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Sample records for cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoproteins

  1. Physical change in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoproteins in cells treated with inhibitors of mRNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfuss, G.; Adam, S.A.; Choi, Y.D.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of intact cells to UV light brings about cross-linking of polyadenylated mRNA to a set of cytoplasmic proteins which are in direct contact with the mRNA in vivo. Substantial amounts of an additional protein of molecular weight 38,000 become cross-linked to the mRNA when cells are treated with inhibitors of mRNA synthesis (actinomycin D, camptothecin, and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole) or after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Cordycepin, which inhibits polyadenylation but not mRNA synthesis, has no such effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and of rRNA synthesis are also without effect on 38K cross-linking to mRNA. The onset of the effect of inhibitors of mRNA synthesis on the UV cross-linkable interaction between mRNA and 38K is rapid and reaches a maximal level in less than 60 min, and it is completely and rapidly reversible. In cells treated with actinomycin D, the amount of 38K which becomes cross-linked to mRNA is proportional to the extent of inhibition of mRNA synthesis. The association of 38K with mRNA during transcriptional arrest does not require protein synthesis because simultaneous treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine does not interfere with it. The effectors which promote the interaction of 38K with mRNA do not affect the proteins which are in contact with polyadenylated heterogeneous nuclear RNA and do not markedly affect protein synthesis in the cell. The 38K protein can be isolated with the polyribosomal polyadenylated fraction from which it was purified, and monoclonal antibodies against it were prepared

  2. Alterations in polyribosome and messenger ribonucleic acid metabolism and messenger ribonucleoprotein utilization in osmotically stressed plant seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Polyribosome aggregation state in growing tissues of barley and wheat leaf of stems of pea and squash was studied in relation to seedling growth and water status of the growing tissue in plants at various levels of osmotic stress. It was found to be highly correlated with water potential and osmotic potential of the growing tissue and with leaf of stem elongation rate. Stress rapidly reduced polyribosome content and water status in growing tissues of barley leaves; changes were slow and slight in the non-growing leaf blade. Membrane-bound and free polyribosomes were equally sensitive to stress-induced disaggregation. Incorporation of 32 PO 4 3- into ribosomal RNA was rapidly inhibited by stress, but stability of poly(A) + RNA relative to ribosomal RNA was similar in stressed and unstressed tissues, with a half-life of about 12 hours. Stress also caused progressive loss of poly(A) + RNA from these tissues. Quantitation of poly(A) and in vitro messenger template activity in polysome gradient fractions showed a shift of activity from the polysomal region to the region of 20-60 S in stressed plants. Messenger RNA in the 20-60 S region coded for the same peptides as mRNA found in the polysomal fraction. Nonpolysomal and polysome-derived messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNP) were isolated, and characteristic proteins were found associated with either fraction. Polysomal mRNP from stressed or unstressed plants were translated with similar efficiency in a wheat germ cell-free system. It was concluded that no translational inhibitory activity was associated with nonpolysomal mRNP from barley prepared as described

  3. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gatenby

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal cell function requires timely and accurate transmission of information from receptors on the cell membrane (CM to the nucleus. Movement of messenger proteins in the cytoplasm is thought to be dependent on random walk. However, Brownian motion will disperse messenger proteins throughout the cytosol resulting in slow and highly variable transit times. We propose that a critical component of information transfer is an intracellular electric field generated by distribution of charge on the nuclear membrane (NM. While the latter has been demonstrated experimentally for decades, the role of the consequent electric field has been assumed to be minimal due to a Debye length of about 1 nanometer that results from screening by intracellular Cl- and K+. We propose inclusion of these inorganic ions in the Debye-Huckel equation is incorrect because nuclear pores allow transit through the membrane at a rate far faster than the time to thermodynamic equilibrium. In our model, only the charged, mobile messenger proteins contribute to the Debye length.Using this revised model and published data, we estimate the NM possesses a Debye-Huckel length of a few microns and find this is consistent with recent measurement using intracellular nano-voltmeters. We demonstrate the field will accelerate isolated messenger proteins toward the nucleus through Coulomb interactions with negative charges added by phosphorylation. We calculate transit times as short as 0.01 sec. When large numbers of phosphorylated messenger proteins are generated by increasing concentrations of extracellular ligands, we demonstrate they generate a self-screening environment that regionally attenuates the cytoplasmic field, slowing movement but permitting greater cross talk among pathways. Preliminary experimental results with phosphorylated RAF are consistent with model predictions.This work demonstrates that previously unrecognized Coulomb interactions between phosphorylated messenger

  4. Vanillin inhibits translation and induces messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granule formation in saccharomyces cerevisiae: application and validation of high-content, image-based profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Aya; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Suga, Yohei; Izawa, Shingo; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin, generated by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose, acts as a potent inhibitor of the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the cellular processes affected by vanillin using high-content, image-based profiling. Among 4,718 non-essential yeast deletion mutants, the morphology of those defective in the large ribosomal subunit showed significant similarity to that of vanillin-treated cells. The defects in these mutants were clustered in three domains of the ribosome: the mRNA tunnel entrance, exit and backbone required for small subunit attachment. To confirm that vanillin inhibited ribosomal function, we assessed polysome and messenger ribonucleoprotein granule formation after treatment with vanillin. Analysis of polysome profiles showed disassembly of the polysomes in the presence of vanillin. Processing bodies and stress granules, which are composed of non-translating mRNAs and various proteins, were formed after treatment with vanillin. These results suggest that vanillin represses translation in yeast cells.

  5. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  6. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  7. Glucocorticoid control of rat growth hormone gene expression: Effect on cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleic acid production and degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, B.J.; Gardner, D.G.; Baxter, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on the production and degradation of rat GH (rGH) cytoplasmic mRNA was studied in cultured rat pituitary tumor (GC) cells. The incorporation of [3H]uridine into both rGH cytoplasmic mRNA and the pyrimidine nucleotide precursor pool was determined in hormone-treated and control cells. From these measurements glucocorticoid effects on absolute production rates of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA were determined and compared to effects on rGH mRNA accumulation. Rat GH mRNA half-life was then calculated based on a first-order decay model. Rat GH mRNA half-life was also directly assayed by: (1) pulse-chase studies and (2) measuring the kinetics of decay of rGH mRNA in cells after transfer from serum-containing to hormone-deficient media. From these independent analyses rGH mRNA half-life estimates ranged from 28-55 h in different experiments. Within individual experiments there was little variability of rGH mRNA decay rates; glucocorticoids were found not to alter the stability of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA. Glucocorticoid induction of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation was accounted for solely on the basis of increased mRNA production

  8. Appearance of newly formed mRNA and rRNA as ribonucleoprotein-particles in the cytoplasmic subribosomal fraction of pea embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Noribumi; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukuei, Keisuke; Sakamaki, Tadashi; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki

    1977-01-01

    Incorporation studies with 3 H-uridine or 3 H-adenosine showed that germinating pea embryos synthesize all types of poly A(+) RNA, rRNA and 4-5S RNA at the early stage of germination. After the pulse labeling for 30 min, only heterodisperse RNA and 4-5S RNA appeared in the cytoplasm as labeled RNA species. At this time the radioactivity was associated with cytoplasmic structures heavier than 80S and RNP particles of 68-70S, 52-55S, 36-38S and 20-22S which are presumed to be free mRNP particles in plants. When the pulse-labeled embryos were incubated for a further 60 min in an isotope-free medium, the labeled 17S and 25S rRNA emerged in the cytoplasm, together with labeled heterodisperse and 4-5S RNAs. More radioactivity accumulated in the regions of the polysome, 62-65S and 38-42S particles. The results of analysis of RNAs extracted from the whole cytoplasm, polysome or subribosomal fractions indicated that small subunits of newly formed ribosomes appear more rapidly in the cytoplasm than new large subunits, which accumulate for a while as free particles in the cytoplasm than are incorporated into polysomes. The actinomycin treatment which caused preferential inhibition of rRNA synthesis reduced the accumulation of free, newly formed ribosome subunits and partially permitted detection of the presumed mRNP particles in the subribosomal region even after the chase treatment. (auth.)

  9. The ribonucleoprotein Csr network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyll, Ethel; Van Melderen, Laurence

    2013-11-08

    Ribonucleoprotein complexes are essential regulatory components in bacteria. In this review, we focus on the carbon storage regulator (Csr) network, which is well conserved in the bacterial world. This regulatory network is composed of the CsrA master regulator, its targets and regulators. CsrA binds to mRNA targets and regulates translation either negatively or positively. Binding to small non-coding RNAs controls activity of this protein. Expression of these regulators is tightly regulated at the level of transcription and stability by various global regulators (RNAses, two-component systems, alarmone). We discuss the implications of these complex regulations in bacterial adaptation.

  10. The Ribonucleoprotein Csr Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Seyll

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleoprotein complexes are essential regulatory components in bacteria. In this review, we focus on the carbon storage regulator (Csr network, which is well conserved in the bacterial world. This regulatory network is composed of the CsrA master regulator, its targets and regulators. CsrA binds to mRNA targets and regulates translation either negatively or positively. Binding to small non-coding RNAs controls activity of this protein. Expression of these regulators is tightly regulated at the level of transcription and stability by various global regulators (RNAses, two-component systems, alarmone. We discuss the implications of these complex regulations in bacterial adaptation.

  11. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  12. Ribonucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic RNA. XXXII. U2 small nuclear RNA precursors and their accurate 3' processing in vitro as ribonucleoprotein particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieben, E D; Nenninger, J M; Pederson, T

    1985-05-05

    Biosynthetic precursors of U2 small nuclear RNA have been identified in cultured human cells by hybrid-selection of pulse-labeled RNA with cloned U2 DNA. These precursor molecules are one to approximately 16 nucleotides longer than mature U2 RNA and contain 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine "caps". The U2 RNA precursors are associated with proteins that react with a monoclonal antibody for antigens characteristic of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Like previously described precursors of U1 and U4 small nuclear RNAs, the pre-U2 RNAs are recovered in cytoplasmic fractions, although it is not known if this is their location in vivo. The precursors are processed to mature-size U2 RNA when cytoplasmic extracts are incubated in vitro at 37 degrees C. Mg2+ is required but ATP is not. The ribonucleoprotein structure of the pre-U2 RNA is maintained during the processing reaction in vitro, as are the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps. The ribonucleoprotein organization is of major importance, as exogenous, protein-free U2 RNA precursors are degraded rapidly in the in vitro system. Two lines of evidence indicate that the conversion of U2 precursors to mature-size U2 RNA involves a 3' processing reaction. First, the reaction is unaffected by a large excess of mature U2 small nuclear RNP, whose 5' trimethylguanosine caps would be expected to compete for a 5' processing activity. Second, when pre-U2 RNA precursors are first stoichiometrically decorated with an antibody specific for 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine, the extent of subsequent processing in vitro is unaffected. These results provide the first demonstration of a eukaryotic RNA processing reaction in vitro occurring within a ribonucleoprotein particle.

  13. Molecular composition of IMP1 ribonucleoprotein granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Vikesaa, Jonas; Krogh, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization, and in mo......Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization...

