabilize the substrate in the activator. Thus, it was concluded that the dynamics of the N-termini tails entropically play a key role in the translocation of the substrate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Computer modeling reveals that modifications of the histone tail charges define salt-dependent interaction of the nucleosome core particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Korolev, Nikolay; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2009-03-18

    Coarse-grained Langevin molecular dynamics computer simulations were conducted for systems that mimic solutions of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The NCP was modeled as a negatively charged spherical particle representing the complex of DNA and the globular part of the histones combined with attached strings of connected charged beads modeling the histone tails. The size, charge, and distribution of the tails relative to the core were built to match real NCPs. Three models of NCPs were constructed to represent different extents of covalent modification on the histone tails: (nonmodified) recombinant (rNCP), acetylated (aNCP), and acetylated and phosphorylated (paNCP). The simulation cell contained 10 NCPs in a dielectric continuum with explicit mobile counterions and added salt. The NCP-NCP interaction is decisively dependent on the modification state of the histone tails and on salt conditions. Increasing the monovalent salt concentration (KCl) from salt-free to physiological concentration leads to NCP aggregation in solution for rNCP, whereas NCP associates are observed only occasionally in the system of aNCPs. In the presence of divalent salt (Mg(2+)), rNCPs form dense stable aggregates, whereas aNCPs form aggregates less frequently. Aggregates are formed via histone-tail bridging and accumulation of counterions in the regions of NCP-NCP contacts. The paNCPs do not show NCP-NCP interaction upon addition of KCl or in the presence of Mg(2+). Simulations for systems with a gradual substitution of K(+) for Mg(2+), to mimic the Mg(2+) titration of an NCP solution, were performed. The rNCP system showed stronger aggregation that occurred at lower concentrations of added Mg(2+), compared to the aNCP system. Additional molecular dynamics simulations performed with a single NCP in the simulation cell showed that detachment of the tails from the NCP core was modest under a wide range of salt concentrations. This implies that salt-induced tail dissociation of the

  2. Evidence for bacteriophage T7 tail extension during DNA injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakala Kevin W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron micrographs of bacteriophage T7 reveal a tail shorter than needed to reach host cytoplasm during infection-initiating injection of a T7 DNA molecule through the tail and cell envelope. However, recent data indicate that internal T7 proteins are injected before the DNA molecule is injected. Thus, bacteriophage/host adsorption potentially causes internal proteins to become external and lengthen the tail for DNA injection. But, the proposed adsorption-induced tail lengthening has never been visualized. Findings In the present study, electron microscopy of particles in T7 lysates reveals a needle-like capsid extension that attaches partially emptied bacteriophage T7 capsids to non-capsid vesicles and sometimes enters an attached vesicle. This extension is 40–55 nm long, 1.7–2.4× longer than the T7 tail and likely to be the proposed lengthened tail. The extension is 8–11 nm in diameter, thinner than most of the tail, with an axial hole 3–4 nm in diameter. Though the bound vesicles are not identified by microscopy, these vesicles resemble the major vesicles in T7 lysates, found to be E. coli outer membrane vesicles by non-denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometry. Conclusion The observed lengthened tail is long enough to reach host cytoplasm during DNA injection. Its channel is wide enough to be a conduit for DNA injection and narrow enough to clamp DNA during a previously observed stalling/re-starting of injection. However, its outer diameter is too large to explain formation by passing of an intact assembly through any known capsid hole unless the hole is widened.

  3. Intra- and inter-nucleosomal interactions of the histone H4 tail revealed with a human nucleosome core particle with genetically-incorporated H4 tetra-acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamori, Masatoshi; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Suka, Noriyuki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-26

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones, such as lysine acetylation of the N-terminal tails, play crucial roles in controlling gene expression. Due to the difficulty in reconstituting site-specifically acetylated nucleosomes with crystallization quality, structural analyses of histone acetylation are currently performed using synthesized tail peptides. Through engineering of the genetic code, translation termination, and cell-free protein synthesis, we reconstituted human H4-mono- to tetra-acetylated nucleosome core particles (NCPs), and solved the crystal structures of the H4-K5/K8/K12/K16-tetra-acetylated NCP and unmodified NCP at 2.4 Å and 2.2 Å resolutions, respectively. The structure of the H4-tetra-acetylated NCP resembled that of the unmodified NCP, and the DNA wrapped the histone octamer as precisely as in the unmodified NCP. However, the B-factors were significantly increased for the peripheral DNAs near the N-terminal tail of the intra- or inter-nucleosomal H4. In contrast, the B-factors were negligibly affected by the H4 tetra-acetylation in histone core residues, including those composing the acidic patch, and at H4-R23, which interacts with the acidic patch of the neighboring NCP. The present study revealed that the H4 tetra-acetylation impairs NCP self-association by changing the interactions of the H4 tail with DNA, and is the first demonstration of crystallization quality NCPs reconstituted with genuine PTMs.

  4. Patterns in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Reveal Historical and Recent Isolation in the Black-Tailed Godwit (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, K.B.; Doorenweerd, C.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, N.M.; de Knijff, P.; Piersma, T.; de Snoo, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  5. Patterns in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveal historical and recent isolation in the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, Krijn B.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, Niko M.; Knijff, Peter de; Piersma, Theunis; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  6. Patterns in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveal historical and recent isolation in the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, Krijn B.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, Niko M.; Knijff, Peter de; Piersma, Theunis; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies

  7. Patterns in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Reveal Historical and Recent Isolation in the Black-Tailed Godwit (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, K.B.; Doorenweerd, C.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, N.M.; de Knijff, P.; Piersma, T.; de Snoo, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies

  8. Patterns in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Reveal Historical and Recent Isolation in the Black-Tailed Godwit (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, K.B.; Doorenweerd, C.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, N.M.; de Knijff, P.; Piersma, T.; de Snoo, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  9. Patterns in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveal historical and recent isolation in the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, Krijn B.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Musters, C.J.M.; Groen, Niko M.; Knijff, Peter de; Piersma, Theunis; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of morphological differences, three subspecies of Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) have been recognized (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). In previous studies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data showed minimal genetic divergence between the three subspecies a

  10. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  11. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states. PMID:26452693

  12. Single-molecule imaging of the H-ras membrane-anchor reveals domains in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Lommerse, Piet H M; Cognet, Laurent; Harms, Gregory S; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Spaink, Herman P; Schmidt, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade evidence has accumulated that small domains of 50-700 nm in diameter are located in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Most of these domains supposedly consist of specific sets of lipids and proteins, and are believed to coordinate signal transduction cascades. Whether similar domains are also present in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane is unclear so far. To investigate the presence of cytoplasmic leaflet domains, the H-Ras membrane-targeting sequence was fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, trajectories of individual molecules diffusing in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane were recorded. From these trajectories, the diffusion of individual membrane-anchored enhanced yellow fluorescent protein molecules was studied in live cells on timescales from 5 to 200 ms. The results show that the diffusion of 30-40% of the molecules is constrained in domains with a typical size of 200 n...

  13. Mutational analysis of dimeric linkers in peri- and cytoplasmic domains of histidine kinase DctB reveals their functional roles in signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiwei; Yang, Jianguo; Wen, Jin; Yang, Yun; Wei, Xiaolu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Membrane-associated histidine kinases (HKs) in two-component systems respond to environmental stimuli by autophosphorylation and phospho-transfer. HK typically contains a periplasmic sensor domain that regulates the cytoplasmic kinase domain through a conserved cytoplasmic linker. How signal is transduced from the ligand-binding site across the membrane barrier remains unclear. Here, we analyse two linker regions of a typical HK, DctB. One region connects the first transmembrane helix with the periplasmic Per-ARNT-Sim domains, while the other one connects the second transmembrane helix with the cytoplasmic kinase domains. We identify a leucine residue in the first linker region to be essential for the signal transduction and for maintaining the delicate balance of the dimeric interface, which is key to its activities. We also show that the other linker, belonging to the S-helix coiled-coil family, plays essential roles in signal transduction inside the cell. Furthermore, by combining mutations with opposing activities in the two regions, we show that these two signalling transduction elements are integrated to produce a combined effect on the final activity of DctB.

  14. Single particle electron microscopy analysis of the bovine anion exchanger 1 reveals a flexible linker connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansen Jiang

    Full Text Available Anion exchanger 1 (AE1 is the major erythrocyte membrane protein that mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the erythrocyte membrane facilitating CO₂ transport by the blood, and anchors the plasma membrane to the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. This multi-protein cytoskeletal complex plays an important role in erythrocyte elasticity and membrane stability. An in-frame AE1 deletion of nine amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain in a proximity to the membrane domain results in a marked increase in membrane rigidity and ovalocytic red cells in the disease Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO. We hypothesized that AE1 has a flexible region connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains, which is partially deleted in SAO, thus causing the loss of erythrocyte elasticity. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a new non-denaturing method of AE1 purification from bovine erythrocyte membranes. A three-dimensional (3D structure of bovine AE1 at 2.4 nm resolution was obtained by negative staining electron microscopy, orthogonal tilt reconstruction and single particle analysis. The cytoplasmic and membrane domains are connected by two parallel linkers. Image classification demonstrated substantial flexibility in the linker region. We propose a mechanism whereby flexibility of the linker region plays a critical role in regulating red cell elasticity.

  15. Crystallization of Galectin-8 Linker Reveals Intricate Relationship between the N-terminal Tail and the Linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-8 (Gal-8 plays a significant role in normal immunological function as well as in cancer. This lectin contains two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD connected by a peptide linker. The N-terminal CRD determines ligand binding specificity, whereas the linker has been proposed to regulate overall Gal-8 function, including multimerization and biological activity. Here, we crystallized the Gal-8 N-terminal CRD with the peptide linker using a crystallization condition that contains Ni2+. The Ni2+ ion was found to be complexed between two CRDs via crystal packing contacts. The coordination between Ni2+ and Asp25 plays an indirect role in determining the structure of β-strand F0 and in influencing the linker conformation which could not be defined due to its dynamic nature. The linker was also shortened in situ and crystallized under a different condition, leading to a higher resolution structure refined to 1.08 Å. This crystal structure allowed definition of a short portion of the linker interacting with the Gal-8 N-terminal tail via ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds. Observation of two Gal-8 N-terminal CRD structures implies that the N-terminal tail and the linker may influence each other’s conformation. In addition, under specific crystallization conditions, glycerol could replace lactose and was observed at the carbohydrate binding site. However, glycerol did not show inhibition activity in hemagglutination assay.

  16. Crystallization of Galectin-8 Linker Reveals Intricate Relationship between the N-terminal Tail and the Linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yunlong; Wang, Yue; Gao, Jin; Song, Chenyang; Feng, Shiqiong; Zhou, Yifa; Tai, Guihua; Su, Jiyong

    2016-12-12

    Galectin-8 (Gal-8) plays a significant role in normal immunological function as well as in cancer. This lectin contains two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) connected by a peptide linker. The N-terminal CRD determines ligand binding specificity, whereas the linker has been proposed to regulate overall Gal-8 function, including multimerization and biological activity. Here, we crystallized the Gal-8 N-terminal CRD with the peptide linker using a crystallization condition that contains Ni(2+). The Ni(2+) ion was found to be complexed between two CRDs via crystal packing contacts. The coordination between Ni(2+) and Asp25 plays an indirect role in determining the structure of β-strand F0 and in influencing the linker conformation which could not be defined due to its dynamic nature. The linker was also shortened in situ and crystallized under a different condition, leading to a higher resolution structure refined to 1.08 Å. This crystal structure allowed definition of a short portion of the linker interacting with the Gal-8 N-terminal tail via ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds. Observation of two Gal-8 N-terminal CRD structures implies that the N-terminal tail and the linker may influence each other's conformation. In addition, under specific crystallization conditions, glycerol could replace lactose and was observed at the carbohydrate binding site. However, glycerol did not show inhibition activity in hemagglutination assay.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction reveals the role of mRNA poly(A tail regulation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Chartier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD, a late-onset disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles, results from the extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1. While the roles of PABPN1 in nuclear polyadenylation and regulation of alternative poly(A site choice are established, the molecular mechanisms behind OPMD remain undetermined. Here, we show, using Drosophila and mouse models, that OPMD pathogenesis depends on affected poly(A tail lengths of specific mRNAs. We identify a set of mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins that are down-regulated starting at the earliest stages of OPMD progression. The down-regulation of these mRNAs correlates with their shortened poly(A tails and partial rescue of their levels when deadenylation is genetically reduced improves muscle function. Genetic analysis of candidate genes encoding RNA binding proteins using the Drosophila OPMD model uncovers a potential role of a number of them. We focus on the deadenylation regulator Smaug and show that it is expressed in adult muscles and specifically binds to the down-regulated mRNAs. In addition, the first step of the cleavage and polyadenylation reaction, mRNA cleavage, is affected in muscles expressing alanine-expanded PABPN1. We propose that impaired cleavage during nuclear cleavage/polyadenylation is an early defect in OPMD. This defect followed by active deadenylation of specific mRNAs, involving Smaug and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, leads to their destabilization and mitochondrial dysfunction. These results broaden our understanding of the role of mRNA regulation in pathologies and might help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders that involve mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Mitochondrial dysfunction reveals the role of mRNA poly(A) tail regulation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Aymeric; Klein, Pierre; Pierson, Stéphanie; Barbezier, Nicolas; Gidaro, Teresa; Casas, François; Carberry, Steven; Dowling, Paul; Maynadier, Laurie; Bellec, Maëlle; Oloko, Martine; Jardel, Claude; Moritz, Bodo; Dickson, George; Mouly, Vincent; Ohlendieck, Kay; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Trollet, Capucine; Simonelig, Martine

    2015-03-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), a late-onset disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles, results from the extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). While the roles of PABPN1 in nuclear polyadenylation and regulation of alternative poly(A) site choice are established, the molecular mechanisms behind OPMD remain undetermined. Here, we show, using Drosophila and mouse models, that OPMD pathogenesis depends on affected poly(A) tail lengths of specific mRNAs. We identify a set of mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins that are down-regulated starting at the earliest stages of OPMD progression. The down-regulation of these mRNAs correlates with their shortened poly(A) tails and partial rescue of their levels when deadenylation is genetically reduced improves muscle function. Genetic analysis of candidate genes encoding RNA binding proteins using the Drosophila OPMD model uncovers a potential role of a number of them. We focus on the deadenylation regulator Smaug and show that it is expressed in adult muscles and specifically binds to the down-regulated mRNAs. In addition, the first step of the cleavage and polyadenylation reaction, mRNA cleavage, is affected in muscles expressing alanine-expanded PABPN1. We propose that impaired cleavage during nuclear cleavage/polyadenylation is an early defect in OPMD. This defect followed by active deadenylation of specific mRNAs, involving Smaug and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, leads to their destabilization and mitochondrial dysfunction. These results broaden our understanding of the role of mRNA regulation in pathologies and might help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders that involve mitochondrial dysfunction.

  19. Amino acid composition of alpha1/alpha2 domains and cytoplasmic tail of MHC class I molecules determine their susceptibility to human cytomegalovirus US11-mediated down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Martine T; Pizzato, Nathalie; van Leeuwen, Daphne; Bouteiller, Philippe Le; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Lenfant, Francoise

    2003-06-01

    During co-evolution with its host, human cytomegalovirus has acquired multiple defense mechanisms to escape from immune recognition. In this study, we focused on US11, which binds to MHC class I heavy chains and mediates their dislocation to the cytosol and subsequent degradation by proteasomes. To examine which domains of class I heavy chains are involved in this process, we constructed chimeric HLA molecules of US11-sensitive and -insensitive class I molecules (HLA-A2 and HLA-G, respectively). Pulse-chase experiments were performed to evaluate protein stability and interactions between class I heavy chains and US11. Flow cytometry was employed to assess the effect of US11 on surface expression of the different chimeras. Our results indicate that the alpha1 and alpha2 domains of HLA molecules are important for the affinity of US11 association. However, the degradation efficiency seems to rely mostly on cytosolic tail residues. We found that the nonclassical HLA-G molecule is insensitive to US11-mediated degradation solely because it lacks essential tail residues. A deletion of the last two tail residues in full-length MHC class I molecules already caused a severe reduction in degradation efficiency. Altogether, our data provide new insights into the mechanism by which US11 down-regulates MHC class I molecules.

  20. Combined Use of GPS and Accelerometry Reveals Fine Scale Three-Dimensional Foraging Behaviour in the Short-Tailed Shearwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlincourt, Maud; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Determining the foraging behaviour of free-ranging marine animals is fundamental for assessing their habitat use and how they may respond to changes in the environment. However, despite recent advances in bio-logging technology, collecting information on both at-sea movement patterns and activity budgets still remains difficult in small pelagic seabird species due to the constraints of instrument size. The short-tailed shearwater, the most abundant seabird species in Australia (ca 23 million individuals), is a highly pelagic procellariiform. Despite its ecological importance to the region, almost nothing is known about its at-sea behaviour, in particular, its foraging activity. Using a combination of GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data-loggers, the fine scale three-dimensional foraging behaviour of 10 breeding individuals from two colonies was investigated. Five at-sea behaviours were identified: (1) resting on water, (2) flapping flight, (3) gliding flight, (4) foraging (i.e., surface foraging and diving events), and (5) taking-off. There were substantial intra- and inter- individual variations in activity patterns, with individuals spending on average 45.8% (range: 17.1-70.0%) of time at sea resting on water and 18.2% (range: 2.3-49.6%) foraging. Individuals made 76.4 ± 65.3 dives (range: 8-237) per foraging trip (mean duration 9.0 ± 1.9 s), with dives also recorded during night-time. With the continued miniaturisation of recording devices, the use of combined data-loggers could provide us with further insights into the foraging behaviour of small procellariiforms, helping to better understand interactions with their prey.

  1. Fat-tailed gene flow in the dioecious canopy tree species Fraxinus mandshurica var. japonica revealed by microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, S; Shimatani, K; Yoshimaru, H; Takahashi, Y

    2006-09-01

    Pollen flow, seed dispersal and individual reproductive success can be simultaneously estimated from the genotypes of adults and offspring using stochastic models. Using four polymorphic microsatellite loci, gene flow of the wind-pollinated and wind-seed-dispersed dioecious tree species, Fraxinus mandshurica var. japonica, was quantified in a riparian forest, in northern Japan. In a 10.5-ha plot, 74 female adults, 76 male adults and 292 current-year seedlings were mapped and genotyped, together with 200 seeds. To estimate dispersal kernels of pollen and seeds, we applied normal, exponential power, Weibull, bivariate t-distribution kernels, and two-component models consisting of two normal distribution functions, one with a small and one with a large variance. A two-component pollen flow model with a small contribution (26.1%) from short-distance dispersal (sigma = 7.2 m), and the rest from long-distance flow (sigma = 209.9 m), was chosen for the best-fitting model. The average distance that integrated pollen flows inside and outside the study plot was estimated to be 196.8 m. Tree size and flowering intensity affected reproduction, and there appeared to be critical values that distinguished reproductively successful and unsuccessful adults. In contrast, the gene flow model that estimated both pollen and seed dispersal from established seedlings resulted in extensive seed dispersal, and the expected spatial genetic structures did not satisfactorily fit with the observations, even for the selected model. Our results advanced small-scale individual-based parentage analysis for quantifying fat-tailed gene flow in wind-mediated species, but also clarified its limitations and suggested future possibilities for gene flow studies.

  2. Combined Use of GPS and Accelerometry Reveals Fine Scale Three-Dimensional Foraging Behaviour in the Short-Tailed Shearwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Berlincourt

    Full Text Available Determining the foraging behaviour of free-ranging marine animals is fundamental for assessing their habitat use and how they may respond to changes in the environment. However, despite recent advances in bio-logging technology, collecting information on both at-sea movement patterns and activity budgets still remains difficult in small pelagic seabird species due to the constraints of instrument size. The short-tailed shearwater, the most abundant seabird species in Australia (ca 23 million individuals, is a highly pelagic procellariiform. Despite its ecological importance to the region, almost nothing is known about its at-sea behaviour, in particular, its foraging activity. Using a combination of GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data-loggers, the fine scale three-dimensional foraging behaviour of 10 breeding individuals from two colonies was investigated. Five at-sea behaviours were identified: (1 resting on water, (2 flapping flight, (3 gliding flight, (4 foraging (i.e., surface foraging and diving events, and (5 taking-off. There were substantial intra- and inter- individual variations in activity patterns, with individuals spending on average 45.8% (range: 17.1-70.0% of time at sea resting on water and 18.2% (range: 2.3-49.6% foraging. Individuals made 76.4 ± 65.3 dives (range: 8-237 per foraging trip (mean duration 9.0 ± 1.9 s, with dives also recorded during night-time. With the continued miniaturisation of recording devices, the use of combined data-loggers could provide us with further insights into the foraging behaviour of small procellariiforms, helping to better understand interactions with their prey.

  3. Combined Use of GPS and Accelerometry Reveals Fine Scale Three-Dimensional Foraging Behaviour in the Short-Tailed Shearwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlincourt, Maud; Angel, Lauren P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the foraging behaviour of free-ranging marine animals is fundamental for assessing their habitat use and how they may respond to changes in the environment. However, despite recent advances in bio-logging technology, collecting information on both at-sea movement patterns and activity budgets still remains difficult in small pelagic seabird species due to the constraints of instrument size. The short-tailed shearwater, the most abundant seabird species in Australia (ca 23 million individuals), is a highly pelagic procellariiform. Despite its ecological importance to the region, almost nothing is known about its at-sea behaviour, in particular, its foraging activity. Using a combination of GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data-loggers, the fine scale three-dimensional foraging behaviour of 10 breeding individuals from two colonies was investigated. Five at-sea behaviours were identified: (1) resting on water, (2) flapping flight, (3) gliding flight, (4) foraging (i.e., surface foraging and diving events), and (5) taking-off. There were substantial intra- and inter- individual variations in activity patterns, with individuals spending on average 45.8% (range: 17.1–70.0%) of time at sea resting on water and 18.2% (range: 2.3–49.6%) foraging. Individuals made 76.4 ± 65.3 dives (range: 8–237) per foraging trip (mean duration 9.0 ± 1.9 s), with dives also recorded during night-time. With the continued miniaturisation of recording devices, the use of combined data-loggers could provide us with further insights into the foraging behaviour of small procellariiforms, helping to better understand interactions with their prey. PMID:26439491

  4. DNA stable-isotope probing of oil sands tailings pond enrichment cultures reveals different key players for toluene degradation under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Nidal Abu; Dao, Anh; Foght, Julia

    2015-05-01

    Oil sands tailings ponds are anaerobic repositories of fluid wastes produced by extraction of bitumen from oil sands ores. Diverse indigenous microbiota biodegrade hydrocarbons (including toluene) in situ, producing methane, carbon dioxide and/or hydrogen sulfide, depending on electron acceptor availability. Stable-isotope probing of cultures enriched from tailings associated specific taxa and functional genes to (13)C6- and (12)C7-toluene degradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions. Total DNA was subjected to isopycnic ultracentrifugation followed by gradient fraction analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and construction of 16S rRNA, benzylsuccinate synthase (bssA) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrB) gene clone libraries. T-RFLP analysis plus sequencing and in silico digestion of cloned taxonomic and functional genes revealed that Clostridiales, particularly Desulfosporosinus (136 bp T-RF) contained bssA genes and were key toluene degraders during methanogenesis dominated by Methanosaeta. Deltaproteobacterial Desulfobulbaceae (157 bp T-RF) became dominant under sulfidogenic conditions, likely because the Desulfosporosinus T-RF 136 apparently lacks dsrB and therefore, unlike its close relatives, is presumed incapable of dissimilatory sulfate reduction. We infer incomplete oxidation of toluene by Desulfosporosinus in syntrophic association with Methanosaeta under methanogenic conditions, and complete toluene oxidation by Desulfobulbaceae during sulfate reduction. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. An AFM Observation on Fossil Cytoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; YU Junping; FANG Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    Fossil cytoplasm is a new research topic of interest in paleobotany. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a new technology applied widely in physics and biology; however, it is rarely used in paleontology. Here we applied AFM for the first time to study fossil cytoplasm. The results indicate that the fossil cytoplasm is heterogeneous and full of ultrastructures, just like extant cytoplasm, and that the application of AFM, especially in combination with other techniques, can reveal the subcellular details of fossil plants with more confidence.

  6. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Valerie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT. Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD. We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the cells and that it did not affect wild-type HIV-1 replication. However, as measured in both a single-round assay as well as in spreading infections, replication competence of mutant pNL-Tr712, lacking the Env-CT, was not restored in this H9 T-cell population. This means that the Env-CT per se cannot transcomplement the replication block of HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env proteins and suggests that the Env-CT likely exerts its function only in the context of the complete Env protein.

  7. Expression of fully assembled TCR-CD3 complex on double positive thymocytes: synergistic role for the PRS and ER retention motifs in the intra-cytoplasmic tail of CD3epsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Jean-Francois; Li, Samantha; Damlaj, Ousama; Dave, Vibhuti P

    2009-12-01

    TCR expression on double-positive (DP) thymocytes is a prerequisite for thymic selection that results in the generation of mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive T cells. TCR is expressed at very low level on preselection DP thymocytes and is dramatically up-regulated on positively selected thymocytes. However, mechanism governing TCR expression on developing thymocytes is not understood. In the present report, we demonstrate that the intra-cytoplasmic (IC) domain of CD3epsilon plays a critical role in regulating TCR expression on DP thymocytes. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence to show that the CD3epsilon IC domain mutations result in elevated expression of fully assembled TCR on DP thymocytes. We also demonstrate that TCR up-regulation on DP thymocytes in these transgenic mice occurs in a ligand-independent manner. Further, we show that the proline-rich sequence and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motifs in the IC domain of CD3epsilon play synergistic role in regulating TCR surface expression on DP thymocytes.

  8. Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, K. Kevin; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Gibbons, Ian R.; Hays, Thomas S.; Holzbaur, Erika L.F.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Porter, Mary E.; Schroer, Trina A.; Vaughan, Kevin T.; Witman, George B.; King, Stephen M.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of names has been used in the literature for the subunits of cytoplasmic dynein complexes. Thus, there is a strong need for a more definitive consensus statement on nomenclature. This is especially important for mammalian cytoplasmic dyneins, many subunits of which are encoded by multiple genes. We propose names for the mammalian cytoplasmic dynein subunit genes and proteins that reflect the phylogenetic relationships of the genes and the published studies clarifying the functions of the polypeptides. This nomenclature recognizes the two distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes and has the flexibility to accommodate the discovery of new subunits and isoforms. PMID:16260502

  9. Tailings management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Careful planning and water management is essential to the proper management of conventional tailings impoundments. Alternatives, like dry stacking and tailings backfill are becoming more widely used. Effective closure is important, especially if acid rock drainage (ARD) is to be avoided. 11 refs., 3 photos.

  10. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  11. In vitro targeting reveals intrinsic histone tail specificity of the Sin3/histone deacetylase and N-CoR/SMRT corepressor complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Carrozza, M.J.; Lasonder, E.; Workman, J.L.; Logie, C.; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    2004-01-01

    The histone code is among others established via differential acetylation catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). To unambiguously determine the histone tail specificity of HDAC-containing complexes, we have established an in vitro system consisting of

  12. Structural and functional studies of gpX of Escherichia coli phage P2 reveal a widespread role for LysM domains in the baseplates of contractile-tailed phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Karen L; Fatehi Hassanabad, Mostafa; Chang, Tom; Paul, Vivek D; Pirani, Nawaz; Bona, Diane; Edwards, Aled M; Davidson, Alan R

    2013-12-01

    A variety of bacterial pathogenicity determinants, including the type VI secretion system and the virulence cassettes from Photorhabdus and Serratia, share an evolutionary origin with contractile-tailed myophages. The well-characterized Escherichia coli phage P2 provides an excellent system for studies related to these systems, as its protein composition appears to represent the "minimal" myophage tail. In this study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the solution structure of gpX, a 68-residue tail baseplate protein. Although the sequence and structure of gpX are similar to those of LysM domains, which are a large family associated with peptidoglycan binding, we did not detect a peptidoglycan-binding activity for gpX. However, bioinformatic analysis revealed that half of all myophages, including all that possess phage T4-like baseplates, encode a tail protein with a LysM-like domain, emphasizing a widespread role for this domain in baseplate function. While phage P2 gpX comprises only a single LysM domain, many myophages display LysM domain fusions with other tail proteins, such as the DNA circulation protein found in Mu-like phages and gp53 of T4-like phages. Electron microscopy of P2 phage particles with an incorporated gpX-maltose binding protein fusion revealed that gpX is located at the top of the baseplate, near the junction of the baseplate and tail tube. gpW, the orthologue of phage T4 gp25, was also found to localize to this region. A general colocalization of LysM-like domains and gpW homologues in diverse phages is supported by our bioinformatic analysis.

  13. Replication-coupled chromatin assembly of newly synthesized histones: distinct functions for the histone tail domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlassi-Lassallette, Aïda; Thiriet, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The maintenance of the genome during replication requires the assembly of nucleosomes with newly synthesized histones. Achieving the deposition of newly synthesized histones in chromatin implies their transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the replication sites. Several lines of evidence have revealed critical functions of the histone tail domains in these conserved cellular processes. In this review, we discuss the role of the amino termini of the nucleosome building blocks, H2A/H2B and H3/H4, in different model systems. The experimental data showed that H2A/H2B tails and H3/H4 tails display distinct functions in nuclear import and chromatin assembly. Furthermore, we describe recent studies exploiting the unique properties of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum , that have advanced understanding of the function of the highly conserved replication-dependent diacetylation of H4.

  14. Differential screening of mitochondrial cDNA libraries from male-fertile and cytoplasmic male-sterile sugar-beet reveals genome rearrangements at atp6 and atpA loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y; Collin, S; Davies, D R; Thomas, C M

    1994-04-01

    As part of a strategy to define differences in genome organization and expression between cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and male-fertile (MF) sugar-beet mitochondria, cDNA libraries from both mitochondrial genotypes were constructed. Preliminary screening with ribosomal RNA gene probes identified candidate cDNA clones corresponding to structural genes. In addition, reciprocal hybridization experiments were performed using labelled first-strand cDNA to identify uniquely transcribed sequences. One cDNA clone (pYC700) is unique to CMS mitochondria and is located upstream of the F0F1-ATPase subunit 6 gene (atp6). Another cDNA clone (pYC130), when used as a probe in northern hybridization analysis, revealed novel transcript profiles in CMS sugar-beet mitochondria. Sequence analysis of this cDNA showed strong homology with the F0F1-ATPase subunit alpha (atpA) coding sequences from several higher plants. The atp6 and atpA loci from each genotype were cloned and the genomic organization, DNA sequence and transcription of each locus was studied. Differences in the transcript profiles of each gene are a consequence of genomic rearrangements 5' to the coding sequence.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Two Important Groups of Maize Landraces with Same Name in China Revealed by M13 Tailed-Primer SSRs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-zhai; GUO Rong-hua; ZHAO Jiu-ran; CAI Yi-lin; WANG Feng-ge; CAO Mo-ju; WANG Rong-huan; SHI Yun-su; SONG Yan-chun; WANG Tian-yu; LI Yu

    2009-01-01

    Maize landraces White Dent and Golden Queen played a very important role in the pre-hybrid era of maize production in China. However, dozens of accessions with the same names of White Dent and Golden Queen are preserved in China National Genebank (CNG). The present study investigated the genetic diversity of these two important groups of maize landraces, as well as the relationships within and among them. Thirty-four landrace accessions with the name of White Dent and 10 with Golden Queen preserved in CNG were fingerprinted with 52 simple sequence repeats with tailed primer M13. Summary statistics including average number of alleles per locus, gene diversity/expected heterozygosity, and observed heterozygosity were carried out using PowerMarker ver. 3.25 software. The test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of all the 44 maize landrace accessions were also performed by PowerMarker. We observed a significant differentiation in terms of the average number of alleles between White Dent and Golden Queen (6.44 alleles per locus in White Dent, 4.48 in Golden Queen), while both groups of maize landraces had a relatively high but similar gene diversity (0.61 of White Dent, 0.63 of Golden Queen). The fixation index (FST) was only 0.0044, while the percentage of loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within these two groups of White Dent and Golden Queen was 32.69 and 3.92%, respectively. The rather high genetic diversity and average number of alleles per locus confirmed that both groups of landraces had a rather broad germplasm base. The extremely low fixation index showed that there was little genetic variation between White Dent and Golden Queen and the molecular variation within these two groups was remarkably high, indicating no genetic drift between White Dent and Golden Queen and suggesting different improvement approaches to these two important groups of landraces. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test revealed that the group of

  16. Cytoplasm Affects Embryonic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies by CAS researchers furnish strong evidence that a fertilized egg's nucleus isn't the sole site of control for an embryo's development. A research team headed by Prof. Zhu Zuoyan from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan discovered that cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in cloned offspring created when nuclei from one fish genus were transplanted to enucleated eggs of another.

  17. Cytoplasmic Z-RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.

    1987-09-01

    Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation.

  18. Branched Lateral Tail Fiber Organization in T5-Like Bacteriophages DT57C and DT571/2 is Revealed by Genetic and Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomidova, Alla K; Kulikov, Eugene E; Prokhorov, Nikolai S; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo С; Knirel, Yuriy A; Kostryukova, Elena S; Tarasyan, Karina K; Letarov, Andrey V

    2016-01-21

    The T5-like siphoviruses DT57C and DT571/2, isolated from horse feces, are very closely related to each other, and most of their structural proteins are also nearly identical to T5 phage. Their LTFs (L-shaped tail fibers), however, are composed of two proteins, LtfA and LtfB, instead of the single Ltf of bacteriophage T5. In silico and mutant analysis suggests a possible branched structure of DT57C and DT571/2 LTFs, where the LtfB protein is connected to the phage tail via the LtfA protein and with both proteins carrying receptor recognition domains. Such adhesin arrangement has not been previously recognized in siphoviruses. The LtfA proteins of our phages are found to recognize different host O-antigen types: E. coli O22-like for DT57C phage and E. coli O87 for DT571/2. LtfB proteins are identical in both phages and recognize another host receptor, most probably lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O81 type. In these two bacteriophages, LTF function is essential to penetrate the shield of the host's O-antigens. We also demonstrate that LTF-mediated adsorption becomes superfluous when the non-specific cell protection by O-antigen is missing, allowing the phages to bind directly to their common secondary receptor, the outer membrane protein BtuB. The LTF independent adsorption was also demonstrated on an O22-like host mutant missing O-antigen O-acetylation, thus showing the biological value of this O-antigen modification for cell protection against phages.

  19. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  20. NMR characterization of the C-terminal tail of full-length RAGE in a membrane mimicking environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsi, Valentina; Cerofolini, Linda; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: luchinat@cerm.unifi.it [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Targeting the receptor for the advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) signalling has a potential for the prevention and treatment of several pathologies. Extracellular activation of RAGE triggers the interactions of the RAGE cytoplasmic tail with intracellular protein partners. Here the cytoplasmic tail of RAGE has been investigated by NMR as part of the full-length protein, in the presence of a membrane-mimicking environment. The isolated cytoplasmic tail has also been studied for comparison. The NMR spectra of the whole receptor show that some but not all residues belonging to the C-terminal region of the cytoplasmic tail have a large flexibility, while the membrane proximal region seems to be rigidly connected to the trans-membrane domain and ectodomains. The analysis indicates that the behavior of the cytoplasmic tail is strongly affected by its being part of the whole receptor. These results provide new insight towards the understanding of signal transduction by RAGE.

  1. Genome-wide mRNA-seq profiling reveals predominant down-regulation of lipid metabolic processes in adipose tissues of Small Tail Han than Dorset sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu; Guo, Yuntao; Zhao, Huijing

    2015-11-13

    Small Tail Han and Dorset sheep are two different sheep with distinguished morphologies in fat depositions. In order to characterize their gene expression profiles, our present study took the advantages of RNA sequencing technology with the aims to identify important genes regulating the metabolisms in adipose tissues of two different sheep. In obtained high quality sequencing reads, 85.9 (Han) and 86.1% (Dorset) were uniquely aligned to Oar v3.1 sheep reference genome, and over 76% of bases in mapped reads corresponded to mRNA. Using R package EBSeq, we identified 602 differentially expressed genes. Using the 602 genes, GO analysis showed that 30 out of 56 significantly enriched biological processes were metabolism related, of which the most significant one was triglyceride biosynthetic process. The KEGG pathway analysis indicated the down-regulation of several fat metabolic pathways. The predominant down-regulation of massive metabolic processes, particularly the lipid metabolism, in adipose tissues of Han sheep could explain, at least in part, the distinguished fat deposition between two different sheep, and our data constitute a basic picture of transcriptomes in these sheep for better understanding of underline biological mechanism in their lipid metabolisms.

  2. Tail gut cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  3. Characterization of phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain of the 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosorius, O; Mieskes, G; Issinger, O G;

    1993-01-01

    kinases phosphorylate the cytoplasmic tail exclusively on serine residues. Inhibition studies using synthetic peptides, partial sequencing of isolated tryptic phosphopeptides and co-migration with tryptic phosphopeptides from MPR 300 labelled in vivo showed that (i) PKA phosphorylates the cytoplasmic MPR...... which may play a role in the transport function of MPR 300 and/or interaction with other proteins....

  4. Rapid microcystis cyanophage gene diversification revealed by long- and short-term genetic analyses of the tail sheath gene in a natural pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigeko; Sako, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Viruses influence the abundance of host populations through virus-mediated host cell lysis. Viruses contribute to the generation and maintenance of host diversity, which also results in viral diversity throughout their coevolution. Here, to determine the phage gene diversification throughout the coevolution of host and phage in a natural environment, we investigated the genetic diversity and temporal changes in Microcystis cyanophage populations using a total of 810 sequences of the Ma-LMM01-type cyanophage tail sheath gene (g91) from 2006 to 2011 in a natural pond. The sequences obtained were highly diverse and assigned to 419 different genotypes (GT1 to GT419) clustered at 100% nucleotide sequence similarity. A maximum-parsimony network showed that the genotypes were largely divided into three sequence groups, which were dominated by major genotypes (more than 24 sequences: GT2, GT53, and GT163 in group I; GT25 in group II; and GT1 in group III). These major genotypes coexisted and oscillated throughout the sampling periods, suggesting that the Microcystis-cyanophage coevolution was partly driven by a negative frequency-dependent selection. Meanwhile, the high viral genetic diversity observed was derived from a large number of the variants of each major and moderately frequent genotype (including 7 to 18 sequences: GT7, GT26, GT56, GT149, and GT182 in group I; GT152 in group II) (1 or 2 nucleotide substitutions). The variants almost always co-occurred with their origin genotypes. This manner of variant emergence suggests that increased contact frequency within a host-phage population promotes rapid coevolution in a form of "arms race."

  5. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants.

  6. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming.

  7. Large scale analysis of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone tails reveals global fine structure of cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Aspalter, Claudia-Maria; Sidoli, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for the identification and quantification of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone proteins. One of the most important challenges in current chromatin biology is to characterize the relationships between co-existing histone...... marks, the order and hierarchy of their deposition, and their distinct biological functions. We developed the database CrossTalkDB to organize observed and reported co-existing histone marks as revealed by MS experiments of histone proteins and their derived peptides. Statistical assessment revealed...... sample-specific patterns for the co-frequency of histone post-translational modifications. We implemented a new method to identify positive and negative interplay between pairs of methylation and acetylation marks in proteins. Many of the detected features were conserved between different cell types...