  14. Messengers of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.K.; Spurio, M.

    2011-01-01

    The observation of the solar neutrinos and of a neutrino burst from the supernova explosion 1987A opened a new observation field which in the next years could be complemented with the detection of astrophysical highenergy neutrinos. Neutrino astronomy is a young discipline derived from the fundamental necessity of extending conventional astronomy beyond the usual electro-magnetic messengers. This is a summary of recent results on those new 'messengers of the universe', based on the presentations in Branch IV of the Neutrino Oscillation Workshop 2010 (NOW2010).

  15. Characterization of MVP and VPARP assembly into vault ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chun-Lei; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Che, Xiao-Fang; Tsuyama, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Haraguchi, Misako; Gao, Hui; Gotanda, Takenari; Jueng, Hei-Cheul; Murata, Fusayoshi; Akiyama, Shin-Ichi

    2005-01-07

    Vaults are barrel-shaped cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins: the major vault protein (MVP), the vault poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (VPARP), and the telomerase-associated protein 1, together with one or more small untranslated RNAs. To date, little is known about the process of vault assembly or about the stability of vault components. In this study, we analyzed the biosynthesis of MVP and VPARP, and their half-lives within the vault particle in human ACHN renal carcinoma cells. Using an immunoprecipitation assay, we found that it took more than 4h for newly synthesized MVPs to be incorporated into vault particles but that biosynthesized VPARPs were completely incorporated into vaults within 1.5h. Once incorporated into the vault complex, both MVP and VPARP were very stable. Expression of human MVP alone in Escherichia coli resulted in the formation of particles that had a distinct vault morphology. The C-terminal region of VPARP that lacks poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity co-sedimented with MVP particles. This suggests that the activity of VPARP is not essential for interaction with MVP-self-assembled vault-like particles. In conclusion, our findings provide an insight into potential mechanisms of physiological vault assembly.

  16. Characterization of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles in dormant sporangiospores of the fungus Mucor racemosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of sporangiospores of Mucor racemosus contained RNA that readily hybridized with [ 3 H]polyuridylic acid. Prior to germination, this RNA was in a form sedimenting at 31 P-orthophosphate or L-[ 32 S]methionine, absorbance at 280 nm, or hybridization of [ 3 H]polyuridylic acid. mRNP's from the first two fractions were analyzed. A bimodal population of particles was detected in sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation. Particles eluted at low ionic strength demonstrated a sedimentation coefficient distribution of 20S-to-80S. Particles eluted in formamide demonstrated a sedimentation coefficient distribution of 20S-to-60S. Particles eluted at low ionic strength displayed two peaks in CsCl centrifugation, with buoyant densities of 1.37 gm/cc and 1.59 gm/cc. Particles eluted in formamide displayed a single peak with a buoyant density of 1.61 gm/cc. Particles eluted at low ionic strength and centrifuged in metrizamide solution formed two bands having buoyant densities of 1.15 gm/cc and 1.30 gm/cc; formamide-eluted particles banded only at the higher density. Mucor 40S ribosomal subunits banded at 1.56 gm/cc and 1.28 gm/cc in CsCl and metrizamide solution respectively

  17. Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-17

    We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.

  18. Substrate recognition by ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga; Perederina, Anna; Quan, Chao; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2011-02-01

    The ribonucleoprotein complex ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a site-specific endoribonuclease essential for the survival of the eukaryotic cell. RNase MRP closely resembles RNase P (a universal endoribonuclease responsible for the maturation of the 5' ends of tRNA) but recognizes distinct substrates including pre-rRNA and mRNA. Here we report the results of an in vitro selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP substrates starting from a pool of random sequences. The results indicate that RNase MRP cleaves single-stranded RNA and is sensitive to sequences in the immediate vicinity of the cleavage site requiring a cytosine at the position +4 relative to the cleavage site. Structural implications of the differences in substrate recognition by RNases P and MRP are discussed.

  19. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  20. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    -termination to be a global phenomena in gene regulation. The influence of codon usage in the early coding region on messenger stability was examined, in order to establish how fast or slow the ribosome has to decode the sequence for it to protect the messenger from degradation. The experiments demonstrated that very fast...

  1. Segundos mensajeros Second messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Díaz Hernández

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    En esta revisión se describen, de manera esquemática, los mecanismos de acción empleados por los SEGUNDOS MENSAJEROS comenzando por el estimulo del receptor y continuando con las reacciones en cadena que conducen finalmente a una respuesta celular.

    This review schematically describes the different mechanisms of action that Second Messengers employ to stimulate receptors and then Initiate a chain of reactions that finally lead to appropriate cellular responses.

  2. Pathophysiological implications of the chemical messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez Fernandez, E.

    2009-01-01

    To maintain a physical organization and a different composition of its surroundings environment, living beings use a great part of the energy that they produce. Vital processes require an elevated number of reactions which are regulated and integrated by chemical messengers. They use autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and synaptic signals through receptors of cell surface, nuclear or associated with ionic channels, enzymes, trim eric G proteins and to intracellular kinases. Through these mechanisms pheromones play an important role in the relationships between different individuals, and hormones are able to regulate the integrative functions of our organism. In the nervous system, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, sensors and receptors between other messengers, play functions of great relevance, while growth factors stimulate cell proliferation and cytokines have many effects but the most important is the ones related with the control of the immflamatory process. Alterations of these messengers permit us a better understanding of the diseases and possibly of its treatments in a near future. Modifications of the expression of genes from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are responsible of monogenic, polygenic and mitochondrial diseases, while alterations in the activities of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters are related with schizophrenia, Parkinson disease and depression, respectively. Other example is the hyperthyroidism of the Graves-Bassedow disease due to the competitive interference of the LATS immunoglobulin with TSH at the level of the follicular cells producing thyroid hormones Twenty five years ago in the reviews on the mechanisms of insulin action, there was presentations in which the insulin receptor was located in the plasma membrane of the target cells while in the cytoplasm only a big interrogative was observed, that at present is replaced by chemical mediators cascades responsible of the multiple effects of insulin. This finding is similar

  3. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  4. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  5. Radioimmunoassay for antibodies to rubella virus and its ribonucleoprotein component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho-Terry, L.; Cohen, A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a radioimmune precipitation technique, the antibody response to intact rubella virus and its ribonucleoprotein component was measured. The method was very sensitive and reproducible, and did not require preliminary serum fractionation for the identification of antibodies of different immunoglobulin classes. The results showed that the IgA and IgG antibodies against the intact virus persisted in the sera of patients long after the initial infection. In contrast, IgA and IgG antibodies against the ribonucleoprotein component of rubella virus were detected only in sera of patients after recent rubella infection. This observation suggested that a test for antibodies to the ribonucleoprotein component may provide additional evidence in the diagnosis of recent rubella infection. This could be potentially a useful test particularly in the management of pregnant patients. (U.K.)

  6. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D/AUF1 interacts with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) in cells are bound to proteins. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) is one of the representative proteins bound to RNAs in eukaryotic cells. More than 30 hnRNPs have been determined to exist in human nuclei, and are referred to as hnRNPs A1 through U (Choi and Dreyfuss 1984; ...

  7. Host factors that interact with the pestivirus N-terminal protease, Npro, are components of the ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Matthew; Donaszi-Ivanov, Andras; Pollen, Sean; Dalmay, Tamas; Saalbach, Gerhard; Powell, Penny P

    2014-09-01

    The viral N-terminal protease N(pro) of pestiviruses counteracts cellular antiviral defenses through inhibition of IRF3. Here we used mass spectrometry to identify a new role for N(pro) through its interaction with over 55 associated proteins, mainly ribosomal proteins and ribonucleoproteins, including RNA helicase A (DHX9), Y-box binding protein (YBX1), DDX3, DDX5, eIF3, IGF2BP1, multiple myeloma tumor protein 2, interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (IEBP3), guanine nucleotide binding protein 3, and polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (PABP-1). These are components of the translation machinery, ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), and stress granules. Significantly, we found that stress granule formation was inhibited in MDBK cells infected with a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain, Kyle. However, ribonucleoproteins binding to N(pro) did not inhibit these proteins from aggregating into stress granules. N(pro) interacted with YBX1 though its TRASH domain, since the mutant C112R protein with an inactive TRASH domain no longer redistributed to stress granules. Interestingly, RNA helicase A and La autoantigen relocated from a nuclear location to form cytoplasmic granules with N(pro). To address a proviral role for N(pro) in RNP granules, we investigated whether N(pro) affected RNA interference (RNAi), since interacting proteins are involved in RISC function during RNA silencing. Using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) silencing with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) followed by Northern blotting of GAPDH, expression of N(pro) had no effect on RNAi silencing activity, contrasting with other viral suppressors of interferon. We propose that N(pro) is involved with virus RNA translation in the cytoplasm for virus particle production, and when translation is inhibited following stress, it redistributes to the replication complex. Although the pestivirus N-terminal protease, N(pro), has been shown to have an important role in degrading IRF3 to

  8. Torsin Mediates Primary Envelopment of Large Ribonucleoprotein Granules at the Nuclear Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahbiz Jokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A previously unrecognized mechanism through which large ribonucleoprotein (megaRNP granules exit the nucleus is by budding through the nuclear envelope (NE. This mechanism is akin to the nuclear egress of herpes-type viruses and is essential for proper synapse development. However, the molecular machinery required to remodel the NE during this process is unknown. Here, we identify Torsin, an AAA-ATPase that in humans is linked to dystonia, as a major mediator of primary megaRNP envelopment during NE budding. In torsin mutants, megaRNPs accumulate within the perinuclear space, and the messenger RNAs contained within fail to reach synaptic sites, preventing normal synaptic protein synthesis and thus proper synaptic bouton development. These studies begin to establish the cellular machinery underlying the exit of megaRNPs via budding, offer an explanation for the “nuclear blebbing” phenotype found in dystonia models, and provide an important link between Torsin and the synaptic phenotypes observed in dystonia.

  9. Mercury's Reference Frames After the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, A.; Oberst, J.; Preusker, F.; Burmeister, S.; Steinbrügge, G.; Hussmann, H.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an overview of Mercury's reference frames based on MESSENGER observations. We discuss the dynamical, the principal-axes, the ellipsoid, as well as the cartographic frame, which was adopted for MESSENGER data products.

  10. Phenomenologies of Higgs messenger models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Sibo; Yu Yao; Wu Xinggang [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2011-08-11

    In this Letter, we investigate the phenomenologies of models where the Higgs sector plays the role of messengers in gauge mediation. The minimal Higgs sector and its extension are considered respectively. We find that there exist viable models when an appropriate parity is imposed. Phenomenological features in these kind of models include three sum rules for scalar masses, light gluino as well as one-loop {mu} and two-loop B{mu} terms.

  11. Geodesy at Mercury with MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria t.; Peale, Stanley J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2011 the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft will enter Mercury orbit and begin the mapping phase of the mission. As part of its science objectives the MESSENGER mission will determine the shape and gravity field of Mercury. These observations will enable the topography and the crustal thickness to be derived for the planet and will determine the small libration of the planet about its axis, the latter critical to constraining the state of the core. These measurements require very precise positioning of the MESSENGER spacecraft in its eccentric orbit, which has a periapsis altitude as low as 200 km, an apoapsis altitude near 15,000 km, and a closest approach to the surface varying from latitude 60 to about 70 N. The X-band tracking of MESSENGER and the laser altimetry are the primary data that will be used to measure the planetary shape and gravity field. The laser altimeter, which has an expected range of 1000 to 1200 km, is expected to provide significant data only over the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. For the southern hemisphere, radio occultation measurements obtained as the spacecraft passes behind the planet as seen from Earth and images obtained with the imaging system will be used to provide the long-wavelength shape of the planet. Gravity, derived from the tracking data, will also have greater resolution in the northern hemisphere, but full global models for both topography and gravity will be obtained at low harmonic order and degree. The limiting factor for both gravity and topography is expected to be knowledge of the spacecraft location. Present estimations are that in a combined tracking, altimetry, and occultation solution the spacecraft position uncertainty is likely to be of order 10 m. This accuracy should be adequate for establishing an initial geodetic coordinate system for Mercury that will enable positioning of imaged features on the surface, determination of

  12. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ningling; Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li; Xu, Hong; Li, Rong; Huang, Hefeng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  13. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ningling [Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Hong, E-mail: xuhong1168@126.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Li, Rong [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Huang, Hefeng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-26

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  14. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  15. Radiation sensitivity of messenger RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, H.; Pfennig-Yeh, M.L.; Herrlich, P.; Karlsruhe Univ.; Wagner, E.F.; Schweiger, M.

    1979-01-01

    Messenger RNA function is inactivated by irradiation with ultraviolet light. A unit length mRNA (in bases) is 2-3 times more sensitive than a unit length of DNA (in base pairs) with respect to the inactivation of template function. These data stem from four experimental systems all of which do not repair DNA: the translation of E. coli mRNA in rifampicin-treated cells, of T7 mRNA in infected E.coli, of f2 phage RNA in vivo, and of stable mRNA in chromosomeless minicells. The comparison of relative sensitivities to UV is relevant to the technique of UV mapping of transcription units which enjoys increasing popularity in pro- and eukaryotic genetic research. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiation sensitivity of messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, H; Pfennig-Yeh, M L; Herrlich, P [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Genetik und Toxikologie von Spaltstoffen; Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Genetik); Wagner, E F; Schweiger, M [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Biochemie

    1979-08-01

    Messenger RNA function is inactivated by irradiation with ultraviolet light. A unit length mRNA (in bases) is 2-3 times more sensitive than a unit length of DNA (in base pairs) with respect to the inactivation of template function. These data stem from four experimental systems all of which do not repair DNA: the translation of E. coli mRNA in rifampicin-treated cells, of T7 mRNA in infected E.coli, of f2 phage RNA in vivo, and of stable mRNA in chromosomeless minicells. The comparison of relative sensitivities to UV is relevant to the technique of UV mapping of transcription units which enjoys increasing popularity in pro- and eukaryotic genetic research.

  17. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Sinturel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3′-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3′-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3′-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3′-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5′-3′ cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression.

  18. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinturel, Flore; Navickas, Albertas; Wery, Maxime; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; Torchet, Claire; Benard, Lionel

    2015-09-22

    Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3'-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3'-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3'-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3'-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs) form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5'-3' cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytoplasmic Z-RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation

  20. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  1. MESSENGER'S First and Second Flybys of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only approximately 1000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th and October 6th, 2008 close flybys of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  2. The microRNA and messengerRNA profile of the RNA-induced silencing complex in human primary astrocyte and astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Joanna J; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2010-10-18

    GW/P bodies are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein-rich foci involved in microRNA (miRNA)-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) silencing and degradation. The mRNA regulatory functions within GW/P bodies are mediated by GW182 and its binding partner hAgo2 that bind miRNA in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). To date there are no published reports of the profile of miRNA and mRNA targeted to the RISC or a comparison of the RISC-specific miRNA/mRNA profile differences in malignant and non-malignant cells. RISC mRNA and miRNA components were profiled by microarray analysis of malignant human U-87 astrocytoma cells and its non-malignant counterpart, primary human astrocytes. Total cell RNA as well as RNA from immunoprecipitated RISC was analyzed. The novel findings were fourfold: (1) miRNAs were highly enriched in astrocyte RISC compared to U-87 astrocytoma RISC, (2) astrocytoma and primary astrocyte cells each contained unique RISC miRNA profiles as compared to their respective cellular miRNA profiles, (3) miR-195, 10b, 29b, 19b, 34a and 455-3p levels were increased and the miR-181b level was decreased in U-87 astrocytoma RISC as compared to astrocyte RISC, and (4) the RISC contained decreased levels of mRNAs in primary astrocyte and U-87 astrocytoma cells. The observation that miR-34a and miR-195 levels were increased in the RISC of U-87 astrocytoma cells suggests an oncogenic role for these miRNAs. Differential regulation of mRNAs by specific miRNAs is evidenced by the observation that three miR34a-targeted mRNAs and two miR-195-targeted mRNAs were downregulated while one miR-195-targeted mRNA was upregulated. Biological pathway analysis of RISC mRNA components suggests that the RISC plays a pivotal role in malignancy and other conditions. This study points to the importance of the RISC and ultimately GW/P body composition and function in miRNA and mRNA deregulation in astrocytoma cells and possibly in other malignancies.

  3. The microRNA and messengerRNA profile of the RNA-induced silencing complex in human primary astrocyte and astrocytoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna J Moser

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GW/P bodies are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein-rich foci involved in microRNA (miRNA-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA silencing and degradation. The mRNA regulatory functions within GW/P bodies are mediated by GW182 and its binding partner hAgo2 that bind miRNA in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. To date there are no published reports of the profile of miRNA and mRNA targeted to the RISC or a comparison of the RISC-specific miRNA/mRNA profile differences in malignant and non-malignant cells.RISC mRNA and miRNA components were profiled by microarray analysis of malignant human U-87 astrocytoma cells and its non-malignant counterpart, primary human astrocytes. Total cell RNA as well as RNA from immunoprecipitated RISC was analyzed. The novel findings were fourfold: (1 miRNAs were highly enriched in astrocyte RISC compared to U-87 astrocytoma RISC, (2 astrocytoma and primary astrocyte cells each contained unique RISC miRNA profiles as compared to their respective cellular miRNA profiles, (3 miR-195, 10b, 29b, 19b, 34a and 455-3p levels were increased and the miR-181b level was decreased in U-87 astrocytoma RISC as compared to astrocyte RISC, and (4 the RISC contained decreased levels of mRNAs in primary astrocyte and U-87 astrocytoma cells.The observation that miR-34a and miR-195 levels were increased in the RISC of U-87 astrocytoma cells suggests an oncogenic role for these miRNAs. Differential regulation of mRNAs by specific miRNAs is evidenced by the observation that three miR34a-targeted mRNAs and two miR-195-targeted mRNAs were downregulated while one miR-195-targeted mRNA was upregulated. Biological pathway analysis of RISC mRNA components suggests that the RISC plays a pivotal role in malignancy and other conditions. This study points to the importance of the RISC and ultimately GW/P body composition and function in miRNA and mRNA deregulation in astrocytoma cells and possibly in other malignancies.

  4. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 identified as autoantigens by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Muncrief, T

    2000-01-01

    ribonucleoproteins. The clinical spectrum of patients with these autoantibodies includes arthritis, psoriasis, myositis, and scleroderma. None of 59 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 19 with polymyositis, 33 with scleroderma, and 10 with psoriatic arthritis had similar antibodies. High-resolution protein...

  5. The Thoc1 Ribonucleoprotein as a Novel Biomarker for Prostate Cancer Treatment Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    for prostate cancer , the work may impact development of diagnostic /prognostic products based on pThoc1. The presence of the THO ribonucleoprotin...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0475 TITLE: The Thoc1 Ribonucleoprotein as a Novel Biomarker for Prostate Cancer Treatment Assignment PRINCIPAL...15Sept 2016 - 14Sep2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Thoc1 Ribonucleoprotein as a Novel Biomarker for Prostate 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cancer Treatment

  6. RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly studied in vivo by RNA transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, A.M.; Pederson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a method for studying RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly in vivo, by using RNA synthesized in vitro. SP6-transcribed 32 P-labeled U2 small nuclear RNA precursor molecules were introduced into cultured human 293 cells by calcium phosphate-mediated uptake, as in standard DNA transfection experiments. RNase protection mapping demonstrated that the introduced pre-U2 RNA underwent accurate 3' end processing. The introduced U2 RNA was assembled into ribonucleoprotein particles that reacted with an antibody specific for proteins known to be associated with the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle. The 3' end-processed, ribonucleoprotein-assembled U2 RNA accumulated in the nuclear fraction. When pre-U2 RNA with a 7-methylguanosine group at the 5' end was introduced into cells, it underwent conversion to a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structure, a characteristic feature of the U-small nuclear RNAs. Pre-U2 RNA introduced with an adenosine cap (Ap-ppG) also underwent processing, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein assembly, and nuclear accumulation, establishing that a methylated guanosine cap structure is not required for these steps in U2 small nuclear ribonucleprotein biosynthesis. Beyond its demonstrated usefulness in the study of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein biosynthesis, RNA transfection may be of general applicability to the investigation of eukaryotic RNA processing in vivo and may also offer opportunities for introducing therapeutically targeted RNAs (ribozymes or antisense RNA) into cells

  7. Higgs mass from neutrino-messenger mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakti, Pritibhajan; Khosa, Charanjit K.; Mummidi, V.S.; Vempati, Sudhir K.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs particle at 125 GeV has put strong constraints on minimal messenger models of gauge mediation, pushing the stop masses into the multi-TeV regime. Extensions of these models with matter-messenger mixing terms have been proposed to generate a large trilinear parameter, A t , relaxing these constraints. The detailed survey of these models (DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2013)055; 10.1007/JHEP08(2013)093 ) so far considered messenger mixings with only MSSM superfields. In the present work, we extend the survey to MSSM with inverse-seesaw mechanism. The neutrino-sneutrino corrections to the Higgs mass in the inverse seesaw model are not significant in the minimal gauge mediation model, unless one considers messenger-matter interaction terms. We classify all possible models with messenger-matter interactions and perform thorough numerical analysis to find out the promising models. We found that out of the 17 possible models 9 of them can lead to Higgs mass within the observed value without raising the sfermion masses significantly. The successful models have stop masses ∼1.5 TeV with small or negligible mixing and yet a light CP even Higgs at 125 GeV.

  8. Higgs mass from neutrino-messenger mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byakti, Pritibhajan [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India); Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,2A & 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Khosa, Charanjit K. [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mummidi, V.S. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Vempati, Sudhir K. [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-03-06

    The discovery of the Higgs particle at 125 GeV has put strong constraints on minimal messenger models of gauge mediation, pushing the stop masses into the multi-TeV regime. Extensions of these models with matter-messenger mixing terms have been proposed to generate a large trilinear parameter, A{sub t}, relaxing these constraints. The detailed survey of these models (DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2013)055; 10.1007/JHEP08(2013)093 ) so far considered messenger mixings with only MSSM superfields. In the present work, we extend the survey to MSSM with inverse-seesaw mechanism. The neutrino-sneutrino corrections to the Higgs mass in the inverse seesaw model are not significant in the minimal gauge mediation model, unless one considers messenger-matter interaction terms. We classify all possible models with messenger-matter interactions and perform thorough numerical analysis to find out the promising models. We found that out of the 17 possible models 9 of them can lead to Higgs mass within the observed value without raising the sfermion masses significantly. The successful models have stop masses ∼1.5 TeV with small or negligible mixing and yet a light CP even Higgs at 125 GeV.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, P.C.; Westmore, K.; Augood, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [ 35 S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [ 35 S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase-positive cells

  10. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emson, P C; Westmore, K; Augood, S J [MRC Molecular Neuroscience Group, The Department of Neurobiology, The Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-11

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [{sup 35}S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [{sup 35}S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase

  11. Cytoplasmic influence of nucleolar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sibdas

    1974-01-01

    The role of cytoplasmic factors on the development of nucleolus in nucleus has been investigated in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells using tritiated thymidine/uridine for autoradiography. It is inferred from the observations that the cytoplasmic factors has some but not absolute control over the development of nucleolus. (M.G.B.)