  8. Photoreactivation of a Cytoplasmic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, E. R.; Boyle, Mary K.

    1972-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-inactivated frog virus 3 is efficiently photoreactivated by chick embryo cells. A cellular enzyme is presumably responsible for this repair of viral deoxyribonucleic acid, for the phenomenon is insensitive to an inhibitor of protein synthesis and is not seen in mammalian cells that are known to lack photoreactivating enzyme. Since frog virus 3 is a cytoplasmic virus, functionally significant amounts of photoreactivating enzyme are probably present in the cytoplasm of chick embryo cells. PMID:5062749

  9. Heavy tails of OLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; de Vries, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Suppose the tails of the noise distribution in a regression exhibit power law behavior. Then the distribution of the OLS regression estimator inherits this tail behavior. This is relevant for regressions involving financial data. We derive explicit finite sample expressions for the tail...

  10. The epididymis, cytoplasmic droplets and male fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2011-01-01

    The potential of spermatozoa to become motile during post-testicular maturation,and the relationship between the cytoplasmic droplet and fertilizing capacity are reviewed.Post-testicular maturation of spermatozoa involves the autonomous induction of motility,which can occur in vivo in testes with occluded excurrent ducts and in vitro in testicular explants,and artefactual changes in morphology that appear to occur in the testis in vitro.Both modifications may reflect time-dependent oxidation of disulphide bonds of head and tail proteins.Regulatory volume decrease(RVD),which counters sperm swelling at ejaculation,is discussed in relation to loss of cytoplasmic droplets and consequences for fertility.It is postulated that:(i)fertile males possess spermatozoa with sufficient osmolytes to drive RVD at ejaculation,permitting the droplet to round up and pinch off without membrane rupture; and(ⅱ)infertile males possess spermatozoa with insufficient osmolytes so that RVD is inadequate,the droplet swells and the resulting flagellar angulation prevents droplet loss.Droplet retention at ejaculation is a harbinger of infertility caused by failure of the spermatozoon to negotiate the uterotubal junction or mucous and reach the egg.In this hypothesis,the epididymis regulates fertility indirectly by the extent of osmolyte provision to spermatozoa,which influences RVD and therefore droplet loss.Man is an exception,because ejaculated human spermatozoa retain their droplets.This may reflect their short midpiece,approximating head length,permitting a swollen droplet to extend along the entire midpiece; this not only obviates droplet migration and flagellar angulation but also hampers droplet loss.

  11. The Carboxyl Tail of Connexin32 Regulates Gap Junction Assembly in Human Prostate and Pancreatic Cancer Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Parul; Mitra, Shalini; Ray, Anuttoma; Kelsey, Linda; Roberts, Brett J.; Wahl, James K.; Johnson, Keith R.; Mehta, Parmender P.

    2015-01-01

    Connexins, the constituent proteins of gap junctions, are transmembrane proteins. A connexin (Cx) traverses the membrane four times and has one intracellular and two extracellular loops with the amino and carboxyl termini facing the cytoplasm. The transmembrane and the extracellular loop domains are highly conserved among different Cxs, whereas the carboxyl termini, often called the cytoplasmic tails, are highly divergent. We have explored the role of the cytoplasmic tail of Cx32, a Cx expressed in polarized and differentiated cells, in regulating gap junction assembly. Our results demonstrate that compared with the full-length Cx32, the cytoplasmic tail-deleted Cx32 is assembled into small gap junctions in human pancreatic and prostatic cancer cells. Our results further document that the expression of the full-length Cx32 in cells, which express the tail-deleted Cx32, increases the size of gap junctions, whereas the expression of the tail-deleted Cx32 in cells, which express the full-length Cx32, has the opposite effect. Moreover, we show that the tail is required for the clustering of cell-cell channels and that in cells expressing the tail-deleted Cx32, the expression of cell surface-targeted cytoplasmic tail alone is sufficient to enhance the size of gap junctions. Our live-cell imaging data further demonstrate that gap junctions formed of the tail-deleted Cx32 are highly mobile compared with those formed of full-length Cx32. Our results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of Cx32 is not required to initiate the assembly of gap junctions but for their subsequent growth and stability. Our findings suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of Cx32 may be involved in regulating the permeability of gap junctions by regulating their size. PMID:25548281

  12. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  13. Innovations in tailings management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, N. [Alberta Univ., Devon, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Devon, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-09-15

    This article described the coordinated research efforts at the University of Alberta's Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility (OSTRF) to address oil sands tailings management issues. The facility was established in 2003 to provide the infrastructure needed for research opportunities at the intermediate scale. To date, OSTRF has been involved in 32 separate research projects. Alberta's Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) recently created Directive 74 to oblige operators to improve tailings management and document their progress on tailings at each mine site. The initial OSTRF research program focused on improving the understanding and management of the massive inventories of mature fine tailings (MFT). The research focused primarily on the geotechnical and chemical behaviour of engineered tailings and the management and treatment of process affected water (PAW). The focus on water relates to its characterization, its treatment with coke and rapid removal of water from the total tailings stream. The next phase of research to be undertaken at OSTRF will include the reduction or elimination of volatile organic carbons and greenhouse gases from tailings ponds; further development and scaling of the novel in-line tailings dewatering system and alternative methods to release water from the MFT inventory; treatment technologies for re-use of PAW in utilities and for upgrading while also developing quality standards for eventual discharge of PAW off lease; and stabilization and capping of soft tailings deposits in preparation for reclamation, including methods of dewatering the upper surface of soft tailing to enhance its strength. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  14. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their winter

  15. Evidence for a cytoplasmic microprocessor of pri-miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jillian S; Langlois, Ryan A; Pham, Alissa M; Tenoever, Benjamin R

    2012-07-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of noncoding RNAs that fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional silencing. While miRNA biogenesis occurs in a stepwise fashion, initiated by the nuclear microprocessor, rare noncanonical miRNAs have also been identified. Here we characterize the molecular components and unique attributes associated with the processing of virus-derived cytoplasmic primary miRNAs (c-pri-miRNAs). RNA in situ hybridization and inhibition of cellular division demonstrated a complete lack of nuclear involvement in c-pri-miRNA cleavage while genetic studies revealed that maturation still relied on the canonical nuclear RNase III enzyme, Drosha. The involvement of Drosha was mediated by a dramatic relocalization to the cytoplasm following virus infection. Deep sequencing analyses revealed that the cytoplasmic localization of Drosha does not impact the endogenous miRNA landscape during infection, despite allowing for robust synthesis of virus-derived miRNAs in the cytoplasm. Taken together, this research describes a unique function for Drosha in the processing of highly structured cytoplasmic RNAs in the context of virus infection.

  16. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  17. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodjgani M

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoanibodies (ANCA were detecte in patients with certain autoimmune vascular disease such as Wegner’s granulomatosis, polyarthrits nodosa and systemic luuc erythematous. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF technique was employed to detec these autoantibodies.ANCA have been recently detected in some forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ulcerative colitis (U.C. Crohn’s disease (C.D and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. By IIF method, two general patterns of ANCA were seen: a cytoplasmic (C-ANCA and perinuclear form (P-ANCA. In this study we evaluated the presece of ANCA in 52 U.C. patients and 69 matched normal control group by IIF technique, and it’s relationship with disease activity. Site of colon involvement and, lesion extent. The results showed that all control group were ANCA negative, but 58% of patients had ANCA, and most cases (70% had C- ANCA. The obtained results also revealed that there was no relationship between ANCA and disease activity

  18. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  19. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  20. Estimating tail probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

  1. The Tail of BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  2. Wagging tail vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

  3. Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Riel, van J.W.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage.

  4. Cotranscriptional assembly of mRNP complexes that determine the cytoplasmic fate of mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Forget, Amélie; Chartrand, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Unlike prokaryotes, in which transcription and translation are coupled, eukaryotes physically separate transcription in the nucleus from mRNA translation and degradation in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence has revealed that the full picture is more complex and that the nuclear transcription machinery plays specific roles in regulating the cytoplasmic fate of mRNA.

  5. Novel origin of lamin-derived cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in tardigrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Lars; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Reichelt, Julian; Magin, Thomas M; Mayer, Georg

    2016-02-03

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins, including nuclear lamins and cytoplasmic IF proteins, are essential cytoskeletal components of bilaterian cells. Despite their important role in protecting tissues against mechanical force, no cytoplasmic IF proteins have been convincingly identified in arthropods. Here we show that the ancestral cytoplasmic IF protein gene was lost in the entire panarthropod (onychophoran + tardigrade + arthropod) rather than arthropod lineage and that nuclear, lamin-derived proteins instead acquired new cytoplasmic roles at least three times independently in collembolans, copepods, and tardigrades. Transcriptomic and genomic data revealed three IF protein genes in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, one of which (cytotardin) occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm of epidermal and foregut epithelia, where it forms belt-like filaments around each epithelial cell. These results suggest that a lamin derivative has been co-opted to enhance tissue stability in tardigrades, a function otherwise served by cytoplasmic IF proteins in all other bilaterians.

  6. Cytoplasmic dynein crosslinks and slides anti-parallel microtubules using its two motor domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Vale, Ronald D; McKenney, Richard J

    2013-09-03

    Cytoplasmic dynein is the predominant minus-end-directed microtubule (MT) motor in most eukaryotic cells. In addition to transporting vesicular cargos, dynein helps to organize MTs within MT networks such as mitotic spindles. How dynein performs such non-canonical functions is unknown. Here we demonstrate that dynein crosslinks and slides anti-parallel MTs in vitro. Surprisingly, a minimal dimeric motor lacking a tail domain and associated subunits can cause MT sliding. Single molecule imaging reveals that motors pause and frequently reverse direction when encountering an anti-parallel MT overlap, suggesting that the two motor domains can bind both MTs simultaneously. In the mitotic spindle, inward microtubule sliding by dynein counteracts outward sliding generated by kinesin-5, and we show that a tailless, dimeric motor is sufficient to drive this activity in mammalian cells. Our results identify an unexpected mechanism for dynein-driven microtubule sliding, which differs from filament sliding mechanisms described for other motor proteins. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00943.001.

  7. The tidal tails of NGC 2298

    CERN Document Server

    Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N; Makler, Martin; Maia, Marcio A G

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the matched-filter technique to detect tidal tails of globular clusters. The method was tested using SDSS data for the globular cluster Palomar 5 revealing its well known tidal tails. We also ran a simulation of a globular cluster with a tidal tail where we successfully recover the tails for a cluster at the same position and with the same characteristics of NGC 2298. Based on the simulation we estimate that the matched-filter increases the contrast of the tail relative to the background of stars by a factor of 2.5 for the case of NGC 2298. We also present the photometry of the globular cluster NGC 2298 using the MOSAIC2 camera installed on the CTIO 4m telescope. The photometry covers ~ 3deg2 reaching V ~ 23. A fit of a King profile to the radial density profile of NGC 2298 shows that this cluster has a tidal radius of 15.91' \\pm 1.07' which is twice as in the literature. The application of the matched-filter to NGC 2298 reveals several extra-tidal structures, including a leadi...

  8. Transcytosis of Aminopeptidase N in caco-2 cells is mediated by a Non-cytoplasmic Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Norén, Ove; Sjöström, H

    1995-01-01

    transported to the basolateral plasma membrane in proportions equivalent to the wild type enzyme. This shows that no cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal is involved in directing aminopeptidase N to the basolateral plasma membrane. Both the wild type and the tail-less aminopeptidase N were transcytosed from...... was observed. This indicates that transcytosis of aminopeptidase N from the basolateral to the apical membrane does not occur by default transport but involves an active sorting mechanism....

  9. Involvement of hGLD-2 in cytoplasmic polyadenylation of human p53 mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Norrild, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a post-transcriptional mechanism regulating mRNA stability and translation. The human p53 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) contains two regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) just upstream of the poly(A) hexanucleotide. Evaluation of the p53 CPE...... cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase] is overexpressed instead. The stability of a luciferase mRNA containing the p53 3'-UTR downstream, is decreased when hCPEB1 is overexpressed as seen by qPCR. Expression of hGLD-2 restores the mRNA stability. This is due to elongation of the poly(A) tail as seen by a PCR......-based poly(A) test and in vitro poly(A) assay. Taken together, our results suggest that hCPEB1 and hGLD-2 are antagonizing factors regulating p53 mRNA stability....

  10. Managing 'tail liability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  11. Estimation of Jump Tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We propose a new and flexible non-parametric framework for estimating the jump tails of Itô semimartingale processes. The approach is based on a relatively simple-to-implement set of estimating equations associated with the compensator for the jump measure, or its "intensity", that only utilizes ...

  12. On tails of perpetuities

    CERN Document Server

    Hitczenko, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We establish an upper bound on the tails of a random variable that arises as a solution of a stochastic difference equation. In the non--negative case our bound is similar to a lower bound obtained by Goldie and Gr\\"ubel in 1996.

  13. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  14. Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbís, M. Álvaro [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); André, Sabine [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, 80539 Munich (Germany); Cañada, F. Javier [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pipkorn, Rüdiger [Central Peptide Synthesis Unit, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ippel, Hans [Department of Biochemistry, CARIM, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Mayo, Kevin H. [Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kübler, Dieter [Biomolecular Interactions, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gabius, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, 80539 Munich (Germany); Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús, E-mail: jjbarbero@cib.csic.es [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Galectin-3 is composed of a carbohydrate recognition domain and an N-terminal tail. •Synthetic peptides derived from the tail are shown to interact with the CRD. •This interaction is modulated by Ser- and Tyr-phosphorylation of the peptides. -- Abstract: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multi-functional effector protein that functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, as well as extracellularly following non-classical secretion. Structurally, Gal-3 is unique among galectins with its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) attached to a rather long N-terminal tail composed mostly of collagen-like repeats (nine in the human protein) and terminating in a short non-collagenous terminal peptide sequence unique in this lectin family and not yet fully explored. Although several Ser and Tyr sites within the N-terminal tail can be phosphorylated, the physiological significance of this post-translational modification remains unclear. Here, we used a series of synthetic (phospho)peptides derived from the tail to assess phosphorylation-mediated interactions with {sup 15}N-labeled Gal-3 CRD. HSQC-derived chemical shift perturbations revealed selective interactions at the backface of the CRD that were attenuated by phosphorylation of Tyr 107 and Tyr 118, while phosphorylation of Ser 6 and Ser 12 was essential. Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein.

  15. Histopathological Analysis of Liver During Pregnancy Toxemia in Small-tailed Han Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingcheng WANG; Enzhong LI; Gailing WANG

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the microscopic and ultramicro-scopic structure of the liver to assess the level of hepatic impairment during preg-nancy toxemia. Seven pregnant smal-tailed Han sheep of negative urine ketone bodies were assessed in this study. Toxemia was induced by limiting food and movement late in pregnancy. Three sheep developed obvious clinical symptoms with motor weakness, depression, anorexia, locomotion disturbances, blindness and lan-guishment. We harvested their liver tissues as pathological material, and used rou-tine histological and electronic microscopy methods to observe the histopathological changes in smal-tailed Han sheep induced by pregnancy toxemia. Autopsy of the livers of the sheep revealed deep yel ow coloration, intumescence and hemorrhage on the surface. Microstructural features indicated fatty degeneration, which is a main characteristic of fatty liver. Hepatocel ular ultrastructural changes were observed un-der an electronic microscope. The characteristic findings were nucleolus concentra-tion, vacuolation of mitochondria and excessive glycogen granules in the cytoplasm. Via this experimental protocol, pregnancy toxemia of sheep was successful y in-duced, providing a pathological model for the study of this disease. After the experi-mental induction of pregnancy toxemia, the clinical symptoms of pathogenic sheep and pathological changes to their livers exhibited obvious characteristics of pregnan-cy toxemia.

  16. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabiditis elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature. Cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans at the one-cell stage is bidirectional; the flow near the cortex (“cortical flow”) is oriented toward the anterior, whereas the flow in the central region (“cytoplasmic flow”) is oriented toward the posterior. Both cortical flow and cytoplasmic flow depend on non-muscle-myosin II (NMY-2), which primarily localizes in the cortex. The manner in which NMY-2 proteins drive cytoplasmic flow in the opposite direction from remote locations has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate the forces generated by the cortical myosin to drive bidirectional streaming throughout the cytoplasm. We quantified the flow velocities of cytoplasmic streaming using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and conducted a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation using the moving particle semiimplicit method. Our simulation quantitatively reconstructed the quantified flow velocity distribution resolved through PIV analysis. Furthermore, our PIV analyses detected microtubule-dependent flows during the pronuclear migration stage. These flows were reproduced via hydrodynamic interactions between moving pronuclei and the cytoplasm. The agreement of flow dynamics in vivo and in simulation indicates that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans embryos. PMID:21730185

  17. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-07-19

    Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature. Cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans at the one-cell stage is bidirectional; the flow near the cortex ("cortical flow") is oriented toward the anterior, whereas the flow in the central region ("cytoplasmic flow") is oriented toward the posterior. Both cortical flow and cytoplasmic flow depend on non-muscle-myosin II (NMY-2), which primarily localizes in the cortex. The manner in which NMY-2 proteins drive cytoplasmic flow in the opposite direction from remote locations has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate the forces generated by the cortical myosin to drive bidirectional streaming throughout the cytoplasm. We quantified the flow velocities of cytoplasmic streaming using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and conducted a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation using the moving particle semiimplicit method. Our simulation quantitatively reconstructed the quantified flow velocity distribution resolved through PIV analysis. Furthermore, our PIV analyses detected microtubule-dependent flows during the pronuclear migration stage. These flows were reproduced via hydrodynamic interactions between moving pronuclei and the cytoplasm. The agreement of flow dynamics in vivo and in simulation indicates that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans embryos.

  18. Tubulin dynamics during the cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycle in artificially activated sea urchin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, G; Foucault, G; Raymond, M N; Pudles, J

    1983-12-01

    Sedimentation studies and [3H]colchicine-binding assays have demonstrated a relationship between the cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycles and the changes in tubulin organization in Paracentrotus lividus eggs activated by 2.5 mM procaine. The same amount of tubulin (20-25% of the total egg tubulin) is involved in these cyclic process and appears to undergo polymerization and depolymerization cycles. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the microtubules formed during these cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycles are under a particulate form which is sedimentable at low speed. Activation experiments carried out in the presence of cytochalasin B (CB) show that the increase in the cytoplasmic cohesiveness is highly reduced while tubulin polymerization and depolymerization cycles and pronuclear centration are not affected. Although tubulin or actin polymerization can be independently triggered in procaine-activated eggs, the increase in cytoplasmic cohesiveness requires the polymerization of both proteins. However, the cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycles appear to be regulated by tubulin polymerization and depolymerization cycles.

  19. Regulation of adherence and virulence by the Entamoeba histolytica lectin cytoplasmic domain, which contains a beta2 integrin motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, R R; Ramakrishnan, G; Rogers, J B; Lockhart, L A; Mann, B J; Petri, W A

    1998-08-01

    Killing of human cells by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica requires adherence via an amebic cell surface lectin. Lectin activity in the parasite is regulated by inside-out signaling. The lectin cytoplasmic domain has sequence identity with a region of the beta2 integrin cytoplasmic tail implicated in regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion. Intracellular expression of a fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the lectin has a dominant negative effect on extracellular lectin-mediated cell adherence. Mutation of the integrin-like sequence abrogates the dominant negative effect. Amebae expressing the dominant negative mutant are less virulent in an animal model of amebiasis. These results suggest that inside-out signaling via the lectin cytoplasmic domain may control the extracellular adhesive activity of the amebic lectin and provide in vivo demonstration of the lectin's role in virulence.

  20. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...

  1. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Segev

    Full Text Available Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  2. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  3. Fractal organization of feline oocyte cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, G; Peretti, V; Losa, G A

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at verifying whether immature cat oocytes with morphologic irregular cytoplasm display self-similar features which can be analytically described by fractal analysis. Original images of oocytes collected by ovariectomy were acquired at a final magnification of 400x with a CCD video camera connected to an optic microscope. After greyscale thresholding segmentation of cytoplasm, image profiles were submitted to fractal analysis using FANAL++, a program which provided an analytical standard procedure for determining the fractal dimension (FD). The presentation of the oocyte influenced the magnitude of the fractal dimension with the highest FD of 1.91 measured on grey-dark cytoplasm characterized by a highly connected network of lipid droplets and intracellular membranes. Fractal analysis provides an effective quantitative descriptor of the real cytoplasm morphology, which can influence the acquirement of in vitro developmental competence, without introducing any bias or shape approximation and thus contributes to an objective and reliable classification of feline oocytes.

  4. Fractal organization of feline oocyte cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G De Vico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at verifying whether immature cat oocytes with morphologic irregular cytoplasm display selfsimilar features which can be analytically described by fractal analysis. Original images of oocytes collected by ovariectomy were acquired at a final magnification of 400 X with a CCD video camera connected to an optic microscope. After greyscale thresholding segmentation of cytoplasm, image profiles were submitted to fractal analysis using FANAL++, a program which provided an analytical standard procedure for determining the fractal dimension (FD. The presentation of the oocyte influenced the magnitude of the fractal dimension with the highest FD of 1.91 measured on grey-dark cytoplasm characterized by a highly connected network of lipid droplets and intracellular membranes. Fractal analysis provides an effective quantitative descriptor of the real cytoplasm morphology, which can influence the acquirement of in vitro developmental competence, without introducing any bias or shape approximation and thus contributes to an objective and reliable classification of feline oocytes.

  5. Primary observations of the existence of Fas-like cytoplasmic death factor in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main activity of Fas is to trigger cytoplasm death program in animal cells. In G2 pea, vacuole plays a pivotal role in inducing cell death in the cytoplasm of longday (LD) grown apical meristem cells. Expression patterns of the Fas in G2 pea cells revealed that the Fas is mainly localized in the vacuole of cells undergoing programmed cell death (PCD). The Fas expression is corresponding to the initiation of menadione-induced PCD in tobacco protoplasts.The results suggest the existence of the Fas-like mediated cytoplasmic death pathway in plant cells.``

  6. Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the cytoplasmic tail of MUC16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gipson, Ilene K; Mandel, Ulla; Menon, Balaraj

    2017-01-01

    MUC16 is a large transmembrane mucin expressed on the apical surfaces of the epithelium covering the ocular surface, respiratory system and female reproductive tract. The transmembrane mucin is overexpressed by ovarian carcinomas, it is one of the most frequently used diagnostic markers for the d...

  7. A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSencilo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologues and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologues and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons. Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities.

  8. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  9. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  10. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P lizards (all 246 spp., P < 0.01; Scindidae, P < 0.05), larger skinks (P < 0.05), climbing geckos (P < 0.05), or active-foraging iguanids (P < 0.05). The selective advantage of investing in a relatively longer tail may be due to locomotor mechanics, although the patterns observed are also largely consistent with predictions based on predation pressure.

  11. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  12. Mutant p53 protein localized in the cytoplasm inhibits autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Soussi, Thierry; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The knockout, knockdown or chemical inhibition of p53 stimulates autophagy. Moreover, autophagy-inducing stimuli such as nutrient depletion, rapamycin or lithium cause the depletion of cytoplasmic p53, which in turn is required for the induction of autophagy. Here, we show that retransfection of p53(-/-) HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with wild type p53 decreases autophagy down to baseline levels. Surprisingly, one third among a panel of 22 cancer-associated p53 single amino acid mutants also inhibited autophagy when transfected into p53(-/-) cells. Those variants of p53 that preferentially localize to the cytoplasm effectively repressed autophagy, whereas p53 mutants that display a prominently nuclear distribution failed to inhibit autophagy. The investigation of a series of deletion mutants revealed that removal of the DNA-binding domain from p53 fails to interfere with its role in the regulation of autophagy. Altogether, these results identify the cytoplasmic localization of p53 as the most important feature for p53-mediated autophagy inhibition. Moreover, the structural requirements for the two biological activities of extranuclear p53, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy, are manifestly different.

  13. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  14. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  15. Rotavirus disrupts cytoplasmic P bodies during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Rahul; Mukherjee, Arpita; Patra, Upayan; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2015-12-02

    Cytoplasmic Processing bodies (P bodies), the RNA-protein aggregation foci of translationally stalled and potentially decaying mRNA, have been reported to be differentially modulated by viruses. Rotavirus, the causative agent of acute infantile gastroenteritis is a double stranded RNA virus which completes its entire life-cycle exclusively in host cell cytoplasm. In this study, the fate of P bodies was investigated upon rotavirus infection. It was found that P bodies get disrupted during rotavirus infection. The disruption occurred by more than one different mechanism where deadenylating P body component Pan3 was degraded by rotavirus NSP1 and exonuclease XRN1 along with the decapping enzyme hDCP1a were relocalized from cytoplasm to nucleus. Overall the study highlights decay and subcellular relocalization of P body components as novel mechanisms by which rotavirus subverts cellular antiviral responses.

  16. Toxicity of gentamicin in red-tailed hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J E; Walser, M M; Duke, G E

    1983-07-01

    Gentamicin sulfate at dosage levels of 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight was administered twice daily IV to red-tailed hawks. Clinical signs, water consumption, and changes in blood chemical values were monitored. Tissues were examined grossly and ultrastructurally, using light and electron microscopy. Clinical signs of weakness and apnea were attributed to gentamicin-induced neuromuscular blockade in the 20-mg/kg group. Serum values of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, albumin, and uric acid increased in some birds. There was a decrease in periodic acid-Schiff staining of proximal tubular brush borders. Increased numbers of cytoplasmic lysosomes, many of which contained myelin figures, in renal epithelial cells were seen at the ultrastructural level. All birds given 20 mg/kg died. Both dosage levels were considered toxic in red-tailed hawks.

  17. Plakophilins, desmogleins, and pemphigus: the tail wagging the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Payne, Aimee S

    2014-04-01

    The importance of desmosomal cell adhesion to human health is evidenced by the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), in which autoantibodies against the extracellular domain of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 cause potentially fatal blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. Tucker et al. describe how enhanced expression of a desmosomal cytoplasmic plaque protein, plakophilin-1, protects keratinocytes from PV IgG-induced loss of cell adhesion by inducing calcium-independent hyperadhesive desmosomes. This study beautifully demonstrates that desmosomal adhesion can be modulated by the molecular interactions of the desmoglein tail and suggests that these novel regulatory pathways may possibly be exploited in treating human disease.

  18. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2013-07-11

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded cytogel extends the vectorial character of the plasma membrane deeper into the cytoplasm by about 20-70 nm. We discuss useful physiological insights that this model gives into the functioning of a prokaryotic cell on the micrometer scale. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases GLD-2 and GLD-4 promote general gene expression via distinct mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nousch, M.; Yeroslaviz, A.; Habermann, B; Eckmann, C

    2014-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanisms decide on cellular mRNA activities. Essential gatekeepers of post-transcriptional mRNA regulation are broadly conserved mRNA-modifying enzymes, such as cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases (cytoPAPs). Although these non-canonical nucleotidyltransferases efficiently elongate mRNA poly(A) tails in artificial tethering assays, we still know little about their global impact on poly(A) metabolism and their individual molecular roles in promoting protein p...

  1. Oilsand tailings : solving the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2008-11-15

    Oilsands tailings management is an integral part of oil sands research and development. Studies to decrease land disturbance and to resolve environmental and safety issues are underway at several government agencies and industry groups, including the Alberta Energy Research Institute, the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility and Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies division. Fresh tailings that come from the bitumen extraction process are composed of 85 to 90 per cent water and 10 to 15 per cent solids having the consistency of muddy water. The 3 zones that develop following discharge into the tailings ponds are 3 metres of clear water; residual hydrocarbons that float on the surface; and, a 1 metre zone of water and settling clay particles known as mature fine tailings (MFT) which comprise about 90 per cent of the volume of the tailings pond. The tailings ponds must be built in areas where there is no bitumen suitable for surface mining. The impounded area is surrounded by tailings dykes built from local overburden materials. As such, tailings ponds are managed as dams according to Alberta Dam Safety regulation requirements. Dam stability is increased by the installation of internal seepage control measures. This article described the key guidelines and objectives for the construction of tailings ponds. It also described the 3 primary types of reclamation settings, namely aquatic reclamation, wetland reclamation and terrestrial reclamation. Water removed from the MFT can be recycled back to the plant to reduce the amount of water used from the river. Although this contributes to lower energy costs, there are challenges regarding salt levels that builds up in piping and equipment. The presence of water in the tailings also prevents tailings reclamation. In addition to mechanical systems to remove water, researchers are also considering the use of chemicals and natural processes. In the consolidated tailings (CT) process, the

  2. Organization of the cytoplasmic reticulum in the central vacuole of parenchyma cells in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An elaborate and complex cytoplasmic reticulum composed of fine filaments and lamellae ranging from 0.1 to 4 microns in size is revealed by viewing the central vacuole of onion bulb parenchyma cells with the scanning election microscope. The larger cytoplasmic strands, visible with the light microscope, are composed of numerous smaller filaments (some tubular which might explain the observed bidirectional movement of particles in these larger strands. The finely divided cytoplasmic network of filaments is continuous with the parietal cytoplasm inclosing the vacuolar sap. In these highly vacuolated cells the mass of the protoplast is in the form of an intravacuolar reticulum immersed in the cell sap. The probable significance of the vacuolar sap in relation to physiological processes of the cell is discussed.

  3. Subunit organization in cytoplasmic dynein subcomplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen J.; Bonilla, Myriam; Rodgers, Michael E.; Schroer, Trina A.

    2002-01-01

    Because cytoplasmic dynein plays numerous critical roles in eukaryotic cells, determining the subunit composition and the organization and functions of the subunits within dynein are important goals. This has been difficult partly because of accessory polypeptide heterogeneity of dynein populations. The motor domain containing heavy chains of cytoplasmic dynein are associated with multiple intermediate, light intermediate, and light chain accessory polypeptides. We examined the organization of these subunits within cytoplasmic dynein by separating the molecule into two distinct subcomplexes. These subcomplexes were competent to reassemble into a molecule with dynein-like properties. One subcomplex was composed of the dynein heavy and light intermediate chains whereas the other subcomplex was composed of the intermediate and light chains. The intermediate and light chain subcomplex could be further separated into two pools, only one of which contained dynein light chains. The two pools had distinct intermediate chain compositions, suggesting that intermediate chain isoforms have different light chain–binding properties. When the two intermediate chain pools were characterized by analytical velocity sedimentation, at least four molecular components were seen: intermediate chain monomers, intermediate chain dimers, intermediate chain monomers with bound light chains, and a mixture of intermediate chain dimers with assorted bound light chains. These data provide new insights into the compositional heterogeneity and assembly of the cytoplasmic dynein complex and suggest that individual dynein molecules have distinct molecular compositions in vivo. PMID:11967380

  4. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, L; Horst, G; Limburg, P; deGraeffMeeder, ER; Kuis, W; Kallenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective, To evaluate the diagnostic significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by assessing the prevalence of ANCA in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) (n = 93) of either oligoarticular, polyarticular, or systemic onset. To investigate the prevalence of ANCA in other diseases of c

  5. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert; Ferguson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded

  6. Cytoplasmic permeation pathway of neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Gary

    2011-09-06

    Ion-coupled solute transporters are responsible for transporting nutrients, ions, and signaling molecules across a variety of biological membranes. Recent high-resolution crystal structures of several transporters from protein families that were previously thought to be unrelated show common structural features indicating a large structural family representing transporters from all kingdoms of life. This review describes studies that led to an understanding of the conformational changes required for solute transport in this family. The first structure in this family showed the bacterial amino acid transporter LeuT, which is homologous to neurotransmitter transporters, in an extracellularly oriented conformation with a molecule of leucine occluded at the substrate site. Studies with the mammalian serotonin transporter identified positions, buried in the LeuT structure, that defined a potential pathway leading from the cytoplasm to the substrate binding site. Modeling studies utilized an inverted structural repeat within the LeuT crystal structure to predict the conformation of LeuT in which the cytoplasmic permeation pathway, consisting of positions identified in SERT, was open for diffusion of the substrate to the cytoplasm. From the difference between the model and the crystal structures, a simple "rocking bundle" mechanism was proposed, in which a four-helix bundle changed its orientation with respect to the rest of the protein to close the extracellular pathway and open the cytoplasmic one. Subsequent crystal structures from structurally related proteins provide evidence supporting this model for transport.

  7. Detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damoiseaux, Jan; Csernok, Elena; Rasmussen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    of diagnosis) from 251 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), including granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and from 924 disease controls were tested for the presence of cytoplasmic pattern/perinuclear pattern and atypical ANCA (A-ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF...

  8. Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Arridge, C. S.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Jones, G. H.

    2012-05-01

    We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings at 5,000-10,000 km altitude by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy (m/q˜ 16 and 28) and light (m/q = 1-2) ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process of (4.2, 0.96 and 2.3) × 1024 ions s-1 respectively for the three encounters, values which are in agreement with some simulations but slightly lower than earlier estimates based on non-differential techniques. Using the mass-separated data, this corresponds to mass loss rates of (8.9, 1.6, 4.0) × 1025 amu s-1 for T9, T75 and T63 respectively, an average loss rate of ˜7 tonnes per Earth day. Remarkably, all of the tail encounters studied here indicate a split tail feature, indicating that this may be a common feature in Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere.

  9. Star formation in shocked cluster spirals and their tails

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Owers, M S; Ebeling, H; Sun, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of ram pressure stripped spiral galaxies in clusters revealed details of the stripping process, i.e., the truncation of all interstellar medium (ISM) phases and of star formation (SF) in the disk, and multiphase star-forming tails. Some stripped galaxies, in particular in merging clusters, develop spectacular star-forming tails, giving them a jellyfish-like appearance. In merging clusters, merger shocks in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) are thought to have overrun these galaxies, enhancing the ambient ICM pressure and thus triggering SF, gas stripping and tail formation. We present idealised hydrodynamical simulations of this scenario, including standard descriptions for SF and stellar feedback. To aid the interpretation of recent and upcoming observations, we focus on particular structures and dynamics in SF patterns in the remaining gas disk and in the near tails, which are easiest to observe. The observed jellyfish morphology is qualitatively reproduced for, both, face-on and edge-on st...

  10. Numerical Study of Propulsion Mechanism for Oscillating Rigid and Flexible Tuna-Tails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yang; Yumin Su; Qing Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Numerical study on the unsteady hydrodynamic characteristics of oscillating rigid and flexible tuna-tails in viscous flow-field is performed.Investigations are conducted using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a moving adaptive mesh.The effect of swimming speed,flapping amplitude,frequency and flexure amplitude on the propulsion performance of the rigid and flexible tuna-tails are investigated.Computational results reveal that a pair of leading edge vortices develop along the tail surface as it undergoes an oscillating motion.The propulsive efficiency has a strong correlation with various locomotive parameters.Peak propulsive efficiency can be obtained by adjusting these parameters.Particularly,when input power coefficient is less than 2.8,the rigid tail generates larger thrust force and higher propulsive efficiency than flexible tail.However,when input power coefficient is larger than 2.8,flexible tail is superior to rigid tail.

  11. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  12. Novel origin of lamin-derived cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in tardigrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Lars; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Reichelt, Julian; Magin, Thomas M; Mayer, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins, including nuclear lamins and cytoplasmic IF proteins, are essential cytoskeletal components of bilaterian cells. Despite their important role in protecting tissues against mechanical force, no cytoplasmic IF proteins have been convincingly identified in arthropods. Here we show that the ancestral cytoplasmic IF protein gene was lost in the entire panarthropod (onychophoran + tardigrade + arthropod) rather than arthropod lineage and that nuclear, lamin-derived proteins instead acquired new cytoplasmic roles at least three times independently in collembolans, copepods, and tardigrades. Transcriptomic and genomic data revealed three IF protein genes in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, one of which (cytotardin) occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm of epidermal and foregut epithelia, where it forms belt-like filaments around each epithelial cell. These results suggest that a lamin derivative has been co-opted to enhance tissue stability in tardigrades, a function otherwise served by cytoplasmic IF proteins in all other bilaterians. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11117.001 PMID:26840051

  13. Tails, Fears and Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We show that the compensation for rare events accounts for a large fraction of the equity and variance risk premia in the S&P 500 market index. The probability of rare events vary significantly over time, increasing in periods of high market volatility, but the risk premium for tail events cannot...... solely be explained by the level of the volatil- ity. Our empirical investigations are essentially model-free. We estimate the expected values of the tails under the statistical probability measure from "medium" size jumps in high-frequency intraday prices and an extreme value theory approximation...... for the corresponding jump tail density. Our estimates for the risk-neutral expectations are based on short maturity out-of-the money options and new model-free option implied variation measures explicitly designed to separate the tail probabilities. At a general level, our results suggest that any satisfactory...

  14. White-tailed jackrabbit relocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes a plan to relocate white-tailed jackrabbits to Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge) during 1997.

  15. Protein diffusion in mammalian cell cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Thomas; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Hyväluoma, Jari; Dross, Nicolas; Willman, Sami F; Langowski, Jörg; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Timonen, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new method for mesoscopic modeling of protein diffusion in an entire cell. This method is based on the construction of a three-dimensional digital model cell from confocal microscopy data. The model cell is segmented into the cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope, in which environment protein motion is modeled by fully numerical mesoscopic methods. Finer cellular structures that cannot be resolved with the imaging technique, which significantly affect protein motion, are accounted for in this method by assigning an effective, position-dependent porosity to the cell. This porosity can also be determined by confocal microscopy using the equilibrium distribution of a non-binding fluorescent protein. Distinction can now be made within this method between diffusion in the liquid phase of the cell (cytosol/nucleosol) and the cytoplasm/nucleoplasm. Here we applied the method to analyze fluorescence recovery after photobleach (FRAP) experiments in which the diffusion coefficient of a freely-diffusing model protein was determined for two different cell lines, and to explain the clear difference typically observed between conventional FRAP results and those of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). A large difference was found in the FRAP experiments between diffusion in the cytoplasm/nucleoplasm and in the cytosol/nucleosol, for all of which the diffusion coefficients were determined. The cytosol results were found to be in very good agreement with those by FCS.

  16. Protein diffusion in mammalian cell cytoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kühn

    Full Text Available We introduce a new method for mesoscopic modeling of protein diffusion in an entire cell. This method is based on the construction of a three-dimensional digital model cell from confocal microscopy data. The model cell is segmented into the cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope, in which environment protein motion is modeled by fully numerical mesoscopic methods. Finer cellular structures that cannot be resolved with the imaging technique, which significantly affect protein motion, are accounted for in this method by assigning an effective, position-dependent porosity to the cell. This porosity can also be determined by confocal microscopy using the equilibrium distribution of a non-binding fluorescent protein. Distinction can now be made within this method between diffusion in the liquid phase of the cell (cytosol/nucleosol and the cytoplasm/nucleoplasm. Here we applied the method to analyze fluorescence recovery after photobleach (FRAP experiments in which the diffusion coefficient of a freely-diffusing model protein was determined for two different cell lines, and to explain the clear difference typically observed between conventional FRAP results and those of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS. A large difference was found in the FRAP experiments between diffusion in the cytoplasm/nucleoplasm and in the cytosol/nucleosol, for all of which the diffusion coefficients were determined. The cytosol results were found to be in very good agreement with those by FCS.