  12. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sound + images show Bailey was out in the India-Australia match on 12 Jan 2016. Image credit: Rediff / Fox news / Twitter. Page 10. Electromagnetic follow up: the Indian context. Page 11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves | LIGO-G1601377-v2. Varun Bhalerao (IUCAA) | 1 July 2016. 11. 20 – 60 keV:.

  14. Messenger RNA surveillance: neutralizing natural nonsense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischelfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Porse, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Messenger RNA transcripts that contain premature stop codons are degraded by a process termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Although previously thought of as a pathway that rids the cell of non-functional mRNAs arising from mutations and processing errors, new research suggests a more general...

  15. Mobile MSN Messenger: Still a Complement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nyberg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how mobile instant messaging services can fit into the users’ current communication behavior, Ericsson Research performed a qualitative user study in Sweden in May 2007. The results showed that the respondents were positive towards (free of charge mobile MSN Messenger and perceived it as an ex¬tension of the computer-based version that could be used anywhere. However, although MSN Messenger on the com¬puter definitely was considered as a ‘must-have’ application, the mobile version was only perceived as a ‘nice-to-have’ application and a complement to text mes¬saging (SMS. Almost one year later, in April 2008, Ericsson Research performed a short qualita¬tive follow-up study with the same set of respondents to un¬derstand if and how the mobile MSN Messenger usage had changed. The results actually revealed that none of the re¬spondents used mobile MSN Messenger anymore as the application no longer was free of charge. On a general level, the study highlights important considera¬tions when intro¬ducing computer-based concepts and Internet services in a mo¬bile environment.

  16. 12 CFR 7.1012 - Messenger service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service” means any service, such as a courier service or armored car service, used by a national bank and... service do not advertise, or otherwise represent, that the bank itself is providing the service, although the bank may advertise that its customers may use one or more third party messenger services to...

  17. Messenger RNA 3' end formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A G

    2008-01-01

    Messenger RNA 3' end formation is an integral step in the process that gives rise to mature, translated messenger RNAs in eukaryotes. With this step, a pre-messenger RNA is processed and polyadenylated, giving rise to a mature mRNA bearing the characteristic poly(A) tract. The poly(A) tract is a fundamental feature of mRNAs, participating in the process of translation initiation and being the focus of control mechanisms that define the lifetime of mRNAs. Thus messenger RNA 3' end formation impacts two steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. Moreover, mRNA 3' end formation is something of a bridge that integrates numerous other steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. While the process is essential for the expression of most genes, it is also one that is subject to various forms of regulation, such that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression may be modulated via the polyadenylation complex. In this review, the current status of understanding of mRNA 3' end formation in plants is discussed. In particular, the nature of mRNA 3' ends in plants is reviewed, as are recent studies that are beginning to yield insight into the functioning and regulation of plant polyadenylation factor subunits.

  18. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The TROVE module: A common element in Telomerase, Ro and Vault ribonucleoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribonucleoproteins carry out a variety of important tasks in the cell. In this study we show that a number of these contain a novel module, that we speculate mediates RNA-binding. Results The TROVE module – Telomerase, Ro and Vault module – is found in TEP1 and Ro60 the protein components of three ribonucleoprotein particles. This novel module, consisting of one or more domains, may be involved in binding the RNA components of the three RNPs, which are telomerase RNA, Y RNA and vault RNA. A second conserved region in these proteins is shown to be a member of the vWA domain family. The vWA domain in TEP1 is closely related to the previously recognised vWA domain in VPARP a second component of the vault particle. This vWA domain may mediate interactions between these vault components or bind as yet unidentified components of the RNPs. Conclusions This work suggests that a number of ribonucleoprotein components use a common RNA-binding module. The TROVE module is also found in bacterial ribonucleoproteins suggesting an ancient origin for these ribonucleoproteins.

  20. The TROVE module: a common element in Telomerase, Ro and Vault ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Alex; Kickhoefer, Valerie

    2003-10-16

    Ribonucleoproteins carry out a variety of important tasks in the cell. In this study we show that a number of these contain a novel module, that we speculate mediates RNA-binding. The TROVE module--Telomerase, Ro and Vault module--is found in TEP1 and Ro60 the protein components of three ribonucleoprotein particles. This novel module, consisting of one or more domains, may be involved in binding the RNA components of the three RNPs, which are telomerase RNA, Y RNA and vault RNA. A second conserved region in these proteins is shown to be a member of the vWA domain family. The vWA domain in TEP1 is closely related to the previously recognised vWA domain in VPARP a second component of the vault particle. This vWA domain may mediate interactions between these vault components or bind as yet unidentified components of the RNPs. This work suggests that a number of ribonucleoprotein components use a common RNA-binding module. The TROVE module is also found in bacterial ribonucleoproteins suggesting an ancient origin for these ribonucleoproteins.

  1. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission

  2. Messengers of the universe: Session IV Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, Elisa; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2013-01-01

    Being stable, light and neutral weakly interacting particles, neutrinos are ideal messengers of the deep universe and a channel of choice in particular to explore the very high energy Galactic and Extragalactic sky, playing a synergic role most notably with gamma-ray observations. Neutrino astronomy—long after the SN1987A detection in the MeV range—is mature enough for decisive tests of astrophysical paradigms. Its current status constitutes one of the two big pillars of the “Messengers of the universe” session of the Neutrino Oscillation Workshop 2012. Neutrinos may also play a role in some cosmological contexts, such as the early universe and the dark matter problem. We review both aspects in this session summary report

  3. Bacterial nucleotide-based second messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Christina; Hengge, Regine

    2009-04-01

    In all domains of life nucleotide-based second messengers transduce signals originating from changes in the environment or in intracellular conditions into appropriate cellular responses. In prokaryotes cyclic di-GMP has emerged as an important and ubiquitous second messenger regulating bacterial life-style transitions relevant for biofilm formation, virulence, and many other bacterial functions. This review describes similarities and differences in the architecture of the cAMP, (p)ppGpp, and c-di-GMP signaling systems and their underlying signaling principles. Moreover, recent advances in c-di-GMP-mediated signaling will be presented and the integration of c-di-GMP signaling with other nucleotide-based signaling systems will be discussed.

  4. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancil, J.

    1995-01-01

    'The Energy Messenger' is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities

  5. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancil, J. [ed.

    1995-01-01

    `The Energy Messenger` is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities.

  6. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2010-01-01

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  7. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  8. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  9. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  10. Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.

  11. Cytosolic and Nuclear Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9-ribonucleoprotein for Gene Editing Using Arginine Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mout, Rubul; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-10-20

    In this protocol, engineered Cas9-ribonucleoprotein (Cas9 protein and sgRNA, together called Cas9-RNP) and gold nanoparticles are used to make nanoassemblies that are employed to deliver Cas9-RNP into cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Cas9 protein is engineered with an N-terminus glutamic acid tag (E-tag or En, where n = the number of glutamic acid in an E-tag and usually n = 15 or 20), C-terminus nuclear localizing signal (NLS), and a C-terminus 6xHis-tag. [Cas9En hereafter] To use this protocol, the first step is to generate the required materials (gold nanoparticles, recombinant Cas9En, and sgRNA). Laboratory-synthesis of gold nanoparticles can take up to a few weeks, but can be synthesized in large batches that can be used for many years without compromising the quality. Cas9En can be cloned from a regular SpCas9 gene (Addgene plasmid id = 47327), and expressed and purified using standard laboratory procedures which are not a part of this protocol. Similarly, sgRNA can be laboratory-synthesized using in vitro transcription from a template gene (Addgene plasmid id = 51765) or can be purchased from various sources. Once these materials are ready, it takes about ~30 min to make the Cas9En-RNP complex and 10 min to make the Cas9En-RNP/nanoparticles nanoassemblies, which are immediately used for delivery (Figure 1). Complete delivery (90-95% cytoplasmic and nuclear delivery) is achieved in less than 3 h. Follow-up editing experiments require additional time based on users' need. Synthesis of arginine functionalized gold nanoparticles (ArgNPs) (Yang et al ., 2011), expression of recombinant Cas9En, and in vitro synthesis of sgRNA is reported elsewhere (Mout et al ., 2017). We report here only the generation of the delivery vehicle i.e. , the fabrication of Cas9En-RNP/ArgNPs nanoassembly.

  12. Multi-Messenger Astronomy and Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Lars

    This chapter presents the elaborated lecture notes on Multi-Messenger Astronomy and Dark Matter given by Lars Bergström at the 40th Saas-Fee Advanced Course on "Astrophysics at Very High Energies". One of the main problems of astrophysics and astro-particle physics is that the nature of dark matter remains unsolved. There are basically three complementary approaches to try to solve this problem. One is the detection of new particles with accelerators, the second is the observation of various types of messengers from radio waves to gamma-ray photons and neutrinos, and the third is the use of ingenious experiments for direct detection of dark matter particles. After giving an introduction to the particle universe, the author discusses the relic density of particles, basic cross sections for neutrinos and gamma-rays, supersymmetric dark matter, detection methods for neutralino dark matter, particular dark matter candidates, the status of dark matter detection, a detailled calculation on an hypothetical "Saas-Fee Wimp", primordial black holes, and gravitational waves.

  13. Mercury's Interior from MESSENGER Radio Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provided precise radio tracking data in orbit about Mercury for more than 4 years, from March 2011 to April 2015. These geodetic measurements enable us to investigate the interior structure of the planet from the inner core to the crust. The first three years of radio data allowed us to determine the gravity field of Mercury with a resolution of 150 km in the northern hemisphere (degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics) since the periapsis was located at higher latitudes (>65˚N) and 200-500 km altitudes. The comparison of this gravity solution with Mercury's topography, which was retrieved by using over 25 million individual measurements of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), resulted in a preliminary map of the crustal thickness of the planet. However, those results were limited by the resolution of the gravity field since the topography was defined in spherical harmonics up to degree and order 125. The last year of the MESSENGER extended mission was dedicated to a low-altitude campaign, where the spacecraft periapsis was maintained at altitudes between 25 and 100 km. The radio data collected during this mission phase allowed us to significantly improve the resolution of the gravity field locally in the northern hemisphere up to degree and order 100 in spherical harmonics. We present the gravity anomalies and crustal thickness maps that lead to a better understanding on the formation and evolution of specific regions. We present our estimated orientation model, which slightly differs from the solutions that were obtained by using Earth-based radar measurements and the co-registration of MESSENGER imaging and altimetry data. These previous estimates provide a direct measurement of the surface response, whereas the orientation model from gravity is more sensitive to the inner and outer core. A discrepancy between core and surface obliquities may provide fundamental

  14. Immunolocalization of 7-2-ribonucleoprotein in the granular component of the nucleolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, G.; Raska, I.; Scheer, U.; Tan, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Certain autoimmune sera contain antibodies against a nucleolar ribonucleotprotein particle associated with 7-2-RNA. In this study, the authors showed by immunofluorescence microscopy that antibodies reactive with 7-2-ribonucleoprotein immunolocalized in the granular regions of actinomycin D and 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB)--segregated nucleoli from Vero cells. By electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, antigen-antibody complexes were located in the granular component of transcriptionally active nucleoli from rat liver hepatocytes and HeLa cells. Anti-7-2-RNP antibodies from two autoimmune sera immunoprecipitated a major protein of M r 40,000 from [ 35 S] methionine-labeled HeLa cell extract. The immunolocalization data suggest that 7-2-ribonucleoprotein may be involved in stages of ribosome biogenesis which take place in the granular component of the nucleolus, i.e., assembly, maturation, and/or transport of preribosomes

  15. Localization in the Nucleolus and Coiled Bodies of Protein Subunits of the Ribonucleoprotein Ribonuclease P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrous, Nayef; Wolenski, Joseph S.; Wesolowski, Donna; Lee, Christopher; Altman, Sidney

    1999-01-01

    The precise location of the tRNA processing ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease P (RNase P) and the mechanism of its intranuclear distribution have not been completely delineated. We show that three protein subunits of human RNase P (Rpp), Rpp14, Rpp29 and Rpp38, are found in the nucleolus and that each can localize a reporter protein to nucleoli of cells in tissue culture. In contrast to Rpp38, which is uniformly distributed in nucleoli, Rpp14 and Rpp29 are confined to the dense fibrillar component. Rpp29 and Rpp38 possess functional, yet distinct domains required for subnucleolar localization. The subunit Rpp14 lacks such a domain and appears to be dependent on a piggyback process to reach the nucleolus. Biochemical analysis suggests that catalytically active RNase P exists in the nucleolus. We also provide evidence that Rpp29 and Rpp38 reside in coiled bodies, organelles that are implicated in the biogenesis of several other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins required for processing of precursor mRNA. Because some protein subunits of RNase P are shared by the ribosomal RNA processing ribonucleoprotein RNase MRP, these two evolutionary related holoenzymes may share common intranuclear localization and assembly pathways to coordinate the processing of tRNA and rRNA precursors. PMID:10444065

  16. Mechanisms for cytoplasmic organization: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, L

    2000-01-01

    One of the basic characteristics of life is the intrinsic organization of cytoplasm, yet we know surprisingly little about the manner in which cytoplasmic macromolecules are arranged. It is clear that cytoplasm is not the homogeneous "soup" it was once envisioned to be, but a comprehensive model for cytoplasmic organization is not available in modern cell biology. The premise of this volume is that phase separation in cytoplasm may play a role in organization at the subcellular level. Other mechanisms for non-membrane-bounded intracellular organization have previously been proposed. Some of these will be reviewed in this chapter. Multiple mechanisms, involving phase separation, specific intracellular targeting, formation of macromolecular complexes, and channeling, all could well contribute to cytoplasmic organization. Temporal and spatial organization, as well as composition, are likely to be important in defining the characteristics of cytoplasm.

  17. Alterations in messenger RNA and small nuclear RNA metabolism resulting from fluorouracil incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.D.; Cadman, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were completed to examine the effect of 5-fluorouracil (FUra) incorporation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and small molecular weight nuclear RNA (SnRNA) metabolism. Studies of mRNA were completed using cDNA-mRNA hybridization methods to specifically examine dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mRNA. C 3 -L5178Y murine leukemia cells which are gene-amplified for DHFR, were exposed to FUra for 6, 12 or 24 hr, and the nuclear and cytoplasmic levels of DHFR-mRNA determined by hybridization with 32 P-DHFR-cDNA. FUra produced a dose-dependent increase in nuclear DHFR-mRNA levels, while total cytoplasmic DHFR-mRNA levels appeared to be unchanged. To examine only mRNA synthesized during FUra exposure, cells were also treated concurrently with [ 3 H] cytidine, and the [ 3 H]mRNA-cDNA hybrids measured following S 1 -nuclease treatment. FUra produced a concentration-dependent increase in nascent nuclear DHFR-mRNA levels, and a decrease in nascent cytoplasmic DHFR-mRNAs levels. These results suggest that FUra produces either an inhibition of mRNA processing, or an inhibition of nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. Preliminary experiments to examine ATP-dependent mRNA transport were completed with isolated nuclei from cells treated with FUra for 1 or 24 hr and then pulse-labeled for 1 hr with [ 3 H] cytidine. The results demonstrate a FUra-concentration and time-dependent inhibition of ATP-mediated mRNA efflux

  18. Pathophysiological implications of the chemical messengers; Implicaciones fisiopatologicas de los mensajeros quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Fernandez, E.

    2009-07-01

    To maintain a physical organization and a different composition of its surroundings environment, living beings use a great part of the energy that they produce. Vital processes require an elevated number of reactions which are regulated and integrated by chemical messengers. They use autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and synaptic signals through receptors of cell surface, nuclear or associated with ionic channels, enzymes, trim eric G proteins and to intracellular kinases. Through these mechanisms pheromones play an important role in the relationships between different individuals, and hormones are able to regulate the integrative functions of our organism. In the nervous system, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, sensors and receptors between other messengers, play functions of great relevance, while growth factors stimulate cell proliferation and cytokines have many effects but the most important is the ones related with the control of the immflamatory process. Alterations of these messengers permit us a better understanding of the diseases and possibly of its treatments in a near future. Modifications of the expression of genes from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are responsible of monogenic, polygenic and mitochondrial diseases, while alterations in the activities of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters are related with schizophrenia, Parkinson disease and depression, respectively. Other example is the hyperthyroidism of the Graves-Bassedow disease due to the competitive interference of the LATS immunoglobulin with TSH at the level of the follicular cells producing thyroid hormones Twenty five years ago in the reviews on the mechanisms of insulin action, there was presentations in which the insulin receptor was located in the plasma membrane of the target cells while in the cytoplasm only a big interrogative was observed, that at present is replaced by chemical mediators cascades responsible of the multiple effects of insulin. This finding is similar

  19. cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablasser, Andrea; Goldeck, Marion; Cavlar, Taner; Deimling, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Röhl, Ingo; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Ludwig, Janos; Hornung, Veit

    2013-06-20

    Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both exogenous and endogenous origin. Next to its pivotal role in DNA sensing, STING also serves as a direct receptor for the detection of cyclic dinucleotides, which function as second messenger molecules in bacteria. DNA recognition, however, is triggered in an indirect fashion that depends on a recently characterized cytoplasmic nucleotidyl transferase, termed cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which upon interaction with DNA synthesizes a dinucleotide molecule that in turn binds to and activates STING. We here show in vivo and in vitro that the cGAS-catalysed reaction product is distinct from previously characterized cyclic dinucleotides. Using a combinatorial approach based on mass spectrometry, enzymatic digestion, NMR analysis and chemical synthesis we demonstrate that cGAS produces a cyclic GMP-AMP dinucleotide, which comprises a 2'-5' and a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage >Gp(2'-5')Ap(3'-5')>. We found that the presence of this 2'-5' linkage was required to exert potent activation of human STING. Moreover, we show that cGAS first catalyses the synthesis of a linear 2'-5'-linked dinucleotide, which is then subject to cGAS-dependent cyclization in a second step through a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage. This 13-membered ring structure defines a novel class of second messenger molecules, extending the family of 2'-5'-linked antiviral biomolecules.

  20. MESSENGER MERCURY RSS/MLA LEVEL 5 DERIVED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival results from radio science investigations conducted during the MESSENGER mission. Radio measurements were made using the MESSENGER...

  1. Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere: Modeling MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee; Vervack, Ronald J.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a surface-bounded exosphere comprised of atomic species including hydrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and likely oxygen. Because it is collisionless. the exosphere's composition represents a balance of the active source and loss processes. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment. GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has made high spatial-resolution observations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium near Mercury's surface and in the extended, anti-sunward direction. The most striking feature of these data has been the substantial differences in the spatial distribution of each species, Our modeling demonstrates that these differences cannot be due to post-ejection dynamics such as differences in photo-ionization rate and radiation pressure. but instead point to differences in the source mechanisms and regions on the surface from which each is ejected. The observations of calcium have revealed a strong dawn/dusk asymmetry. with the abundance over the dawn hemisphere significantly greater than over the dusk. To understand this asymmetry, we use a Monte Carlo model of Mercury's exosphere that we developed to track the motions of exospheric neutrals under the influence of gravity and radiation pressure. Ca atoms can be ejected directly from the surface or produced in a molecular exosphere (e.g., one consisting of CaO). Particles are removed from the system if they stick to the surface or escape from the model region of interest (within 15 Mercury radii). Photoionization reduces the final weighting given to each particle when simulating the Ca radiance. Preliminary results suggest a high temperature ( I-2x 10(exp 4) K) source of atomic Ca concentrated over the dawn hemisphere. The high temperature is consistent with the dissociation of CaO in a near-surface exosphere with scale height <= 100 km, which imparts 2 eV to the freshly produced Ca atom. This

  2. Messenger Observations of Mercury's Bow Shock and Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, M.; Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14.2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER'S Magnetometer (MAG) (2.3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury.

  3. Biomass conversion inhibitors furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural induce formation of messenger RNP granules and attenuate translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Aya; Kawai, Takao; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Izawa, Shingo

    2013-03-01

    Various forms of stress can cause an attenuation of bulk translation activity and the accumulation of nontranslating mRNAs into cytoplasmic messenger RNP (mRNP) granules termed processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules (SGs) in eukaryotic cells. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), derived from lignocellulosic biomass, inhibit yeast growth and fermentation as stressors. Since there is no report regarding their effects on the formation of cytoplasmic mRNP granules, here we investigated whether furfural and HMF cause the assembly of yeast P-bodies and SGs accompanied by translational repression. We found that furfural and HMF cause the attenuation of bulk translation activity and the assembly of cytoplasmic mRNP granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Notably, a combination of furfural and HMF induced the remarkable repression of translation initiation and SG formation. These findings provide new information about the physiological effects of furfural and HMF on yeast cells, and also suggest the potential usefulness of cytoplasmic mRNP granules as a warning sign or index of the deterioration of cellular physiological status in the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  4. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  5. Cyclic [G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] Is the Metazoan Second Messenger Produced by DNA-Activated Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Pu; Ascano, Manuel; Wu, Yang; Barchet, Winfried; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Zillinger, Thomas; Serganov, Artem A.; Liu, Yizhou; Jones, Roger A.; Hartmann, Gunther; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) as a metazoan second messenger triggering an interferon response. cGAMP is generated from GTP and ATP by cytoplasmic dsDNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS). We combined structural, chemical, biochemical, and cellular assays to demonstrate that this second messenger contains G(2′,5′)pA and A(3′,5′)pG phosphodiester linkages, designated c[G(2′,5′) pA(3′,5′)p]. We show that, upon dsDNA binding, cGAS is activated through conformational transitions, res...

  6. The Crust of Mercury After the MESSENGER Gravity Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; Goossens, S.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of an improved analysis of the entire MESSENGER radio tracking dataset to derive key geophysical parameters of Mercury such as its gravity field. In particular, we derive and interpret a new crustal thickness model.

  7. Planetary Ions at Mercury: Unanswered Questions After MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We will discuss the key open questions relating to planetary ions, including the behavior of recently created photoions, the near absence of Ca+ / K+ in MESSENGER ion measurements, and the role of ion sputtering in the system.