  17. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) in autoimmune liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, C.; Kallenberg, Cees

    1999-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. ANCA have been detected in serum from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (mainly ulcerative colitis) and autoimmune mediated liver diseases (mainl

  18. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of reviews This review focuses on recent advance in the diagnosis pathogenesis and treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis. Recent findings Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are closely associated with Wegener's granulomatosis and micro

  19. Cytoplasmic accumulation of flavonoids in flower petals and its relevance to yellow flower colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, K R; Gould, K S; Ryan, K G

    2001-10-01

    It is widely accepted that the mix of flavonoids in the cell vacuole is the source of flavonoid based petal colour, and that analysis of the petal extract reveals the nature and relative levels of vacuolar flavonoid pigments. However, it has recently been established with lisianthus flowers that some petal flavonoids can be excluded from the vacuolar mix through deposition in the cell wall or through complexation with proteins inside the vacuole, and that these flavonoids are not readily extractable. The present work demonstrates that flavonoids can also be compartmented within the cell cytoplasm. Using adaxial epidermal peels from the petals of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), Lathyrus chrysanthus and Dianthus caryophyllus, light and laser scanning confocal microscopy studies revealed a significant concentration of petal flavonoids in the cell cytoplasm of some tissues. With lisianthus, flavonoid analyses of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles were used to establish that ca 14% of petal flavonoids are located in the cytoplasm (cf. 30% in the cell wall and 56% in the vacuole). The cytoplasmic flavonoids are predominantly acylated glycosides (cf. non-acylated in the cell wall). Flavonoid aggregation on a cytoplasmic protein substrate provides a rational mechanism to account for how colourless flavonoid glycosides can produce yellow colouration in petals, and perhaps also in other plant parts. High vacuolar concentrations of such flavonoids are shown to be insufficient.

  20. Does climate have heavy tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

  1. Characterization of cytoplasmic Gag-gag interactions by dual-color z-scan fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Keir H; Chen, Yan; Grigsby, Iwen F; Macdonald, Patrick J; Smith, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Jolene L; Rawson, Jonathan M; Mansky, Louis M; Mueller, Joachim D

    2011-03-16

    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) quantifies the interactions of fluorescently-labeled proteins inside living cells by brightness analysis. However, the study of cytoplasmic proteins that interact with the plasma membrane is challenging with FFS. If the cytoplasmic section is thinner than the axial size of the observation volume, cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins are coexcited, which leads to brightness artifacts. This brightness bias, if not recognized, leads to erroneous interpretation of the data. We have overcome this challenge by introducing dual-color z-scan FFS and the addition of a distinctly colored reference protein. Here, we apply this technique to study the cytoplasmic interactions of the Gag proteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The Gag protein plays a crucial role in the assembly of retroviruses and is found in both membrane and cytoplasm. Dual-color z-scans demonstrate that brightness artifacts are caused by a dim nonpunctate membrane-bound fraction of Gag. We perform an unbiased brightness characterization of cytoplasmic Gag by avoiding the membrane-bound fraction and reveal previously unknown differences in the behavior of the two retroviral Gag species. HIV-1 Gag exhibits concentration-dependent oligomerization in the cytoplasm, whereas HTLV-1 Gag lacks significant cytoplasmic Gag-Gag interactions. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of coronaviral poly(A tail length during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available The positive-strand coronavirus genome of ~30 kilobase in length and subgenomic (sg mRNAs of shorter lengths, are 5' and 3'-co-terminal by virtue of a common 5'-capped leader and a common 3'-polyadenylated untranslated region. Here, by ligating head-to-tail viral RNAs from bovine coronavirus-infected cells and sequencing across the ligated junctions, it was learned that at the time of peak viral RNA synthesis [6 hours postinfection (hpi] the 3' poly(A tail on genomic and sgmRNAs is ~65 nucleotides (nt in length. Surprisingly, this length was found to vary throughout infection from ~45 nt immediately after virus entry (at 0 to 4 hpi to ~65 nt later on (at 6 h to 9 hpi and from ~65 nt (at 6 h to 9 hpi to ~30 nt (at 120-144 hpi. With the same method, poly(U sequences of the same lengths were simultaneously found on the ligated viral negative-strand RNAs. Functional analyses of poly(A tail length on specific viral RNA species, furthermore, revealed that translation, in vivo, of RNAs with the longer poly(A tail was enhanced over those with the shorter poly(A. Although the mechanisms by which the tail lengths vary is unknown, experimental results together suggest that the length of the poly(A and poly(U tails is regulated. One potential function of regulated poly(A tail length might be that for the coronavirus genome a longer poly(A favors translation. The regulation of coronavirus translation by poly(A tail length resembles that during embryonal development suggesting there may be mechanistic parallels.

  3. Tail-scope: Using friends to estimate heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Many complex networks in natural and social phenomena have often been characterized by heavy-tailed degree distributions. However, due to rapidly growing size of network data and concerns on privacy issues about using these data, it becomes more difficult to analyze complete data sets. Thus, it is crucial to devise effective and efficient estimation methods for heavy tails of degree distributions in large-scale networks only using local information of a small fraction of sampled nodes. Here we propose a tail-scope method based on local observational bias of the friendship paradox. We show that the tail-scope method outperforms the uniform node sampling for estimating heavy tails of degree distributions, while the opposite tendency is observed in the range of small degrees. In order to take advantages of both sampling methods, we devise the hybrid method that successfully recovers the whole range of degree distributions. Our tail-scope method shows how structural heterogeneities of large-scale complex networks can be used to effectively reveal the network structure only with limited local information.

  4. Challenging the Long Tail Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Hongzhi; Li, Jing; Yao, Junjie; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Amazon.com and Netflix has been largely attributed to a "long tail" phenomenon. Although the majority of their inventory is not in high demand, these niche products, unavailable at limited-inventory competitors, generate a significant fraction of total revenue in aggregate. In addition, tail product availability can boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche tastes. However, most of existing recommender systems, especially collaborative filter based methods, can not recommend tail products due to the data sparsity issue. It has been widely acknowledged that to recommend popular products is easier yet more trivial while to recommend long tail products adds more novelty yet it is also a more challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel suite of graph-based algorithms for the long tail recommendation. We first represent user-item information with undirected edge-weighted graph and i...

  5. Flows along cometary tails in the Helix planetary nebula NGC 7293

    CERN Document Server

    Meaburn, John

    2009-01-01

    Previous velocity images which reveal flows of ionized gas along the most prominent cometary tail (from Knot 38) in the Helix planetary nebula are compared with that taken at optical wavelengths with the Hubble Space Telescope and with an image in the emission from molecular hydrogen. The flows from the second most prominent tail from Knot 14 are also considered. The kinematics of the tail from the more complex Knot 32, shown here for the first time, also reveals an acceleration away from the central star. All of the tails are explained as accelerating ionized flows of ablated material driven by the previous, mildly supersonic, AGB wind from the central star. The longest tail of ionized gas, even though formed by this mechanism in a very clumpy medium, as revealed by the emission from molecular hydrogen, appears to be a coherent outflowing feature.

  6. Comparative analysis of the mosaic genomes of tailed archaeal viruses and proviruses suggests common themes for virion architecture and assembly with tailed viruses of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupovic, Mart; Forterre, Patrick; Bamford, Dennis H

    2010-03-19

    Tailed double-stranded DNA viruses (order Caudovirales) represent the dominant morphotype among viruses infecting bacteria. Analysis and comparison of complete genome sequences of tailed bacterial viruses provided insights into their origin and evolution. Structural and genomic studies have unexpectedly revealed that tailed bacterial viruses are evolutionarily related to eukaryotic herpesviruses. Organisms from the third domain of life, Archaea, are also infected by viruses that, in their overall morphology, resemble tailed viruses of bacteria. However, high-resolution structural information is currently unavailable for any of these viruses, and only a few complete genomes have been sequenced so far. Here we identified nine proviruses that are clearly related to tailed bacterial viruses and integrated into chromosomes of species belonging to four different taxonomic orders of the Archaea. This more than doubled the number of genome sequences available for comparative studies. Our analyses indicate that highly mosaic tailed archaeal virus genomes evolve by homologous and illegitimate recombination with genomes of other viruses, by diversification, and by acquisition of cellular genes. Comparative genomics of these viruses and related proviruses revealed a set of conserved genes encoding putative proteins similar to virion assembly and maturation, as well as genome packaging proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses. Furthermore, fold prediction and structural modeling experiments suggest that the major capsid proteins of tailed archaeal viruses adopt the same topology as the corresponding proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and eukaryotic herpesviruses. Data presented in this study strongly support the hypothesis that tailed viruses infecting archaea share a common ancestry with tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses.

  7. Fish viruses: isolation of an icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus from sheatfish (Silurus glanis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W; Schlotfeldt, H J; Thomsen, I

    1989-07-01

    An icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyvirus has been isolated from moribund sheatfish (Silurus glanis) fry of a commercial warm water recirculation aquaculture unit with cumulative mortalities of up to 100%. The agent replicated in BF-2 and in FHM cells at 20-30 degrees C producing cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies followed by lysis of the cells. The DNA containing virus proved to be labile to chloroform. Infected BF-2 cells revealed hexagonal particles in the cytoplasm measuring about 125-135 nm in diameter. The virus consisted of a central electron-dense core and a electron-translucent zone. The isolate shares characteristics with the Iridoviridae.

  8. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD

  9. Atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiomyopathy in a captive, adult red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrubsole-Cockwill, Alana; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Parker, Dennilyn

    2008-09-01

    An adult, male, captive red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) of at least 19 years of age presented in dorsal recumbency. The hawk was nonresponsive, and despite initial supportive care, died shortly after presentation. Gross postmortem revealed no abnormal findings. Histologic examination demonstrated atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiomyopathy. This is the first reported case of atherosclerosis in a red-tailed hawk.

  10. Nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of proteins and RNA in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is an essential necessity in eukaryotic cells, since the nuclear envelope separates transcription from translation. In the past few years, an increasing number of components of the plant nuclear transport machinery have been characterised. This progress, although far from being completed, confirmed that the general characteristics of nuclear transport are conserved between plants and other organisms. However, plant-specific components were also identified. Interestingly, several mutants in genes encoding components of the plant nuclear transport machinery were investigated, revealing differential sensitivity of plant-specific pathways to impaired nuclear transport. These findings attracted attention towards plant-specific cargoes that are transported over the nuclear envelope, unravelling connections between nuclear transport and components of signalling and developmental pathways. The current state of research in plants is summarised in comparison to yeast and vertebrate systems, and special emphasis is given to plant nuclear transport mutants.

  11. The Cytoplasm-to-Vacuole Targeting Pathway: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Umekawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From today's perspective, it is obvious that macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy is an important pathway that is connected to a range of developmental and physiological processes. This viewpoint, however, is relatively recent, coinciding with the molecular identification of autophagy-related (Atg components that function as the protein machinery that drives the dynamic membrane events of autophagy. It may be difficult, especially for scientists new to this area of research, to appreciate that the field of autophagy long existed as a “backwater” topic that attracted little interest or attention. Paralleling the development of the autophagy field was the identification and analysis of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt pathway, the only characterized biosynthetic route that utilizes the Atg proteins. Here, we relate some of the initial history, including some never-before-revealed facts, of the analysis of the Cvt pathway and the convergence of those studies with autophagy.

  12. In Situ Calibration of Nucleoplasmic versus Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Concentration in Adult Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, Senka; Walther, Stefanie; Asgarzoei, Mojib; Sedej, Simon; Pieske, Burkert; Kockskämper, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of subcellularly resolved Ca2+ signals in cardiomyocytes is essential for understanding Ca2+ fluxes in excitation-contraction and excitation-transcription coupling. The properties of fluorescent indicators in intracellular compartments may differ, thus affecting the translation of Ca2+-dependent fluorescence changes into [Ca2+] changes. Therefore, we determined the in situ characteristics of a frequently used Ca2+ indicator, Fluo-4, and a ratiometric Ca2+ indicator, Asante Calcium Red, and evaluated their use for reporting and quantifying cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic Ca2+ signals in isolated cardiomyocytes. Ca2+ calibration curves revealed significant differences in the apparent Ca2+ dissociation constants of Fluo-4 and Asante Calcium Red between cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. These parameters were used for transformation of fluorescence into nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic [Ca2+]. Resting and diastolic [Ca2+] were always higher in the nucleoplasm. Systolic [Ca2+] was usually higher in the cytoplasm, but some cells (15%) exhibited higher systolic [Ca2+] in the nucleoplasm. Ca2+ store depletion or blockade of Ca2+ leak pathways eliminated the resting [Ca2+] gradient between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm, whereas inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors by 2-APB reversed it. The results suggest the presence of significant nucleoplasmic-to-cytoplasmic [Ca2+] gradients in resting myocytes and during the cardiac cycle. Nucleoplasmic [Ca2+] in cardiomyocytes may be regulated via two mechanisms: diffusion from the cytoplasm and active Ca2+ release via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors from perinuclear Ca2+ stores. PMID:21575569

  13. ExbB Cytoplasmic Loop Deletions Cause Immediate, Proton Motive Force-Independent Growth Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulathsinghala, Charles M.; Jana, Bimal; Baker, Kristin R.

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli TonB system consists of the cytoplasmic membrane proteins TonB, ExbB, and ExbD and multiple outer membrane active transporters for diverse iron siderophores and vitamin B12. The cytoplasmic membrane proteins harvest and transmit the proton motive force (PMF) to outer membrane transporters. This system, which spans the cell envelope, has only one component with a significant cytoplasmic presence, ExbB. Characterization of sequential 10-residue deletions in the ExbB cytoplasmic loop (residues 40 to 129; referred to as Δ10 proteins) revealed that it was required for all TonB-dependent activities, including interaction between the periplasmic domains of TonB and ExbD. Expression of eight out of nine of the Δ10 proteins at chromosomal levels led to immediate, but reversible, growth arrest. Arrest was not due to collapse of the PMF and did not require the presence of ExbD or TonB. All Δ10 proteins that caused growth arrest were dominant for that phenotype. However, several were not dominant for iron transport, indicating that growth arrest was an intrinsic property of the Δ10 variants, whether or not they could associate with wild-type ExbB proteins. The lack of dominance in iron transport also ruled out trivial explanations for growth arrest, such as high-level induction. Taken together, the data suggest that growth arrest reflected a changed interaction between the ExbB cytoplasmic loop and one or more unknown growth-regulatory proteins. Consistent with that, a large proportion of the ExbB cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) and TMD2 is predicted to be disordered, suggesting the need for interaction with one or more cytoplasmic proteins to induce a final structure. PMID:23913327

  14. Molecular classification of Maize cytoplasms in a breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo. N * , Presello, D.A. , Kandus M. , G.E. Eyherabide and J.C. Salerno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is maternally inherited in most of higher plants species. Together with nuclear restorer genes (Rf, CMS cytoplasms contribute significantly to the efficient production of hybrid seed. Three main types of male sterile cytoplasms are known in maize: T, S and C, which can be distinguished by crossing with specific restorer lines. Recently, PCR markers have been developed allowing the identification of different cytoplasms quickly and accurately. Our objective was to classify the cytoplasm type of maize inbred lines used in our breeding program and F1s obtained from crosses between CMS lines and elite maize lines using PCR multiplex. A multiplex PCR protocol was optimized for our conditions. We obtained the molecular classification of the analyzed cytoplasms. The optimized protocol is a valuable tool to trace male sterile cytoplasms and determine hybrid seed purity in our maize breeding program.

  15. Biological effects of long term fine limestone tailings discharge in a fjord ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lucy; Melsom, Fredrik; Glette, Tormod

    2015-07-15

    Benthic infaunal data collected from 1993 to 2010 were analysed to examine the effect of long term discharge of fine limestone tailings on macrofaunal species assemblages in a fjord. Relative distance from the outfall and proportion of fine tailings in the sediment were correlated with benthic community structure. Diversity decreased with increasing proportion of fine tailings. Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to explore the temporal and spatial effects of the tailings gradient on macrofaunal functional attributes. BTA revealed that all stations along a pressure gradient of fine limestone tailings were dominated by free-living species. As the proportion of fine tailings in the sediment increased, there was an increase in fauna that were smaller, highly mobile, living on or nearer the surface sediment, with shorter lifespans. There was a decrease in permanent tube dwellers, those fauna with low or no mobility, that live deeper in the sediment and have longer lifespans (>5 yrs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An FNA pitfall: Mammary analog secretory carcinoma mistaken for acinic cell carcinoma due to cytoplasmic granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Hijazi, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the salivary gland, a key differential feature of Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC from acinic cell carcinoma (ACC is the lack of cytoplasmic granules. We report a case of a parotid mass incorrectly diagnosed on fine needle aspirate as acinic cell carcinoma due to many cells with basophilic granules suggesting serous acinar differention. Tumor resection revealed a tumor consistent with low grade adenocarcinoma that had eosinophilic, microvacuolar cytoplasm with distinct basophilic granules staining with PASD and mucicarmine. The diagnosis of MASC was confirmed with stains for GCDF-15, mammoglobin, and S100 and FISH consistent with a t(12;15 translocation. Relying on the absence of cytoplasmic granules as a feature to distinguish ACC from MASC is a diagnostic pitfall.

  17. Atypical, cytoplasmic and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzer, A; Fierz, W; Rundler, E; Hammer, B; Binek, J

    1998-09-01

    Atypical, cytoplasmic and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (x-, c- and pANCA, respectively) are associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are more common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) than in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Most publications only refer to p- and cANCA in relation to IBD. We have prospectively evaluated the reactivity of sera from 58 patients with IBD and 10 healthy controls against human neutrophils with emphasis on the distinction of the ANCA types. The sera were incubated with ethanol- and formaldehyde-fixed granulocytes to differentiate between c-, p- and xANCA. The results showed that 10 of 24 patients with UC were positive for ANCA, whereas only one of 34 patients with CD was ANCA positive. These results correspond to a sensitivity of 42%, a specificity of 97%, a negative predictive value of 91% and a positive predictive value of 75% in UC. Of the 11 ANCA-positive sera, two showed a cytoplasmic staining pattern, three showed a perinuclear and six an atypical staining pattern. The disease activity was not correlated to either the ANCA titre or to the presence of ANCA in the serum. In conclusion, ANCA are of limited value in differentiating between UC and CD. Because the majority of ANCA in patients with IBD are xANCA, these ANCA should be explored by not only incubating on ethanol-fixed granulocytes, but also on formaldehyde-fixed granulocytes.

  18. P granules phase transition induced by cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Hu, GuoHui

    2017-01-01

    P granules are germ granules contained in Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells. The first germ cell is specified by the one-cell embryo in which P granules localize to the posterior. Previous studies suggested that the mechanism of the localization phenomena is induced by liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT), in which the polarity proteins control the saturation point of P granules. In the present study, we propose that the P granules phase transition can be triggered by the cytoplasmic streaming. A two-phase flow model is employed to simulate the localization of P granules, i.e., the cytoplasm is considered as a liquid phase, and the droplet-like P granules are another liquid phase. With the presence of the cytoplasmic streaming, P granules, initially distributing uniformly in the entire one-cell embryo, eventually condense/dissolve in the cytoplasm phase, regulated by difference between the saturation pressure and the hydrodynamic pressure. The numerical results reveal that the cytoplasmic streaming has significant effects on the localization of P granules, as well as the embryo division.

  19. Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in cytoplasmic and nuclear genome of upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdiev, Sharof S; Saha, Sukumar; Salakhutdinov, Ilkhom; Jenkins, Johnie N; Deng, Dewayne; Y Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim

    2016-06-01

    The importance of the cytoplasmic genome for many economically important traits is well documented in several crop species, including cotton. There is no report on application of cotton chloroplast specific SSR markers as a diagnostic tool to study genetic diversity among improved Upland cotton lines. The complete plastome sequence information in GenBank provided us an opportunity to report on 17 chloroplast specific SSR markers using a cost-effective data mining strategy. Here we report the comparative analysis of genetic diversity among a set of 42 improved Upland cotton lines using SSR markers specific to chloroplast and nuclear genome, respectively. Our results revealed that low to moderate level of genetic diversity existed in both nuclear and cytoplasm genome among this set of cotton lines. However, the specific estimation suggested that genetic diversity is lower in cytoplasmic genome compared to the nuclear genome among this set of Upland cotton lines. In summary, this research is important from several perspectives. We detected a set of cytoplasm genome specific SSR primer pairs by using a cost-effective data mining strategy. We reported for the first time the genetic diversity in the cytoplasmic genome within a set of improved Upland cotton accessions. Results revealed that the genetic diversity in cytoplasmic genome is narrow, compared to the nuclear genome within this set of Upland cotton accessions. Our results suggested that most of these polymorphic chloroplast SSRs would be a valuable complementary tool in addition to the nuclear SSR in the study of evolution, gene flow and genetic diversity in Upland cotton.

  20. DLM for T-Tails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the extension of the DLM to account for effects that are critical to the modelling of T-tail flutter. The boundary condition is made more general to account for yaw/dihedral and sideslip/dihedral coupling and the calculation...

  1. Ruin problems and tail asymptotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders

    The thesis Ruin Problems and Tail Asymptotics provides results on ruin problems for several classes of Markov processes. For a class of diffusion processes with jumps an explicit expression for the joint Laplace transform of the first passage time and the corresponding undershoot is derived...

  2. Portfolio Selection with Heavy Tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hyung (Namwon); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractConsider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore of ten sele

  3. Little Lizard’s Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖敏; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    一、故事内容It is a lovely sunny day.Little Lizard is walking in the forest.Suddenly,a big snake stops him.Little Lizard runs as quickly as pos-sible,but his tail is bitten off(咬断)by the snake

  4. Model for bidirectional movement of cytoplasmic dynein

    CERN Document Server

    Sumathy, S

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein exhibits a directional processive movement on microtubule filaments and is known to move in steps of varying length based on the number of ATP molecules bound to it and the load that it carries. It is experimentally observed that dynein takes occasional backward steps and the frequency of such backward steps increases as the load approaches the stall force. Using a stochastic process model, we investigate the bidirectional movement of single head of a dynein motor. The probability for backward step is implemented based on Crook's fluctuation theorem of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We find that the movement of dynein motor is characterized with negative velocity implying backward motion beyond stall force. We observe that the motor moves backward for super stall forces by hydrolyzing the ATP exactly the same way as it does while moving forward for sub stall forces.

  5. Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified.

  6. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takahashi

    Full Text Available The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1 is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6. A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (rCTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range than with Q13 (normal-length. Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei.

  7. The microbiology of oil sands tailings: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foght, Julia M; Gieg, Lisa M; Siddique, Tariq

    2017-05-01

    Surface mining of enormous oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta, Canada since 1967 has contributed greatly to Canada's economy but has also received negative international attention due largely to environmental concerns and challenges. Not only have microbes profoundly affected the composition and behavior of this petroleum resource over geological time, they currently influence the management of semi-solid tailings in oil sands tailings ponds (OSTPs) and tailings reclamation. Historically, microbial impacts on OSTPs were generally discounted, but next-generation sequencing and biogeochemical studies have revealed unexpectedly diverse indigenous communities and expanded our fundamental understanding of anaerobic microbial functions. OSTPs that experienced different processing and management histories have developed distinct microbial communities that influence the behavior and reclamation of the tailings stored therein. In particular, the interactions of Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes with methanogenic archaea impact greenhouse gas emissions, sulfur cycling, pore water toxicity, sediment biogeochemistry and densification, water usage and the trajectory of long-term mine waste reclamation. This review summarizes historical data; synthesizes current understanding of microbial diversity and activities in situ and in vitro; predicts microbial effects on tailings remediation and reclamation; and highlights knowledge gaps for future research. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  9. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  10. The gene for a cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) protein of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii; definition of the unique features of chordate IF proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimek, Alexander; Weber, Klaus

    2002-04-17

    We have isolated full length cDNAs encoding a cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) protein of a priapulid (Priapulus caudatus) and of a hemichordate (Saccoglossus kowalevskii) and determined the organisation of the hemichordate gene. As expected, the priapulid protein shows the long coil 1b subdomain and the lamin tail homology segment already known for cytoplasmic IF proteins from 11 other protostomic phyla. Surprisingly, the hemichordate protein follows in domain organisation much more closely the protostomic IF proteins than the chordate IF proteins. Thus, the lack of a lamin tail homology segment together with a deletion of 42 residues in the coil 1b domain is a molecular feature restricted to the chordates. We propose that the known IF subfamilies I to IV developed by gene duplications and sequence drift after the deletion in coil 1b arose at the base of the chordate branch.

  11. The molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Ito, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to angiosperms. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming have long remained unelucidated. Recent molecular genetic approaches have identified specific myosin members (XI-2 and XI-K as major and XI-1, XI-B, and XI-I as minor motive forces) for the generation of cytoplasmic streaming among 13 myosin XIs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Simultaneous knockout of these myosin XI members led to a reduced velocity of cytoplasmic streaming and marked defects of plant development. Furthermore, the artificial modifications of myosin XI-2 velocity changed plant and cell sizes along with the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. Therefore, we assume that cytoplasmic streaming is one of the key regulators in determining plant size.

  12. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  13. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    OpenAIRE

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to p...

  14. Developmental potential of embryonic cells in a nucleocytoplasmic hybrid formed using a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Saito, Taiju; Sakao, Suzu; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    In teleosts, viable nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, formed by combining a nucleus from one species with the egg cytoplasm of another, have been used as one of the methods for breed improvement in aquaculture, but have been little exploited for developmental biology studies. Here, we used an artificial androgenesis technique to form nucleocytoplasmic hybrids comprising a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm. These hybrids were used to investigate interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasm during embryonic development. Additionally, the developmental characteristics of embryonic cells of nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were examined in chimeras produced by transplantation of blastomeres into recipient loach or goldfish embryos. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic hybrids arrested at the dome stage of embryonic development and did not form any gastrula structures. The goosecoid (gsc) and no tail (ntl) genes were expressed normally before gastrulation in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, similar to diploid loach. However, expression of the gsc and ntl genes was not maintained in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids. In chimeric embryos, blastomeres derived from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were found to mix with the cells of recipient loach embryos at the gastrula stage. The transplanted blastomeres formed small clusters at the somitogenesis stage and, finally, small spots at the hatching stage. In contrast, when the blastomeres were transplanted into goldfish embryos, the transplanted blastomeres aggregated in the chimeric embryos. Thus, embryonic cells from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids that arrest before gastrulation could survive beyond the somitogenesis stage depending on the cytoplasmic environment in the recipient embryos.

  15. Trail of Earth's tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.W.H. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1985-05-23

    The paper concerns the observations by the ISEE-3 spacecraft of the earth's geomagnetic tail and its environs. The overall structure of the tail is described, as well as the properties of plasmas and fields both in the magnetic tail lobes and in the central current sheet that separates the lobes.

  16. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin...

  17. Applying the genetic theories of ageing to the cytoplasm: cytoplasmic genetic covariation for fitness and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, D K; Maklakov, A A; Friberg, U; Hailer, F

    2009-04-01

    Two genetic models exist to explain the evolution of ageing - mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). Under MA, a reduced intensity of selection with age results in accumulation of late-acting deleterious mutations. Under AP, late-acting deleterious mutations accumulate because they confer beneficial effects early in life. Recent studies suggest that the mitochondrial genome is a major player in ageing. It therefore seems plausible that the MA and AP models will be relevant to genomes within the cytoplasm. This possibility has not been considered previously. We explore whether patterns of covariation between fitness and ageing across 25 cytoplasmic lines, sampled from a population of Drosophila melanogaster, are consistent with the genetic associations predicted under MA or AP. We find negative covariation for fitness and the rate of ageing, and positive covariation for fitness and lifespan. Notably, the direction of these associations is opposite to that typically predicted under AP.

  18. Structure of the cytoplasmic domain of Yersinia pestis YscD, an essential component of the type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S. (SAIC); (NCI)

    2012-09-17

    The Yersinia pestis YscD protein is an essential component of the type III secretion system. YscD consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (residues 1-121), a transmembrane linker (122-142) and a large periplasmic domain (143-419). Both the cytoplasmic and the periplasmic domains are required for the assembly of the type III secretion system. Here, the structure of the YscD cytoplasmic domain solved by SAD phasing is presented. Although the three-dimensional structure is similar to those of forkhead-associated (FHA) domains, comparison with the structures of canonical FHA domains revealed that the cytoplasmic domain of YscD lacks the conserved residues that are required for binding phosphothreonine and is therefore unlikely to function as a true FHA domain.

  19. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A. M.

    2002-11-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  20. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse;

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  2. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  3. Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan; D'Amelio, Marcello; Criollo, Alfredo; Morselli, Eugenia; Zhu, Changlian; Harper, Francis; Nannmark, Ulf; Samara, Chrysanthi; Pinton, Paolo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Carnuccio, Rosa; Moll, Ute M; Madeo, Frank; Paterlini-Brechot, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Pierron, Gérard; Blomgren, Klas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Codogno, Patrice; Cecconi, Francesco; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-06-01

    Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer cells under conditions of hypoxia and nutrient depletion, allowing them to maintain high ATP levels. Inhibition of p53 led to autophagy in enucleated cells, and cytoplasmic, not nuclear, p53 was able to repress the enhanced autophagy of p53(-/-) cells. Many different inducers of autophagy (for example, starvation, rapamycin and toxins affecting the endoplasmic reticulum) stimulated proteasome-mediated degradation of p53 through a pathway relying on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2. Inhibition of p53 degradation prevented the activation of autophagy in several cell lines, in response to several distinct stimuli. These results provide evidence of a key signalling pathway that links autophagy to the cancer-associated dysregulation of p53.

  4. A physical perspective on cytoplasmic streaming (invited)

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    Organisms show a remarkable range of sizes, yet the dimensions of a single cell rarely exceed $100$ $\\mu$m. While the physical and biological origins of this constraint remain poorly understood, exceptions to this rule give valuable insights. A well-known counterexample is the aquatic plant $Chara$, whose cells can exceed $10$ cm in length and $1$ mm in diameter. Two spiraling bands of molecular motors at the cell periphery drive the cellular fluid up and down at speeds up to $100$ $\\mu$m/s, motion that has been hypothesized to mitigate the slowness of metabolite transport on these scales and to aid in homeostasis. This is the most organized instance of a broad class of continuous motions known as "cytoplasmic streaming", found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms - algae, plants, amoebae, nematodes, and flies - often in unusually large cells. In this overview of the physics of this phenomenon, we examine the interplay between streaming, transport and cell size, and discuss the possible role of self-organi...

  5. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  6. A physical perspective on cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E; van de Meent, Jan-Willem

    2015-08-06

    Organisms show a remarkable range of sizes, yet the dimensions of a single cell rarely exceed 100 µm. While the physical and biological origins of this constraint remain poorly understood, exceptions to this rule give valuable insights. A well-known counterexample is the aquatic plant Chara, whose cells can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Two spiralling bands of molecular motors at the cell periphery drive the cellular fluid up and down at speeds up to 100 µm s(-1), motion that has been hypothesized to mitigate the slowness of metabolite transport on these scales and to aid in homeostasis. This is the most organized instance of a broad class of continuous motions known as 'cytoplasmic streaming', found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms-algae, plants, amoebae, nematodes and flies-often in unusually large cells. In this overview of the physics of this phenomenon, we examine the interplay between streaming, transport and cell size and discuss the possible role of self-organization phenomena in establishing the observed patterns of streaming.

  7. Cytoplasmic Dynein Promotes HIV-1 Uncoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pawlica

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral capsid (CA cores undergo uncoating during their retrograde transport (toward the nucleus, and/or after reaching the nuclear membrane. However, whether HIV-1 CA core uncoating is dependent upon its transport is not understood. There is some evidence that HIV-1 cores retrograde transport involves cytoplasmic dynein complexes translocating on microtubules. Here we investigate the role of dynein-dependent transport in HIV-1 uncoating. To interfere with dynein function, we depleted dynein heavy chain (DHC using RNA interference, and we over-expressed p50/dynamitin. In immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, DHC depletion caused an accumulation of CA foci in HIV-1 infected cells. Using a biochemical assay to monitor HIV-1 CA core disassembly in infected cells, we observed an increase in amounts of intact (pelletable CA cores upon DHC depletion or p50 over-expression. Results from these two complementary assays suggest that inhibiting dynein-mediated transport interferes with HIV-1 uncoating in infected cells, indicating the existence of a functional link between HIV-1 transport and uncoating.

  8. Optimal cytoplasmic transport in viral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R D'Orsogna

    Full Text Available For many viruses, the ability to infect eukaryotic cells depends on their transport through the cytoplasm and across the nuclear membrane of the host cell. During this journey, viral contents are biochemically processed into complexes capable of both nuclear penetration and genomic integration. We develop a stochastic model of viral entry that incorporates all relevant aspects of transport, including convection along microtubules, biochemical conversion, degradation, and nuclear entry. Analysis of the nuclear infection probabilities in terms of the transport velocity, degradation, and biochemical conversion rates shows how certain values of key parameters can maximize the nuclear entry probability of the viral material. The existence of such "optimal" infection scenarios depends on the details of the biochemical conversion process and implies potentially counterintuitive effects in viral infection, suggesting new avenues for antiviral treatment. Such optimal parameter values provide a plausible transport-based explanation of the action of restriction factors and of experimentally observed optimal capsid stability. Finally, we propose a new interpretation of how genetic mutations unrelated to the mechanism of drug action may nonetheless confer novel types of overall drug resistance.

  9. Dural tail sign in spinal meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Medicine and King Khalid Univerity Hospital, King Saud University, P.O. Box 9047, Riyadh 11413 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: alorainy@ksu.edu.sa

    2006-12-15

    Objective: To study the association between the 'dural tail sign' and spinal meningiomas on MR imaging. Methods: Retrospective review of MR examinations of all pathologically proven spinal meningiomas from 1998 to 2005 was performed. Lesions were evaluated for size, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, and presence or absence of dural tail. The dural tail length and direction in reference to the meningioma were also evaluated. Results: Seven spinal meningiomas were identified in seven patients. One lesion was purely extradural, while the remaining were intradural extramedullary. Dural tail was present in four cases (57%) and its length ranged between 5 and 21 mm. The tail was seen cranial and caudal to the meningioma in three cases and only cranially in one. Coronal images were available in three cases and in two of these; the dural tail was clearly depicted. Conclusions: 'Dural tail sign' is as common in spinal meningiomas as in cranial meningiomas.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of Dalkon Shield tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, H L; Williamson, H O

    1983-09-01

    Scanning electron micrographs of Dalkon Shield tails removed from asymptomatic patients show a variety of microbes and debris throughout their entire length. Apparently, even in undamaged tails, bacterial flora thrive in the protein-rich environment within the multifilament tail. The presence of microbes in the portion of the tail beyond the double knot indicates that an alternative mechanism of microbial transport can occur. Since transient endometritis often occurs immediately after insertion of intrauterine devices, microbes may come in contact with both exposed ends of the multifilament tail and be drawn into the tail by capillary action from the uterine environment down the tail toward the double knot as well as upward from the vagina. Such microorganisms could serve as an inoculum for infection.

  11. [Age-dependent changes in mRNA transport (nucleus-cytoplasm)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W E; Agutter, P S; Prochnow, D J; Fasold, H; Sève, A P; Tsiapalis, C M; Schröder, H C

    1993-01-01

    Transport of mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm is an ATP-dependent process which occurs strictly vectorially. Because the mRNA is structurally bound during transport, mRNA transport is a "solid-state" process consisting of i) mRNA release from the nuclear matrix, ii) mRNA translocation through the nuclear pore, and iii) cytoskeletal binding. We identified and purified the following components involved in the translocation step: i) the nuclear envelope (NE) nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) which is stimulated by the 3'poly(A) tail of mRNA, ii) the poly(A)-recognizing mRNA carrier, iii) the NE protein kinase, and iv) the NE phosphatase. In addition, we found that an RNA helicase activity is present in NE, which also may be involved in RNA transport. Our results show that, besides poly(A), also double-stranded RNA structures may modulate RNA export. The amount of mRNA released from nuclei markedly decreases with age. Evidence is presented that this age-dependent change is caused by an impairment of polyadenylation of mRNA, hnRNA processing, release of mRNA from nuclear matrix, and translocations of mRNA from nuclear to cytoplasmic compartment (decrease in activities of NE NTPase, protein kinase, and phosphatase; decrease in poly(A)-binding affinity of mRNA carrier).

  12. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with massive intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of generalized edema and proteinuria. Her renal function deteriorated rapidly. Serum immunoglobulin and complement levels were within normal ranges. An autoantibody examination showed negative for antinuclear antibody and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. Histologic examination of a renal biopsy specimen revealed that all of the glomeruli had severe crescent formations with no immune deposits. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy with cyclophosphamide followed by oral prednisolone. Fifteen days later, she experienced massive recurrent hematochezia. Angiography revealed an active contrast extravasation in a branch of the distal ileal artery. We selectively embolized with a permanent embolic agent. On the 45th hospital day, the patient suddenly lost consciousness. Brain computed tomography showed intracerebral hemorrhage. We report a case of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with massive intestinal bleeding and cerebral hemorrhage.

  13. Long Non-coding RNAs in the Cytoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farooq Rashid; Abdullah Shah; Ge Shan

    2016-01-01

    An enormous amount of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) transcribed from eukaryotic genome are important regulators in different aspects of cellular events. Cytoplasm is the residence and the site of action for many lncRNAs. The cytoplasmic lncRNAs play indispensable roles with multiple molecular mechanisms in animal and human cells. In this review, we mainly talk about functions and the underlying mechanisms of lncRNAs in the cytoplasm. We highlight relatively well-studied examples of cytoplasmic lncRNAs for their roles in modulating mRNA stability, regulating mRNA translation, serving as competing endogenous RNAs, functioning as precursors of microRNAs, and mediating protein modifications. We also elaborate the perspectives of cytoplasmic lncRNA studies.

  14. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Associated With Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Vincent; Lesourd, Anais; Girszyn, Nicolas; Ménard, Jean-Francois; Levesque, Hervé; Caron, Francois; Marie, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in internal medicine; and to compare clinical and biochemical features and outcome between patients exhibiting IE with and without ANCA. Fifty consecutive patients with IE underwent ANCA testing. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. Of the 50 patients with IE, 12 exhibited ANCA (24%). ANCA-positive patients with IE exhibited: longer duration between the onset of first symptoms and IE diagnosis (P = 0.02); and more frequently: weight loss (P = 0.017) and renal impairment (P = 0.08), lower levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.0009) and serum albumin (P = 0.0032), involvement of both aortic and mitral valves (P = 0.009), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.016). Under multivariate analysis, significant factors for ANCA-associated IE were: longer hospital stay (P = 0.004), lower level of serum albumin (P = 0.02), and multiple valve involvement (P = 0.04). Mortality rate was 25% in ANCA patients; death was because of IE complications in all these patients. Our study identifies a high prevalence of ANCA in unselected patients with IE in internal medicine (24%). Our findings further underscore that ANCA may be associated with a subacute form of IE leading to multiple valve involvement and more frequent renal impairment. Because death was due to IE complications in all patients, our data suggest that aggressive therapy may be required to improve such patients’ outcome. PMID:26817911

  15. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  16. Nuclear reprogramming by interphase cytoplasm of 2-cell mouse embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Enugu; Wu, Guangming; Ma, Hong; Li, Ying; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Wolf, Don P.; Schöler, Hans; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-01-01

    Summary Successful mammalian cloning employing somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) into unfertilized, metaphase II-arrested (MII) oocytes attests to the cytoplasmic presence of reprogramming factors capable of inducing pluripotency in somatic cell nuclei1-3. However, these poorly defined maternal factors presumably decline sharply after fertilization since cytoplasm of pronuclear stage zygotes is reportedly inactive4, 5. Recent evidence suggests that zygotic cytoplasm, if maintained at metaphase (M-phase) can also support derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) following SCNT6-8, albeit at low efficiency. This led to the conclusion that critical oocyte reprogramming factors present in M-phase but not in interphase cytoplasm are “trapped” inside the nucleus during interphase and effectively removed during enucleation9. Here, we investigated the presence of reprogramming activity in the interphase cytoplasm of 2-cell mouse embryos (I2C). First, the presence of candidate reprogramming factors was documented in both intact and enucleated M-phase and interphase zygotes and 2-cell embryos. Consequently, enucleation did not provide a likely explanation for the inability of interphase cytoplasm to induce reprogramming. Then, when we carefully synchronized the cell cycle stage between the transplanted nucleus (ESC, fetal fibroblast or terminally differentiated cumulus cell) and the recipient I2C cytoplasm, the reconstructed SCNT embryos developed into blastocysts and ESCs capable of contributing to traditional germline and tetraploid chimeras. In addition, direct transfer of cloned embryos, reconstructed with ESC nuclei, into recipients resulted in live offspring. Thus, the cytoplasm of I2C supports efficient reprogramming with cell cycle synchronization between the donor nucleus and recipient cytoplasm as the most critical parameter determining success. The ability to utilize interphase cytoplasm in SCNT could impact efforts to generate autologous human ESCs for

  17. Enhanced electroporation in plant tissues via low frequency pulsed electric fields: influence of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavasanti, Suvaluk; Stroeve, Pieter; Barrett, Diane M; Jernstedt, Judith A; Ristenpart, William D

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are known to be effective at permeabilizing plant tissues. Prior research has demonstrated that lower pulse frequencies induce higher rates of permeabilization, but the underlying reason for this response is unclear. Intriguingly, recent microscopic observations with onion tissues have also revealed a correlation between PEF frequency and the subsequent speed of intracellular convective motion, i.e., cytoplasmic streaming. In this paper, we investigate the effect of cytoplasmic streaming on the efficacy of plant tissue permeabilization via PEF. Onion tissue samples were treated with Cytochalasin B, a known inhibitor of cytoplasmic streaming, and changes in cellular integrity and viability were measured over a wide range of frequencies and field strengths. We find that at low frequencies (f streaming results in a 19% decrease in the conductivity disintegration index compared with control samples. Qualitatively, similar results were observed using a microscopic cell viability assay. The results suggest that at low frequencies convection plays a statistically significant role in distributing more conductive fluid throughout the tissue, making subsequent pulses more efficacious. The key practical implication is that PEF pretreatment at low frequency can increase the rate of tissue permeabilization in dehydration or extraction processes, and that the treatment will be most effective when cytoplasmic streaming is most active, i.e., with freshly prepared plant tissues.

  18. On the classification of comet plasma tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhenkov, E. R.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2017-07-01

    The investigation of plasma tails of comets is an important part of comet research. Different classifications of plasma tails of comets are proposed. Plasma acceleration in the tails is investigated in sufficient detail. Several cometary forms are explained. Plasma tails of Mars and Venus were observed during the first studies of these planets. They are associated with the capture of ionized atoms and exosphere molecules by the solar wind magnetized plasma flow. Distinct plasma tails of Mars and Venus are caused by the mass loading of the solar wind with heavy ions. It was shown that the transverse dimension of the tails of Mars, Venus, and comets can be quite accurately determined by production rate of the obstacle to the solar wind flow. While plasma tails of Mars and Venus are investigated by in situ measurements from spacecraft, observations of comet tails from the Earth make it possible to see the entire object under study and to monitor changes in its structure. A certain similarity of cometary and planetary tails can be explained by the nonmagnetic nature of both types of bodies. Thus, it is reasonable to suppose that investigations of plasma tails of comets can supplement the information obtained by in situ methods of the study of the planets. In this paper, plasma tails of comets, presumably analogous to the plasma tails of Mars and Venus, have been identified on modern photographs of comets (more than 1500 photographs viewed). Only quasi-steady laminar tails are considered. They are divided into two types: double structures and outflows. The paper attempts to define the 3D structure of double structures and to determine certain characteristics of outflows.

  19. Tail biting in pigs: blood serotonin and fearfulness as pieces of the puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winanda W Ursinus

    Full Text Available Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n = 480 were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B or in straw-enriched (E pens. Individual pigs were exposed to a back test and novel environment test before weaning, and after weaning to a novel object (i.e. bucket test in an unfamiliar arena. A Principal Component Analysis on behaviours during the tests and salivary cortisol (novel object test only revealed five factors for both housing systems, labeled 'Early life exploration', 'Near bucket', 'Cortisol', 'Vocalizations & standing alert', and 'Back test activity'. Blood samples were taken at 8, 9 and 22 weeks of age to determine blood platelet serotonin. In different phases of life, pigs were classified as tail biter/non-tail biter based on tail biting behaviour, and as victim/non-victim based on tail wounds. A combination of both classifications resulted in four pig types: biters, victims, biter/victims, and neutrals. Generally, only in phases of life during which pigs were classified as tail biters, they seemed to have lower blood platelet serotonin storage and higher blood platelet uptake velocities. Victims also seemed to have lower blood serotonin storage. Additionally, in B housing, tail biters seemed to consistently have lower scores of the factor 'Near bucket', possibly indicating a higher fearfulness in tail biters. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between peripheral 5-HT, fearfulness and tail biting, and to develop successful strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce tail biting.

  20. Fictive rhythmic motor patterns produced by the tail spinal cord in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, V; Cabelguen, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Most investigations into the role of the body axis in vertebrate locomotion have focused on the trunk, although in most tetrapods, the tail also plays an active role. In salamanders, the tail contributes to propulsion during swimming and to dynamic balance and maneuverability during terrestrial locomotion. The aim of the present study was to obtain information concerning the neural mechanisms that produce tail muscle contractions during locomotion in the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii. We recorded the ventral root activities in in vitro spinal cord preparations in which locomotor-like activity was induced via bath application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (20μM) and d-serine (10μM). Recordings showed that the tail spinal cord is capable of producing propagated waves of motor activity that alternate between the left and right sides. Lesion experiments further revealed that the tail rhythmogenic network is composed of a double chain of identical hemisegmental oscillators. Finally, using spinal cord preparations bathed in a chamber partitioned into two pools, we revealed efficient short-distance coupling between the trunk and tail networks. Together, our results demonstrate the existence of a pattern generator for rhythmic tail movements in the salamander and show that the global architecture of the tail network is similar to that previously proposed for the mid-trunk locomotor network in the salamander. Our findings further support the view that salamanders can control their trunk and tail independently during stepping movements. The relevance of our results in relation to the generation of tail muscle contractions in freely moving salamanders is discussed.

  1. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, M S; Thodberg, K; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2015-01-01

    In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50......% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically...

  2. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Galvani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chromatinized histones in chromatin dynamics.

  3. The formation and potential importance of cemented layers in inactive sulfide mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, David W.; Reardon, Eric J.; Jambor, John L.; Cherry, John A.

    1991-04-01

    Investigations of inactive sulfide-rich tailings impoundments at the Heath Steele (New Brunswick) and Waite Amulet (Quebec) minesites have revealed two distinct types of cemented layers or "hardpans." That at Heath Steele is 10-15 cm thick, occurs 20-30 cm below the depth of active oxidation, is continuous throughout the tailings impoundment, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by gypsum and Fe(II) solid phases, principally melanterite. Hardpan at the Waite Amulet site is only 1-5 cm thick, is laterally discontinuous (10-100 cm), occurs at the depth of active oxidation, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by Fe(III) minerals, principally goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihydrite, and jarosite. At Heath Steele, an accumulation of gas-phase CO 2, of up to 60% of the pore gas, occurs below the hardpan. The calculated diffusivity of the hardpan layer is only about 1/100 that of the overlying, uncemented tailings. The pore-water chemistry at Heath Steele has changed little over a 10-year period, suggesting that the cemented layer restricts the movement of dissolved metals through the tailings and also acts as a zone of metal accumulation. Generation of a cemented layer therefore has significant environmental and economic implications. It is likely that, in sulfide-rich tailings impoundments, the addition of carbonate-rich buffering material during the late stages of tailings deposition would enhance the formation of hardpan layers.

  4. Bacterial diversity and composition of an alkaline uranium mine tailings-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nurul H; Bondici, Viorica F; Medihala, Prabhakara G; Lawrence, John R; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Warner, Jeff; Korber, Darren R

    2013-10-01

    The microbial diversity and biogeochemical potential associated with a northern Saskatchewan uranium mine water-tailings interface was examined using culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Morphologically-distinct colonies from uranium mine water-tailings and a reference lake (MC) obtained using selective and non-selective media were selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and identification, revealing that culturable organisms from the uranium tailings interface were dominated by Firmicutes and Betaproteobacteria; whereas, MC organisms mainly consisted of Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Ion Torrent (IT) 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis carried out on extracted DNA from tailings and MC interfaces demonstrated the dominance of Firmicutes in both of the systems. Overall, the tailings-water interface environment harbored a distinct bacterial community relative to the MC, reflective of the ambient conditions (i.e., total dissolved solids, pH, salinity, conductivity, heavy metals) dominating the uranium tailings system. Significant correlations among the physicochemical data and the major bacterial groups present in the tailings and MC were also observed. Presence of sulfate reducing bacteria demonstrated by culture-dependent analyses and the dominance of Desulfosporosinus spp. indicated by Ion Torrent analyses within the tailings-water interface suggests the existence of anaerobic microenvironments along with the potential for reductive metabolic processes.

  5. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. The formation and potential importance of cemented layers in inactive sulfide mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, D.W.; Reardon, E.J.; Cherry, J.A. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)); Jambor, J.L. (CANMET, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-04-01

    Investigations of inactive sulfide-rich tailings impoundments at the Heath Steele (New Brunswick) and Waite Amulet (Quebec) minesites have revealed two distinct types of cemented layers or hardpans. That at Heath Steele is 10-15 cm thick, occurs 20-30 cm below the depth of active oxidation, is continuous throughout the tailings impoundment, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by gypsum and Fe(II) solid phases, principally melanterite. Hardpan at the Waite Amulet site is only 1-5 cm thick, is laterally discontinuous (10-100 cm), occurs at the depth of active oxidation, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by Fe(III) minerals, principally goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihydrite, and jarosite. At Heath Steele, an accumulation of gas-phase CO{sub 2}, of up to 60{percent} of the pore gas, occurs below the hardpan. The calculated diffusivity of the hardpan layer is only about 1/100 that of the overlying, uncemented tailings. The pore-water chemistry at Heath Steele has changed little over a 10-year period, suggesting that the cemented layer restricts the movement of dissolved metals through the tailings and also acts as a zone of metal accumulation. Generation of a cemented layer therefore has significant environmental and economic implications. It is likely that, in sulfide-rich tailings impoundments, the addition of carbonate-rich buffering material during the late stages of tailings deposition would enhance the formation of hardpan layers.

  7. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Cytoplasmic Staining of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unusual for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody with cytoplasmic pattern (cANCA to present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD without vasculitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence and characteristics of pediatrics IBD with cANCA. Methods. A retrospective review of pediatric IBD associated with cANCA serology in patients from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, between September 2002 and February 2012. Results. Out of 131 patients with IBD screened for cANCAs, cANCA was positive in 7 (5.3% patients of whom 4 had ulcerative colitis and 3 had Crohn's disease. The median age was 8.8 years (2–14.8 years. Six (86% were males. Of the 7 patients, 5 (71% were Saudi Arabians and 2 were of Indian ethnicity. The most common symptoms were diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. None had family history or clinical features suggestive of vasculitis involving renal and respiratory systems. No difference in the disease location or severity was observed between cANCA positive and cANCA negative patients apart from male preponderance in cANCA positive patients. Conclusion. The occurrence of cANCA in pediatric IBD is rare. Apart from male preponderance, there were no peculiar characteristics for the cANCA positive patients.

  8. Multifrequency radio continuum observations of head-tail galaxies in the Perseus cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbring, D.; de Bruyn, A. G.

    1998-03-01

    New observations of head-tail radio galaxies in the Perseus cluster at 21, 49 and 92 cm using the WSRT are presented. Two new head-tail galaxies were discovered bringing the total for the cluster to five. We show total intensity maps for all of them and spectral index distribution and polarization maps for NGC 1265 and IC 310. The observations with high dynamic range, obtained with the WSRT and the redundancy and self-calibration techniques, reveal a large extension of the tail of NGC 1265 both at 49 cm and at 92 cm. The projected tail bends over an angle of almost 360°. There are several clear differences between the bright and the faint part of the radio tail: within a distance of one or two resolution beams the intensity decreases by more than an order of magnitude and the spectral index steepens from -1 to -2. The simplest model for the tail is that it delineates the orbit of the galaxy through the cluster. Because the tail is seen in projection, the faint part of the tail is visible only when it is not superimposed onto the bright part of the tail. It is likely, however, that large scale motions of the hot intracluster medium also help shape the tail. In this respect it is interesting to note that the tails of both NGC 1265 and IC 310, as well as the low brightness emission of NGC 1275 appear to have their faint extensions shifted to the east. The very long tail of NGC 1265 makes it possible to test at low frequencies models of the ageing process of the radiating electrons. In the faint part of the tail the brightness temperature is very low, which either indicates a very weak magnetic field or a large deviation from equipartition between particle and magnetic energy. The most remarkable properties of the faint part of the tail of NGC1265, namely its constant surface brightness and spectral index, are compared with three synchrotron ageing models, making some standard assumptions. All these models disagree with either the data or one of the assumptions. The

  9. [Morphogenetic changes during newt tail regeneration under changed gravity conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radugina, E A; Grigorian, É N

    2012-01-01

    Gravity-dependent shape alterations in newt tail regenerates are described, which were previously noticed in experiments onboard satellites Foton M2, M3 and in corresponding laboratory controls. Laboratory conditions were developed that allow reproducing this phenomenon persistently in the adult newts Pleurodeles waltl (Michahelles, 1830). The newts kept in an aquarium (in partial weightlessness) after 1/3 tail amputation developed normal lanceolate regenerates, while those that stayed on a moist mat (exposed to greater gravity than in aquarium) developed curved tail regenerates. Dynamics of the shape alterations were described using computer morphometric analysis. The curve was shown to develop at stage III of regeneration and to be caused by bending of the developing axial structures: the ependymal tube and the cartilage rode. Cellular processes were described that accompany the tail shape changes, such as cell migration and formation of dense aggregates. Unequal proliferation throughout the wound epidermis and blastema was revealed using BrdU assay. Proliferation increased within dorsal and apical regions of the regenerates in the newts kept on the mat cell compared with the aquarian animals.

  10. Runaway Events Dominate the Heavy Tail of Citation Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Golosovsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Statistical distributions with heavy tails are ubiquitous in natural and social phenomena. Since the entries in heavy tail have disproportional significance, the knowledge of its exact shape is very important. Citations of scientific papers form one of the best-known heavy tail distributions. Even in this case there is a considerable debate whether citation distribution follows the log-normal or power-law fit. The goal of our study is to solve this debate by measuring citation distribution for a very large and homogeneous data. We measured citation distribution for 418,438 Physics papers published in 1980-1989 and cited by 2008. While the log-normal fit deviates too strong from the data, the discrete power-law function with the exponent $\\gamma=3.15$ does better and fits 99.955% of the data. However, the extreme tail of the distribution deviates upward even from the power-law fit and exhibits a dramatic "runaway" behavior. The onset of the runaway regime is revealed macroscopically as the paper garners 1000-1...

  11. Uniparental Inheritance Promotes Adaptive Evolution in Cytoplasmic Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes-specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance-enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution. Uniparental inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes decreases competition between different beneficial substitutions (clonal interference), promoting the accumulation of beneficial substitutions. Uniparental inheritance also facilitates selection against deleterious cytoplasmic substitutions, slowing Muller's ratchet. In addition, uniparental inheritance generally reduces genetic hitchhiking of deleterious substitutions during selective sweeps. Overall, uniparental inheritance promotes adaptive evolution by increasing the level of beneficial substitutions relative to deleterious substitutions. When we assume that cytoplasmic genome inheritance is biparental, decreasing the number of genomes transmitted during gametogenesis (bottleneck) aids adaptive evolution. Nevertheless, adaptive evolution is always more efficient when inheritance is uniparental. Our findings explain empirical observations that cytoplasmic genomes-despite their asexual mode of reproduction-can readily undergo adaptive evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Differences in catalytic properties between cerebral cytoplasmic and mitochondrial hexokinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M F; Bachelard, H S

    1977-03-01

    1. Clear kinetic differences between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial forms of type-I cerebral hexokinase were demonstrated from experiments performed under identical conditions on three (cytoplasmic, bound mitochondrial and solubilized mitochondrial) preparations of the enzyme. 2. Whereas the Michaelis constant for glucose (KmGlc) was consistent, that for MgATP2- (KmATP) was lower in the cytoplasmic than in the two mitochondrial preparations. The substrate dissociation constants (KsGlc and KsATP) were both higher in the cytoplasmic than in the mitochondrial preparations. A further difference in the substrate kinetic patterns was that KmATP=KmATP for the cytoplasmic enzyme, in contrast with the mitochondrial enzyme, where KmATP was clearly not equal to KsATP [Bachelard et al. (1971) Biochem. J. 123, 707-715]. 3. Dead-end inhibition produced by N-acetyl-glucosamine and by AMP also exhibited different quantitative kinetic patterns for the two enzyme sources. Both inhibitions gave Ki values similar or equal to those of Ki' for the cytoplasmic activity, whereas Ki was clearly not equal to Ki' for the mitochondrial activity. 4. All of these studies demonstrated the similarity of the two mitochondrial activities (particulate and solubilized), which were both clearly different from the cytoplasmic activity. 5. The analysis gives a practical example of our previous theoretical treatment on the derivation of true inhibition constants. 6. The results are discussed in terms of the function of cerebral hexokinases.

  13. Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories

    CERN Document Server

    McQueen, Kelvin J

    2015-01-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem di...

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identification of a candidate gene responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) containing DCGMS cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Young; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lee, Jonghoon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Sunggil; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-07-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its restorer-of-fertility gene (Rfd1) was previously reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Its inheritance of fertility restoration and profiles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based molecular markers were reported to be different from those of Ogura CMS, the first reported CMS in radish. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence (239,186 bp; GenBank accession No. KC193578) of DCGMS mitotype is reported in this study. Thirty-four protein-coding genes and three ribosomal RNA genes were identified. Comparative analysis of a mitochondrial genome sequence of DCGMS and previously reported complete sequences of normal and Ogura CMS mitotypes revealed various recombined structures of seventeen syntenic sequence blocks. Short-repeat sequences were identified in almost all junctions between syntenic sequence blocks. Phylogenetic analysis of three radish mitotypes showed that DCGMS was more closely related to the normal mitotype than to the Ogura mitotype. A single 1,551-bp unique region was identified in DCGMS mtDNA sequences and a novel chimeric gene, designated orf463, consisting of 128-bp partial sequences of cox1 gene and 1,261-bp unidentified sequences were found in the unique region. No other genes with a chimeric structure, a major feature of most characterized CMS-associated genes in other plant species, were found in rearranged junctions of syntenic sequence blocks. Like other known CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, the predicted gene product of orf463 contained 12 transmembrane domains. Thus, this gene product might be integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. In total, the results indicate that orf463 is likely to be a casual factor for CMS induction in radish containing the DCGMS cytoplasm.

  15. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Danielsen, C. C.; Wogensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  16. High-order tail in Kerr spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the late-time tail of the retarded Green function for the dynamics of a linear field perturbation of Kerr spacetime. We develop an analytical formalism for obtaining the late-time tail up to arbitrary order for general integer spin of the field. We then apply this formalism to obtain the details of the first five orders in the late-time tail of the Green function for the case of a scalar field: to leading order we recover the known power law tail $t^{-2\\ell-3}$, and at third order we obtain a logarithmic correction, $t^{-2\\ell-5}\\ln t$, where $\\ell$ is the field multipole.

  17. Cytoplasmic CUG RNA foci are insufficient to elicit key DM1 features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Dansithong

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 is the expansion of a CTG tract located in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK. Expression of mutant RNAs encoding expanded CUG repeats plays a central role in the development of cardiac disease in DM1. Expanded CUG tracts form both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates, yet the relative significance of such aggregates in eliciting DM1 pathology is unclear. To test the pathophysiology of CUG repeat encoding RNAs, we developed and analyzed mice with cardiac-specific expression of a beta-galactosidase cassette in which a (CTG(400 repeat tract was positioned 3' of the termination codon and 5' of the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal. In these animals CUG aggregates form exclusively in the cytoplasm of cardiac cells. A key pathological consequence of expanded CUG repeat RNA expression in DM1 is aberrant RNA splicing. Abnormal splicing results from the functional inactivation of MBNL1, which is hypothesized to occur due to MBNL1 sequestration in CUG foci or from elevated levels of CUG-BP1. We therefore tested the ability of cytoplasmic CUG foci to elicit these changes. Aggregation of CUG RNAs within the cytoplasm results both in Mbnl1 sequestration and in approximately a two fold increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic Cug-bp1 levels. Significantly, despite these changes RNA splice defects were not observed and functional analysis revealed only subtle cardiac dysfunction, characterized by conduction defects that primarily manifest under anesthesia. Using a human myoblast culture system we show that this transgene, when expressed at similar levels to a second transgene, which encodes expanded CTG tracts and facilitates both nuclear focus formation and aberrant splicing, does not elicit aberrant splicing. Thus the lack of toxicity of cytoplasmic CUG foci does not appear to be a consequence of low expression levels. Our results therefore demonstrate that the cellular location of CUG RNA

  18. Students' Perceptions of a Highly Controversial yet Keystone Species, the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped that…

  19. Effect of HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic tail on adenovirus primed virus encoded virus-like particle immunizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne Marie C; Ragonnaud, Emeline; Seaton, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    /c mice followed by sequential boosting with chimpanzee type 63, and chimpanzee type 3 adenoviral vectors encoding SIVmac239 Gag and full length consensus Env. Both vaccine regimens induced increasing titers of binding antibody responses after each immunization, and significant differences in immune......The low number of envelope (Env) spikes presented on native HIV-1 particles is a major impediment for HIV-1 prophylactic vaccine development. We designed virus-like particle encoding adenoviral vectors utilizing SIVmac239 Gag as an anchor for full length and truncated HIV-1 M consensus Env....... Truncated Env overexpressed VRC01 and 17b binding antigen on the surface of transduced cells while the full length Env vaccine presented more and similar amounts of antigen binding to the trimer conformation sensitive antibodies PGT151 and PGT145, respectively. The adenoviral vectors were used to prime Balb...

  20. Refractory disease in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Induction treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is not always successful and nonresponding patients are considered refractory. Recent findings Refractory disease should be subdefined to the treatment that was received. Cyclophosphamid

  1. On the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibility in haplodiploid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; de Freitas Vala Salvador, F.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The most enigmatic sexual manipulation by Wolbachia endosymbionts is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): infected mates are reproductively incompatible with uninfected females. In this paper, we extend the theory on population dynamics and evolution of CI, with emphasis on haplodiploid species. First,

  2. Modifications of the dermis during scale regeneration in the lizard tail

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    During scale morphogenesis in the regenerating tail of lizards (Anolis and Lampropholis) the structure of the dermis undergoes changes in relation to the ingrowth of epidermal papillae to form the new scales. Cell proliferation in the dermis, as revealed by the uptake of 3~-thymidinei,s high in the prescaling region of the regenerating tail but lower than the proliferation in the epidermis. Under the epidermis of the scaling region dermal cell proliferation rap...

  3. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 58%–77%, 50%–60%, and 28%–51%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. Slurry fluidity of neutralized tailings is lower than that of flotation tailings, while, in these two tailings, the difference of slump and diffusivity values is less than 6%, which is not a significant difference in slurry fluidity. The reason for neutralized tailings showing higher UCS is as follows: during backfill curing, neutralization tailings produce abundant crystals of CaSO4·2H2O in interlaced structure which helps in combining aggregates closely; CaSO4·2H2O hydrates with C3A C4AF contained in the cement and forms clavate cement bacillus which works as a micro reinforcing steel bar. The test proved that neutralized tailings are more optimal for backfilling.

  4. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  5. Evolutionary conservation of sequence elements controlling cytoplasmic polyadenylylation.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism involved in the translational activation of a set of maternal messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during early development. In this report, we show by interspecies injections that Xenopus and mouse use the same regulatory sequences to control cytoplasmic poly(A) addition during meiotic maturation. Similarly, Xenopus and Drosophila embryos exploit functionally conserved signals to regulate polyadenylylation during early post-fertilizati...

  6. Lung transplantation for severe antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkauf, J; Puttagunta, L; Stewart, K; Humar, A; Homik, J; Caldwell, S; Fenton, M; Nador, R; Lien, Dale

    2010-09-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is a life-threatening disorder for which medical therapy has greatly improved survival. However, there is still significant mortality associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Little data exists on the utility of lung transplantation for patients, especially with an acute and severe form of this disease. Herein, we report successful lung transplantation for a patient with life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage and respiratory failure as a consequence of this pulmonary renal syndrome.

  7. let-65 is cytoplasmic methionyl tRNA synthetase in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Z. Alriyami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic methionyl tRNA synthetase (MetRS is one of more than 20 cytoplasmic aminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzymes (ARS. This family of enzymes catalyzes a process fundamental for protein translation. Using a combination of genetic mapping, oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, and phenotypic correlation, we show that mutations in the essential gene, let-65, reside within the predicted Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of MetRS, which we have named mars-1. We demonstrate that the lethality associated with alleles of let-65 is fully rescued by a transgenic array that spans the mars-1 genomic region. Furthermore, sequence analysis reveals that six let-65 alleles lead to the alteration of highly conserved amino acids.

  8. T-tail flutter: Potential-flow modelling, experimental validation and flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murua, Joseba; Martínez, Pablo; Climent, Héctor; van Zyl, Louw; Palacios, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    parametric studies illustrate the impact of well-known factors in T-tail flutter, namely horizontal tailplane dihedral, flexibility and static deformations. In addition, scenarios are exposed in which the stability behaviour is dictated by typically second-order effects, such as chordwise forces and quadratic modes, revealing drastically different qualitative flutter curves. It is also shown that there is a distinction between angle of attack of the whole tail assembly and incidence of the horizontal tailplane relative to the fin, which might yield very counterintuitive trends depending on the configuration parameters. The paper concludes with flight test results of the Airbus A400M, epitome of modern T-tail aircraft. Tests performed in a wake-vortex encounter campaign complement the virtually nonexistent literature in the topic, demonstrate how T-tail effects can be measured in flight and restate the adequacy of potential-flow models for T-tail flutter prediction.

  9. Controlled chaos: three-dimensional kinematics, fiber histochemistry, and muscle contractile dynamics of autotomized lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Lipsett, Kathryn R; Syme, Douglas A; Russell, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    The ability to shed an appendage occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates, often as a tactic to avoid predation. The tails of lizards, unlike most autotomized body parts of animals, exhibit complex and vigorous movements once disconnected from the body. Despite the near ubiquity of autotomy across groups of lizards and the fact that this is an extraordinary event involving the self-severing of the spinal cord, our understanding of why and how tails move as they do following autotomy is sparse. We herein explore the histochemistry and physiology of the tail muscles of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species that exhibits vigorous and variable tail movements following autotomy. To confirm that the previously studied tail movements of this species are generally representative of geckos and therefore suitable for in-depth muscle studies, we quantified the three-dimensional kinematics of autotomized tails in three additional species. The movements of the tails of all species were generally similar and included jumps, flips, and swings. Our preliminary analyses suggest that some species of gecko exhibit short but high-frequency movements, whereas others exhibit larger-amplitude but lower-frequency movements. We then compared the ATPase and oxidative capacity of muscle fibers and contractile dynamics of isolated muscle bundles from original tails, muscle from regenerate tails, and fast fibers from an upper limb muscle (iliofibularis) of the leopard gecko. Histochemical analysis revealed that more than 90% of the fibers in original and regenerate caudal muscles had high ATPase but possessed a superficial layer of fibers with low ATPase and high oxidative capacity. We found that contraction kinetics, isometric force, work, power output, and the oscillation frequency at which maximum power was generated were lowest in the original tail, followed by the regenerate tail and then the fast fibers of the iliofibularis. Muscle from the original tail exhibited

  10. Tailed Radio Sources in the CDFS Field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Dehghan; M. Johnston-Hollitt; M. Mao; R. P. Norris; N. A. Miller; M. Huynh

    2011-12-01

    Using 1.4 GHz ATCA & VLA images with 5.5 GHz ATCA data, we present a sample of 12 bent-tailed galaxies over the 4 deg2 area of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). We find 10 new sources, one of which is possibly the highest red-shift bent-tailed galaxy detected at ∼ 2.

  11. Integrative biology of tail autotomy in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P; Zani, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Self-amputation (autotomy) of the tail is essential for the survival of many lizards. Accordingly, it has garnered the attention of scientists for more than 200 years. Several factors can influence the release of the tail, such as the size, sex, and age of the lizard; type of predator; ecology; and evolutionary history of the lineage. Once lost, the tail will writhe for seconds to minutes, and these movements likely depend on the size and physiology of the tail, habitat of the lizard, and predation pressure. Loss of the tail will, in turn, have impacts on the lizard, such as modified locomotor performance and mechanics, as well as escape behavior. However, the tail is almost always regenerated, and this involves wound healing, altered investment of resources, and tissue differentiation. The regenerated tail generally differs from the original in several ways, including size, shape, and function. Here we summarize recent findings of research pertaining to tail autotomy, and we propose a framework for future investigations.

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine...... electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis...

  13. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Han; Wei Sun; Shaofeng Yu; Chao Liu; Song Yao; Jianxun Wu

    2016-01-01

    A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 ...

  14. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked

  15. On tail behavior of nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional heteroscedastic model with heavy-tailed innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiazhu; WU; Guangxu

    2005-01-01

    We study the tail probability of the stationary distribution of nonparametric nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional heteroscedastic (NARFCH) model with heavytailed innovations. Our result shows that the tail of the stationary marginal distribution of an NARFCH series is heavily dependent on its conditional variance. When the innovations are heavy-tailed, the tail of the stationary marginal distribution of the series will become heavier or thinner than that of its innovations. We give some specific formulas to show how the increment or decrement of tail heaviness depends on the assumption on the conditional variance function. Some examples are given.

  16. SHOCKING TAILS IN THE MAJOR MERGER ABELL 2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Randall, Scott W., E-mail: mowers@aao.gov.au [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We identify four rare 'jellyfish' galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst, and active galactic nucleus features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near intracluster medium features associated with a merging 'Bullet-like' subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high-pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

  17. Shocking Tails in the Major Merger Abell 2744

    CERN Document Server

    Owers, Matt S; Nulsen, Paul E J; Randall, Scott W

    2012-01-01

    We identify four rare "jellyfish" galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in-situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst and AGN features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near ICM features associated with a merging "Bullet-like" subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

  18. The tale of the tail: limb function and locomotor mechanics in Alligator mississippiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Jeffrey S; Biknevicius, Audrone R; Reilly, Stephen M; Earls, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    Crocodilians tow their large muscular tail behind them during terrestrial bouts when they high walk (a walking trot). Analysis of ground reaction forces in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) revealed the consequences of tail-dragging. Individual limb and tail ground reaction force records show that the hindlimbs of Alligator take on a substantial role in body mass support consistent with the more caudal location of its center of mass due to the presence of a particularly heavy tail (representing nearly 28% of total body mass). Furthermore, because the constant drag imposed by the tail is substantial, both fore- and hindlimbs in Alligator have a heightened propulsive role as a means of countering the net braking effect of the tail. Ground reaction forces of the whole body were used to assess how well Alligator was able to utilize mechanical energy-saving mechanisms (inverse pendulum or mass-spring). A high-walking Alligator recovers, on average, about 20% of its mechanical energy by inverse pendulum mechanics. These modest energy recovery levels are likely to be due to a combination of factors that may include low locomotor speed, imprecise coordination of contralateral limbs in the trot, frequent dragging of feet of protracting limbs during swing phase and, possibly, tail dragging.

  19. MR imaging of myxofibrosarcoma and undifferentiated sarcoma with emphasis on tail sign; diagnostic and prognostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kang, Yusuhn; Choi, Ja-Young; Yi, Minkyong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han-Soo; Han, Ilkyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-City, Gyeongi-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To assess the prevalence of the tail sign in soft tissue sarcomas and determine whether the local recurrence rate differed based on the presence of the tail sign. In our retrospective study, myxofibrosarcoma (MFS, n = 25) and undifferentiated sarcoma (US, n = 38) comprised group 1, and the remaining tumours (n = 115) were assigned to group 2. Location, size, and imaging features of the tumours were assessed on MRI. The radiological-pathological correlation of the tail sign was analysed. The tail sign, thick fascial enhancement extending from the tumour margin, was more common and significantly thicker in group 1. In the subgroup analysis between MFS and US, there was no significant difference in the presence of a tail sign. Histological examination revealed extensive tumour cell infiltrations along the deep fascia from the main mass. Patients with a tail sign had a worse local recurrence-free survival than patients without it, not only in all tumours (p < 0.01), but also in group 1 (p = 0.019) The tail sign was a common MRI feature of both MFS and US, and was also associated with worse local recurrence-free survival. Radiologists should be aware of these MRI findings and inform the surgeon preoperatively in order to obtain a sufficient surgical margin to minimise the risk of local tumour recurrence. (orig.)

  20. Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pittman

    Full Text Available Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves. Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds, dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph

  1. Regulation of T cell receptor activation by dynamic membrane binding of the CD3epsilon cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenqi; Gagnon, Etienne; Call, Matthew E; Schnell, Jason R; Schwieters, Charles D; Carman, Christopher V; Chou, James J; Wucherpfennig, Kai W

    2008-11-14

    Many immune system receptors signal through cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs (ITAMs), but how receptor ligation results in ITAM phosphorylation remains unknown. Live-cell imaging studies showed a close interaction of the CD3epsilon cytoplasmic domain of the T cell receptor (TCR) with the plasma membrane through fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a C-terminal fluorescent protein and a membrane fluorophore. Electrostatic interactions between basic CD3epsilon residues and acidic phospholipids enriched in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane were required for binding. The nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the lipid-bound state of this cytoplasmic domain revealed deep insertion of the two key tyrosines into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Receptor ligation thus needs to result in unbinding of the CD3epsilon ITAM from the membrane to render these tyrosines accessible to Src kinases. Sequestration of key tyrosines into the lipid bilayer represents a previously unrecognized mechanism for control of receptor activation.

  2. Basic description of tailings from Aitik focusing on mechanical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanbhro, Riaz; Knutsson, Roger; Rodriguez, Juan; Edeskär, Tommy; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Tailings are artificial granular materials that behave different as compared to natural soil of equal grain sizes. Tailings particle sizes, shapes, gradation and mechanical behavior may influence the performance of tailings dams. Hence it is essential to understand the tailings materials in depth. This article describes present studies being carried out on Aitik tailings. Basic tailings characteristics including specific gravity, phase relationships, particle sizes, particle shapes and direct...

  3. APPLICATION OF POSTFLOTATION TAILINGS IN HYDROENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stefaniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development stimulated by the increased demand for production of consumer goods and the growing human population result in increasing amounts of various wastes, including tailings. The mining industry in Poland, comprising also mining of non-ferrous metal ores, is a strategic branch of the national economy and at the same time a leading waste producer. Tailings management is a significant problem both in Poland and worldwide. Frequently considerable amounts of wastes are accumulated in mine spoil tips, in areas not always suitable for their deposition, thus leading to the degradation of the surrounding environment. At the huge volume of produced wastes their rational and economically viable management is becoming crucial. On the other hand, depletion of natural aggregate deposits is an important incentive to search for substitutes, which would be suitable for the development of road infrastructure or which could be used in earth structure engineering to construct hydroengineering objects. Since no profitable recovery technologies are available at present, tailings generated by copper mining are deposited in tailings storage facilities. The largest and at the same time the only currently operating facility in Poland is the Żelazny Most Mining Tailings Storage Facility, belonging to KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. The paper presents criteria for material quality and density imposed on the material embedded in the static core of the tailings pond dam. For this purpose studies were conducted to confirm applicability of sorted tailings as a material for the construction of earth structures.

  4. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  5. Gravity-dependent polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Nitellopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.; Leopold, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The internodal cells of the characean alga Nitellopsis obtusa were chosen to investigate the effect of gravity on cytoplasmic streaming. Horizontal cells exhibit streaming with equal velocities in both directions, whereas in vertically oriented cells, the downward-streaming cytoplasm flows ca. 10% faster than the upward-streaming cytoplasm. These results are independent of the orientation of the morphological top and bottom of the cell. We define the ratio of the velocity of the downward- to the upward-streaming cytoplasm as the polar ratio (PR). The normal polarity of a cell can be reversed (PR polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. Less than 1 micromole Ca2+ resulted in a PR < 1 while greater than 1 micromole Ca2+ resulted in the normal gravity response. The voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channel blocker, nifedipine, inhibited the gravity response in a reversible manner, while treatment with LaCl3 resulted in a PR < 1, indicating the presence of two types of Ca2+ channels. A new model for graviperception is presented in which the whole cell acts as the gravity sensor, and the plasma membrane acts as the gravireceptor. This is supported by ligation and UV irradiation experiments which indicate that the membranes at both ends of the cell are required for graviperception. The density of the external medium also affects the PR of Nitellopsis. Calculations are presented that indicate that the weight of the protoplasm may provide enough potential energy to open ion channels.

  6. A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus isolated from the pine processionary caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Ikbal Agah; Demir, Ismail; Demirbag, Zihni; Nalcacioglu, Remziye

    2007-04-01

    A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) was isolated from the larvae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and shown to cause an infection of midgut cells. This viral infection revealed several important diagnostic symptoms, including discoloration of the posterior midgut, reduced feeding, and extended development time of the larvae. The virus infection is lethal to Thaumetopoea pityocampa, and with the increasing doses kills the larvae within 4-5 days post infection. Electron microscopy studies showed typical cytoplasmic polyhedral inclusion bodies that are icosahedral, and ranged from 2.4 to 5.3 microm in diameter. Electrophoretic analysis of the RNA genome showed that the virus has a genome composed of 10 equimolar RNA segments with the sizes of 3,907, 3,716, 3,628, 3,249, 2,726, 1,914, 1,815, 1,256, 1,058, and 899 bp, respectively. Based on morphology and nucleic acid analysis, this virus was named Thaumetopoea pityocampa cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (TpCPV), and belongs to the genus Cypovirus, family Reoviridae.