  8. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapmaking with a Messenger Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Næss, Sigurd K.

    2018-01-01

    We apply a messenger field method to solve the linear minimum-variance mapmaking equation in the context of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. In simulations, the method produces sky maps that converge significantly faster than those from a conjugate gradient descent algorithm with a diagonal preconditioner, even though the computational cost per iteration is similar. The messenger method recovers large scales in the map better than conjugate gradient descent, and yields a lower overall χ2. In the single, pencil beam approximation, each iteration of the messenger mapmaking procedure produces an unbiased map, and the iterations become more optimal as they proceed. A variant of the method can handle differential data or perform deconvolution mapmaking. The messenger method requires no preconditioner, but a high-quality solution needs a cooling parameter to control the convergence. We study the convergence properties of this new method and discuss how the algorithm is feasible for the large data sets of current and future CMB experiments.

  9. Cytoplasmic assembly of snRNP particles from stored proteins and newly transcribed snRNA's in L929 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauterer, R.A.; Feeney, R.J.; Zieve, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Newly synthesized snRNAs appear transiently in the cytoplasm where they assemble into ribonucleoprotein particles, the snRNP particles, before returning permanently to the interphase nucleus. In this report, bona fide cytoplasmic fractions, prepared by cell enucleation, are used for a quantitative analysis of snRNP assembly in growing mouse fibroblasts. The half-lives and abundances of the snRNP precursors in the cytoplasm and the rates of snRNP assembly are calculated in L929 cells. With the exception of U6, the major snRNAs are stable RNA species; U1 is almost totally stable while U2 has a half-life of about two cell cycles. In contrast, the majority of newly synthesized U6 decays with a half-life of about 15 h. The relative abundances of the newly synthesized snRNA species U1, U2, U3, U4 and U6 in the cytoplasm are determined by Northern hybridization using cloned probes and are approximately 2% of their nuclear abundance. The half-lives of the two major snRNA precursors in the cytoplasm (U1 and U2) are approximately 20 min as determined by labeling to steady state. The relative abundance of the snRNP B protein in the cytoplasm is determined by Western blotting with the Sm class of autoantibodies and is approximately 25% of the nuclear abundance. Kinetic studies, using the Sm antiserum to immunoprecipitate the methionine-labeled snRNP proteins, suggest that the B protein has a half-life of 90 to 120 min in the cytoplasm. These data are discussed and suggest that there is a large pool of more stable snRNP proteins in the cytoplasm available for assembly with the less abundant but more rapidly turning-over snRNAs

  10. Comparison of the ribonucleoproteins of different rabies virus serotypes by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, M; Dietzschold, B; Schneider, L G; Cox, J H [Federal Research Inst. for Animal Virus Diseases, Tuebingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) provides a sensitive serological procedure for detecting rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) as well as its specific antibodies. RIA was carried out using highly purified RNPs labelled by the chloramine-T method. This paper describes optimal conditions for iodination of RNP with high specific activity. The optimal concentrations of /sup 125/I, RNP, chloramine-T, and reducing agent as well as the effect of pH on the reaction were investigated. RIA proved to be extremely sensitive for detection of homologous antibodies. In competition experiments the part-relationship of the group-specific RNPs of the three rabies virus serotypes (HEP, MOK, and LBV) was confirmed.

  11. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  12. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  13. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  14. Processivity and coupling in messenger RNA transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of messenger RNA processing is now being uncovered by experimental techniques that are capable of detecting individual copies of mRNA in cells, and by quantitative real-time observations that reveal the kinetics. This processing is commonly modelled by permitting mRNA to be transcribed only when the promoter is in the on state. In this simple on/off model, the many processes involved in active transcription are represented by a single reaction. These processes include elongation, which has a minimum time for completion and processing that is not captured in the model.In this paper, we explore the impact on the mRNA distribution of representing the elongation process in more detail. Consideration of the mechanisms of elongation leads to two alternative models of the coupling between the elongating polymerase and the state of the promoter: Processivity allows polymerases to complete elongation irrespective of the promoter state, whereas coupling requires the promoter to be active to produce a full-length transcript. We demonstrate that these alternatives have a significant impact on the predicted distributions. Models are simulated by the Gillespie algorithm, and the third and fourth moments of the resulting distribution are computed in order to characterise the length of the tail, and sharpness of the peak. By this methodology, we show that the moments provide a concise summary of the distribution, showing statistically-significant differences across much of the feasible parameter range.We conclude that processivity is not fully consistent with the on/off model unless the probability of successfully completing elongation is low--as has been observed. The results also suggest that some form of coupling between the promoter and a rate-limiting step in transcription may explain the cell's inability to maintain high mRNA levels at low noise--a prediction of the on/off model that has no supporting evidence.

  15. Neurotoxicity of a Novel Local Anesthetic Agent, Ropivacaine: The Possible Roles of Bursts of Potential and Cytoplasmic Second Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lin Lin

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Ropivacaine reversibly elicited bursts of potential in the central snail neuron. The ropivacaine-elicited bursts of potential were associated with phospholipase C activity in the RP4 snail neuron. Our results suggest that ropivacaine-induced neurotoxicity is highly associated with phospholipase C activity and phospholipase C inhibitor may offer a novel therapeutic approach for managing local anesthetic-induced convulsion or other transient neurologic toxicity.

  16. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  17. Characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with Lead Rice cytoplasm in comparison with that with Chinsurah Boro II cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Etsuko; Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2009-02-01

    Rice with LD-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) possesses the cytoplasm of 'Lead Rice' and its fertility is recovered by a nuclear fertility restorer gene Rf1. Rf1 promotes processing of a CMS-associated mitochondrial RNA of atp6-orf79, which consists of atp6 and orf79, in BT-CMS with the cytoplasm of 'Chinsurah Boro II'. In this study, we found that LD-cytoplasm contained a sequence variant of orf79 downstream of atp6. Northern blot analysis showed that atp6-orf79 RNA of LD-cytoplasm was co-transcribed and was processed in the presence of Rf1 in the same manner as in BT-cytoplasm. Western blot analysis showed that the ORF79 peptide did not accumulate in an LD-CMS line, while ORF79 accumulated in a BT-CMS line and was diminished by Rf1. These results suggest that accumulation of ORF79 is not the cause of CMS in LD-cytoplasm and the mechanism of male-sterility induction/fertility restoration in LD-CMS is different from that in BT-CMS.

  18. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabiditis elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature. Cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans at the one-cell stage is bidirectional; the flow near the cortex (“cortical flow”) is oriented toward the anterior, whereas the flow in the central region (“cytoplasmic flow”) is oriented toward the posterior. Both cortical flow and cytoplasmic flow depend on non-muscle-myosin II (NMY-2), which primarily localizes in the cortex. The manner in which NMY-2 proteins drive cytoplasmic flow in the opposite direction from remote locations has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate the forces generated by the cortical myosin to drive bidirectional streaming throughout the cytoplasm. We quantified the flow velocities of cytoplasmic streaming using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and conducted a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation using the moving particle semiimplicit method. Our simulation quantitatively reconstructed the quantified flow velocity distribution resolved through PIV analysis. Furthermore, our PIV analyses detected microtubule-dependent flows during the pronuclear migration stage. These flows were reproduced via hydrodynamic interactions between moving pronuclei and the cytoplasm. The agreement of flow dynamics in vivo and in simulation indicates that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans embryos. PMID:21730185

  19. Some Metabolites Act as Second Messengers in Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamat Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of some key metabolic intermediates play essential roles in regulating the longevity of the chronologically aging yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These key metabolites are detected by certain ligand-specific protein sensors that respond to concentration changes of the key metabolites by altering the efficiencies of longevity-defining cellular processes. The concentrations of the key metabolites that affect yeast chronological aging are controlled spatially and temporally. Here, we analyze mechanisms through which the spatiotemporal dynamics of changes in the concentrations of the key metabolites influence yeast chronological lifespan. Our analysis indicates that a distinct set of metabolites can act as second messengers that define the pace of yeast chronological aging. Molecules that can operate both as intermediates of yeast metabolism and as second messengers of yeast chronological aging include reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, glycerol, trehalose, hydrogen peroxide, amino acids, sphingolipids, spermidine, hydrogen sulfide, acetic acid, ethanol, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerol. We discuss several properties that these second messengers of yeast chronological aging have in common with second messengers of signal transduction. We outline how these second messengers of yeast chronological aging elicit changes in cell functionality and viability in response to changes in the nutrient, energy, stress, and proliferation status of the cell.

  20. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  1. Generalized messengers of supersymmetry breaking and the sparticle mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the sparticle spectrum in models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. In these models, supersymmetry is spontaneously broken at an energy scale only a few orders of magnitude above the electroweak scale. The breakdown of supersymmetry is communicated to the standard model particles and their superpartners by open-quotes messengerclose quotes fields through their ordinary gauge interactions. We study the effects of a messenger sector in which the supersymmetry-violating F-term contributions to messenger scalar masses are comparable to the supersymmetry-preserving ones. We also argue that it is not particularly natural to restrict attention to models in which the messenger fields lie in complete SU(5) ground unified theory multiplets, and we identify a much larger class of viable models. Remarkably, however, we find that the superpartner mass parameters in these models are still subject to many significant contraints. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshon, B.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach (Epo) Team

    2010-12-01

    How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science In the film The Last Starfighter, an alien civilization grooms their future champion—a kid on Earth—using a video game. As he gains proficiency in the game, he masters the skills he needs to pilot a starship and save their civilization. The NASA MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team is using the same tactic to train citizen scientists to help the Science Team explore the planet Mercury. We are building a new series of games that appear to be designed primarily for fun, but that guide players through a knowledge and skill set that they will need for future science missions in support of MESSENGER mission scientists. As players score points, they gain expertise. Once they achieve a sufficiently high score, they will be invited to become participants in Mercury Zoo, a new program being designed by Zooniverse. Zooniverse created Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo, programs that allow interested citizens to participate in the exploration and interpretation of galaxy and lunar data. Scientists use the citizen interpretations to further refine their exploration of the same data, thereby narrowing their focus and saving precious time. Mercury Zoo will be designed with input from the MESSENGER Science Team. This project will not only support the MESSENGER mission, but it will also add to the growing cadre of informed members of the public available to help with other citizen science projects—building on the concept that engaged, informed citizens can help scientists make new discoveries. The MESSENGER EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for Educational Resources (CERES) at Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman; National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL); National Air and Space Museum (NASM); Science

  3. Conserved regions of ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease MRP are involved in interactions with its substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga; Perederina, Anna; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2013-08-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a ubiquitous and essential site-specific eukaryotic endoribonuclease involved in the metabolism of a wide range of RNA molecules. RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein with a large catalytic RNA moiety that is closely related to the RNA component of RNase P, and multiple proteins, most of which are shared with RNase P. Here, we report the results of an ultraviolet-cross-linking analysis of interactions between a photoreactive RNase MRP substrate and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP holoenzyme. The results show that the substrate interacts with phylogenetically conserved RNA elements universally found in all enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family, as well as with a phylogenetically conserved RNA region that is unique to RNase MRP, and demonstrate that four RNase MRP protein components, all shared with RNase P, interact with the substrate. Implications for the structural organization of RNase MRP and the roles of its components are discussed.