  7. Shifts in microbial community composition and function in the acidification of a lead/zinc mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-Xing; Li, Jin-Tian; Chen, Ya-Ting; Huang, Li-Nan; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to link the microbial community composition and function in mine tailings to the generation of acid mine drainage, we simultaneously explored the geochemistry and microbiology of six tailings collected from a lead/zinc mine, i.e. primary tailings (T1), slightly acidic tailings (T2), extremely acidic tailings (T3, T4 and T5) and orange-coloured oxidized tailings (T6). Geochemical results showed that the six tailings (from T1 to T6) likely represented sequential stages of the acidification process of the mine tailings. 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed a contrasting microbial composition between the six tailings: Proteobacteria-related sequences dominated T1-T3 with relative abundance ranging from 56 to 93%, whereas Ferroplasma-related sequences dominated T4-T6 with relative abundance ranging from 28 to 58%. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis of the microbial communities of T2 and T6 indicated that the genes encoding key enzymes for microbial carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation and sulfur oxidation in T2 were largely from Thiobacillus and Acidithiobacillus, Methylococcus capsulatus, and Thiobacillus denitrificans respectively; while those in T6 were mostly identified in Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, and Acidithiobacillus respectively. The microbial communities in T2 and T6 harboured more genes suggesting diverse metabolic capacities for sulfur oxidation/heavy metal detoxification and tolerating low pH respectively. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. The importance of edaphic niches and pioneer plant species succession for the phytomanagement of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alcaraz, Maria Nazaret; Alvarez-Rogel, Jose; Jimenez-Carceles, Francisco J; Conesa, Hector M

    2013-05-01

    Phytomanagement in terms of phytostabilisation is considered a suitable method to decrease environmental risks of metal(loid) enriched mine tailings. The goal of this study was to identify plant-favourable edaphic niches in mine tailings from a semiarid area, in order to obtain relevant information for further phytostabilisation procedures. For this purpose, a transect-designed sampling from non-disturbed soils to two mine tailings was performed, including the description of soil and plant ecology gradients. Plant ecological indicators showed several stages in plant succession: from weeds to stable patches of late successional plant species. PCA results revealed that plant distribution at the tailings was driven mainly by salinity while metal(loid) concentrations played a minor role. The presence of soil desiccation cracks generated low salinity patches which facilitated favourable niches for plant establishment. Edaphic-patch distribution may condition phytostabilisation since ploughing or the employment of certain amendments should take into account favourable niches for plant growth.

  9. Iron ore tailings used for the preparation of cementitious material by compound thermal activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-lai Yi; Heng-hu Sun; Xiu-quan Wei; Chao Li

    2009-01-01

    In the background of little reuse and large stockpile for iron ore railings, iron ore tailing from Chinese Tonghua were used as raw material to prepare cementitious materials. Cementitious properties of the iron ore tailings activated by compound thermal ac-tivation were studied. Testing methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and IR were used for researching the phase and structure variety of the iron ore tailings in the process of compound thermal activation. The results reveal that a new cementitious material that contains 30wt% of the iron ore tailings can be obtained by compounded thermal activation, whose mortar strength can come up to the stan-dard of 42.5 cement of China.

  10. Tidal Tails around the Outer Halo Globular Clusters Eridanus and Palomar 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, G. C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2017-05-01

    We report the discovery of tidal tails around the two outer halo globular clusters, Eridanus and Palomar 15, based on gi-band images obtained with DECam at the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. The tidal tails are among the most remote stellar streams currently known in the Milky Way halo. Cluster members have been determined from the color-magnitude diagrams and used to establish the radial density profiles, which show, in both cases, a strong departure in the outer regions from the best-fit King profile. Spatial density maps reveal tidal tails stretching out on opposite sides of both clusters, extending over a length of ˜760 pc for Eridanus and ˜1160 pc for Palomar 15. The great circle projected from the Palomar 15 tidal tails encompasses the Galactic Center, while that for Eridanus passes close to four dwarf satellite galaxies, one of which (Sculptor) is at a comparable distance to that of Eridanus.

  11. Geostatistical stability analysis of co-depositional sand-thickened tailings embankments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkateb, T. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Chalaturnyk, R.; Robertson, P.K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Co-deposition is a novel technique for the disposal of thickened tailings pockets. In co-deposition, tailings are randomly distributed within a bigger mass of sand. The oil sands industry of Alberta is currently considering using this technique. This paper describes the attempt that was made to assess the engineering behaviour of this tailing disposal system in a probabilistic analysis framework. Several realizations of co-depositional embankments were generated using geostatistical theories. In turn, the stability of the disposal system expressed in terms of factors of safety against shear failure and the associated vertical deformations was assessed using these realizations and FLAC software. A sensitivity to embankment characteristics was revealed by failure probabilities and vertical displacements, such as embankment height and side slopes, and undrained shear strength of thickened tailings. The authors proposed an allowable failure probability of 17 per cent for these embankments to avoid irreparable excessive deformations. 11 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  12. The concepts of tail moment and tail inertia in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, B; Vaghef, H; Boström, B

    1995-03-01

    Single cell gel electrophoresis under alkaline conditions is a technique used to detect primary DNA damage in individual mammalian cells. Cells embedded in agarose on microscope slides are subjected to lysis, unwinding of DNA and electrophoresis at high pH. After staining with a fluorescent dye, cells with DNA damage display increased migration of genetic material from the cell nucleus. The damage is quantified by measuring the displacement between the genetic material of the nucleus ('comet head') and the resulting 'tail'. The torsional moment of the tail ('tail moment') has been suggested to be an appropriate index of induced DNA damage in considering both the migration of the genetic material as well as the relative amount of DNA in the tail. In the present paper it will be shown that the moment of inertia ('tail inertia'), a not previously described tail parameter, provides a more precise description of the distribution of individual DNA fragments within the tails. The tail inertia was also found to be the most sensitive indicator of the DNA damage induced in peripheral lymphocytes from mice given a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg b.w.). It is concluded that the tail inertia is an important complement to other tail parameters when looking for damage of DNA with the single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

  13. Unconventional tail configurations for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carmona, A.; Cuerno-Rejado, C.; García-Hernández, L.

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the bases of a methodology in order to size unconventional tail configurations for transport aircraft. The case study of this paper is a V-tail con¦guration. Firstly, an aerodynamic study is developed for determining stability derivatives and aerodynamic forces. The objective is to size a tail such as it develops at least the same static stability derivatives than a conventional reference aircraft. The optimum is obtained minimizing its weight. The weight is estimated through two methods: adapted Farrar£s method and a statistical method. The solution reached is heavier than the reference, but it reduces the wetted area.

  14. Topological defects with power-law tails

    CERN Document Server

    Radomskiy, Roman V; Gani, Vakhid A; Christov, Ivan C

    2016-01-01

    We study interactions of kinks and antikinks of the $(1+1)$-dimensional $\\varphi^8$ model. In this model, there are kinks with mixed tail asymptotics: power-law behavior at one infinity versus exponential decay towards the other. We show that if a kink and an antikink face each other in way such that their power-law tails determine the kink--antikink interaction, then the force of their interaction decays slowly, as some negative power of distance between them. We estimate the force numerically using the collective coordinate approximation, and analytically via Manton's method (making use of formulas derived for the kink and antikink tail asymptotics).

  15. SPS Scraping and LHC Transverse Tails

    CERN Document Server

    Drøsdal, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mete, O; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G; Veyrunes, E

    2013-01-01

    All high-intensity LHC beams have to be scraped before extraction from the SPS to remove the non-Gaussian transverse tails of the particle distributions. The tail particles would otherwise cause unacceptably high losses during injection or other phases of the LHC cycle. Studies have been carried out to quantify the scraping using injection losses and emittance measurements from wire scanners as diagnostics. Beams scraped in the SPS were scraped again in the LHC with collimators to investigate possible tail repopulation. The results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  16. Hovercraft drill probes Saraji tailings dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In early operations at BHP-Utah's Saraji Mine in central Queensland, quantities of coking coal were pumped into the tailings dam because the preparation plant's flotation circuit was unable to handle ultra-fines. A reverse circulating drilling rig mounted on a hovercraft was used to recover 22 samples (representing 9 metres of tailings from 11 x 8 x 0.09 metre cores) in an investigation into whether the tailings can now be treated economically. 1 fig.

  17. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Voss

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4% and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  18. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  19. Elemental mobility in sulfidic mine tailings reclaimed with paper mill by-products as sealing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Stahre, Nanna; Mäkitalo, Maria; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2017-07-13

    Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg). The leaching results revealed that, in general, the dregs- and ash-covered tailings released relatively lower concentrations of many elements contained in acid rock drainage compared to those from the uncovered tailings. A change in the chemical composition and mineralogical state of the tailings was observed for the tailings beneath the covers. The increase in pH caused by the alkaline materials promoted metal precipitation. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC confirmed most of the geochemical changes of the covered tailings. Both the ash and dregs showed potential to function as sealing materials in terms of their geochemical properties. However, mobilization of Zn and Ni from the lower part of the dregs-covered tailings was observed. The same phenomenon was observed for the lower part of the ash-covered tailings. Ash showed advantages over dregs as a cover material; based on geochemical studies, the ash immobilized more elements than the dregs did. Lysimeters were installed below the sealing layers, and infiltrating water chemistry and hydrology were studied to monitor the amount and quality of the leachate percolating through.

  20. Mean Excess Function as a method of identifying sub-exponential tails: Application to extreme daily rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2017-04-01

    Identifying precisely the distribution tail of a geophysical variable is tough, or, even impossible. First, the tail is the part of the distribution for which we have the less empirical information available; second, a universally accepted definition of tail does not and cannot exist; and third, a tail may change over time due to long-term changes. Unfortunately, the tail is the most important part of the distribution as it dictates the estimates of exceedance probabilities or return periods. Fortunately, based on their tail behavior, probability distributions can be generally categorized into two major families, i.e., sub-exponentials (heavy-tailed) and hyper-exponentials (light-tailed). This study aims to update the Mean Excess Function (MEF), providing a useful tool in order to asses which type of tail better describes empirical data. The MEF is based on the mean value of a variable over a threshold and results in a zero slope regression line when applied for the Exponential distribution. Here, we construct slope confidence intervals for the Exponential distribution as functions of sample size. The validation of the method using Monte Carlo techniques on four theoretical distributions covering major tail cases (Pareto type II, Log-normal, Weibull and Gamma) revealed that it performs well especially for large samples. Finally, the method is used to investigate the behavior of daily rainfall extremes; thousands of rainfall records were examined, from all over the world and with sample size over 100 years, revealing that heavy-tailed distributions can describe more accurately rainfall extremes.

  1. Generation of micronuclei during interphase by coupling between cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and nuclear budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh-ichi Utani

    Full Text Available Micronucleation, mediated by interphase nuclear budding, has been repeatedly suggested, but the process is still enigmatic. In the present study, we confirmed the previous observation that there are lamin B1-negative micronuclei in addition to the positive ones. A large cytoplasmic bleb was found to frequently entrap lamin B1-negative micronuclei, which were connected to the nucleus by a thin chromatin stalk. At the bottom of the stalk, the nuclear lamin B1 structure appeared broken. Chromatin extrusion through lamina breaks has been referred to as herniation or a blister of the nucleus, and has been observed after the expression of viral proteins. A cell line in which extrachromosomal double minutes and lamin B1 protein were simultaneously visualized in different colors in live cells was established. By using these cells, time-lapse microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic membrane blebbing occurred simultaneously with the extrusion of nuclear content, which generated lamin B1-negative micronuclei during interphase. Furthermore, activation of cytoplasmic membrane blebbing by the addition of fresh serum or camptothecin induced nuclear budding within 1 to 10 minutes, which suggested that blebbing might be the cause of the budding. After the induction of blebbing, the frequency of lamin-negative micronuclei increased. The budding was most frequent during S phase and more efficiently entrapped small extrachromosomal chromatin than the large chromosome arm. Based on these results, we suggest a novel mechanism in which cytoplasmic membrane dynamics pulls the chromatin out of the nucleus through the lamina break. Evidence for such a mechanism was obtained in certain cancer cell lines including human COLO 320 and HeLa. The mechanism could significantly perturb the genome and influence cancer cell phenotypes.

  2. Cytoplasmic translocation, aggregation, and cleavage of TDP-43 by enteroviral proteases modulate viral pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, G; Shi, J; Deng, H; Hou, J; Wang, C; Hong, A; Zhang, J; Jia, W; Luo, H

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that infection by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a positive-stranded RNA enterovirus, results in the accumulation of insoluble ubiquitin–protein aggregates, which resembles the common feature of neurodegenerative diseases. The importance of protein aggregation in viral pathogenesis has been recognized; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain ill-defined. Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein that has an essential role in regulating RNA metabolism at multiple levels. Cleavage and cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 serves as a major molecular marker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration and contributes significantly to disease progression. In this study, we reported that TDP-43 is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during CVB3 infection through the activity of viral protease 2A, followed by the cleavage mediated by viral protease 3C. Cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43 is accompanied by reduced solubility and increased formation of protein aggregates. The cleavage takes place at amino-acid 327 between glutamine and alanine, resulting in the generation of an N- and C-terminal cleavage fragment of ~35 and ~8 kDa, respectively. The C-terminal product of TDP-43 is unstable and quickly degraded through the proteasome degradation pathway, whereas the N-terminal truncation of TDP-43 acts as a dominant-negative mutant that inhibits the function of native TDP-43 in alternative RNA splicing. Lastly, we demonstrated that knockdown of TDP-43 results in an increase in viral titers, suggesting a protective role for TDP-43 in CVB3 infection. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel model by which cytoplasmic redistribution and cleavage of TDP-43 as a consequence of CVB3 infection disrupts the solubility and transcriptional activity of TDP-43. Our results also reveal a mechanism evolved by enteroviruses to support efficient viral infection. PMID

  3. Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-10-03

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species.

  4. Intestinal and liver morphometry of the Yellow Tail Tetra (Astyanax altiparanae fed with oregano oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLLYANNA M.F. FERREIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oregano oil on the intestinal and liver morphometry of yellow tail tetra, Astyanax altiparanae. Fish (1.46 ± 0.09 g were kept in a 60-L aquaria, at a stocking density of 0.5 fi sh L-1. Six diets containing varying amounts of oregano oil were evaluated (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 g of oregano oil kg-1. At the end of 90 days, the fi sh were euthanised. Four intestines and four livers were collected per treatment, which were fi xed in Bouin and embedded in resin. For height and width folds, the absorption surface area and thickness of the muscular layer a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. A decrescent linear effect on the total number of goblet cells was also observed. For the cytoplasmic percentage of hepatocytes and liver glycogen, a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. There was a decreasing linear effect on the percentage of nuclei in the hepatocytes and capillaries. Thus, the oregano essential oil promotes increased absorption areas, modulates the amount of goblet cells involved in protecting the intestinal mucosa and promotes cytoplasmic increase with greater deposition of liver glycogen in yellow tail tetra.

  5. Regulation of embryonic cell adhesion by the cadherin cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, C

    1992-04-17

    Differential adhesion between embryonic cells has been proposed to be mediated by a family of closely related glycoproteins called the cadherins. The cadherins mediate adhesion in part through an interaction between the cadherin cytoplasmic domain and intracellular proteins, called the catenins. To determine whether these interactions could regulate cadherin function in embryos, a form of N-cadherin was generated that lacks an extracellular domain. Expression of this mutant in Xenopus embryos causes a dramatic inhibition of cell adhesion. Analysis of the mutant phenotype shows that at least two regions of the N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain can inhibit adhesion and that the mutant cadherin can inhibit catenin binding to E-cadherin. These results suggest that cadherin-mediated adhesion can be regulated by cytoplasmic interactions and that this regulation may contribute to morphogenesis when emerging tissues coexpress several cadherin types.

  6. Evolutionary conservation of sequence elements controlling cytoplasmic polyadenylylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, A C; Thompson, S R; Wreden, C; Strickland, S; Wickens, M

    1996-08-20

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism involved in the translational activation of a set of maternal messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during early development. In this report, we show by interspecies injections that Xenopus and mouse use the same regulatory sequences to control cytoplasmic poly(A) addition during meiotic maturation. Similarly, Xenopus and Drosophila embryos exploit functionally conserved signals to regulate polyadenylylation during early post-fertilization development. These experiments demonstrate that the sequence elements that govern cytoplasmic polyadenylylation, and hence one form of translational activation, function across species. We infer that the requisite regulatory sequence elements, and likely the trans-acting components with which they interact, have been conserved since the divergence of vertebrates and arthropods.

  7. Bidirectional transmembrane signaling by cytoplasmic domain separation in integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Carman, Christopher V; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-09-19

    Although critical for development, immunity, wound healing, and metastasis, integrins represent one of the few classes of plasma membrane receptors for which the basic signaling mechanism remains a mystery. We investigated cytoplasmic conformational changes in the integrin LFA-1 (alphaLbeta2) in living cells by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer between cyan fluorescent protein-fused and yellow fluorescent protein-fused alphaL and beta2 cytoplasmic domains. In the resting state these domains were close to each other, but underwent significant spatial separation upon either intracellular activation of integrin adhesiveness (inside-out signaling) or ligand binding (outside-in signaling). Thus, bidirectional integrin signaling is accomplished by coupling extracellular conformational changes to an unclasping and separation of the alpha and beta cytoplasmic domains, a distinctive mechanism for transmitting information across the plasma membrane.

  8. Keratin 18 attenuates estrogen receptor α-mediated signaling by sequestering LRP16 in cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yiling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncogenesis in breast cancer is often associated with excess estrogen receptor α(ERα activation and overexpression of its coactivators. LRP16 is both an ERα target gene and an ERα coactivator, and plays a crucial role in ERα activation and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. However, the regulation of the functional availability of this coactivator protein is not yet clear. Results Yeast two-hybrid screening, GST pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP identified the cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein keratin 18 (K18 as a novel LRP16-interacting protein. Fluorescence analysis revealed that GFP-tagged LRP16 was primarily localized in the nuclei of mock-transfected MCF-7 cells but was predominantly present in the cytoplasm of K18-transfected cells. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the amount of cytoplasmic LRP16 was markedly increased in cells overexpressing K18 whereas nuclear levels were depressed. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous K18 expression in MCF-7 cells significantly decreased the cytoplasmic levels of LRP16 and increased levels in the nucleus. CoIP failed to detect any interaction between K18 and ERα, but ectopic expression of K18 in MCF-7 cells significantly blunted the association of LRP16 with ERα, attenuated ERα-activated reporter gene activity, and decreased estrogen-stimulated target gene expression by inhibiting ERα recruitment to DNA. Furthermore, BrdU incorporation assays revealed that K18 overexpression blunted the estrogen-stimulated increase of S-phase entry of MCF-7 cells. By contrast, knockdown of K18 in MCF-7 cells significantly increased ERα-mediated signaling and promoted cell cycle progression. Conclusions K18 can effectively associate with and sequester LRP16 in the cytoplasm, thus attenuating the final output of ERα-mediated signaling and estrogen-stimulated cell cycle progression of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Loss of K18 increases the functional availability

  9. Nonuniformity of Temperatures in Microwave Steam Heating of Lobster Tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Gregory J

    2016-11-01

    The biennial Conference for Food Protection provides a formal process for all interested parties to influence food safety guidance. At a recent conference, an issue was raised culminating in a formal request to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to change its Food Code recommendation for safe cooking of seafood using microwave energy when steaming was also employed. The request was to treat microwave steam cooked seafood as a conventionally cooked raw animal product rather than a microwave cooked product, for which the safe cooking recommendation is more extensive owing to the complex temperature distributions in microwave heating. The request was motivated by a literature study that revealed a more uniform temperature distribution in microwave steam cooked whole lobster. In that study, single-point temperatures were recorded in various sections of the whole lobster, but only one temperature was recorded in the tail, although the large size of the tail could translate to multiple hot and cold points. The present study was conducted to examine lobster tail specifically, measuring temperatures at multiple points during microwave steam cooking. Large temperature differences, greater than 60°C at times, were found throughout the heating period. To compensate for such differences, the Food Code recommends a more extensive level of cooking when microwave energy, rather than conventional heat sources, is used. Therefore, a change in the Food Code regarding microwave steam heating cannot be recommended.

  10. Two long HI tails in the outskirts of Abell 1367

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, T C; Brinks, E; Bravo-Alfaro, H; Auld, R; Minchin, R

    2011-01-01

    We present VLA D-array HI observations of the RSCG42 and FGC1287 galaxy groups, in the outskirts of the Abell 1367 cluster. These groups are projected ~ 1.8 and 2.7 Mpc west from the cluster centre. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment survey provided evidence for HI extending over as much as 200kpc in both groups. Our new, higher resolution observations reveal that the complex HI features detected by Arecibo are in reality two extraordinary long HI tails extending for ~160 and 250 kpc, respectively, i.e., among the longest HI structures ever observed in groups of galaxies. Although in the case of RSCG42 the morphology and dynamics of the HI tail, as well as the optical properties of the group members, support a low-velocity tidal interaction scenario, less clear is the origin of the unique features associated with FGC1287. This galaxy displays an exceptionally long 'dog leg' HI tail and the large distance from the X-ray emitting region of Abell 1367 makes a ram-pressure stripping scenario highly unlikely. At the s...

  11. Multiband Optical Observation of P/2010 A2 Dust Tail

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Junhan; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Usui, Fumihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2012-01-01

    An inner main-belt asteroid, P/2010 A2, was discovered on January 6th, 2010. Based on its orbital elements, it is considered that the asteroid belongs to the Flora collisional family, where S-type asteroids are common, whilst showing a comet-like dust tail. Although analysis of images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and Rosetta spacecraft suggested that the dust tail resulted from a recent head-on collision between asteroids (Jewitt et al. 2010; Snodgrass et al. 2010), an alternative idea of ice sublimation was suggested based on the morphological fitting of ground-based images (Moreno et al. 2010). Here, we report a multiband observation of P/2010 A2 made on January 2010 with a 105 cm telescope at the Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory. Three broadband filters, $g'$, $R_c$, and $I_c$, were employed for the observation. The unique multiband data reveals that the reflectance spectrum of the P/2010 A2 dust tail resembles that of an Sq-type asteroid or that of ordinary chondrites rather than that of an S-...

  12. Colicin S8 export: extracellular and cytoplasmic colicin are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Diaz, Maria-Elena; Concepción Curbelo, Juan Luis

    2003-12-01

    The properties of colicin S8 are different for the cytoplasmic, periplasmic and extracellular protein. Interactions with its specific receptors reflect this. Active cell extracts separate into a non-anionic along with an anionic fraction by DEAE-Sephacell chromatography. Previously, we have purified cell-associated colicin S8 as an aggregation of highly related polypeptides; cytoplasmic colicin S8 seems to be post-translationally processed into an aggregation of polypeptides of molecular mass ranging from 45,000 Da to 60,000 Da. We suggest that a conformational change to colicin S8 may occur related to the export process.

  13. Doppler OCT imaging of cytoplasm shuttle flow in Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Alexander V; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Lauri, Janne; Myllylä, Risto

    2009-09-01

    The Doppler optical coherence tomography technique was applied to image the oscillatory dynamics of protoplasm in the strands of the plasmodium of slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Radial contractions of the gel-like walls of the strands and the velocity distributions in the sol-like endoplasm streaming along the plasmodial strands are imaged. The motility inhibitor effect of carbon dioxide on the cytoplasm shuttle flow and strand-wall contraction is shown. The optical attenuation coefficient of cytoplasm is estimated. 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  14. Physical space and long-tail markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

  15. p25alpha relocalizes in oligodendroglia from myelin to cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yun Ju C; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Huang, Yue

    2007-01-01

    was revealed by immunoblotting along with the presence of immunoreactivity for MBP degradation products in oligodendroglia. The oligodendroglial cell bodies in MSA displayed an enlargement along with the relocalization of p25alpha, and this was enhanced after the deposition of alpha-synuclein in the glial...... cytoplasmic inclusions. Overall, the data indicate that changes in the cellular interactions between MBP and p25alpha occur early in MSA and contribute to abnormalities in myelin and subsequent alpha-synuclein aggregation and the ensuing neuronal degeneration that characterizes this disease....

  16. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  17. On high energy tails in inelastic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiotte, R.; Brenig, L.; Salazar, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of high energy tails in a one-dimensional kinetic model for granular gases, the so-called Inelastic Maxwell Model. We introduce a time- discretized version of the stochastic process, and show that continuous time implies larger fluctuations of the particles energies. This is due to a statistical relation between the number of inelastic collisions undergone by a particle and its average energy. This feature is responsible for the high energy tails in the model, as shown ...

  18. Poisson vs. Long-Tailed Internet traffic

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we reexamine the long discussion on which model is suitable for studying Internet traffic: Poisson or Long-tailed Internet traffic. Poisson model, adapted from telephone network, has been used since the beginning of World Wide Web, while long-tailed distribution gradually takes over with believable evidence. Instead of using Superposition of Point Processes to explain why traffic that is not Poisson tends towards Poisson traffic as the load increases, as it is recent...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Soft Tailings from a Swedish Tailings Impoundment:Results from Direct Shear Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanbhro, Riaz; Knutsson, Roger; Edeskär, Tommy; Knutsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The shear strength of tailings can vary depending upon the type of ore and method of construction. Tailings dams may possess loose layers in subsequent layers, which may have low shear strength. Since the tailings dams are made-up to last for longer times, the strength parameters and material behaviors are essential to understand, especially potential for static liquefaction in loose layers. This article presents the results from direct shear tests performed on samples from loose layer of a t...

  20. Hybrid Tail Risk and Expected Stock Returns: When Does the Tail Wag the Dog?

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Turan G.; Nusret Cakici; Robert F. Whitelaw

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new, hybrid measure of stock return tail covariance risk, motivated by the under-diversified portfolio holdings of individual investors, and investigate its cross-sectional predictive power. Our key innovation is that this covariance is measured across the left tail states of the individual stock return distribution, not across those of the market return as in standard systematic risk measures. We document a positive and significant relation between hybrid tail covariance risk ...

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  2. Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Kelvin J.

    2015-02-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  3. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  4. Parental diagnosis of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) revealed by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Ohta, Satoshi; Nonaka, Keisuke; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Endo, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-12-01

    Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) are the predominant cultivated citrus variety in Japan. Clarification of its origin would prove valuable for citrus taxonomy and mandarin breeding programs; however, current information is limited. We applied genome-wide genotyping using a 384 citrus single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and MARCO computer software to investigate the satsuma mandarin parentage. Genotyping data from 206 validated SNPs were obtained to evaluate 67 citrus varieties and lines. A total of five parent-offspring relationships were newly found by MARCO based on the 206 SNP genotypes, indicating that 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins (Citrus kinokuni hort. ex Tanaka accession 'Kishuu mikan' and 'Nanfengmiju') and 'Kunenbo' type mandarins (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. kunip Tanaka accession 'Kunenbo' and 'Bendiguangju') are possible parents of the satsuma mandarin. Moreover, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences analysis showed that the genotypes of four regions in chloroplast DNA of 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins were identical to that of the satsuma mandarin. Considering the historical background, satsuma mandarins may therefore derive from an occasional cross between a 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarin seed parent (derivative or synonym of 'Nanfengmiju') and a 'Kunenbo' type mandarin pollen parent (derivative or synonym of 'Bendiguangju').

  5. Tail dependence of random variables from ARCH and heavy tailed bilinear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘家柱

    2002-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the dependent structure in the tails of distributions of random variables from some heavy-tailed stationary nonlinear time series. One class of models discussed is the first-order autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (ARCH) process introduced by Engle (1982). The other class is the simple first-order bilinear models driven by heavy-tailed innovations. We give some explicit formulas for the asymptotic values of conditional probabilities used for measuring the tail dependence between two random variables from these models. Our results have significant meanings in finance.

  6. Hepatic capillariasis in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martin; Tirado, Marcela; López, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    A female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and her two cubs held in a zoo in Chile exhibited signs of severe hepatic insufficiency. In spite of supportive treatment, the three animals died a few days after the onset of signs. Postmortem examination revealed ascites and fibrotic lesions in the liver of all the individuals. Histologically, the liver of two of them showed a severe parasitic ova infection and lipidosis, the morphologic characteristics of the parasitic ovas were consistent with Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepatica) eggs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of hepatic capillariasis in prosimians, and its implications are discussed.

  7. Diabetes mellitus in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner-Pendleton, E A; Rogers, D; Epple, A

    1993-09-01

    An adult, free-living female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with clinical signs of generalized weakness, polyuria, and polydipsia, was killed and necropsied. An ante mortem serum sample taken from the bird contained 54.3 mmole/1 glucose, and large amounts of glucose were found in the urine. At necropsy, the pancreas was small, pale pink with multiple, round, approximately 0.5 mm white foci. Light and electron microscopic examination of the pancreas revealed markedly vacuolated islet cells. Histochemical examination of the tissue showed that the vacuolated cells were beta-cells. This is the first report of spontaneously occurring diabetes mellitus in a raptor.

  8. Identification of the t Complex–encoded Cytoplasmic Dynein Light Chain Tctex1 in Inner Arm I1 Supports the Involvement of Flagellar Dyneins in Meiotic Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Alistair; Olds-Clarke, Patricia; King, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein light chain Tctex1 is a candidate for one of the distorter products involved in the non-Mendelian transmission of mouse t haplotypes. It has been unclear, however, how the t-specific mutations in this protein, which is found associated with cytoplasmic dynein in many tissues, could result in a male germ cell–specific phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that Tctex1 is not only a cytoplasmic dynein component, but is also present both in mouse sperm and Chlamydomonas flagella. Genetic and biochemical dissection of the Chlamydomonas flagellum reveal that Tctex1 is a previously undescribed component of inner dynein arm I1. Combined with the recent identification of another putative t complex distorter, Tctex2, within the outer dynein arm, these results support the hypothesis that transmission ratio distortion (meiotic drive) of mouse t haplotypes involves dysfunction of both flagellar inner and outer dynein arms but does not require the cytoplasmic isozyme. PMID:9490726

  9. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Microbial Community in the Tailings of a Pb-Zn Mine Generating Acidic Drainage ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Nan; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Wan, Cai-Yun; Li, Jie; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the microbial community in the abandoned tailings impoundment of a Pb-Zn mine revealed distinct microbial populations associated with the different oxidation stages of the tailings. Although Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. were consistently present in the acidic tailings, acidophilic archaea, mostly Ferroplasma acidiphilum, were predominant in the oxidized zones and the oxidation front, indicating their importance to generation of acid mine drainage. PMID:21705549

  10. Application of powder X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld method to the analysis of oxidation processes and products in sulphidic mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Katerinopoulou, Anna; Edsberg, Anders

    2011-01-01

    silica were applied as proper models. The procedures developed on test mixtures result in estimated errors of determination typically lower than 2 wt%. The approach was applied to the analysis of the complex problem of estimating mass balance in oxidized mine tailings from the Nanisivik Mine, Nunavut......, Canada revealing an oxidized proportion of 9 % of total pyrite content in the well drained tailings during a period of 8 years and a negligible oxidation in the water-covered tailings....

  11. Microbial diversity at the moderate acidic stage in three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korehi, Hananeh; Blöthe, Marco; Schippers, Axel

    2014-11-01

    In freshly deposited sulfidic mine tailings the pH is alkaline or circumneutral. Due to pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation the pH is dropping over time to pH values tailings are only scarcely studied. Here we investigated the microbial diversity via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in eight samples (pH range 3.2-6.5) from three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps in Botswana, Germany and Sweden. In total 701 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a divergent microbial community between the three sites and at different tailings depths. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were overall the most abundant phyla in the clone libraries. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Nitrospira occurred less frequently. The found microbial communities were completely different to microbial communities in tailings at

  12. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionThis manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces via sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores. Cytop

  13. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulev Assen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF, offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  14. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01


    Introduction

    This manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces

  15. Endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated microtubule alignment governs cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenji; Mamane, Alexandre; Sasaki, Tohru; Sato, Kohta; Takagi, Jun; Niwayama, Ritsuya; Hufnagel, Lars; Shimamoto, Yuta; Joanny, Jean-François; Uchida, Seiichi; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2017-04-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming refers to a collective movement of cytoplasm observed in many cell types. The mechanism of meiotic cytoplasmic streaming (MeiCS) in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes is puzzling as the direction of the flow is not predefined by cell polarity and occasionally reverses. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network structure is required for the collective flow. Using a combination of RNAi, microscopy and image processing of C. elegans zygotes, we devise a theoretical model, which reproduces and predicts the emergence and reversal of the flow. We propose a positive-feedback mechanism, where a local flow generated along a microtubule is transmitted to neighbouring regions through the ER. This, in turn, aligns microtubules over a broader area to self-organize the collective flow. The proposed model could be applicable to various cytoplasmic streaming phenomena in the absence of predefined polarity. The increased mobility of cortical granules by MeiCS correlates with the efficient exocytosis of the granules to protect the zygotes from osmotic and mechanical stresses.

  16. Animal models of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salama, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    To provide an update on the experimental models that have been developed recapitulating clinical antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. The application of the models in the study of pathogenesis, and the therapeutic implications of this, are covered in the article by van Timmeren and Heeringa in this issue.

  17. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu

    2015-05-15

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.

  18. Method for Confirming Cytoplasmic Delivery of RNA Aptamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, David D; Dassie, Justin P; Giangrande, Paloma H

    2016-01-01

    RNA aptamers are single-stranded RNA oligos that represent a powerful emerging technology with potential for treating numerous diseases. More recently, cell-targeted RNA aptamers have been developed for delivering RNA interference (RNAi) modulators (siRNAs and miRNAs) to specific diseased cells (e.g., cancer cells or HIV infected cells) in vitro and in vivo. However, despite initial promising reports, the broad application of this aptamer delivery technology awaits the development of methods that can verify and confirm delivery of aptamers to the cytoplasm of target cells where the RNAi machinery resides. We recently developed a functional assay (RIP assay) to confirm cellular uptake and subsequent cytoplasmic release of an RNA aptamer which binds to a cell surface receptor expressed on prostate cancer cells (PSMA). To assess cytoplasmic delivery, the aptamer was chemically conjugated to saporin, a ribosome inactivating protein toxin that is toxic to cells only when delivered to the cytoplasm (where it inhibits the ribosome) by a cell-targeting ligand (e.g., aptamer). Here, we describe the chemistry used to conjugate the aptamer to saporin and discuss a gel-based method to verify conjugation efficiency. We also detail an in vitro functional assay to confirm that the aptamer retains function following conjugation to saporin and describe a cellular assay to measure aptamer-mediated saporin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26472453

  19. The Tale of Protein Lysine Acetylation in the Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Sadoul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible posttranslational modification of internal lysines in many cellular or viral proteins is now emerging as part of critical signalling processes controlling a variety of cellular functions beyond chromatin and transcription. This paper aims at demonstrating the role of lysine acetylation in the cytoplasm driving and coordinating key events such as cytoskeleton dynamics, intracellular trafficking, vesicle fusion, metabolism, and stress response.

  20. [Sexual reproduction of insects is regulated by cytoplasmic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, A V; Zakharov, I A

    2005-01-01

    The effects have been considered that the intracellular symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis induces in its hosts, such as insects and other arthropods: cytoplasmic incompatibility upon mating, feminization, parthenogenesis, and androcide. Specific features of the bacterium genome and possible mechanisms of its action on hosts are discussed.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Cell Function Using Cytoplasmic Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Peter; Waldhuber, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming in the fresh water alga "Nitella". Students use the fungal toxin cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, to investigate the mechanism of streaming. Students use simple statistical methods to analyze their data. Typical student data are provided. (Contains 3…

  2. Serine phosphorylation of syndecan-2 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, E S; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, and the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 contains two serines (residues 197 and 198) which lie in a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by PKC. Other serine and threonine residues are present but not in a consensus seque...

  3. Nonlinear autoregressive models with heavy-tailed innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Yang; AN; Hongzhi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the stationary marginal tail probability and the innovation's tail probability of nonlJnear autoregressive models. We show that under certain conditions that ensure the stationarity and ergodicity, one dimension stationary marginal distribution has the heavy-tailed probability property with the same index as that of the innovation's tail probability.

  4. Proteins involved in the degradation of cytoplasmic mRNA in the major eukaryotic model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwaszek, Aleksandra; Ukleja, Marta; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The process of mRNA decay and surveillance is considered to be one of the main posttranscriptional gene expression regulation platforms in eukaryotes. The degradation of stable, protein-coding transcripts is normally initiated by removal of the poly(A) tail followed by 5'-cap hydrolysis and degradation of the remaining mRNA body by Xrn1. Alternatively, the exosome complex degrades mRNA in the 3'>5'direction. The newly discovered uridinylation-dependent pathway, which is present in many different organisms, also seems to play a role in bulk mRNA degradation. Simultaneously, to avoid the synthesis of incorrect proteins, special cellular machinery is responsible for the removal of faulty transcripts via nonsense-mediated, no-go, non-stop or non-functional 18S rRNA decay. This review is focused on the major eukaryotic cytoplasmic mRNA degradation pathways showing many similarities and pointing out main differences between the main model-species: yeast, Drosophila, plants and mammals.

  5. Thermo-mechanical properties and microfabric of fly ash-stabilized gold tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Kyu; Shang, Julie Q; Jeong, Sangseom

    2014-07-15

    This paper studies the changes in thermal conductivity, temperature, and unconfined compressive strength of gold tailings and fly ash mixtures during the curing period of 5 days. The microfabric of the cured mixtures was investigated with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The mixture samples were prepared at their maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture content. Effect of adding fly ash to gold tailings (i.e., 0, 20, and 40% of the dry weight of tailings) was examined, and a comparison was made on samples prepared at the same fly ash content by replacing gold tailings with humic acid (i.e., gold tailings and humic acid ratios of 100:0, 90:10, and 80:20 by weight) or by varying pore fluid chemistry (i.e., water and salt solutions of 1M NaCl and CaCl2). The results show that the initial thermal conductivity of the samples is sensitive to the mixture proportion and a declination in the thermal conductivity is observed due to hydration of fly ash and evaporation. Inclusion of fly ash and salts into gold tailings improves the unconfined compressive strength but the presence of humic acid in samples leads to the decrease of the strength. MIP results reveal the pore structure changes associated with the packing states of the samples that reflect the influential factors considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Crucial advantages of tail use in the evolution of vertebrate terrestrial locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Henry; McInroe, Benjamin; Kawano, Sandy; Blob, Rick; Goldman, Daniel

    In the invasion of terrestrial environment, the first tetrapods faced the challenge of locomotion on flowable substrates (e.g. sand and mud), sometimes oriented at inclines. Although the morphology of many early tetrapods is known, robotic studies have revealed that effective locomotion on these substrates also depends strongly upon kinematics; slight differences in movements of the same appendage can lead to success or failure. Using a model organism (the mudskipper) and a robotic physical model, we demonstrate how muscular tails provided critical locomotor advantages on granular substrates that the first invaders of land likely encountered. Mudskippers use their tails for additional propulsion with increasing frequency as the slope of the granular material increases, and the decline in locomotor performance with slope is shallower when the tail is used. Experiments with a robotic model of the mudskipper showed that, while the tail did not always provide a benefit to locomotion, use of the tail made the robot's performance more robust, achieving effective locomotion on a wider range of slopes, limb postures and foot placements. These results suggest that, rather than simply being an inert appendage, the tails of early tetrapods were vital to their first forays into terrestrial habitats.

  7. Gecko CD59 is implicated in proximodistal identity during tail regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wang

    Full Text Available Several adult reptiles, such as Gekko japonicus, have the ability to precisely re-create a missing tail after amputation. To ascertain the associated acquisition of positional information from blastemal cells and the underlying molecular mechanism of tail regeneration, a candidate molecule CD59 was isolated from gecko. CD59 transcripts displayed a graded expression in the adult gecko spinal cord with the highest level in the anterior segment, with a stable expression along the normal tail. After tail amputation, CD59 transcripts in the spinal cord proximal to the injury sites increased markedly at 1 day and 2 weeks; whereas in the regenerating blastema, strong CD59 positive signals were detected in the blastemal cells anterior to the blastema, with a gradual decrease along the proximodistal (PD axis. When treated with RA following amputation, CD59 transcripts in the blastema were up-regulated. PD confrontation assays revealed that the proximal blastema engulfed the distal one after in vitro culture, and rabbit-anti human CD59 antibody was able to block this PD engulfment. Overexpression of the CD59 during tail regeneration causes distal blastemal cells to translocate to a more proximal location. Our results suggest that position identity is not restricted to amphibian limb regeneration, but has already been established in tail blastema of reptiles. The CD59, a cell surface molecule, acted as a determinant of proximal-distal cell identity.

  8. Nucleocapsid protein from fig mosaic virus forms cytoplasmic agglomerates that are hauled by endoplasmic reticulum streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly throughout the cell, and we

  9. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo-cytoplasmic

  10. Accessory Factors of Cytoplasmic Viral RNA Sensors Required for Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and, thus, cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway. PMID:27252702

  11. Tau-mediated nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic accumulation of SFPQ in Alzheimer's and Pick's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazi D Ke

    Full Text Available Tau dysfunction characterizes neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Here, we performed an unbiased SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression of differentially expressed mRNAs in the amygdala of transgenic pR5 mice that express human tau carrying the P301L mutation previously identified in familial cases of FTLD. SAGE identified 29 deregulated transcripts including Sfpq that encodes a nuclear factor implicated in the splicing and regulation of gene expression. To assess the relevance for human disease we analyzed brains from AD, Pick's disease (PiD, a form of FTLD, and control cases. Strikingly, in AD and PiD, both dementias with a tau pathology, affected brain areas showed a virtually complete nuclear depletion of SFPQ in both neurons and astrocytes, along with cytoplasmic accumulation. Accordingly, neurons harboring either AD tangles or Pick bodies were also depleted of SFPQ. Immunoblot analysis of human entorhinal cortex samples revealed reduced SFPQ levels with advanced Braak stages suggesting that the SFPQ pathology may progress together with the tau pathology in AD. To determine a causal role for tau, we stably expressed both wild-type and P301L human tau in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, an established cell culture model of tau pathology. The cells were differentiated by two independent methods, mitomycin C-mediated cell cycle arrest or neuronal differentiation with retinoic acid. Confocal microscopy revealed that SFPQ was confined to nuclei in non-transfected wild-type cells, whereas in wild-type and P301L tau over-expressing cells, irrespective of the differentiation method, it formed aggregates in the cytoplasm, suggesting that pathogenic tau drives SFPQ pathology in post-mitotic cells. Our findings add SFPQ to a growing list of transcription factors with an altered nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution under neurodegenerative conditions.

  12. Accessory Factors of Cytoplasmic Viral RNA Sensors Required for Antiviral Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and, thus, cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  13. Accessory factors of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors required for antiviral innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eOshiumi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and thus cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  14. The Extraordinary Multi-Tailed Main-Belt Comet P/2013 P5

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of main-belt comet P/2013 P5 reveal an extraordinary system of six dust tails that distinguish this object from any other. Observations two weeks apart show dramatic morphological change in the tails while providing no evidence for secular fading of the object as a whole. Each tail is associated with a unique ejection date, revealing continued, episodic mass loss from the 0.24+/-0.04 km radius nucleus over the last five months. As an inner-belt asteroid and probable Flora family member, the object is likely to be highly metamorphosed and unlikely to contain ice. The protracted period of dust release appears inconsistent with an impact origin, but may be compatible with a body that is losing mass through a rotational instability. We suggest that P/2013 P5 has been accelerated to breakup speed by radiation torques.

  15. THE EXTRAORDINARY MULTI-TAILED MAIN-BELT COMET P/2013 P5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of main-belt comet P/2013 P5 reveal an extraordinary system of six dust tails that distinguish this object from any other. Observations two weeks apart show dramatic morphological change in the tails while providing no evidence for secular fading of the object as a whole. Each tail is associated with a unique ejection date, revealing continued, episodic mass loss from the 0.24 ± 0.04 km radius nucleus over the last five months. As an inner-belt asteroid and probable Flora family member, the object is likely to be highly metamorphosed and unlikely to contain ice. The protracted period of dust release appears inconsistent with an impact origin, but may be compatible with a body that is losing mass through a rotational instability. We suggest that P/2013 P5 has been accelerated to breakup speed by radiation torques.

  16. Posterior tail development in the salamander Eurycea cirrigera: exploring cellular dynamics across life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglia, Janet L; Fornari, Chet; Evans, Paula K

    2017-03-01

    During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae). Post-embryonic addition of segments suggests that the tail tip retains some aspects of embryonic cell/tissue organization and gene expression throughout the life cycle. We describe cell and tissue differentiation and segmentation of the posterior tail using serial histology and expression of the axial tissue markers, MF-20 and Pax6. Embryonic expression patterns of HoxA13 and C13 are shown with in situ hybridization. Tissue sections reveal that the posterior spinal cord forms via cavitation and precedes development of the underlying cartilaginous rod after embryogenesis. Post-embryonic tail elongation occurs in the absence of somites and mesenchymal cells lateral to the midline express MF-20. Pax6 expression was observed only in the spinal cord and some mesenchymal cells of adult Eurycea tails. Distinct temporal and spatial patterns of posterior Hox13 gene expression were observed throughout embryogenesis. Overall, important insights to cell organization, differentiation, and posterior Hox gene expression may be gained from this work. We suggest that further work on gene expression in the elongating adult tail could shed light on mechanisms that link continual axial elongation with regeneration.

  17. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere.

  18. Attitudes of Dutch Pig Farmers Towards Tail Biting and Tail Docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Wind, S.M.M.; Zonderland, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch policy objective of a fully sustainable livestock sector without mutilations by 2023 is not compatible with the routine practice of tail docking to minimize the risk of tail biting. To examine farmer attitudes towards docking, a telephone survey was conducted among 487 conventional and 33

  19. Attitudes of Dutch Pig Farmers Towards Tail Biting and Tail Docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Wind, S.M.M.; Zonderland, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch policy objective of a fully sustainable livestock sector without mutilations by 2023 is not compatible with the routine practice of tail docking to minimize the risk of tail biting. To examine farmer attitudes towards docking, a telephone survey was conducted among 487 conventional and 33

  20. Tail Asymptotics for the Sum of two Heavy-tailed Dependent Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecher, H.; Asmussen, Søren

    Let X1,X2 denote positive exchangable heavy-tailed random variables with continuous marginal distribution function F. The asymptotic behavior of the tail of X1 + X2 is studied in a general copula framework and some bounds and extremal properties are provided. For more specific assumptions on F...

  1. Novel rat tail discitis model using bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostian, Phillip A; Karnes, Jonathan M; Cui, Shari; Robinson, Lisa J; Daffner, Scott D; Witt, Michelle R; Emery, Sanford E

    2017-09-01

    Management of spondylodiscitis is a challenging clinical problem requiring medical and surgical treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to establish a rat model of spondylodiscitis that utilizes bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), thus permitting in vivo surveillance of infection intensity. Inocula of the bioluminescent S. aureus strain XEN36 were created in concentrations of 10(2) CFU/0.1 ml, 10(4)  CFU/0.1 ml, and 10(6)  CFU/0.1 ml. Three groups of rats were injected with the bacteria in the most proximal intervertebral tail segment. The third most proximal tail segment was injected with saline as a control. Bioluminescence was measured at baseline, 3 days, and weekly for a total of 6 weeks. Detected bioluminescence for each group peaked at day 3 and returned to baseline in 21 days. The average intensity was highest for the experimental group injected with the most concentrated bacterial solution (10(6)  CFU/0.1 ml). Radiographic analysis revealed loss of intervertebral disc space and evidence of osseous bridging. Saline-injected spaces exhibited no decrease in intervertebral spacing as compared to distal sites. Histologic analysis revealed neutrophilic infiltrates, destruction of the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, destruction of vertebral endplates, and osseous bridging. Saline-injected discs exhibited preserved annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus on histology. This study demonstrates that injection of bioluminescent S. aureus into the intervertebral disc of a rat tail is a viable animal model for spondylodiscitis research. This model allows for real-time, in vivo quantification of infection intensity, which may decrease the number of animals required for infection studies of the intervertebral disc. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2075-2081, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. How does innovation's tail risk determine marginal tail risk of a stationary financial time series?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiazhu; YU; Bosco; W.T.; PANG; W.K.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the marginal tail risk probability and the innovation'stail risk probability for some stationary financial time series models.We first give the main results on the tail behavior of a class of infinite weighted sums of random variableswith heavy-tailed probabilities. And then, the main results are applied tothree important types of time series models:infinite order moving averages, the simple bilinear time series and the solutions of stochasticdifference equations. The explicit formulas are given to describe how the marginaltail probabilities come from the innovation's tail probabilities for these time series.Our results can be applied to the tail estimation of time series and are useful for risk analysis in finance.

  3. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition of Solanum bulbocastanum (+) S. tuberosum somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovene, Marina; Savarese, Salvatore; Cardi, Teodoro; Frusciante, Luigi; Scotti, Nunzia; Simon, Philipp W; Carputo, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    Somatic hybrids between the wild incongruent species Solanum bulbocastanum (2n = 2x = 24) and S. tuberosum haploids (2n = 2x = 24) have been characterized for their nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition. Cytologic observations revealed the recovery of 8 (near-)tetraploid and 3 hexaploid somatic hybrids. Multicolor genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis was carried out to study the genomic dosage of the parental species in 5 somatic hybrids with different ploidy. The GISH procedure used was effective in discriminating parental genomes in the hybrids; most chromosomes were unambiguously colored. Two (near-)tetraploid somatic hybrids showed the expected 2:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage; 2 hexaploids revealed a 4:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage, and 1 hexaploid had a 2:4 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage. Characterization of hybrid cytoplasmic genomes was performed using gene-specific primers that detected polymorphisms between the fusion parents in the intergenic regions. The analysis showed that most of the somatic hybrids inherited the plastidial and mitochondrial DNA of the cultivated parent. A few hybrids, with a rearranged mitochondrial genome (showing fragments derived from both parents), were also identified. These results confirmed the potential of somatic hybridization in producing new variability for genetic studies and breeding.

  4. Co-occurrence of methanogenesis and N{sub 2} fixation in oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, C.E. Victoria [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9 (Canada); Siddique, Tariq, E-mail: tariq.siddique@ualberta.ca [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada have been producing biogenic gases via microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons for decades. Persistent methanogenic activity in tailings ponds without any known replenishment of nutrients such as fixed nitrogen (N) persuaded us to investigate whether N{sub 2} fixation or polyacrylamide (PAM; used as a tailings flocculant) could serve as N sources. Cultures comprising mature fine tailings (MFT) plus methanogenic medium supplemented with or deficient in fixed N were incubated under an N{sub 2} headspace. Some cultures were further amended with citrate, which is used in oil sands processing, as a relevant carbon source, and/or with PAM. After an initial delay, N-deficient cultures with or without PAM produced methane (CH{sub 4}) at the same rate as N-containing cultures, indicating a mechanism of overcoming apparent N-deficiency. Acetylene reduction and {sup 15}N{sub 2} incorporation in all N-deficient cultures (with or without PAM) suggested active N{sub 2} fixation concurrently with methanogenesis but inability to use PAM as a N source. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed little difference between archaeal populations regardless of N content. However, bacterial sequences in N-deficient cultures showed enrichment of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium members that might contain N{sub 2}-fixing species. The results are important in understanding long-term production of biogenic greenhouse gases in oil sands tailings. - Highlights: • Methanogenesis in oil sands tailings can occur under nitrogen depleted conditions. • {sup 15}N{sub 2} isotopic analysis reveals that indigenous microbes can fix N{sub 2} for microbial metabolism and methanogenesis. • 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that members of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium may be involved in N{sub 2} fixation. • This is the first report that describes co-occurrence of methanogenesis and nitrogen fixation in oil sands tailings.

  5. Mechanodelivery of nanoparticles to the cytoplasm of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Nyssa T.; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U.; Yang, Haw

    2014-04-01

    Nanotechnology has opened up the opportunity to probe, sense, and manipulate the chemical environment of biological systems with an unprecedented level of spatiotemporal control. A major obstacle to the full realization of these novel technologies is the lack of a general, robust, and simple method for the delivery of arbitrary nanostructures to the cytoplasm of intact live cells. Here, we identify a new delivery modality, based on mechanical disruption of the plasma membrane, which efficiently mediates the delivery of nanoparticles to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. We use two distinct execution modes, two adherent cell lines, and three sizes of semiconducting nanocrystals, or quantum dots, to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness. As the underlying mechanism is purely physical, we anticipate that such ``mechanodelivery'' can be generalized to other modes of execution as well as to the cytoplasmic introduction of a structurally diverse array of functional nanomaterials.Nanotechnology has opened up the opportunity to probe, sense, and manipulate the chemical environment of biological systems with an unprecedented level of spatiotemporal control. A major obstacle to the full realization of these novel technologies is the lack of a general, robust, and simple method for the delivery of arbitrary nanostructures to the cytoplasm of intact live cells. Here, we identify a new delivery modality, based on mechanical disruption of the plasma membrane, which efficiently mediates the delivery of nanoparticles to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. We use two distinct execution modes, two adherent cell lines, and three sizes of semiconducting nanocrystals, or quantum dots, to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness. As the underlying mechanism is purely physical, we anticipate that such ``mechanodelivery'' can be generalized to other modes of execution as well as to the cytoplasmic introduction of a structurally diverse array of functional nanomaterials

  6. The cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases GLD-2 and GLD-4 promote general gene expression via distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousch, Marco; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Habermann, Bianca; Eckmann, Christian R

    2014-10-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanisms decide on cellular mRNA activities. Essential gatekeepers of post-transcriptional mRNA regulation are broadly conserved mRNA-modifying enzymes, such as cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases (cytoPAPs). Although these non-canonical nucleotidyltransferases efficiently elongate mRNA poly(A) tails in artificial tethering assays, we still know little about their global impact on poly(A) metabolism and their individual molecular roles in promoting protein production in organisms. Here, we use the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the global mechanisms of two germline-enriched cytoPAPs, GLD-2 and GLD-4, by combining polysome profiling with RNA sequencing. Our analyses suggest that GLD-2 activity mediates mRNA stability of many translationally repressed mRNAs. This correlates with a general shortening of long poly(A) tails in gld-2-compromised animals, suggesting that most if not all targets are stabilized via robust GLD-2-mediated polyadenylation. By contrast, only mild polyadenylation defects are found in gld-4-compromised animals and few mRNAs change in abundance. Interestingly, we detect a reduced number of polysomes in gld-4 mutants and GLD-4 protein co-sediments with polysomes, which together suggest that GLD-4 might stimulate or maintain translation directly. Our combined data show that distinct cytoPAPs employ different RNA-regulatory mechanisms to promote gene expression, offering new insights into translational activation of mRNAs.

  7. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  8. Surgical Treatment of a Patient with Human Tail and Multiple Abnormalities of the Spinal Cord and Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunquan Cai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal cutaneous appendage, or so-called human tail, is often considered to be a cutaneous marker of underlying occult dysraphism. The authors present a case of human tail occurring in a 9-month-old infant with multiple abnormalities of the spinal cord and spine. Examination revealed unremarkable except for a caudal appendage and a dark pigmentation area in the low back. Neuroradiological scans revealed cleft vertebrae and bifid ribbon, split cord malformations, block vertebrae, and hemivertebra. Surgical excision of the tail and untethering the spinal cord by removal of the septum were performed. The infant had an uneventful postoperative period and was unchanged neurologically for 18 months of followup. To our knowledge, no similar case reports exist in the literature. The specific features in a rare case with a human tail treated surgically are discussed in light of the available literature.

  9. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  10. Imaging of calcium dynamics in pollen tube cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, María Laura; Muschietti, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic calcium [(Ca(2+))cyt] is a central component of cellular signal transduction pathways. In plants, many external and internal stimuli transiently elevate (Ca(2+))cyt, initiating downstream responses that control different features of plant development. In pollen tubes the establishment of an oscillatory gradient of calcium at the tip is essential for polarized growth. Disruption of the cytosolic Ca(2+) gradient by chelators or channel blockers inhibits pollen tube growth. To quantify the physiological role of (Ca(2+))cyt in cellular systems, genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators such as Yellow Cameleons (YCs) have been developed. The Cameleons are based on a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Here, we describe a method for imaging cytoplasmic Ca(2+) dynamics in growing pollen tubes that express the fluorescent calcium indicator Yellow Cameleon 3.6 (YC 3.6), using laser-scanning confocal microscopy.

  11. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kevin Pfister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  12. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, K; Marenduzzo, D; Cates, M E

    2012-06-01

    We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite slip layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the slip layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells.

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...... in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  14. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

  15. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  16. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  17. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelos, A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: morelos@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Mata, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cooper, P.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Engelfried, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Aguilera-Servin, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    We use a seven million event data sample of 600GeV/c single-track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. We build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4x10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as a velocity spectrometer for high-precision searches of the K{sup +}->{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}-bar decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  18. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P. S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J. L.

    2005-11-01

    We use a seven million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single-track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. We build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5σ, giving a fraction of 4×10-5 events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as a velocity spectrometer for high-precision searches of the K+→π+ ν ν¯ decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  19. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  20. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-05-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  1. Influenza a virus assembly intermediates fuse in the cytoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S Lakdawala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reassortment of influenza viral RNA (vRNA segments in co-infected cells can lead to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. Replication of influenza vRNA occurs in the nucleus of infected cells, while progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane. However, the intracellular mechanics of vRNA assembly into progeny virions is not well understood. Here we used recent advances in microscopy to explore vRNA assembly and transport during a productive infection. We visualized four distinct vRNA segments within a single cell using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and observed that foci containing more than one vRNA segment were found at the external nuclear periphery, suggesting that vRNA segments are not exported to the cytoplasm individually. Although many cytoplasmic foci contain multiple vRNA segments, not all vRNA species are present in every focus, indicating that assembly of all eight vRNA segments does not occur prior to export from the nucleus. To extend the observations made in fixed cells, we used a virus that encodes GFP fused to the viral polymerase acidic (PA protein (WSN PA-GFP to explore the dynamics of vRNA assembly in live cells during a productive infection. Since WSN PA-GFP colocalizes with viral nucleoprotein and influenza vRNA segments, we used it as a surrogate for visualizing vRNA transport in 3D and at high speed by inverted selective-plane illumination microscopy. We observed cytoplasmic PA-GFP foci colocalizing and traveling together en route to the plasma membrane. Our data strongly support a model in which vRNA segments are exported from the nucleus as complexes that assemble en route to the plasma membrane through dynamic colocalization events in the cytoplasm.

  2. Nucleoporin Nup98 mediates galectin-3 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi, E-mail: funasaka@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Balan, Vitaly; Raz, Avraham [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Wong, Richard W., E-mail: rwong@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Nuclear pore protein Nup98 is a novel binding partner of galectin-3. •Nup98 transports galectin-3 into cytoplasm. •Nup98 depletion leads to galectin-3 nuclear transport and induces growth retardation. •Nup98 may involve in ß-catenin pathway through interaction with galectin-3. -- Abstract: Nucleoporin Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and is important in transport across the nuclear pore. Many studies implicate nucleoporin in cancer progression, but no direct mechanistic studies of its effect in cancer have been reported. We show here that Nup98 specifically regulates nucleus–cytoplasm transport of galectin-3, which is a ß-galactoside-binding protein that affects adhesion, migration, and cancer progression, and controls cell growth through the ß-catenin signaling pathway in cancer cells. Nup98 interacted with galectin-3 on the nuclear membrane, and promoted galectin-3 cytoplasmic translocation whereas other nucleoporins did not show these functions. Inversely, silencing of Nup98 expression by siRNA technique localized galectin-3 to the nucleus and retarded cell growth, which was rescued by Nup98 transfection. In addition, Nup98 RNA interference significantly suppressed downstream mRNA expression in the ß-catenin pathway, such as cyclin D1 and FRA-1, while nuclear galectin-3 binds to ß-catenin to inhibit transcriptional activity. Reduced expression of ß-catenin target genes is consistent with the Nup98 reduction and the galectin-3–nucleus translocation rate. Overall, the results show Nup98’s involvement in nuclear–cytoplasm translocation of galectin-3 and ß-catenin signaling pathway in regulating cell proliferation, and the results depicted here suggest a novel therapeutic target/modality for cancers.

  3. CD248 facilitates tumor growth via its cytoplasmic domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens Tom

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal fibroblasts participate in the development of a permissive environment for tumor growth, yet molecular pathways to therapeutically target fibroblasts are poorly defined. CD248, also known as endosialin or tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1, is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on activated fibroblasts. We recently showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in facilitating an inflammatory response in a mouse model of arthritis. Others have reported that CD248 gene inactivation in mice results in dampened tumor growth. We hypothesized that the conserved cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in regulating tumor growth. Methods Mice lacking the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 (CD248CyD/CyD were generated and evaluated in tumor models, comparing the findings with wild-type mice (CD248WT/WT. Results As compared to the response in CD248WT/WT mice, growth of T241 fibrosarcomas and Lewis lung carcinomas was significantly reduced in CD248CyD/CyD mice. Tumor size was similar to that seen with CD248-deficient mice. Conditioned media from CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts were less effective at supporting T241 fibrosarcoma cell survival. In addition to our previous observation of reduced release of activated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts also had impaired PDGF-BB-induced migration and expressed higher transcripts of tumor suppressor factors, transgelin (SM22α, Hes and Hey1. Conclusions The multiple pathways regulated by the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 highlight its potential as a therapeutic target to treat cancer.

  4. THE KINETICS OF CYTOPLASMIC GRANULE SECRETION IN NATURAL KILLER CYTOTOXICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚伊红; R.R.Hcrberman; C.W.Reynolds

    1994-01-01

    Antisexum against purified cytoplasmic granules from rat LGL tumor cells, and protein A-gold inmmnoelec-tron microscopy were used to study the secretory events in lysis of YAC-1 tumor cells by rat LGL tumor cells or by isolated LGL from normal rats. After 30 min incubation of effector and target cells together, gold-labeled cyto-plasmic granules were often seen concentrated in the area of the LGL adjacent to the ~ YAC-1 Within 60min,the grantees were observed to move to the cell border near the conjugazed site. At this point, fine granules were fused with file cell membrane, and subsequently released file gold-labeled contents into the junction between the LGL and the target cell. Gold particles could be seen at the B-T interface, on the surface,or sometimes on the target cell surface.These data provide direct evidence for the hypothesis that under conditions of active cytotoxicity,natural killer cells secrete their cytoplasmic granule contents leading to the deposition of granule material on the target cell surface and the eventual lysis of the cell.

  5. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  6. Ionizing Radiation Induces HMGB1 Cytoplasmic Translocation and Extracellular Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Wang; Li He; Guoqiang Bao; Xin He; Saijun Fan; Haichao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective A nucleosomal protein,HMGBI,can be secreted by activated immune cells or passively released by dying cells,thereby amplifying rigorous inflammatory responses.In this study we aimed to test the possibility that radiation similarly induces cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation and release.Methods Human skin fibroblast (GM0639) and bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells and rats were exposed to X-ray radiation,and HMGB1 translocation and release were then assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunoassay,respectively.Results At a wide dose range(4.0-12.0 Gy),X-ray radiation induced a dramatic cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation,and triggered a time-and dose-dependent HMGB1 release both in vitro and in vivo.The radiation-mediated HMGB1 release was also associated with noticeable chromosomal DNA damage and loss of cell viability.Conclusions Radiation induces HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and extracellular release through active secretion and passive leakage processes.

  7. Sequences determining the cytoplasmic localization of a chemoreceptor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, L; Bailey, J; Manoil, C

    1995-01-01

    The Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor (Tsr) is a protein with a simple topology consisting of two membrane-spanning sequences (TM1 and TM2) separating a large periplasmic domain from N-terminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions. We analyzed the contributions of several sequence elements to the cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain by using chemoreceptor-alkaline phosphatase gene fusions. The principal findings were as follows. (i) The cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain depended on TM2 but was quite tolerant of mutations partially deleting or introducing charged residues into the sequence. (ii) The basal level of C-terminal domain export was significantly higher in proteins with the wild-type periplasmic domain than in derivatives with a shortened periplasmic domain, suggesting that the large size of the wild-type domain promotes partial membrane misinsertion. (iii) The membrane insertion of deletion derivatives with a single spanning segment (TM1 or TM2) could be controlled by either an adjacent positively charged sequence or an adjacent amphipathic sequence. The results provide evidence that the generation of the Tsr membrane topology is an overdetermined process directed by an interplay of sequences promoting and opposing establishment of the normal structure. PMID:7730259

  8. Superiority of Filtered Tailings Storage Facility to Conventional Tailings Impoundment in Southern Rainy Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the superiority of a filtered tailings storage facility (FTSF to conventional tailings impoundment in the southern rainy regions of China (SRRC, the tailings slurry leakage and pollution accident occurring at the wet tailings dam (WTD of Yinshan were analyzed, the properties of the tailings were tested in a laboratory, and the possibility of tailings liquefaction was evaluated. Comparisons of the slope stabilities of the filtered tailings dam (FTD and WTD in normal operation, flood, continuous rainfall, and earthquake situations were simulated using the Slide software. The results show that the FTD has less chance of seepage, lower failure probability, and limited potential destructiveness than the WTD with average slope safety factors of 2.120 for normal operation, 1.919 for flooding, 1.204 for continuous rainfall, and 1.724 for a magnitude-6.0 earthquake. The disaster chain model of the WTD of Yinshan belongs to the bursting and slippage chain. As the most safe and effective active prevention measure, the FTSF has the advantages of saving water, protecting the environment, improving its stability in flood and rainfall situations, and reducing the dam failure probability and potential losses, which is greatly applicable to the SRRC.

  9. Head/tail Breaks: A New Classification Scheme for Data with a Heavy-tailed Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new classification scheme - head/tail breaks - in order to find groupings or hierarchy for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. The heavy-tailed distributions are heavily right skewed, with a minority of large values in the head and a majority of small values in the tail, commonly characterized by a power law, a lognormal or an exponential function. For example, a country's population is often distributed in such a heavy-tailed manner, with a minority of people (e.g., 20 percent) in the countryside and the vast majority (e.g., 80 percent) in urban areas. This heavy-tailed distribution is also called scaling, hierarchy or scaling hierarchy. This new classification scheme partitions all of the data values around the mean into two parts and continues the process iteratively for the values (above the mean) in the head until the head part values are no longer heavy-tailed distributed. Thus, the number of classes and the class intervals are both naturally determined. We therefore claim tha...

  10. Exact and efficient simulation of tail probabilities of heavy-tailed infinite series

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Henrik; Juneja, Sandeep; Murthy, Karthyek

    2016-01-01

    We develop an efficient simulation algorithm for computing the tail probabilities of the infinite series $S = \\sum_{n \\geq 1} a_n X_n$ when random variables $X_n$ are heavy-tailed. As $S$ is the sum of infinitely many random variables, any simulation algorithm that stops after simulating only fixed, finitely many random variables is likely to introduce a bias. We overcome this challenge by rewriting the tail probability of interest as a sum of a random number of telescoping terms, and subsequ...

  11. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  12. Fast-forward genetics by radiation hybrids to saturate the locus regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in Triticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Filippo M; Ghavami, Farhad; Hayden, Matthew J; Wang, Yi; Forrest, Kerrie L; Kong, Stephan; Dizon, Rhoderissa; Michalak de Jimenez, Monika K; Meinhardt, Steven W; Mergoum, Mohamed; Gu, Yong Q; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear-encoded species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes control nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat (genus Triticum). Alloplasmic cells, which have nucleus and cytoplasm derived from different species, produce vigorous and vital organisms only when the correct version of scs is present in their nucleus. In this study, bulks of in vivo radiation hybrids segregating for the scs phenotype have been genotyped by sequencing with over 1.9 million markers. The high marker saturation obtained for a critical region of chromosome 1D allowed identification of 3318 reads that mapped in close proximity of the scs. A novel in silico approach was deployed to extend these short reads to sequences of up to 70 Kb in length and identify candidate open reading frames (ORFs). Markers were developed to anchor the short contigs containing ORFs to a radiation hybrid map of 650 individuals with resolution of 288 Kb. The region containing the scs locus was narrowed to a single Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) contig of Aegilops tauschii. Its sequencing and assembly by nano-mapping allowed rapid identification of a rhomboid gene as the only ORF existing within the refined scs locus. Resequencing of this gene from multiple germplasm sources identified a single nucleotide mutation, which gives rise to a functional amino acid change. Gene expression characterization revealed that an active copy of this rhomboid exists on all homoeologous chromosomes of wheat, and depending on the specific cytoplasm each copy is preferentially expressed. Therefore, a new methodology was applied to unique genetic stocks to rapidly identify a strong candidate gene for the control of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat.

  13. The ciliary inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, is assembled in the cytoplasm and transported by IFT before axonemal docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanadha, Rasagnya; Hunter, Emily L; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Wirschell, Maureen; Alford, Lea M; Dutcher, Susan K; Sale, Winfield S

    2014-10-01

    To determine mechanisms of assembly of ciliary dyneins, we focused on the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, also known as dynein f. I1 dynein assembles in the cytoplasm as a 20S complex similar to the 20S I1 dynein complex isolated from the axoneme. The intermediate chain subunit, IC140 (IDA7), and heavy chains (IDA1, IDA2) are required for 20S I1 dynein preassembly in the cytoplasm. Unlike I1 dynein derived from the axoneme, the cytoplasmic 20S I1 complex will not rebind I1-deficient axonemes in vitro. To test the hypothesis that I1 dynein is transported to the distal tip of the cilia for assembly in the axoneme, we performed cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons formed between wild-type and I1 dynein mutant cells. Rescue of I1 dynein assembly in mutant cilia occurred first at the distal tip and then proceeded toward the proximal axoneme. Notably, in contrast to other combinations, I1 dynein assembly was significantly delayed in dikaryons formed between ida7 and ida3. Furthermore, rescue of I1 dynein assembly required new protein synthesis in the ida7 × ida3 dikaryons. On the basis of the additional observations, we postulate that IDA3 is required for 20S I1 dynein transport. Cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons using the conditional kinesin-2 mutant, fla10-1 revealed that transport of I1 dynein is dependent on kinesin-2 activity. Thus, I1 dynein complex assembly depends upon IFT for transport to the ciliary distal tip prior to docking in the axoneme.

  14. HIV-1 and M-PMV RNA Nuclear Export Elements Program Viral Genomes for Distinct Cytoplasmic Trafficking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Ginger M; Becker, Jordan T; Swanson, Chad M; Ahlquist, Paul; Sherer, Nathan M

    2016-04-01

    Retroviruses encode cis-acting RNA nuclear export elements that override nuclear retention of intron-containing viral mRNAs including the full-length, unspliced genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged into assembling virions. The HIV-1 Rev-response element (RRE) recruits the cellular nuclear export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin-1/XPO1) using the viral protein Rev, while simple retroviruses encode constitutive transport elements (CTEs) that directly recruit components of the NXF1(Tap)/NXT1(p15) mRNA nuclear export machinery. How gRNA nuclear export is linked to trafficking machineries in the cytoplasm upstream of virus particle assembly is unknown. Here we used long-term (>24 h), multicolor live cell imaging to directly visualize HIV-1 gRNA nuclear export, translation, cytoplasmic trafficking, and virus particle production in single cells. We show that the HIV-1 RRE regulates unique, en masse, Rev- and CRM1-dependent "burst-like" transitions of mRNAs from the nucleus to flood the cytoplasm in a non-localized fashion. By contrast, the CTE derived from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) links gRNAs to microtubules in the cytoplasm, driving them to cluster markedly to the centrosome that forms the pericentriolar core of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Adding each export element to selected heterologous mRNAs was sufficient to confer each distinct export behavior, as was directing Rev/CRM1 or NXF1/NXT1 transport modules to mRNAs using a site-specific RNA tethering strategy. Moreover, multiple CTEs per transcript enhanced MTOC targeting, suggesting that a cooperative mechanism links NXF1/NXT1 to microtubules. Combined, these results reveal striking, unexpected features of retroviral gRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport and demonstrate roles for mRNA export elements that extend beyond nuclear pores to impact gRNA distribution in the cytoplasm.

  15. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  16. Aircraft with Forward Sweeping T-Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft includes a propulsor supported within an aft portion of the fuselage. A thrust reverser is supported proximate the propulsor for redirecting thrust forward to slow the aircraft upon landing. A tail extending from the aft portion of the fuselage is angled forward away from the aft portion and out of the discharge of airflow from the thrust reverser.

  17. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  18. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  19. Analysis of biplane flapping flight with tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tay, W.B.; Bijl, H.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed to examine the interference effects between an upstream flapping biplane airfoil arrangement and a downstream stationary tail at a Reynolds number of 1000, which is around the regime of small flapping micro aerial vehicles. The objective is to investigate th

  20. The tail index of exchange rate returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M. Schafgans (Marcia); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature on the empirical distribution of foreign exchange rates there is now consensus that exchange rate yields are fat-tailed. Three problems, however, persist: (1) Which class of distribution functions is most appropriate? (2) Are the parameters of the distribution invariant

  1. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  2. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs.

  3. Vascularized tail bone grafts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempuku, T; Tamai, S; Mizumoto, S; Yajima, H

    1993-03-01

    A new experimental model for vascularized corticocancellous bone grafts was established by investigation of vascular anatomy of the tail in 15 adult Fischer 344 rats and determination of the viability of vascularized tail bone grafts into the abdominal wall in 22 7-week-old rats. The tail bones of 40 rats were then raised on the pedicle of the caudal artery and its venae comitantes, transferred to a resected portion in the femur, and observed for 16 weeks. The vascularized graft showed marked reactive periosteal bone formation during the first and second weeks following transfer, and thereafter, the graft continued to show active bone formation. In transverse section, the sharp processes became rounded. In the cancellous bone, both bone resorption and bone formation were noticeably activated early after transfer, although resorption predominated and the amount of the cancellous bone consequently diminished. The nonvascularized grafts showed "creeping substitution." The results suggest that morphologic adaptation occurs if living (i.e., vascularized) tail bones are transferred to long-bone femurs.

  4. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H. K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L. M.

    2009-07-01

    The heavy metal contamination from mining industry has become a growing problem both in chile and worldwide. This contamination includes large areas with soil pollution, contaminated rivers and continuous generation of mining waste deposits. The solid waste that will be analysed is mine tailings, which are the residual products after the flotation process in conventional sulphide copper mining. (Author)

  5. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  6. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  7. T-tail flutter analysis using Edge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available -tail. In reality, due to some a-symmetry in the grid, this was not quite achieved. The analyses consisted of a steady solution, followed by a prescribed, sine-squared, disturbance of 0.03 radians (corresponding to 10 mm lateral displacement at the fin top...

  8. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  9. Mineralogy and Geochemical Processes of Carbonate Mineral-rich Sulfide Mine Tailings, Zimapan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R. J.; Deng, Y.; Loeppert, R.; Herbert, B. E.; Carrillo, R.; Gonzalez, C.

    2009-12-01

    the tailings include gypsum, quartz, pyrite, mica, talc, amphiboles, and feldspars. Oxidation products identified include copiapite as well as various iron oxides. Future results are expected to reveal most of the heavy metals to be adsorbed by or coprecipitate with iron oxides, with most of the oxidized arsenic staying in the soluble form. The mobility of the colloidal form of the oxides and associated heavy metals within the carbonate mineral-rich tailings need additional study.

  10. Molecular morphology and toxicity of cytoplasmic prion protein aggregates in neuronal and non‐neuronal cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grenier, Catherine; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Volkov, Leonid; Roucou, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    .... The mechanism of cytoplasmic PrP neurotoxicity is not known. In this report, we determined the molecular morphology of cytoplasmic PrP aggregates by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, in neuronal and non‐neuronal cells...

  11. Microbial communities in low permeability, high pH uranium mine tailings: characterization and potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondici, V F; Lawrence, J R; Khan, N H; Hill, J E; Yergeau, E; Wolfaardt, G M; Warner, J; Korber, D R

    2013-06-01

    To describe the diversity and metabolic potential of microbial communities in uranium mine tailings characterized by high pH, high metal concentration and low permeability. To assess microbial diversity and their potential to influence the geochemistry of uranium mine tailings using aerobic and anaerobic culture-based methods, in conjunction with next generation sequencing and clone library sequencing targeting two universal bacterial markers (the 16S rRNA and cpn60 genes). Growth assays revealed that 69% of the 59 distinct culturable isolates evaluated were multiple-metal resistant, with 15% exhibiting dual-metal hypertolerance. There was a moderately positive correlation coefficient (R = 0·43, P iron, 22 reduced molybdate and seven oxidized arsenite. Based on next generation sequencing, tailings depth was shown to influence bacterial community composition, with the difference in the microbial diversity of the upper (0-20 m) and middle (20-40 m) tailings zones being highly significant (P iron-reducing bacteria were identified with low abundance, yet relatively high diversity. The presence of a population of metabolically-diverse, metal-resistant micro-organisms within the tailings environment, along with their demonstrated capacity for transforming metal elements, suggests that these organisms have the potential to influence the long-term geochemistry of the tailings. This study is the first investigation of the diversity and functional potential of micro-organisms present in low permeability, high pH uranium mine tailings. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. The molecular biology of rotaviruses X: intercellular dissemination of rotavirus NSP4 requires glycosylation and is mediated by direct cell-cell contact through cytoplasmic extrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiming; McCrae, Malcolm A

    2012-02-01

    The effect of expressing the NSP4 protein of group A rotaviruses in cells has been studied. It led to the rapid appearance of long cytoplasmic extrusions, which, through site-directed mutagenesis of the N-linked glycosylation sites near the amino terminus of the protein, were shown to be dependent on its ability to become fully glycosylated. Real-time confocal microscopy was used to follow the appearance of similar cytoplasmic extrusions in virus-infected cells and revealed them to grow at a rate of ~2 microns/min to more than three cell diameters and to have a lifespan of 30-60 minutes. CellTracker dyes were used to label cell populations and facilitate the monitoring of the transfer of cytoplasm from virus-infected to surrounding uninfected cells through cytoplasmic extrusions that broke down to vesicles, seen both on the surface of and within uninfected cells in mixed cell populations. Staining of these tagged cell mixtures with monospecific antibody to NSP4 revealed the presence of the protein on uninfected cells, suggesting that the cytoplasmic extrusions formed by virus-infected cells facilitates the direct cell-cell spread of NSP4. This direct cell-cell transfer of infected cell material triggered by expression of glycosylated NSP4 in virus-infected cells may contribute to viral pathogenesis and facilitate host invasion by rotaviruses.

  13. Holophytochrome-Interacting Proteins in Physcomitrella: Putative Actors in Phytochrome Cytoplasmic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, Anna Lena; Mailliet, Katharina; Hughes, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Phytochromes are the principle photoreceptors in light-regulated plant development, primarily acting via translocation of the light-activated photoreceptor into the nucleus and subsequent gene regulation. However, several independent lines of evidence indicate unambiguously that an additional cytoplasmic signaling mechanism must exist. Directional responses in filament tip cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens are steered by phy4 which has been shown to interact physically with the blue light receptor phototropin at the plasma membrane. This complex might perceive and transduce vectorial information leading to cytoskeleton reorganization and finally a directional growth response. We developed yeast two-hybrid procedures using photochemically functional, full-length phy4 as bait in Physcomitrella cDNA library screens and growth assays under different light conditions, revealing Pfr-dependent interactions possibly associated with phytochrome cytoplasmic signaling. Candidate proteins were then expressed in planta with fluorescent protein tags to determine their intracellular localization in darkness and red light. Of 14 candidates, 12 were confirmed to interact with phy4 in planta using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We also used database information to study their expression patterns relative to those of phy4. We discuss the likely functional characteristics of these holophytochrome-interacting proteins (HIP's) and their possible roles in signaling.