  4. Spinal muscular atrophy: Selective motor neuron loss and global defect in the assembly of ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Christine E; Kolb, Stephen J

    2018-08-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by deletions or mutations in the SMN1 gene that result in reduced expression of the SMN protein. The SMN protein is an essential molecular chaperone that is required for the biogenesis of multiple ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes including spliceosomal small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs). Reductions in SMN expression result in a reduced abundance of snRNPs and to downstream RNA splicing alterations. SMN is also present in axons and dendrites and appears to have important roles in the formation of neuronal mRNA-protein complexes during development or neuronal repair. Thus, SMA is an exemplar, selective motor neuron disorder that is caused by defects in fundamental RNA processing events. A detailed molecular understanding of how motor neurons fail, and why other neurons do not, in SMA will yield important principals about motor neuron maintenance and neuronal specificity in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear dynamics of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins revealed by live-cell imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loucaides, Eva M.; Kirchbach, Johann C. von; Foeglein, Agnes; Sharps, Jane; Fodor, Ervin; Digard, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components in living cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) displayed very slow mobility that significantly increased on formation of transcriptionally active RNPs. Conversely, single or dimeric polymerase subunits showed fast nuclear dynamics that decreased upon formation of heterotrimers, suggesting increased interaction of the full polymerase complex with a relatively immobile cellular component(s). Treatment with inhibitors of cellular transcription indicated that in part, this reflected an interaction with cellular RNA polymerase II. Analysis of mutated influenza virus polymerase complexes further suggested that this was through an interaction between PB2 and RNA Pol II separate from PB2 cap-binding activity.

  6. Peptide/Cas9 nanostructures for ribonucleoprotein cell membrane transport and gene edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostalé-Seijo, Irene; Louzao, Iria; Juanes, Marisa; Montenegro, Javier

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of RNA guided endonucleases has emerged as one of the most important tools for gene edition and biotechnology. The selectivity and simplicity of the CRISPR/Cas9 strategy allows the straightforward targeting and editing of particular loci in the cell genome without the requirement of protein engineering. However, the transfection of plasmids encoding the Cas9 and the guide RNA could lead to undesired permanent recombination and immunogenic responses. Therefore, the direct delivery of transient Cas9 ribonucleoprotein constitutes an advantageous strategy for gene edition and other potential therapeutic applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The covalent fusion of Cas9 with penetrating peptides requires multiple incubation steps with the target cells to achieve efficient levels of gene edition. These and other recent reports suggested that covalent conjugation of the anionic Cas9 ribonucleoprotein to cationic peptides would be associated with a hindered nuclease activity due to undesired electrostatic interactions. We here report a supramolecular strategy for the direct delivery of Cas9 by an amphiphilic penetrating peptide that was prepared by a hydrazone bond formation between a cationic peptide scaffold and a hydrophobic aldehyde tail. The peptide/protein non-covalent nanoparticles performed with similar efficiency and less toxicity than one of the best methods described to date. To the best of our knowledge this report constitutes the first supramolecular strategy for the direct delivery of Cas9 using a penetrating peptide vehicle. The results reported here confirmed that peptide amphiphilic vectors can deliver Cas9 in a single incubation step, with good efficiency and low toxicity. This work will encourage the search and development of conceptually new synthetic systems for transitory endonucleases direct delivery.

  7. Purification of ribonucleoproteins by a novel approach: isolation of the SSB1 ribonucleoprotein from yeast and demonstration that it has no role in mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, M E

    1992-12-29

    A novel approach is described to purify potential ribonucleoproteins (RNP) of yeast. The method assays a yeast RNP complex, assembled in vitro on actin pre-mRNA, by low-ionic strength acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The minimal protein components of this RNP complex were three proteins, one of 30 kDa and two at 42-44 kDa, defined by formation of the complex on biotinylated-RNA, binding of this complex to avidin-agarose, and salt elution of the protein in the biotinylated-RNP complex. Using the assay for RNP complex formation, an RNP protein was purified to homogeneity on the basis of its affinity towards single-stranded DNA and RNA. This RNP protein turned out to be identical to a known RNP protein, the single-stranded binding protein 1 (ssb1) of yeast, on the basis of identical gel electrophoretic migration, antibody cross-reactivity, and identical properties on the gel complex formation assay. In vitro mRNA splicing was normal in extracts made from a yeast strain missing ssb1 (ssb1- strain). Addition of anti-ssb1 antibody to splicing extracts made from a wild type strain did not inhibit or diminish splicing. Instead, mRNA splicing was reproducibly stimulated several fold, indicating competition between ssb1 and splicing factors for binding to single-stranded RNA in the extracts. RNP complexes still formed in the ssb1- strain, demonstrating that it would be possible to purify other RNP proteins from this strain using the gel complex formation assay.

  8. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS),

  9. Instant messenger-facilitated knowledge sharing and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.; Leung, D.

    2014-01-01

    The instant messenger (IM) is frequently encountered as a facilitator of communication in both social and working contexts. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the extent to which IMs bring organizational benefits, thereby overcoming interruptions to work. In this study, we focus on how IM tools

  10. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  11. Cytoplasmic Estrogen Receptor in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Allison W.; Lannin, Donald R.; Young, Gregory S.; Sherman, Mark E.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Henry, N. Lynn; Ryden, Lisa; Kim, Chungyeul; Love, Richard R.; Schiff, Rachel; Rimm, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In addition to genomic signaling, it is accepted that ERα has non-nuclear signaling functions, which correlate with tamoxifen resistance in preclinical models. However, evidence for cytoplasmic ER localization in human breast tumors is less established. We sought to determine the presence and implications of non-nuclear ER in clinical specimens. Experimental Design A panel of ERα-specific antibodies (SP1, MC20, F10, 60c, 1D5) were validated by western blot and quantitative immunofluorescent (QIF) analysis of cell lines and patient controls. Then eight retrospective cohorts collected on tissue microarrays were assessed for cytoplasmic ER. Four cohorts were from Yale (YTMA 49, 107, 130, 128) and four others (NCI YTMA 99, South Swedish Breast Cancer Group SBII, NSABP B14, and a Vietnamese Cohort) from other sites around the world. Results Four of the antibodies specifically recognized ER by western and QIF, showed linear increases in amounts of ER in cell line series with progressively increasing ER, and the antibodies were reproducible on YTMA 49 with pearson’s correlations (r2 values)ranging from 0.87-0.94. One antibody with striking cytoplasmic staining (MC20) failed validation. We found evidence for specific cytoplasmic staining with the other 4 antibodies across eight cohorts. The average incidence was 1.5%, ranging from 0 to 3.2%. Conclusions Our data shows ERα present in the cytoplasm in a number of cases using multiple antibodies, while reinforcing the importance of antibody validation. In nearly 3,200 cases, cytoplasmic ER is present at very low incidence, suggesting its measurement is unlikely to be of routine clinical value. PMID:21980134

  12. Consequences of cytoplasmic irradiation. Studies from microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongning; Hong, Mei; Chai, Yunfei; Hei, Tom K.

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing dogma for radiation biology is that genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation such as mutations and carcinogenesis are attributed mainly to direct damage to the nucleus. However, with the development of microbeam that can target precise positions inside the cells, accumulating evidences have shown that energy deposit by radiation in nuclear DNA is not required to trigger the damage, extra-nuclear or extra-cellular radiation could induce the similar biological effects as well. This review will summarize the biological responses after cytoplasm irradiated by microbeam, and the possible mechanisms involved in cytoplasmic irradiation. (author)

  13. Detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damoiseaux, Jan; Csernok, Elena; Rasmussen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    of diagnosis) from 251 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), including granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and from 924 disease controls were tested for the presence of cytoplasmic pattern/perinuclear pattern and atypical ANCA (A-ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF...

  14. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert; Ferguson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded

  15. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  16. Cyclic [G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] is the metazoan second messenger produced by DNA-activated cyclic GMP-AMP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu; Ascano, Manuel; Wu, Yang; Barchet, Winfried; Gaffney, Barbara L; Zillinger, Thomas; Serganov, Artem A; Liu, Yizhou; Jones, Roger A; Hartmann, Gunther; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2013-05-23

    Recent studies identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) as a metazoan second messenger triggering an interferon response. cGAMP is generated from GTP and ATP by cytoplasmic dsDNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS). We combined structural, chemical, biochemical, and cellular assays to demonstrate that this second messenger contains G(2',5')pA and A(3',5')pG phosphodiester linkages, designated c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p]. We show that, upon dsDNA binding, cGAS is activated through conformational transitions, resulting in formation of a catalytically competent and accessible nucleotide-binding pocket for generation of c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p]. We demonstrate that cyclization occurs in a stepwise manner through initial generation of 5'-pppG(2',5')pA prior to cyclization to c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], with the latter positioned precisely in the catalytic pocket. Mutants of cGAS dsDNA-binding or catalytic pocket residues exhibit reduced or abrogated activity. Our studies have identified c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] as a founding member of a family of metazoan 2',5'-containing cyclic heterodinucleotide second messengers distinct from bacterial 3',5' cyclic dinucleotides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brümmer, Felix; McGarrie, Moritz; Weiler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3) F symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3) F is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3) F breaking

  18. The models evaluating courier and messenger companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodakowska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a well-established, popular, and often used method for efficiency evaluation of units from all sector, both commercial and non-profit organisations, of any scale of operations. Network DEA models are a relatively recent approach used to examine the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs having an internal structure of sub-processes. The article presents the concept of DEA network models in estimating the efficiency of courier and messenger companies with relations to their business clients. The considerations are supported by an example of data concerning leaders from the sector of couriers and messengers in Poland and one of the biggest and most popular online stores. The results are compared with the traditional DEA approach. In addition, to measure reliability for DEA scores, the jackknife procedure was performed. The author proves the usefulness of network DEA as a research and management tool.

  19. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; McGarrie, Moritz; Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Weiler, Andreas; CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    2014-04-01

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3) F symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3) F is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3) F breaking.

  20. Mercury's Atmosphere and Magnetosphere: MESSENGER Third Flyby Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Johnson, Catherine L.; Gloeckler, George; Killen, Rosemary M.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; hide

    2009-01-01

    MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury en route to orbit insertion about the innermost planet took place on 29 September 2009. The earlier 14 January and 6 October 2008 encounters revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is highly dipolar and stable over the 35 years since its discovery by Mariner 10; that a structured, temporally variable exosphere extends to great altitudes on the dayside and forms a long tail in the anti-sunward direction; a cloud of planetary ions encompasses the magnetosphere from the dayside bow shock to the downstream magnetosheath and magnetotail; and that the magnetosphere undergoes extremely intense magnetic reconnect ion in response to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field. Here we report on new results derived from observations from MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), Magnetometer (MAG), and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) taken during the third flyby.