  14. Role of kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein in endoplasmic reticulum movement in VERO cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Marcin J.; Bola, Becky; Brownhill, Kim; Yang, Yen-Ching; Levakova, Vesselina; Allan, Victoria J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Generating the extended endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network depends on microtubules, which act as tracks for motor-driven ER tubule movement, generate the force to extend ER tubules by means of attachment to growing microtubule plus-ends and provide static attachment points. We have analysed ER dynamics in living VERO cells and find that most ER tubule extension is driven by microtubule motors. Surprisingly, we observe that ∼50% of rapid ER tubule movements occur in the direction of the centre of the cell, driven by cytoplasmic dynein. Inhibition of this movement leads to an accumulation of lamellar ER in the cell periphery. By expressing dominant-negative kinesin-1 constructs, we show that kinesin-1 drives ER tubule extension towards the cell periphery and that this motility is dependent on the KLC1B kinesin light chain splice form but not on KLC1D. Inhibition of kinesin-1 promotes a shift from tubular to lamellar morphology and slows down the recovery of the ER network after microtubule depolymerisation and regrowth. These observations reconcile previous conflicting studies of kinesin-1 function in ER motility in vivo. Furthermore, our data reveal that cytoplasmic dynein plays a role in ER motility in a mammalian cultured cell, demonstrating that ER motility is more complex than previously thought. PMID:19454478

  15. Association of nad7a Gene with Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been exploited in the commercial pigeonpea [ (L. Millsp.] hybrid breeding system; however, the molecular mechanism behind this system is unknown. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in A CMS system derived from (Haines Maesen, 34 mitochondrial genes were analyzed for expression profiling and structural variation analysis between CMS line (ICRISAT Pigeonpea A line, ICPA 2039 and its cognate maintainer (ICPB 2039. Expression profiling of 34 mitochondrial genes revealed nine genes with significant fold differential gene expression at ≤ 0.01, including one gene, , with 1366-fold higher expression in CMS line as compared with the maintainer. Structural variation analysis of these mitochondrial genes identified length variation between ICPA 2039 and ICPB 2039 for (subunit of gene. Sanger sequencing of and genes in the CMS and the maintainer lines identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in upstream region of and a deletion of 10 bp in in the CMS line. Protein structure evaluation showed conformational changes in predicted protein structures for between ICPA 2039 and ICPB 2039 lines. All above analyses indicate association of gene with the CMS for A cytoplasm in pigeonpea. Additionally, one polymerase chain reaction (PCR based Indel marker ( has been developed and validated for testing genetic purity of A derived CMS lines to strengthen the commercial hybrid breeding program in pigeonpea.

  16. Cytoplasmic localization of p21 protects trophoblast giant cells from DNA damage induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Renty, Christelle; DePamphilis, Melvin L; Ullah, Zakir

    2014-01-01

    Proliferating trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) can differentiate into nonproliferating but viable trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) that are resistant to DNA damage induced apoptosis. Differentiation is associated with selective up-regulation of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p57 and p21; expression of p27 remains constant. Previous studies showed that p57 localizes to the nucleus in TGCs where it is essential for endoreplication. Here we show that p27 also remains localized to the nucleus during TSC differentiation where it complements the role of p57. Unexpectedly, p21 localized to the cytoplasm where it was maintained throughout both the G- and S-phases of endocycles, and where it prevented DNA damage induced apoptosis. This unusual status for a Cip/Kip protein was dependent on site-specific phosphorylation of p21 by the Akt1 kinase that is also up-regulated in TGCs. Although cytoplasmic p21 is widespread among cancer cells, among normal cells it has been observed only in monocytes. The fact that it also occurs in TGCs reveals that p57 and p21 serve nonredundant functions, and suggests that the role of p21 in suppressing apoptosis is restricted to terminally differentiated cells.

  17. Cytoplasmic localization of p21 protects trophoblast giant cells from DNA damage induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle de Renty

    Full Text Available Proliferating trophoblast stem cells (TSCs can differentiate into nonproliferating but viable trophoblast giant cells (TGCs that are resistant to DNA damage induced apoptosis. Differentiation is associated with selective up-regulation of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p57 and p21; expression of p27 remains constant. Previous studies showed that p57 localizes to the nucleus in TGCs where it is essential for endoreplication. Here we show that p27 also remains localized to the nucleus during TSC differentiation where it complements the role of p57. Unexpectedly, p21 localized to the cytoplasm where it was maintained throughout both the G- and S-phases of endocycles, and where it prevented DNA damage induced apoptosis. This unusual status for a Cip/Kip protein was dependent on site-specific phosphorylation of p21 by the Akt1 kinase that is also up-regulated in TGCs. Although cytoplasmic p21 is widespread among cancer cells, among normal cells it has been observed only in monocytes. The fact that it also occurs in TGCs reveals that p57 and p21 serve nonredundant functions, and suggests that the role of p21 in suppressing apoptosis is restricted to terminally differentiated cells.

  18. Nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation and secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2 during avian gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, J; Zeller, R; Dono, R

    1995-01-01

    The expression and distribution of the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 or bFGF) proteins during early avian embryogenesis has been analysed in detail. Three FGF-2 protein isoforms of 18.5, 20.0 and 21.5 kDa are expressed during gastrulation of chicken embryos. Using whole mount immunohistochemistry, these proteins were found to be predominantly nuclear in prestreak blastodiscs during mesoderm induction. Distribution of positive cells in the epiblast was mosaic, whereas all cells of the forming hypoblast expressed the FGF-2 proteins. During primitive streak formation, the proteins started to translocate to the cytoplasm in epiblast cells but remained nuclear in the hypoblast. The FGF-2 proteins became predominantly cytoplasmic in all cells during the subsequent developmental stages. Their highest levels were detected in endodermal cells underlying Hensen's node and the newly formed notochord, the dorsal apex of all epiblast cells and, most interestingly, in the extra-cellular basal lamina separating the epiblast from newly formed mesoderm. Heparin and suramin treatment of these advanced embryos (stage 4) revealed a dose-dependent inhibition on the regression of Hensen's node and formation of mesodermal derivatives such as somites. The results are discussed with respect to current models on FGF-mediated functions during vertebrate mesoderm induction and regionalization.

  19. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S; Palacios, Isabel M; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-09-18

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA.

  20. The T body, a new cytoplasmic RNA granule in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagon, Francisco; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2008-10-01

    A large share of mRNA processing and packaging events occurs cotranscriptionally. To explore the hypothesis that transcription defects may affect mRNA fate, we analyzed poly(A)(+) RNA distribution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring mutations in Rpb1p, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. In certain rpb1 mutants, a poly(A)(+) RNA granule, distinct from any known structure, strongly accumulated in a confined space of the cytoplasm. RNA and protein expressed from Ty1 retrovirus-like elements colocalized with this new granule, which we have consequently named the T body. A visual screen revealed that the deletion of most genes with proposed functions in Ty1 biology unexpectedly does not alter T-body levels. In contrast, the deletion of genes encoding the Mediator transcription initiation factor subunits Srb2p and Srb5p as well as the Ty1 transcriptional regulator Spt21p greatly enhances T-body formation. Our data disclose a new cellular body putatively involved in the assembly of Ty1 particles and suggest that the cytoplasmic fate of mRNA can be affected by transcription initiation events.

  1. Holophytochrome-interacting proteins in Physcomitrella: putative actors in phytochrome cytoplasmic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lena eErmert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochromes are the principle photoreceptors in light-regulated plant development, primarily acting via translocation of the light-activated photoreceptor into the nucleus and subsequent gene regulation. However, several independent lines of evidence indicate unambiguously that an additional cytoplasmic signaling mechanism must exist. Directional responses in filament tip cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens are steered by phy4 which has been shown to interact physically with the blue light receptor phototropin at the plasma membrane. This complex might perceive and transduce vectorial information leading to cytoskeleton reorganization and finally a directional growth response. We developed yeast two-hybrid procedures using photochemically-functional, full-length phy4 as bait in Physcomitrella cDNA library screens and growth assays under different light conditions, revealing Pfr-dependent interactions possibly associated with phytochrome cytoplasmic signaling. Candidate proteins were then expressed in planta with fluorescent protein tags to determine their intracellular localization in darkness and red light. Of 14 candidates, 12 were confirmed to interact with phy4 in planta using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We discuss the roles these putative holophytochrome-interacting proteins (HIP's might have in signaling.

  2. Metagenomic exploration of microbial community in mine tailings of Malanjkhand copper project, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek; Dutta, Avishek; Sarkar, Jayeeta; Paul, Dhiraj; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Sar, Pinaki

    2017-06-01

    Mine tailings from copper mines are considered as one of the sources of highly hazardous acid mine drainage (AMD) due to bio-oxidation of its sulfidic constituents. This study was designed to understand microbial community composition and potential for acid generation using samples from mine tailings of Malanjkhand copper project (MCP), India through 16S rRNA gene based amplicon sequencing approach (targeting V4 region). Three tailings samples (T1, T2 and T3) with varied physiochemical properties selected for the study revealed distinct microbial assemblages. Sample (T3) with most extreme nature (pH  3.0) exhibited abundance of Proteobacteria, Fimicutes, Actinobacteria and/or Nitrospirae. Metagenomic sequences are available under the BioProject ID PRJNA361456.

  3. Metagenomic exploration of microbial community in mine tailings of Malanjkhand copper project, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings from copper mines are considered as one of the sources of highly hazardous acid mine drainage (AMD due to bio-oxidation of its sulfidic constituents. This study was designed to understand microbial community composition and potential for acid generation using samples from mine tailings of Malanjkhand copper project (MCP, India through 16S rRNA gene based amplicon sequencing approach (targeting V4 region. Three tailings samples (T1, T2 and T3 with varied physiochemical properties selected for the study revealed distinct microbial assemblages. Sample (T3 with most extreme nature (pH 3.0 exhibited abundance of Proteobacteria, Fimicutes, Actinobacteria and/or Nitrospirae. Metagenomic sequences are available under the BioProject ID PRJNA361456.

  4. Severe tail defects in the spermatozoa ejaculated by an English bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Ada; Manuali, Elisabetta; Caire, Simona; Appino, Simonetta

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the case of a 2-year-old English Bulldog with severe teratozoospermia that consisted mainly of "Dag-like" defects, which is strong coiling of the tail. Although libido, semen volume and sperm concentration were normal, sperm motility was 5.0%, and 93.3% of spermatozoa exhibited morphological abnormalities affecting the tail. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the spermatozoa revealed strong folding, coiling and fracture of sperm midpieces and tails, axonemal defects and the presence of swollen and unevenly distributed mitochondria. Taking into account the dog's history and examinations and the constantly high percentage of abnormal spermatozoa over time, the defect was considered to be genetic in origin.

  5. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Lolium Species Surveyed on Nuclear Simple Sequence Repeat and Cytoplasmic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Cai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the genetic diversity and population structure of Lolium species, we used 32 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and 7 cytoplasmic gene markers to analyze a total of 357 individuals from 162 accessions of 9 Lolium species. This survey revealed a high level of polymorphism, with an average number of alleles per locus of 23.59 and 5.29 and an average PIC-value of 0.83 and 0.54 for nuclear SSR markers and cytoplasmic gene markers, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 16.27 and 16.53% of the total variation was due to differences among species, with the remaining 56.35 and 83.47% due to differences within species and 27.39 and 0% due to differences within individuals in 32 nuclear SSR markers set and 6 chloroplast gene markers set, respectively. The 32 nuclear SSR markers detected three subpopulations among 357 individuals, whereas the 6 chloroplast gene markers revealed three subpopulations among 160 accessions in the STRUCTURE analysis. In the clustering analysis, the three inbred species clustered into a single group, whereas the outbreeding species were clearly divided, especially according to nuclear SSR markers. In addition, almost all Lolium multiflorum populations were clustered into group C4, which could be further divided into three subgroups, whereas Lolium perenne populations primarily clustered into two groups (C2 and C3, with a few lines that instead grouped with L. multiflorum (C4 or Lolium rigidum (C6. Together, these results will useful for the use of Lolium germplasm for improvement and increase the effectiveness of ryegrass breeding.

  6. DMPD: Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18703349 Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Komur...Show Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. PubmedID 18703349 Title Negative r...egulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Authors Komuro A, Bamm

  7. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  8. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905 was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN, white tail disease (WTD or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD. To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of longer-chain n-alkanes coupled to methane production in oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Semple, Kathleen; Foght, Julia M

    2011-07-01

    Extraction of bitumen from mined oil sands ores produces enormous volumes of tailings that are stored in settling basins (current inventory ≥ 840 million m(3)). Our previous studies revealed that certain hydrocarbons (short-chain n-alkanes [C(6)-C(10)] and monoaromatics [toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene]) in residual naphtha entrained in the tailings are biodegraded to CH(4) by a consortium of microorganisms. Here we show that higher molecular weight n-alkanes (C(14), C(16), and C(18)) are also degraded under methanogenic conditions in oil sands tailings, albeit after a lengthy lag (~180 d) before the onset of methanogenesis. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that the longer-chain n-alkanes each added at ~400 mg L(-1) were completely degraded by the resident microorganisms within ~440 d at ~20 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of clone libraries implied that the predominant pathway of longer-chain n-alkane metabolism in tailings is through syntrophic oxidation of n-alkanes coupled with CO(2) reduction to CH(4). These studies demonstrating methanogenic biodegradation of longer-chain n-alkanes by microbes native to oil sands tailings may be important for effective management of tailings and greenhouse gas emissions from tailings ponds.

  10. The antifungal eugenol perturbs dual aromatic and branched-chain amino acid permeases in the cytoplasmic membrane of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Emad; Omidi, Mansoor; Bushehri, Ali Akbar Shahnejat; Golshani, Ashkan; Smith, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol is an aromatic component of clove oil that has therapeutic potential as an antifungal drug, although its mode of action and precise cellular target(s) remain ambiguous. To address this knowledge gap, a chemical-genetic profile analysis of eugenol was done using ∼4700 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutants to reveal 21 deletion mutants with the greatest degree of susceptibility. Cellular roles of deleted genes in the most susceptible mutants indicate that the main targets for eugenol include pathways involved in biosynthesis and transport of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Follow-up analyses showed inhibitory effects of eugenol on amino acid permeases in the yeast cytoplasmic membrane. Furthermore, phenotypic suppression analysis revealed that eugenol interferes with two permeases, Tat1p and Gap1p, which are both involved in dual transport of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids through the yeast cytoplasmic membrane. Perturbation of cytoplasmic permeases represents a novel antifungal target and may explain previous observations that exposure to eugenol results in leakage of cell contents. Eugenol exposure may also contribute to amino acid starvation and thus holds promise as an anticancer therapeutic drug. Finally, this study provides further evidence of the usefulness of the yeast Gene Deletion Array approach in uncovering the mode of action of natural health products.

  11. Jinfengopteryx Compared to Archaeopteryx, with Comments on the Mosaic Evolution of Long-tailed Avialan Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shu'an; JI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Jinfengopteryx is a newly uncovered Archaeopteryx-like avialan bird outside Germany, which was found from the Jehol Biota of northern Hebei in northeastern China. It shares many characters only with Archaeopteryx by the possession of three fenestrae in the antorbital cavity, 23 caudal vertebrae and long tail feathers attached to all the caudal vertebrae. But the former differs from the latter in the relatively short and high preorbital region of skull, more and closely packed teeth, much shorter forelimb compared to hindlimb. Such differences indicate Jinfengopteryx is even slightly more primitive than Archaeopteryx, although both birds can be placed at the root position of the avialan tree based on cladistic analysis. Shenzhouraptor is suggested to be slightly more advanced than Jinfengopteryx + Archaeopteryx, supported by some derived features in teeth, shoulder girdles and forelimbs such as the reduction of tooth number, dorsolaterally directed glenoid facet, very long forelimb and comparatively short manus. Meanwhile, the tail of Shenzhouraptor shows more primitive characters than those of Jinfengopteryx and Archaeopteryx, e.g., the strikingly longer tail composed of more caudal vertebrae and the long tail feathers attached only to distal caudal segments. The mixed primitive and advanced characters reveal the evident mosaic evolution among long-tailed avialan birds.

  12. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase.

  13. Co-occurrence of methanogenesis and N2 fixation in oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C E Victoria; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-09-15

    Oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada have been producing biogenic gases via microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons for decades. Persistent methanogenic activity in tailings ponds without any known replenishment of nutrients such as fixed nitrogen (N) persuaded us to investigate whether N2 fixation or polyacrylamide (PAM; used as a tailings flocculant) could serve as N sources. Cultures comprising mature fine tailings (MFT) plus methanogenic medium supplemented with or deficient in fixed N were incubated under an N2 headspace. Some cultures were further amended with citrate, which is used in oil sands processing, as a relevant carbon source, and/or with PAM. After an initial delay, N-deficient cultures with or without PAM produced methane (CH4) at the same rate as N-containing cultures, indicating a mechanism of overcoming apparent N-deficiency. Acetylene reduction and (15)N2 incorporation in all N-deficient cultures (with or without PAM) suggested active N2 fixation concurrently with methanogenesis but inability to use PAM as a N source. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed little difference between archaeal populations regardless of N content. However, bacterial sequences in N-deficient cultures showed enrichment of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium members that might contain N2-fixing species. The results are important in understanding long-term production of biogenic greenhouse gases in oil sands tailings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconciling the emission mechanism discrepancy in Mira's tail, and its evolution in an interface with shear

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, C J

    2012-01-01

    GALEX observations of the Mira AB binary system revealed a surrounding structure that has been successfully hydrodynamically interpreted as a bow shock and tail of ram-pressure-stripped material. Even the narrow tail, initially difficult to model, has been understood as the effect of the passage of Mira from a warm neutral medium into a hot, low-density medium, postulated to be the Local Bubble. However, no model to date has explained the observed kink and associated general curvature of the tail. We test the hypothesis that before entering the Local Bubble, Mira was travelling through a shear flow with approximately 1/3 Mira's own velocity at an angle of ~30degrees to Mira's proper motion. The hypothesis reproduces the kinked nature of Mira's tail and predicts recompression and reheating of the tail material to the same or greater levels of density and temperature predicted in the shock. This provides a heat source for the FUV emission, allowing for an extended lifetime of the FUV emission in line with other...

  15. Comparative biochemical analysis of sea urchin peristome and rat tail tendon collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J

    1997-06-01

    We report here a biochemical comparison between type 1 rat tail tendon collagen and collagen isolated from sea urchin peristome tissue. The sea urchin collagen consisted of two species of apparent mol masses, 140 and 116 kDa. Amino acid compositional analysis of the 140 and 116 kDa species revealed the presence of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine as well as a glycine content of 28.1 mol.%. In solubility experiments the rat tail tendon collagen was found to precipitate at sodium chloride concentrations between 1 and 2 M while peristome collagen remained soluble at salt concentrations as high as 4 M. Incubation of the peristome and rat tail tendon collagen preparations with a sea urchin collagenase/gelatinase resulted in cleavage of the former but not the latter collagen. Upon heat denaturation at 60 degrees C, however, the rat tail tendon collagen served as a substrate for the gelatinase. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of rat tail and peristome collagens generated largely unique peptide maps. Collectively, these results suggest that structural differences exist between echinoderm and vertebrate type 1 collagens.

  16. Utilization of mine tailings as partial cement replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigvardsen, Nina Marie; Nielsen, M.R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Depositing mine tailings entail major economic costs and negative environmental impacts. Thus finding an alternative to depositing is of interest. This study focused on the use of mine tailings as partial cement replacement, thereby preventing depositing the mine tailings. At the same time......, such use would reduce the CO2 emission related to the production of cement. Mine tailings from two different mines Zinkgruvan (Sweden) and Nalunaq (Greenland) were both tested as 5 and 10 % cement replacement. All mortar specimens with mine tailings had lower compressive strength compared to a reference...... specimen at 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. Both mine tailings showed contributions to the pozzolanic activity. This tendency was more profound for Zinkgruvan. No evidence of either mine tailing containing minerals acting as nucleation sites was, however, seen. The specimens containing mine tailings were...

  17. Collecting Tail Hair Follicle for Bison DNA Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection and processing of tail hair follicles from Bison for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect tail...

  18. Evaluating functions using tail recursion and parameter substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges E. Alfaro Salazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a general way to implement recursive functions calculation by linear tail recursion. It emphasizes the use of tail recursion to perform computations efficiently.

  19. Monitoring technique for seepage line of tailings dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夕兵; 蒋卫东

    2003-01-01

    An automatic monitoring technique of the seepage line, including the monitoring design, the automatic monitoring system and the backfill technique of the measuring probe of pore-water pressure, was used in a tailings dam, and a shallow refractive seismic method was investigated for obtaining the seepage line of those areas outside the monitoring zone. The results show that the automatic monitoring has the error within ± 3 % relative to piezometric tube method and improves monitoring efficiency greatly, and the shallow refractive seismic method has the error within ± 10% but expands the area of monitoring. Both of them can be used for a daily measurement in monitoring the seepage line. The result of the automatic monitoring also shows that not only the design of the survey line and the backfill technique of the measuring probe of pore-water pressure are reasonable and economic but also the reliability and safety of the automatic monitoring system are better. Testing result by the shallow refractive seismic method in tailings reveals that the energy excited by hammering iron sheet-pole is strong enough and safe, and that the character of anti-jamming by the detectors with long tailcone is better.

  20. Implicit sequence learning in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Baghdoyan, Talia; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Implicit learning involves picking up information from the environment without explicit instruction or conscious awareness of the learning process. In nonhuman animals, conscious awareness is impossible to assess, so we define implicit learning as occurring when animals acquire information beyond what is required for successful task performance. While implicit learning has been documented in some nonhuman species, it has not been explored in prosimian primates. Here we ask whether ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) learn sequential information implicitly. We tested lemurs in a modified version of the serial reaction time task on a touch screen computer. Lemurs were required to respond to any picture within a 2 × 2 grid of pictures immediately after its surrounding border flickered. Over 20 training sessions, both the locations and the identities of the images remained constant and response times gradually decreased. Subsequently, the locations and/or the identities of the images were disrupted. Response times indicated that the lemurs had learned the physical location sequence required in original training but did not learn the identity of the images. Our results reveal that ring-tailed lemurs can implicitly learn spatial sequences, and raise questions about which scenarios and evolutionary pressures give rise to perceptual versus motor-implicit sequence learning. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. Histone acetylation dependent energy landscapes in tri-nucleosome revealed by residue-resolved molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Le; Takada, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Histone tail acetylation is a key epigenetic marker that tends to open chromatin folding and activate transcription. Despite intensive studies, precise roles of individual lysine acetylation in chromatin folding have only been poorly understood. Here, we revealed structural dynamics of tri-nucleosomes with several histone tail acetylation states and analyzed histone tail interactions with DNA by performing molecular simulations at an unprecedentedly high resolution. We found versatile acetylation-dependent landscapes of tri-nucleosome. The H4 and H2A tail acetylation reduced the contact between the first and third nucleosomes mediated by the histone tails. The H3 tail acetylation reduced its interaction with neighboring linker DNAs resulting in increase of the distance between consecutive nucleosomes. Notably, two copies of the same histone in a single nucleosome have markedly asymmetric interactions with DNAs, suggesting specific pattern of nucleosome docking albeit high inherent flexibility. Estimated transcription factor accessibility was significantly high for the H4 tail acetylated structures. PMID:27698366

  2. Limits on the evolution of tail ornamentation in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M R

    2004-03-01

    In birds, elongated tails are one of the most common and most studied ornaments. However, the tail also has an aerodynamic function, playing a role in turning and slow flight. If a tail is to function as an ornament, then there will be an inevitable conflict between the aerodynamic role and the signaling role. Aerodynamic theory has developed to the point where it is possible to predict the aerodynamic and mechanical consequences of ornamental tails of different sizes and shapes. Tail elongation will influence many different mechanical and aerodynamic parameters. For at least some and possibly all of these parameters, there will be limits that are placed by the bird's anatomy, morphology, or physiology on the extent to which the effect of tail elongation could be tolerated. For example, if a particular tail morphology meant that the power required to fly exceeded the power available from the flight muscles, then the bird would obviously be unable to fly with such a tail. To examine whether these considerations could limit the development of ornamental tails, the effect of long tails of different shapes was examined on three parameters: static balance, lift-to-drag ratio, and the cost of flight. All three of these parameters were found to limit the range of possible tail morphologies that could be developed by birds. These limits were most acute for small birds, which may not be able to operate with a long tail of any shape. Slightly larger birds would be able to develop elongated streamers and forked tails but not pintails or wedge-shaped tails. Medium to large birds are less constrained and could develop a much wider range of tails than small birds, but there will always be limits to the sizes of tail ornament that could be developed. Thus the physical consequences of ornamentation on ecology and behavior are likely to be responsible for some of the patterns of ornamentation observed in nature.

  3. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Arata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion.

  4. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Yukinobu; Hiroshima, Michio; Pack, Chan-Gi; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Motegi, Fumio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Shindo, Yuki; Wiseman, Paul W; Sawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Brandão, Hugo B; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-08-23

    Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion.

  5. Structural Basis of GLUT1 Inhibition by Cytoplasmic ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David M.; De Zutter, Julie K.; Levine, Kara B.; Karim, Pusha; Carruthers, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic ATP inhibits human erythrocyte glucose transport protein (GLUT1)–mediated glucose transport in human red blood cells by reducing net glucose transport but not exchange glucose transport (Cloherty, E.K., D.L. Diamond, K.S. Heard, and A. Carruthers. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13231–13239). We investigated the mechanism of ATP regulation of GLUT1 by identifying GLUT1 domains that undergo significant conformational change upon GLUT1–ATP interaction. ATP (but not GTP) protects GLUT1 against tryptic digestion. Immunoblot analysis indicates that ATP protection extends across multiple GLUT1 domains. Peptide-directed antibody binding to full-length GLUT1 is reduced by ATP at two specific locations: exofacial loop 7–8 and the cytoplasmic C terminus. C-terminal antibody binding to wild-type GLUT1 expressed in HEK cells is inhibited by ATP but binding of the same antibody to a GLUT1–GLUT4 chimera in which loop 6–7 of GLUT1 is substituted with loop 6–7 of GLUT4 is unaffected. ATP reduces GLUT1 lysine covalent modification by sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin by 40%. AMP is without effect on lysine accessibility but antagonizes ATP inhibition of lysine modification. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis indicates that ATP reduces covalent modification of lysine residues 245, 255, 256, and 477, whereas labeling at lysine residues 225, 229, and 230 is unchanged. Exogenous, intracellular GLUT1 C-terminal peptide mimics ATP modulation of transport whereas C-terminal peptide-directed IgGs inhibit ATP modulation of glucose transport. These findings suggest that transport regulation involves ATP-dependent conformational changes in (or interactions between) the GLUT1 C terminus and the C-terminal half of GLUT1 cytoplasmic loop 6–7. PMID:17635959

  6. Cytoplasmic TRADD Confers a Worse Prognosis in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Chakraborty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD is an important adaptor in TNFR1 signaling and has an essential role in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activation and survival signaling. Increased expression of TRADD is sufficient to activate NF-κB. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of NF-κB activation as a key pathogenic mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults.We examined the expression of TRADD by immunohistochemistry (IHC and find that TRADD is commonly expressed at high levels in GBM and is detected in both cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. Cytoplasmic IHC TRADD scoring is significantly associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS both in univariate and multivariate analysis but is not associated with overall survival (n = 43 GBMs. PFS is a marker for responsiveness to treatment. We propose that TRADD-mediated NF-κB activation confers chemoresistance and thus a worse PFS in GBM. Consistent with the effect on PFS, silencing TRADD in glioma cells results in decreased NF-κB activity, decreased proliferation of cells, and increased sensitivity to temozolomide. TRADD expression is common in glioma-initiating cells. Importantly, silencing TRADD in GBM-initiating stem cell cultures results in decreased viability of stem cells, suggesting that TRADD may be required for maintenance of GBM stem cell populations. Thus, our study suggests that increased expression of cytoplasmic TRADD is both an important biomarker and a key driver of NF-κB activation in GBM and supports an oncogenic role for TRADD in GBM.

  7. Symmetrical infantile thalamic degeneration with focal cytoplasmic calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, M; O'Neil, W

    1975-10-27

    Infantile thalamic degeneration is a rare clinico-pathological entity. Restricted location of the lesion and peculiar cytopathological changes serve to distinguish this disorder from other common encephalopathies. Optical and ultrastructural studies demonstrate cytoplasmic calcopherules in previously viable cells. According to current concepts of acute cellular reactions to injury and mechanism of intracellular calcification, the cytological changes cannot be attributed to either hypoxic ischemic cell change or dystrophic calcification. By analogy to other human and pathological material, the most likely basis for nondystrophic calcopherule formation is toxic or infectious injury with local synthesis, or autophagic or phagolysosomal degradation of cellular debris of specific chemical composition favoring calcium deposition.

  8. The Role of MUC1 Cytoplasmic Domain in Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    5 AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0476 TITLE: The Role of MUCI Cytoplasmic Domain in Tumorigenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Assah Al-Masri CONTRACTING ...The overall aim of the research is to develop a better understanding of the role of MUCI in breast cancer. Loss of Mucl (mouse homologue of MUC1...significant delay in tumor progression that is observed in the absence of Mucl . We suggest that the interaction of Mucl with c-Src, a key player in PyV MT

  9. Histone H2B-IFI16 Recognition of Nuclear Herpesviral Genome Induces Cytoplasmic Interferon-β Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jawed; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Kumar, Binod; Dutta, Dipanjan; Roy, Arunava; Chikoti, Leela; Pisano, Gina; Dutta, Sujoy; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Chandran, Bala

    2016-01-01

    IFI16 (gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16), a predominantly nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation, also functions as an innate immune response DNA sensor and induces the IL-1β and antiviral type-1 interferon-β (IFN-β) cytokines. We have shown that IFI16, in association with BRCA1, functions as a sequence independent nuclear sensor of episomal dsDNA genomes of KSHV, EBV and HSV-1. Recognition of these herpesvirus genomes resulted in IFI16 acetylation, BRCA1-IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic translocation, and IL-1β generation. Acetylated IFI16 also interacted with cytoplasmic STING and induced IFN-β. However, the identity of IFI16 associated nuclear proteins involved in STING activation and the mechanism is not known. Mass spectrometry of proteins precipitated by anti-IFI16 antibodies from uninfected endothelial cell nuclear lysate revealed that histone H2B interacts with IFI16. Single and double proximity ligation microscopy, immunoprecipitation, EdU-genome labeled virus infection, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that H2B is associated with IFI16 and BRCA1 in the nucleus in physiological conditions. De novo KSHV and HSV-1 infection as well as latent KSHV and EBV infection induces the cytoplasmic distribution of H2B-IFI16, H2B-BRCA1 and IFI16-ASC complexes. Vaccinia virus (dsDNA) cytoplasmic replication didn’t induce the redistribution of nuclear H2B-IFI16 or H2B into the cytoplasm. H2B is critical in KSHV and HSV-1 genome recognition by IFI16 during de novo infection. Viral genome sensing by IFI16-H2B-BRCA1 leads to BRCA1 dependent recruitment of p300, and acetylation of H2B and IFI16. BRCA1 knockdown or inhibition of p300 abrogated the acetylation of H2B-IFI16 or H2B. Ran-GTP protein mediated the translocation of acetylated H2B and IFI16 to the cytoplasm along with BRCA1 that is independent of IFI16-ASC inflammasome. ASC knockdown didn’t affect the acetylation of H2B, its cytoplasmic

  10. Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

  11. Pareto tails and lognormal body of US cities size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckstead, Jeff; Devadoss, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We consider a distribution, which consists of lower tail Pareto, lognormal body, and upper tail Pareto, to estimate the size distribution of all US cities. This distribution fits the data more accurately than a distribution that comprises of only lognormal and the upper tail Pareto.

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  13. Electro-remediation of copper mine tailings. Comparing copper removal efficiencies for two tailings of different age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Lamas, Victor; Gutierrez, Claudia;

    2013-01-01

    less than 2 years ago (new tailings). Parameters analyzed were the applied voltage drop, acid concentration during pretreatment, and the use of either passive or ion exchange membranes in the experimental setup. The comparison of the results confirms that there are differences in the electroremediation...... between the two tailings, even if the pH is similar and a mineralogical analysis showed similarities between the samples with respect to composition. It was found that an electroremediation is more favorable on the old tailings. The results showed that the best experimental conditions for both tailings......This work compares and evaluates the copper removal efficiency when applying electric fields to two mine tailings originating from the same mine but of different age. Eight experiments were carried out - four on tailings deposited more than 20 years ago (old tailings) and four on tailings deposited...

  14. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  15. Response of key soil parameters during compost-assisted phytostabilization in extremely acidic tailings: effect of plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A; White, Scott A; Hutter, Travis Borrillo; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2012-01-17

    Phytostabilization of mine tailings acts to mitigate both eolian dispersion and water erosion events which can disseminate barren tailings over large distances. This technology uses plants to establish a vegetative cover to permanently immobilize contaminants in the rooting zone, often requiring addition of an amendment to assist plant growth. Here we report the results of a greenhouse study that evaluated the ability of six native plant species to grow in extremely acidic (pH ∼ 2.5) metalliferous (As, Pb, Zn: 2000-3000 mg kg(-1)) mine tailings from Iron King Mine Humboldt Smelter Superfund site when amended with a range of compost concentrations. Results revealed that three of the six plant species tested (buffalo grass, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) are good candidates for phytostabilization at an optimum level of 15% compost (w/w) amendment showing good growth and minimal shoot accumulation of metal(loid)s. A fourth candidate, quailbush, also met all criteria except for exceeding the domestic animal toxicity limit for shoot accumulation of zinc. A key finding of this study was that the plant species that grew most successfully on these tailings significantly influenced key tailings parameters; direct correlations between plant biomass and both increased tailings pH and neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were observed. We also observed decreased iron oxidizer counts and decreased bioavailability of metal(loid)s mainly as a result of compost amendment. Taken together, these results suggest that the phytostabilization process reduced tailings toxicity as well as the potential for metal(loid) mobilization. This study provides practical information on plant and tailings characteristics that is critically needed for successful implementation of assisted phytostabilization on acidic, metalliferous mine tailings sites.

  16. Response of Key Soil Parameters During Compost-Assisted Phytostabilization in Extremely Acidic Tailings: Effect of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A.; White, Scott A.; Hutter, Travis Borrillo; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    Phytostabilization of mine tailings acts to mitigate both eolian dispersion and water erosion events which can disseminate barren tailings over large distances. This technology uses plants to establish a vegetative cover to permanently immobilize contaminants in the rooting zone, often requiring addition of an amendment to assist plant growth. Here we report the results of a greenhouse study that evaluated the ability of six native plant species to grow in extremely acidic (pH ~ 2.5) metalliferous (As, Pb, Zn: 2000–3000 mg kg−1) mine tailings from Iron King Mine Humboldt Smelter Superfund site when amended with a range of compost concentrations. Results revealed that three of the six plant species tested (buffalo grass, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) are good candidates for phytostabilization at an optimum level of 15% compost (w/w) amendment showing good growth and minimal shoot accumulation of metal(loid)s. A fourth candidate, quailbush, also met all criteria except for exceeding the domestic animal toxicity limit for shoot accumulation of zinc. A key finding of this study was that the plant species that grew most successfully on these tailings significantly influenced key tailings parameters; direct correlations between plant biomass and both increased tailings pH and neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were observed. We also observed decreased iron oxidizer counts and decreased bioavailability of metal(loid)s mainly as a result of compost amendment. Taken together, these results suggest that the phytostabilization process reduced tailings toxicity as well as the potential for metal(loid) mobilization. This study provides practical information on plant and tailings characteristics that is critically needed for successful implementation of assisted phytostabilization on acidic, metalliferous mine tailings sites. PMID:22191663

  17. MreB-Dependent Organization of the E. coli Cytoplasmic Membrane Controls Membrane Protein Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Felix; Varadarajan, Aravindan; Lill, Holger; Peterman, Erwin J G; Bollen, Yves J M

    2016-03-08

    The functional organization of prokaryotic cell membranes, which is essential for many cellular processes, has been challenging to analyze due to the small size and nonflat geometry of bacterial cells. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional quantitative analyses in live Escherichia coli to demonstrate that its cytoplasmic membrane contains microdomains with distinct physical properties. We show that the stability of these microdomains depends on the integrity of the MreB cytoskeletal network underneath the membrane. We explore how the interplay between cytoskeleton and membrane affects trans-membrane protein (TMP) diffusion and reveal that the mobility of the TMPs tested is subdiffusive, most likely caused by confinement of TMP mobility by the submembranous MreB network. Our findings demonstrate that the dynamic architecture of prokaryotic cell membranes is controlled by the MreB cytoskeleton and regulates the mobility of TMPs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    ,980-base-pair open reading frame revealed 94% homology with a 75-kilodalton protein from C. trachomatis serovar D and 57% homology with the DnaK proteins of E. coli and of Bacillus megaterium, while amino acid homology with human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) was 42%. The promoter region was identified......The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...... by computer search and by primer extension of mRNA synthesized in recombinant E. coli. The promoter region which differed from the putative promoter region in serovar D was shown to be a mixed promoter type in which the -10 region showed a regular TATA box configuration while the -35 region showed high...

  19. Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...

  20. Calcium wave for cytoplasmic streaming of Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Shinji; Ishigami, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Akio; Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2009-12-16

    The plasmodium Physarum polycephalum exhibits periodic cycles of cytoplasmic streaming in association with those of contraction and relaxation movement. In the present study, we injected Calcium Green dextran as a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator into the thin-spread living plasmodium. We found changes in the [Ca2+]i (intracellular concentration of Ca2+), which propagated in a wave-like form in its cytoplasm. The Ca2+ waves were also detected when we used Fura dextran which detected [Ca2+]i by the ratio of two wavelengths. We prepared the plasmodial fragment from the thin-spread and found that the cycles of the contraction-relaxation movement was so synchronized that the measurement of its area provided an indication of the movement. We observed that [Ca2+]i also synchronized in the entire fragment and that the relaxation ensued upon the reduction in [Ca2+]i. We suggest that the Ca2+ wave generated periodically is one of the major factors playing a crucial role in the relaxation of P. polycephalum.

  1. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Much

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  2. Mitochondrial Extrusion through the cytoplasmic vacuoles during cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Akihito; Kurihara, Hidetake; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko; Nakano, Hiroyasu

    2008-08-29

    Under various conditions, noxious stimuli damage mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation; however, the mechanisms by which fragmented mitochondria are eliminated from the cells remain largely unknown. Here we show that cytoplasmic vacuoles originating from the plasma membrane engulfed fragmented mitochondria and subsequently extruded them into the extracellular spaces in undergoing acute tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell death in a caspase-dependent fashion. Notably, upon fusion of the membrane encapsulating mitochondria to the plasma membrane, naked mitochondria were released into the extracellular spaces in an exocytotic manner. Mitochondrial extrusion was specific to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell death, because a genotoxic stress-inducing agent such as cisplatin did not elicit mitochondrial extrusion. Moreover, intact actin and tubulin cytoskeletons were required for mitochondrial extrusion as well as membrane blebbing. Furthermore, fragmented mitochondria were engulfed by cytoplasmic vacuoles and extruded from hepatocytes of mice injected with anti-Fas antibody, suggesting that mitochondrial extrusion can be observed in vivo under pathological conditions. Mitochondria are eliminated during erythrocyte maturation under physiological conditions, and anti-mitochondrial antibody is detected in some autoimmune diseases. Thus, elucidating the mechanism underlying mitochondrial extrusion will open a novel avenue leading to better understanding of various diseases caused by mitochondrial malfunction as well as mitochondrial biology.

  3. Effects of cytoplasmic inheritance on preweaning traits of Hereford cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezzadra Carlos Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cytoplasmic inheritance on birth and weaning weight was evaluated in an experimental Hereford herd. Data on 1,720 records for birth and weaning weights from calves born between 1963 and 2002 were studied. Variance components were estimated using MTDFREML procedures and an animal model was fitted for each trait. Direct and maternal additive effects and permanent environment and maternal lineage effects were treated as random, while year and month of birth, age of dam and sex of the calf were treated as fixed. Identification of maternal lineages was based on pedigree information. The contribution to phenotypic variance of cytoplasmic lineages defined by pedigree information was negligible for both traits. Mitochondrial genotypes of cows present in the herd in 2002 were analyzed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP analysis. Only five different genotypes were identified among 23 maternal lineages. All the animals with records were assigned to maternal genotypes based on pedigree information. The statistical analysis was repeated, removing maternal lineage from the model and including mitochondrial genotype as a fixed effect. No evidence of genotype effects was detected. These results suggest a negligible effect of the mitochondrial genome on the preweaning traits of this Hereford herd.

  4. Universality of Tail Exponents of Price Changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luwen; Farmer, Doyne

    2007-03-01

    We study the tail exponents of the distribution of logarithmic price changes in financial markets, and investigate the conjecture that they are universal with an exponent near three. Using data from the London Stock Exchange, we construct the empirical distributions of price returns on several different time scales and study their variation as a function of parameters such as trading volume and tick size (the minimal unit of price variation).

  5. Cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53 by a heat shock protein 70 family member, mortalin, in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestl, Erin E., E-mail: egestl@wcupa.edu [Department of Biology, West Chester University, 750 S Church Street, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Anne Boettger, S., E-mail: aboettger@wcupa.edu [Department of Biology, West Chester University, 750 S Church Street, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight human colorectal cell lines were evaluated for p53 and mortalin localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six cell lines displayed cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct interaction between mortalin and p53 was shown in five cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell lines positive for p53 sequestration yielded elevated p53 expression levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study yields the first evidence of cytoplasmic sequestration p53 by mortalin. -- Abstract: While it is known that cytoplasmic retention of p53 occurs in many solid tumors, the mechanisms responsible for this retention have not been positively identified. Since heatshock proteins like mortalin have been associated with p53 inactivation in other tumors, the current study sought to characterize this potential interaction in never before examined colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Six cell lines, one with 3 different fractions, were examined to determine expression of p53 and mortalin and characterize their cellular localization. Most of these cell lines displayed punctate p53 and mortalin localization in the cell cytoplasm with the exception of HCT-8 and HCT116 379.2 cells, where p53 was not detected. Nuclear p53 was only observed in HCT-116 40-16, LS123, and HT-29 cell lines. Mortalin was only localized in the cytoplasm in all cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry revealed that p53 and mortalin were bound and co-localized in the cytoplasmic fraction of four cell lines, HCT-116 (40-16 and 386; parental and heterozygous fractions respectively of the same cell line), HT-29, LS123 and LoVo, implying that p53 nuclear function is limited in those cell lines by being restricted to the cytoplasm. Mortalin gene expression levels were higher than gene expression levels of p53 in all cell lines. Cell lines with cytoplasmic sequestration of p53, however, also displayed elevated p53

  6. Mapping of ESE-1 subdomains required to initiate mammary epithelial cell transformation via a cytoplasmic mechanism

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    Tentler John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ETS family transcription factor ESE-1 is often overexpressed in human breast cancer. ESE-1 initiates transformation of MCF-12A cells via a non-transcriptional, cytoplasmic process that is mediated by a unique 40-amino acid serine and aspartic acid rich (SAR subdomain, whereas, ESE-1's nuclear transcriptional property is required to maintain the transformed phenotype of MCF7, ZR-75-1 and T47D breast cancer cells. Results To map the minimal functional nuclear localization (NLS and nuclear export (NES signals, we fused in-frame putative NLS and NES motifs between GFP and the SAR domain. Using these GFP constructs as reporters of subcellular localization, we mapped a single NLS to six basic amino acids (242HGKRRR247 in the AT-hook and two CRM1-dependent NES motifs, one to the pointed domain (NES1: 102LCNCALEELRL112 and another to the DNA binding domain (DBD, (NES2: 275LWEFIRDILI284. Moreover, analysis of a putative NLS located in the DBD (316GQKKKNSN323 by a similar GFP-SAR reporter or by internal deletion of the DBD, revealed this sequence to lack NLS activity. To assess the role of NES2 in regulating ESE-1 subcellular localization and subsequent transformation potency, we site-specifically mutagenized NES2, within full-length GFP-ESE-1 and GFP-NES2-SAR reporter constructs. These studies show that site-specific mutation of NES2 completely abrogates ESE-1 transforming activity. Furthermore, we show that exclusive cytoplasmic targeting of the SAR domain is sufficient to initiate transformation, and we report that an intact SAR domain is required, since block mutagenesis reveals that an intact SAR domain is necessary to maintain its full transforming potency. Finally, using a monoclonal antibody targeting the SAR domain, we demonstrate that the SAR domain contains a region accessible for protein - protein interactions. Conclusions These data highlight that ESE-1 contains NLS and NES signals that play a critical role in

  7. RBM10 in complete hydatidiform mole: cytoplasmic occurrence of its 50 kDa polypeptide

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    Yutaka Inoue

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: RNA-binding motif protein 10 (RBM10, originally identified as S1-1 protein, is a nuclear protein with likely functions in transcription and RNA splicing. The RBM10 gene maps to the X chromosome and, in female cells, is inactivated in one of the two X chromosomes near the boundary with genes escaping inactivation. This study investigated the occurrence of the RBM10 gene product in complete hydatidiform mole, which is composed of cells with paternal diploid chromosomes (46, XX. Methods: Deparaffinized normal chorion or complete hydatidiform mole tissues were hybridized with a fluorescein-conjugated RBM10 gene probe in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy of the tissues were performed using an anti-RBM10 antiserum. Proteins from complete hydatidiform mole tissues and those separated by anti-RBM10-linked affinity chromatography were also examined by western blotting. Results: As expected, the RBM10 gene was detected by FISH as double spots in the nuclei of complete hydatidiform mole cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed a nuclear presence of RBM10 in normal chorion and complete hydatidiform moles, and a notable cytoplasmic presence in complete hydatidiform moles. Western blotting and immunoaffinity chromatography revealed that a 50 kDa protein was predominantly found in the cytosolic fraction of complete hydatidiform moles. Conclusions: A 50 kDa protein with common antigenicity to RBM10 was found in the cytoplasm of complete hydatidiform mole cells, and could represent one of the characteristics of the disease. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 114-118

  8. Forecast Combination under Heavy-Tailed Errors

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    Gang Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecast combination has been proven to be a very important technique to obtain accurate predictions for various applications in economics, finance, marketing and many other areas. In many applications, forecast errors exhibit heavy-tailed behaviors for various reasons. Unfortunately, to our knowledge, little has been done to obtain reliable forecast combinations for such situations. The familiar forecast combination methods, such as simple average, least squares regression or those based on the variance-covariance of the forecasts, may perform very poorly due to the fact that outliers tend to occur, and they make these methods have unstable weights, leading to un-robust forecasts. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose two nonparametric forecast combination methods. One is specially proposed for the situations in which the forecast errors are strongly believed to have heavy tails that can be modeled by a scaled Student’s t-distribution; the other is designed for relatively more general situations when there is a lack of strong or consistent evidence on the tail behaviors of the forecast errors due to a shortage of data and/or an evolving data-generating process. Adaptive risk bounds of both methods are developed. They show that the resulting combined forecasts yield near optimal mean forecast errors relative to the candidate forecasts. Simulations and a real example demonstrate their superior performance in that they indeed tend to have significantly smaller prediction errors than the previous combination methods in the presence of forecast outliers.

  9. POST-STARBURST TIDAL TAILS IN THE ARCHETYPICAL ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Ideue, Y. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Ohyama, Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C (China); Nagao, T. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Murayama, T. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Koda, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present our new deep optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for Arp 220, the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy in the local universe. Our sensitive H{alpha} imaging has newly revealed large-scale H{alpha} absorption, i.e., post-starburst regions in this merger. One is found in the eastern superbubble and the other is in the two tidal tails that are clearly revealed in our deep optical imaging. The size of the H{alpha} absorption region in the eastern bubble is 5 kpc Multiplication-Sign 7.5 kpc, and the observed H{alpha} equivalent widths are {approx}2 Angstrom-Sign {+-} 0.2 Angstrom-Sign . The sizes of the northern and southern H{alpha}-absorption tidal tails are {approx}5 kpc Multiplication-Sign 10 kpc and {approx}6 kpc Multiplication-Sign 20 kpc, respectively. The observed H{alpha} equivalent widths range from 4 Angstrom-Sign to 7 Angstrom-Sign . In order to explain the presence of the two post-starburst tails, we suggest a possible multiple-merger scenario for Arp 220 in which two post-starburst disk-like structures merged into one, causing the two tails. This favors Arp 220 as a multiple merging system composed of four or more galaxies arising from a compact group of galaxies. Taking our new results into account, we discuss a star formation history in the last 1 Gyr in Arp 220.

  10. The roles and relations of calpastatin, calmodulin and an undefined cytoplasmic factor in the regulation of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Li-ying; ZHU Tong; HU Hui-yuan; ZHAO Mei-mi; RUI Feng; LIU Yan; ZHAO Jin-sheng; tsuko Minobe; Masaki Kameyama

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism that cytoplasmic factors could recover L-type Ca2+ channel activity after "run-down'. The factors include ATP, calpastatin and H fraction (a high molecular fraction of bovine cardiac cytoplasm). Methods Single Ca2+ channel activities were recorded with patch clamp technique in guinea-pig cardiac myocytes. Run-down was induced by the inside-out patch formation. Calpastatin (CS), calmodulin(CaM) and three GST-fusion fragment peptides derived from the C-terminal tail of guineapig Car1.2, CT-1 (amino acids number 1509-1791), CTo2 (1777-2003) and CT-3 (1944-2169) were produced as GST fusion proteins. Results (1)CaM + ATP or CS + ATP restored the channels after rundown;however, the CaM or CS's effects became smaller with the longer run-down time. (2)After run down, CaM-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) produced Ca2+ channel activity to only 2-10% of the basal activity, however, in the presence of CaMKII, the time-dependent nature of the CaM effect was abolished. (3) In pull-down assay, CT-1 treated with CaMKII showed a higher affinity for CaM than that treated with phosphatase. (4)CaMKII was detected in the H fraction of bovine cardiac cytoplasm. Conclusions The results show that CS, CaM and CaMKII are all involved in the maintenance of the basal activity of L-type Ca2+ channels, and that there might be cross talks among the four factors (CS, CaM, CaMKII and the undefined cytoplasmic factor). This work was supported by the grants from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30670761, No. 30671726).

  11. Regenerating tail muscles in lizard contain Fast but not Slow Myosin indicating that most myofibers belong to the fast twitch type for rapid contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L

    2015-10-01

    During tail regeneration in lizards a large mass of muscle tissue is formed in form of segmental myomeres of similar size located under the dermis of the new tail. These muscles accumulate glycogen and a fast form of myosin typical for twitch myofibers as it is shown by light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry using an antibody directed against a Fast Myosin Heavy Chain. High resolution immunogold labeling shows that an intense labeling for fast myosin is localized over the thick filaments of the numerous myofibrils in about 70% of the regenerated myofibers while the labeling becomes less intense in the remaining muscle fibers. The present observations indicate that at least two subtypes of Fast Myosin containing muscle fibers are regenerated, the prevalent type was of the fast twitch containing few mitochondria, sparse glycogen, numerous smooth endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. The second, and less frequent type was a Fast-Oxidative-Glycolitic twitch fiber containing more mitochondria, a denser cytoplasm and myofibrils. Since their initial differentiation, myoblasts, myotubes and especially the regenerated myofibers do not accumulate any immuno-detectable Slow Myosin Heavy Chain. The study indicates that most of the segmental muscles of the regenerated tail serve for the limited bending of the tail during locomotion and trashing after amputation of the regenerated tail, a phenomenon that facilitates predator escape.

  12. ePAT: a simple method to tag adenylated RNA to measure poly(A)-tail length and other 3' RACE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänicke, Amrei; Vancuylenberg, John; Boag, Peter R; Traven, Ana; Beilharz, Traude H

    2012-06-01

    The addition of a poly(A)-tail to the 3' termini of RNA molecules influences stability, nuclear export, and efficiency of translation. In the cytoplasm, dynamic changes in the length of the poly(A)-tail have long been recognized as reflective of the switch between translational silence and activation. Thus, measurement of the poly(A)-tail associated with any given mRNA at steady-state can serve as a surrogate readout of its translation-state. Here, we describe a simple new method to 3'-tag adenylated RNA in total RNA samples using the intrinsic property of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I to extend an RNA primer using a DNA template. This tag can serve as an anchor for cDNA synthesis and subsequent gene-specific PCR to assess poly(A)-tail length. We call this method extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT). The ePAT approach is as efficient as traditional Ligation-Mediated Poly(A) Test (LM-PAT) assays, avoids problems of internal priming associated with oligo-dT-based methods, and allows for the accurate analysis of both the poly(A)-tail length and alternate 3' UTR usage in 3' RACE applications.

  13. Screening of bacterial strains isolated from uranium mill tailings porewaters for bioremediation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castro, Iván; Amador-García, Ahinara; Moreno-Romero, Cristina; López-Fernández, Margarita; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Nos, Jeremy; Descostes, Michael; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2017-01-01

    The present work characterizes at different levels a number of bacterial strains isolated from porewaters sampled in the vicinity of two French uranium tailing repositories. The 16S rRNA gene from 33 bacterial isolates, corresponding to the different morphotypes recovered, was almost fully sequenced. The resulting sequences belonged to 13 bacterial genera comprised in the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Further characterization at physiological level and metals/metalloid tolerance provided evidences for an appropriate selection of bacterial strains potentially useful for immobilization of uranium and other common contaminants. By using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM), this potential ability to immobilize uranium as U phosphate mineral phases was confirmed for the bacterial strains Br3 and Br5 corresponding to Arthrobacter sp. and Microbacterium oxydans, respectively. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope- High-Angle Annular Dark-Field (STEM-HAADF) analysis showed U accumulates on the surface and within bacterial cytoplasm, in addition to the extracellular space. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) element-distribution maps demonstrated the presence of U and P within these accumulates. These results indicate the potential of certain bacterial strains isolated from porewaters of U mill tailings for immobilizing uranium, likely as uranium phosphates. Some of these bacterial isolates might be considered as promising candidates in the design of uranium bioremediation strategies.

  14. Radiation hazard of solid metallic tailings in Shangluo, China

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    Zhuang Sukai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation hazards of five kinds of different solid metallic tailings collected from Shangluo, China were determined on the basis of natural radioactivity measurements using low background multichannel gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the tailings ranged from 5.1 to 204.3, 3.8 to 28.5, and 289.6 to 762.3 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activities and the external hazard indexes of all studied metallic tailings were below the internationally accepted value of 370 Bq/kg and unity, respectively. The internal hazard index of vanadium tailings exceeded unity, while the internal hazard indexes of other analyzed metallic tailings were less than unity. The indoor air absorbed dose rate values for all studied metallic tailings except lead-zinc tailings and gold tailings were higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy/h and the annual effective dose values of all metallic tailings except for vanadium tailings were lower than 1 mSv. The study showed that vanadium tailings present a radiation hazard and their usage as building materials should be restricted.

  15. Stringent control of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in guard cells of intact plants compared to their counterparts in epidermal strips or guard cell protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, V; Guinot, D R; Klein, M; Roelfsema, M R G; Hedrich, R; Dietrich, P

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic calcium elevations, transients, and oscillations are thought to encode information that triggers a variety of physiological responses in plant cells. Yet Ca(2+) signals induced by a single stimulus vary, depending on the physiological state of the cell and experimental conditions. We compared Ca(2+) homeostasis and stimulus-induced Ca(2+) signals in guard cells of intact plants, epidermal strips, and isolated protoplasts. Single-cell ratiometric imaging with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye Fura 2 was applied in combination with electrophysiological recordings. Guard cell protoplasts were loaded with Fura 2 via a patch pipette, revealing a cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration of around 80 nM at -47 mV. Upon hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to -107 mV, the Ca(2+) concentration increased to levels exceeding 400 nM. Intact guard cells were able to maintain much lower cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentrations at hyperpolarized potentials, the average concentration at -100 mV was 183 and 90 nM in epidermal strips and intact plants, respectively. Further hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to -160 mV induced a sustained rise of the guard cell cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration, which slowly returned to the prestimulus level in intact plants but not in epidermal strips. Our results show that cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentrations are stringently controlled in guard cells of intact plants but become increasingly more sensitive to changes in the plasma membrane potential in epidermal strips and isolated protoplasts.

  16. The relationship between infection and the tailed IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, B H; Wu, Y H; Pan, X H

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the association between the tailed IUD and pelvic infection, vaginal smears from 111 Chinese IUD users (40 acceptors of tailed IUDs and 71 of tailless devices) were analyzed for bacterial microorganisms. All study subjects had used the IUD for at least 5 years. Of the 11 samples positive for bacteria taken from the internal os, eight were from users of tailed IUDs (p 0.01). Of the 7 positive samples taken from the uterine cavity, 5 were linked to a tailed device. Although the correlation between the tailed IUD and pelvic symptoms was not significant, infected users of the tailed device were slightly more likely to be symptomatic. The tailed IUD did not increase leukorrhea excretion.

  17. A Note on Upper Tail Behavior of Liouville Copulas

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    Lei Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family of Liouville copulas is defined as the survival copulas of multivariate Liouville distributions, and it covers the Archimedean copulas constructed by Williamson’s d-transform. Liouville copulas provide a very wide range of dependence ranging from positive to negative dependence in the upper tails, and they can be useful in modeling tail risks. In this article, we study the upper tail behavior of Liouville copulas through their upper tail orders. Tail orders of a more general scale mixture model that covers Liouville distributions is first derived, and then tail order functions and tail order density functions of Liouville copulas are derived. Concrete examples are given after the main results.

  18. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C L; Landa, E R; Updegraff, D M

    1987-09-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques.Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereasBacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of MicroRNAs in Vaccinia virus Infection Reveals Diversity in Their Susceptibility to Modification and Suppression.

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    Amy H Buck

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A polymerase which was previously shown to add poly(A tails to the 3' end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi. Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h and late (24 h times post infection. A detailed quantitative analysis of individual miRNAs revealed marked diversity in the extent of their modification and relative change in abundance during infection. Some miRNAs became highly modified (e.g. miR-29a-3p, miR-27b-3p whereas others appeared resistant (e.g. miR-16-5p. Furthermore, miRNAs that were highly tailed at 6 hpi were not necessarily among the most reduced at 24 hpi. These results suggest that intrinsic features of human cellular miRNAs cause them to be differentially polyadenylated and altered in abundance during VACV infection. We also demonstrate that intermediate and late VACV gene expression are required for optimal repression of some miRNAs including miR-27-3p. Overall this work reveals complex and varied consequences of VACV infection on host miRNAs and identifies miRNAs which are largely resistant to VACV-induced polyadenylation and are therefore present at functional levels during the initial stages of infection and replication.

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W; Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  1. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  2. Accelerated weathering of biosolid-amended copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Andrew P; White, Scott A; Milczarek, Michael; Thompson, Thomas L

    2005-01-01

    Application of municipal biosolids to mine tailings can enhance revegetation success, but may cause adverse environmental impacts, such as increased leaching of NO3- and metals to ground water. Kinetic weathering cells were used to simulate geochemical weathering to determine the effects of biosolid amendment on (i) pH of leachate and tailings, (ii) leaching of NO3- and SO4(2-), (iii) leaching and bioavailability (DTPA-extractable) of selected metals, and (iv) changes in tailing mineralogy. Four Cu mine tailings from southern Arizona differing in initial pH (3.3-7.3) and degree of weathering were packed into triplicate weathering cells and were unamended and amended with two rates (equivalent to 134 and 200 Mg dry matter ha(-1)) of biosolids. Biosolid application to acid (pH 3.3) tailings resulted in pH values as high as 6.3 and leachate pH as high as 5.7, and biosolids applied to circumneutral tailings resulted in no change in tailing or leachate pH. Concentrations of NO3--N of up to 23 mg L(-1) occurred in leachates from circumneutral tailings. The low pH of the acidic tailing apparently inhibited nitrification, resulting in leachate NO3--N of tailings (final rate of 0.04 compared with 0.11 g SO4(2-)-S wk(-1)). Copper concentrations in leachates from acidic tailings were reduced from 53 to 27 mg L(-1) with biosolid amendment. Copper and As concentrations increased slightly in leachates from biosolid-amended circumneutral tailings. Small increases in DTPA-extractable Cu, Ni, and Zn occurred in all tailings with increased biosolid rate. Overall, there was little evidence of potential for adverse environmental impacts resulting from biosolid application to these Cu mine tailings.

  3. Molecular Gas Dominated 50 kpc Ram Pressure Stripped Tail of the Coma Galaxy D100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáchym, Pavel; Sun, Ming; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Cortese, Luca; Combes, Françoise; Yagi, Masafumi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Palouš, Jan; Roediger, Elke

    2017-04-01

    We have discovered large amounts of molecular gas, as traced by CO emission, in the ram pressure stripped gas tail of the Coma cluster galaxy D100 (GMP 2910), out to large distances of about 50 kpc. D100 has a 60 kpc long, strikingly narrow tail, which is bright in X-rays and Hα. Our observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope reveal in total ˜ {10}9 {M}⊙ H2 (assuming the standard CO-to-H2 conversion) in several regions along the tail, thus indicating that molecular gas may dominate its mass. Along the tail, we measure a smooth gradient in the radial velocity of the CO emission that is offset to lower values from the more diffuse Hα gas velocities. Such a dynamic separation of phases may be due to their differential acceleration by ram pressure. D100 is likely being stripped at a high orbital velocity ≳ 2200 km s-1 by (nearly) peak ram pressure. Combined effects of intra-cluster medium (ICM) viscosity and magnetic fields may be important for the evolution of the stripped interstellar matter. We propose that D100 has reached a continuous mode of stripping of dense gas remaining in its nuclear region. D100 is the second known case of an abundant molecular stripped gas tail, suggesting that conditions in the ICM at the centers of galaxy clusters may be favorable for molecularization. From comparison with other galaxies, we find that there is a good correlation between the CO flux and the Hα surface brightness in ram pressure stripped gas tails, over ˜2 dex. Based on observations made with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  4. Regulation of T cell Receptor Activation by Dynamic Membrane Binding of the CD3ε Cytoplasmic Tyrosine-Based Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenqi; Gagnon, Etienne; Call, Matthew E.; Schnell, Jason R.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Carman, Christopher V.; Chou, James J.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many immune system receptors signal through cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs (ITAMs), but how receptor ligation results in ITAM phosphorylation remains unknown. Live cell imaging studies showed a close interaction of the CD3ε cytoplasmic domain of the T cell receptor (TCR) with the plasma membrane through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a C-terminal fluorescent protein and a membrane fluorophore. Electrostatic interactions between basic CD3ε residues and acidic phospholipids enriched in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane were required for binding. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the lipid-bound state of this cytoplasmic domain revealed deep insertion of the two key tyrosines into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Receptor ligation thus needs to result in unbinding of the CD3ε ITAM from the membrane to render these tyrosines accessible to Src kinases. Sequestration of key tyrosines into the lipid bilayer represents a previously unrecognized mechanism for control of receptor activation. PMID:19013279

  5. Permeability Characteristics of Tailings considering Chemical and Physical Clogging in Lixi Tailings Dam, China

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    Zengguang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical clogging frequently occur in tailings dam. The clogging seriously influences the safety of tailings dam. This paper conducts several column experiments to analyse the physical and chemical clogging of the Lixi tailings dam in China. The experiment results of chemical clogging show that average flow velocity and permeability decrease by approximately 50% to 60%. The experiment results of physical clogging show that these values decrease by approximately 50% to 70%. For physical clogging, a higher hydraulic gradient could result in a larger extent of decrease in the permeability coefficient. The permeability did not decrease when the hydraulic gradient was equal to 0.125. The results of chemical clogging column experiments show that ferrous ion solution concentration is disproportional to the permeability coefficient. This scenario can be attributed to the extremely small concentration gradients.

  6. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Honing, Hannie S; de Ruijter, Norbert C A; Emons, Anne Mie C; Ketelaar, Tijs

    2010-01-01

    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm. Optical tweezers were used to create cytoplasmic protrusions resembling cytoplasmic strands. Simultaneously, the behavior of the actin cytoskeleton was imaged. After actin filament depolymerization, less force was needed to create cytoplasmic protrusions. During treatment with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime, more trapping force was needed to create and maintain cytoplasmic protrusions. Thus, the presence of actin filaments and, even more so, the deactivation of a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, stiffens the cytoplasm. During 2,3-butanedione monoxime treatment, none of the tweezer-formed protrusions contained filamentous actin, showing that a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, is responsible for the movement of actin filaments, and implying that myosin serves as a static cross-linker of actin filaments when its motor function is inhibited. The presence of actin filaments does not delay the collapse of cytoplasmic protrusions after tweezer release. Myosin-based reorganization of the existing actin cytoskeleton could be the basis for new cytoplasmic strand formation, and thus the production of an organized cytoarchitecture.

  7. Cytoplasmic flows as signatures for the mechanics of mitotic positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The proper positioning of the mitotic spindle is crucial for asymmetric cell division and generating cell diversity during development. Proper position in the single-cell embryo of Caenorhabditis elegans is achieved initially by the migration and rotation of the pronuclear complex (PNC) and its two associated centrosomal arrays of microtubules (MTs). We present here the first systematic theoretical study of how these $O(1000)$ centrosomal microtubules (MTs) interact through the immersing cytoplasm, the cell periphery and PNC, and with each other, to achieve proper position. This study is made possible through our development of a highly efficient and parallelized computational framework that accounts explicitly for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) between the MTs, while also capturing their flexibility, dynamic instability, and interactions with molecular motors and boundaries. First, we show through direct simulation that previous estimates of the PNC drag coefficient, based on either ignoring or ...

  8. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies crescentic allograft glomerulonephritis after sofosbuvir therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Shilpa; Lee, Belinda; Kidd, Laura; Zhang, Rubin

    2016-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are well known to be associated with several types of vasculitis, including pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, a form of rapid progressive glomerular nephritis (RPGN). ANCA vasculitis has also been reported after administration of propylthiouracil, hydralazine, cocaine (adulterated with levimasole), allopurinol, penicillamine and few other drugs. All previously reported cases of drug-associated ANCA glomerulonephritis were in native kidneys. Sofosbuvir is a new and effective drug for hepatitis C virus infection. Here, we report a case of ANCA vasculitis and RPGN following sofosbuvir administration in a kidney transplant recipient. It also represents the first case of drug-associated ANCA vasculitis in a transplanted kidney. Further drug monitoring is necessary to elucidate the degree of association and possible causal effect of sofosbuvir and perinuclear ANCA vasculitis. PMID:27872837

  9. Exporting RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed

    2007-10-01

    The transport of RNA molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is fundamental for gene expression. The different RNA species that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes via mobile export receptors. Small RNAs (such as tRNAs and microRNAs) follow relatively simple export routes by binding directly to export receptors. Large RNAs (such as ribosomal RNAs and mRNAs) assemble into complicated ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles and recruit their exporters via class-specific adaptor proteins. Export of mRNAs is unique as it is extensively coupled to transcription (in yeast) and splicing (in metazoa). Understanding the mechanisms that connect RNP formation with export is a major challenge in the field.

  10. Propylthiouracil-Induced Vasculitis With Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Grizzo Peres Martins, Ana Claudia; Gaviolli, Camila Fatima; Alavi, Afsaneh

    2015-06-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU)-associated vasculitis is a potentially life-threatening disease with a recent increase in the reported cases in the medical literature. This increase may suggest that some earlier cases have been unrecognized or assigned to an alternative nosology category. Although the skin can be the only organ affected by PTU-associated vasculitis, there are many reports with multiple-system involvement. Classically, the symptoms appear under a tetrad of fever, sore throat, arthralgia, and skin lesions. Cutaneous lesions in reported cases of PTU vasculitis have most commonly consisted of retiform acral, purpuric plaques, or nodules. We report a case of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis developed during treatment with PTU for Grave's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Cytoplasmic sulfur trafficking in sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Persulfide groups are chemically versatile and participate in a wide array of biochemical pathways. Although it is well documented that persulfurated proteins supply a number of important and elaborate biosynthetic pathways with sulfane sulfur, it is far less acknowledged that the enzymatic generation of persulfidic sulfur, the successive transfer of sulfur as a persulfide between multiple proteins, and the oxidation of sulfane sulfur in protein-bound form are also essential steps during dissimilatory sulfur oxidation in bacteria and archaea. Here, the currently available information on sulfur trafficking in sulfur oxidizing prokaryotes is reviewed, and the idea is discussed that sulfur is always presented to cytoplasmic oxidizing enzymes in a protein-bound form, thus preventing the occurrence of free sulfide inside of the prokaryotic cell. Thus, sulfur trafficking emerges as a central element in sulfur-oxidizing pathways, and TusA homologous proteins appear to be central and common elements in these processes.

  12. Regulation of Cytoplasmic Dynein ATPase by Lis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesngon, Mariano T.; Tarricone, Cataldo; Hebbar, Sachin; Guillotte, Aimee M.; Schmitt, E. William; Lanier, Lorene; Musacchio, Andrea; King, Stephen J.; Smith, Deanna S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Lis1 cause classical lissencephaly, a developmental brain abnormality characterized by defects in neuronal positioning. Over the last decade, a clear link has been forged between Lis1 and the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein. Substantial evidence indicates that Lis1 functions in a highly conserved pathway with dynein to regulate neuronal migration and other motile events. Yeast two-hybrid studies predict that Lis1 binds directly to dynein heavy chains (Sasaki et al., 2000; Tai et al., 2002), but the mechanistic significance of this interaction is not well understood. We now report that recombinant Lis1 binds to native brain dynein and significantly increases the microtubule-stimulated enzymatic activity of dynein in vitro. Lis1 does this without increasing the proportion of dynein that binds to microtubules, indicating that Lis1 influences enzymatic activity rather than microtubule association. Dynein stimulation in vitro is not a generic feature of microtubule-associated proteins, because tau did not stimulate dynein. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that Lis1 or any other factor directly modulates the enzymatic activity of cytoplasmic dynein. Lis1 must be able to homodimerize to stimulate dynein, because a C-terminal fragment (containing the dynein interaction site but missing the self-association domain) was unable to stimulate dynein. Binding and colocalization studies indicate that Lis1 does not interact with all dynein complexes found in the brain. We propose a model in which Lis1 stimulates the activity of a subset of motors, which could be particularly important during neuronal migration and long-distance axonal transport. PMID:16481446

  13. Genetics of Fertility Restoration in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pepper hybrid seeds production using male sterility could lower cost by reducing time and labour, and increase the genetic purity of the F1 seeds. To investigate the genetics of fertility restoration of the Peterson cytoplasmic sterility in pepper, a doubled haploid population of 115 pepper lines obtained from anther culture of the F1 hybrid between Yolo Wonder (sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (fertility restorer line) and the parental lines were test-crossed by 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genic male sterile line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed in greenhouse and open field with the following three criteria: pollen index (PI, visual estimation of pollen amount per flower), pollen number (PN, pollen counting under microscope), and seed number (SN, the number of seeds per fruit in open pollination). Correlations between the each couple of criteria within, as well as between the cultivation methods ranged from 0.55 to 0.84. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype (DH line) and environment were the significant sources of variation of the fertility.Narrow sense of heritance of fertility restoration ranged from 0.38 to 0.92, depending on the criteria and environment. The distribution of the progeny was continuous between the parental genotypes indicating the quantitative inheritance of fertility restoration. Inferred from segregation according to Snape et al.(1984), the number of segregating genes was estimated to be that three to four genetic factors were involved in pollen traits (PI and PN) and five to eight genetic factors in seed production (SN). The heredity analysis of the CMS will be helpful for understanding of the genetic mechanism of the fertility restoration and the exploitation of the CMS in hybrid seed production.

  14. Asymptotic Results for Tail Probabilities of Sums of Dependent and Heavy-Tailed Random Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kam Chuen YUEN; Chuancun YIN

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Let X1,X2,...be a sequence of dependent and heavy-tailed random variables with distributions F1,F2,…. on (-∞,∞),and let т be a nonnegative integer-valued random variable independent of the sequence {Xk,k≥ 1}.In this framework,the asymptotic behavior of the tail probabilities of the quantities Sn =n∑k=1 Xk and S(n) =max1≤k≤n Sk for n > 1,and their randomized versions Sт and S(т) are studied.Some applications to the risk theory are presented.

  15. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tailings philosophies : to segregate or not to segregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.S. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Traditional technologies for treating oil sands tailings include the segregation of of tailings when discharged into water-filled ponds. The coarser tailings form long beaches. However, the percentage of silts and clays that remain suspended within the water column pose significant challenges to oil sands operators, and contribute to water losses and increases in storage volume. This paper discussed new technologies developed to identify the tailings materials that contribute to the problem and methods designed to isolate and treat the materials. Treatment material balances, process water balances, and material handling requirements for the technologies were evaluated and compared. Three scenarios were considered: (1) a sub-aqueous beaching scenario where tailings were produced by extraction and pumped to a beach storage area for dewatering through self-drainage; (2) a non-segregated tailings (NST) scenario that used mature fine tailings (MFT) drying; (3) and a segregated stream scenario where MFT drying was used where tailings were deposited in traditional tailings ponds. Results of the study showed that the segregated stream tailings treatment system was preferred to NST treatment system. Options for sub-aerial NST deposition may overcome the volume discrepancies between treating fines as well as the required volumes of coarser materials. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. Oil sands tailings technology : understanding the impact to reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamer, M. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed tailings management techniques at oil sands mines and their effects on reclamation schedules and outcomes. The layer of mature fine tailings (MFT) that forms in tailings ponds does not settle within a reasonable time frame, requiring more and larger tailings ponds for storing MFT. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology was developed to accelerate the consolidation of MFT, although the process nonetheless takes decades. CT is produced from mixing tailings sand, gypsum, and MFT to create a mixture that will consolidate more quickly and release water. However, CT production is tied to the extraction process, making it applicable only when the plant is operational, and a precise recipe and accurate injection are required for CT to work. In tailings reduction operations (TRO), a new approach to tailings management, MFT is mixed with a polymer flocculant, deposited in thin layers, and allowed to dry. TRO has a significant advantage over CT in that the latter takes up to 30 years to consolidate to a trafficable surface compared to weeks for TRO. TRO allows MFT to be consumed more quickly than it is produced, reducing need to build more tailings ponds, operates independent of plant operations, accelerates the reclamation time frame, and offers enhanced flexibility in final tailings placement sites. TRO also creates a dry landscape, to which well established reclamation techniques can be applied. Dried MFT is a new material type, and research is exploring optimum reclamation techniques. 2 figs.

  18. Hepatocyte-derived cultured cells with unusual cytoplasmic keratin-rich spheroid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavalle, Pierre-Yves; Alsaleh, Khaled; Pillez, Andre; Cocquerel, Laurence [INSERM U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, CIIL, F-59021 Lille (France); Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Allet, Cecile [INSERM U837-JPARC, 59045 Lille (France); Dumont, Patrick [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); CNRS UMR 8161, F-59021 Lille (France); Loyens, Anne [INSERM U837-JPARC, 59045 Lille (France); Leteurtre, Emmanuelle [Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Centre de Biologie Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, Avenue Oscar-Lambret, Lille cedex (France); Omary, M. Bishr [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America (United States); Dubuisson, Jean; Rouille, Yves [INSERM U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, CIIL, F-59021 Lille (France); Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Wychowski, Czeslaw, E-mail: czeslaw.wychowski@ibl.fr [INSERM U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, CIIL, F-59021 Lille (France); Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France)

    2011-11-01

    Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in a variety of diseases that are characteristic morphological features of several hepatic, muscular and neurodegenerative disorders. They display a predominantly filamentous ultrastructure that is also observed in malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT). A cellular clone containing an intracytoplasmic body was isolated from hepatocyte cell culture, and in the present study we examined whether this body might be related or not to Mallory-Denk body (MDB), a well characterized intracytoplasmic inclusion, or whether this cellular clone was constituted by malignant rhabdoid tumor cells. The intracytoplasmic body was observed in electron microscopy (EM), confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and several proteins involved in the formation of its structure were identified. Using light microscopy, a spheroid body (SB) described as a single regular-shaped cytoplasmic body was observed in cells. During cytokinesis, the SB was disassembled and reassembled in a way to reconstitute a unique SB in each progeny cell. EM examination revealed that the SB was not surrounded by a limiting membrane. However, cytoplasmic filaments were concentrated in a whorled array. These proteins were identified as keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18), which formed the central core of the SB surrounded by a vimentin cage-like structure. This structure was not related to Mallory-Denk body or aggresome since no aggregated proteins were located in SB. Moreover, the structure of SB was not due to mutations in the primary sequence of K8/K18 and vimentin since no difference was observed in the mRNA sequence of their genes, isolated from Huh-7 and Huh-7w7.3 cells. These data suggested that cellular factor(s) could be responsible for the SB formation process. Aggregates of K18 were relocated in the SB when a mutant of K18 inducing disruption of K8/K18 IF network was expressed in the cellular clone. Furthermore, the INI1 protein, a remodeling-chromatin factor deficient in rhabdoid cells, which

  19. Hepatocyte-derived cultured cells with unusual cytoplasmic keratin-rich spheroid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavalle, Pierre-Yves; Alsaleh, Khaled; Pillez, André; Cocquerel, Laurence; Allet, Cécile; Dumont, Patrick; Loyens, Anne; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Omary, M Bishr; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves; Wychowski, Czeslaw

    2011-11-01

    Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in a variety of diseases that are characteristic morphological features of several hepatic, muscular and neurodegenerative disorders. They display a predominantly filamentous ultrastructure that is also observed in malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT). A cellular clone containing an intracytoplasmic body was isolated from hepatocyte cell culture, and in the present study we examined whether this body might be related or not to Mallory-Denk body (MDB), a well characterized intracytoplasmic inclusion, or whether this cellular clone was constituted by malignant rhabdoid tumor cells. The intracytoplasmic body was observed in electron microscopy (EM), confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and several proteins involved in the formation of its structure were identified. Using light microscopy, a spheroid body (SB) described as a single regular-shaped cytoplasmic body was observed in cells. During cytokinesis, the SB was disassembled and reassembled in a way to reconstitute a unique SB in each progeny cell. EM examination revealed that the SB was not surrounded by a limiting membrane. However, cytoplasmic filaments were concentrated in a whorled array. These proteins were identified as keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18), which formed the central core of the SB surrounded by a vimentin cage-like structure. This structure was not related to Mallory-Denk body or aggresome since no aggregated proteins were located in SB. Moreover, the structure of SB was not due to mutations in the primary sequence of K8/K18 and vimentin since no difference was observed in the mRNA sequence of their genes, isolated from Huh-7 and Huh-7w7.3 cells. These data suggested that cellular factor(s) could be responsible for the SB formation process. Aggregates of K18 were relocated in the SB when a mutant of K18 inducing disruption of K8/K18 IF network was expressed in the cellular clone. Furthermore, the INI1 protein, a remodeling-chromatin factor deficient in rhabdoid cells, which

  20. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.