  1. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  2. Sodium ion exosphere of Mercury during MESSENGER flybys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paral, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Rankin, R.; Schriver, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 19 (2010), L19102/1-L19102/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : MESSENGER flybys * solar wind sputtering * photo-stimulated desorption Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.505, year: 2010 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010GL044413/abstract

  3. 12th International Conference on Second Messengers and Phosphoproteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuháčková, Zdena

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2004), s. 89-91 ISSN 1211-2526. [International conference on second messengers and phosphoproteins /12./. Montreal, 03.08.2004-07.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/04/0550; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : MTOR -PI3-K signalling * p70 S 6 kinase * v-Src Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  4. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  5. The Morphology of Craters on Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Oliver S.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Herrick, Robert R.; Chappelow, John E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic data measured from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft were used for investigations of the relationship between depth and diameter for impact craters on Mercury. Results using data from the MESSENGER flybys of the innermost planet indicate that most of the craters measured with MLA are shallower than those previously measured by using Mariner 10 images. MDIS images of these same MLA-measured craters show that they have been modified. The use of shadow measurement techniques, which were found to be accurate relative to the MLA results, indicate that both small bowl-shaped and large complex craters that are fresh possess depth-to-diameter ratios that are in good agreement with those measured from Mariner 10 images. The preliminary data also show that the depths of modified craters are shallower relative to fresh ones, and might provide quantitative estimates of crater in-filling by subsequent volcanic or impact processes. The diameter that defines the transition from simple to complex craters on Mercury based on MESSENGER data is consistent with that reported from Mariner 10 data.

  6. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  7. Active Yeast Telomerase Shares Subunits with Ribonucleoproteins RNase P and RNase MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Bruno; Laterreur, Nancy; Perederina, Anna; Noël, Jean-François; Dubois, Marie-Line; Krasilnikov, Andrey S; Wellinger, Raymund J

    2016-05-19

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that replenishes telomeric DNA and maintains genome integrity. Minimally, telomerase activity requires a templating RNA and a catalytic protein. Additional proteins are required for activity on telomeres in vivo. Here, we report that the Pop1, Pop6, and Pop7 proteins, known components of RNase P and RNase MRP, bind to yeast telomerase RNA and are essential constituents of the telomerase holoenzyme. Pop1/Pop6/Pop7 binding is specific and involves an RNA domain highly similar to a protein-binding domain in the RNAs of RNase P/MRP. The results also show that Pop1/Pop6/Pop7 function to maintain the essential components Est1 and Est2 on the RNA in vivo. Consistently, addition of Pop1 allows for telomerase activity reconstitution with wild-type telomerase RNA in vitro. Thus, the same chaperoning module has allowed the evolution of functionally and, remarkably, structurally distinct RNPs, telomerase, and RNases P/MRP from unrelated progenitor RNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unexpected heterogeneity derived from Cas9 ribonucleoprotein-introduced clonal cells at the HPRT1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Tetsushi; Mochida, Keiji; Nakade, Shota; Ezure, Toru; Minagawa, Sachi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Single-cell cloning is an essential technique for establishing genome-edited cell clones mediated by programmable nucleases such as CRISPR-Cas9. However, residual genome-editing activity after single-cell cloning may cause heterogeneity in the clonal cells. Previous studies showed efficient mutagenesis and rapid degradation of CRISPR-Cas9 components in cultured cells by introducing Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). In this study, we investigated how the timing for single-cell cloning of Cas9 RNP-transfected cells affected the heterogeneity of the resultant clones. We carried out transfection of Cas9 RNPs targeting several loci in the HPRT1 gene in HCT116 cells, followed by single-cell cloning at 24, 48, 72 hr and 1 week post-transfection. After approximately 3 weeks of incubation, the clonal cells were collected and genotyped by high-resolution microchip electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing. Unexpectedly, long-term incubation before single-cell cloning resulted in highly heterogeneous clones. We used a lipofection method for transfection, and the media containing transfectable RNPs were not removed before single-cell cloning. Therefore, the active Cas9 RNPs were considered to be continuously incorporated into cells during the precloning incubation. Our findings provide a warning that lipofection of Cas9 RNPs may cause continuous introduction of gene mutations depending on the experimental procedures. © 2018 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Gillet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis, we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain—dsRNA binding domain combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect. The RNP slows down nuclease activity, probably by masking the dsRNA. Furthermore, PTD-mediated internalization in insect gut cells is achieved within minutes after plasma membrane contact, limiting the exposure time of the RNPs to gut nucleases. Therefore, the RNP provides an approximately 2-fold increase in the efficiency of insect gene silencing upon oral delivery when compared to naked dsRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

  10. Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, François-Xavier; Garcia, Rayssa A; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2017-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis ), we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain-dsRNA binding domain) combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect. The RNP slows down nuclease activity, probably by masking the dsRNA. Furthermore, PTD-mediated internalization in insect gut cells is achieved within minutes after plasma membrane contact, limiting the exposure time of the RNPs to gut nucleases. Therefore, the RNP provides an approximately 2-fold increase in the efficiency of insect gene silencing upon oral delivery when compared to naked dsRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

  11. Regulatory RNPs: a novel class of ribonucleoproteins that potentially contribute to ribosome heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Poole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ribonucleoproteins (RNPs, which are comprised of noncoding RNA and associated proteins, are involved in essential cellular processes such as translation and pre-mRNA splicing. One class of RNP is the small Cajal body-specific RNP (scaRNP, which contributes to the biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs that are central components of the spliceosome. Three scaRNAs are internally processed, generating stable nucleolus-enriched RNAs of unknown function. Here, we provide data that show that these RNAs become part of RNPs we term regulatory RNPs (regRNPs. Most modifications within rRNA (predominantly pseudouridylation and ribose 2′-O-methylation are conducted by small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs, and we provide evidence that the activity of at least some of these snoRNPs is under the control of regRNPs. Because modifications within rRNA can vary in different physiological or pathological situations, rRNA modifications are thought to be the major source of ribosome heterogeneity. Our identification of regRNPs thus provides a potential mechanism for how ribosome heterogeneity may be accomplished. This work also provides additional functional connections between the Cajal body and the nucleolus.

  12. Fractionation of HeLa cell nuclear extracts reveals minor small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroemer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Upon chromatographic fractionation of HeLa cell nuclear extracts, small RNAs of 145 and 66/65 nucleotides, respectively, were detected that are distinct from the abundant small RNAs present in the extract. These RNAs are precipitated by antibodies directed against the trimethylguanosine cap structure, characteristic for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) of the U type. The RNAs of 145 and 66/65 nucleotides appear to be associated with at least one of the proteins common to the major small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles U1 to U6, since they are specifically bound by anti-Sm antibodies. These criteria characterize the RNAs that are 145 and 66/65 nucleotides in length as U-type snRNAs. Upon gel filtration, the RNAs are found within particles of molecular weights ≅ 150,000 and 115,000 respectively. The RNA of 145 nucleotides represents a different minor snRNA, designated U11, whereas the RNA of 66/65 nucleotides may correspond to either mammalian U7 or U10 RNA

  13. Targeted Gene Knockin in Porcine Somatic Cells Using CRISPR/Cas Ribonucleoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Eun Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The pig is an ideal large animal model for genetic engineering applications. A relatively short gestation interval and large litter size makes the pig a conducive model for generating and propagating genetic modifications. The domestic pig also shares close similarity in anatomy, physiology, size, and life expectancy, making it an ideal animal for modeling human diseases. Often, however, the technical difficulties in generating desired genetic modifications such as targeted knockin of short stretches of sequences or transgenes have impeded progress in this field. In this study, we have investigated and compared the relative efficiency of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoproteins in engineering targeted knockin of pseudo attP sites downstream of a ubiquitously expressed COL1A gene in porcine somatic cells and generated live fetuses by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. By leveraging these knockin pseudo attP sites, we have demonstrated subsequent phiC31 integrase mediated integration of green fluorescent protein (GFP transgene into the site. This work for the first time created an optimized protocol for CRISPR/Cas mediated knockin in porcine somatic cells, while simultaneously creating a stable platform for future transgene integration and generating transgenic animals.

  14. Apical transport of influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein requires Rab11-positive recycling endosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Momose

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs. Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently in both directions, suggestive of vesicle trafficking. Using a series of Rab family protein, we demonstrated that progeny vRNP localized to recycling endosome (RE in an active/GTP-bound Rab11-dependent manner. The vRNP interacted with Rab11 through viral RNA polymerase. The localization of vRNP to RE and subsequent accumulation to the APM were impaired by overexpression of Rab binding domains (RBD of Rab11 family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs. Similarly, no APM accumulation was observed by overexpression of class II Rab11-FIP mutants lacking RBD. These results suggest that the progeny vRNP makes use of Rab11-dependent RE machinery for APM trafficking.

  15. Nuclear TRIM25 Specifically Targets Influenza Virus Ribonucleoproteins to Block the Onset of RNA Chain Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Nicholas R; Zhou, Ligang; Guo, Yusong R; Zhao, Chen; Tao, Yizhi J; Krug, Robert M; Sawyer, Sara L

    2017-11-08

    TRIM25 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates RIG-I to promote the antiviral interferon response. The NS1 protein from all strains of influenza A virus binds TRIM25, although not all virus strains block the interferon response, suggesting alternative mechanisms for TRIM25 action. Here we present a nuclear role for TRIM25 in specifically restricting influenza A virus replication. TRIM25 inhibits viral RNA synthesis through a direct mechanism that is independent of its ubiquitin ligase activity and the interferon pathway. This activity can be inhibited by the viral NS1 protein. TRIM25 inhibition of viral RNA synthesis results from its binding to viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs), the structures containing individual viral RNA segments, the viral polymerase, and multiple viral nucleoproteins. TRIM25 binding does not inhibit initiation of capped-RNA-primed viral mRNA synthesis by the viral polymerase. Rather, the onset of RNA chain elongation is inhibited because TRIM25 prohibits the movement of RNA into the polymerase complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An association between RBMX, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and ARTS-1 regulates extracellular TNFR1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamik, Barbara; Islam, Aminul; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Hawari, Feras I.; Zhang Jing; Levine, Stewart J.

    2008-01-01

    The type I, 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) is released to the extracellular space by two mechanisms, the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains. Both pathways appear to be regulated by an interaction between TNFR1 and ARTS-1 (aminopeptidase regulator of TNFR1 shedding). Here, we sought to identify ARTS-1-interacting proteins that modulate TNFR1 release. Co-immunoprecipitation identified an association between ARTS-1 and RBMX (RNA-binding motif gene, X chromosome), a 43-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein. RNA interference attenuated RBMX expression, which reduced both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the IL-1β-mediated inducible proteolytic cleavage of soluble TNFR1 ectodomains. Reciprocally, over-expression of RBMX increased TNFR1 exosome-like vesicle release and the IL-1β-mediated inducible shedding of TNFR1 ectodomains. This identifies RBMX as an ARTS-1-associated protein that regulates both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains

  17. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzonka, Laura; Ullas, Sumana; Chinnam, Meenalakshmi; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Fisher, Daniel T; Golding, Michelle; Appenheimer, Michelle M; Nemeth, Michael J; Evans, Sharon; Goodrich, David W

    2014-01-01

    Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  18. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pitzonka

    Full Text Available Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  19. Structural basis for substrate placement by an archaeal box C/D ribonucleoprotein particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Wang, Ruiying; Yang, Fangping; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; Zhang, Xinxin; Maxwell, E Stuart; Li, Hong

    2010-09-24

    Box C/D small nucleolar and Cajal body ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/scaRNPs) direct site-specific 2'-O-methylation of ribosomal and spliceosomal RNAs and are critical for gene expression. Here we report crystal structures of an archaeal box C/D RNP containing three core proteins (fibrillarin, Nop56/58, and L7Ae) and a half-mer box C/D guide RNA paired with a substrate RNA. The structure reveals a guide-substrate RNA duplex orientation imposed by a composite protein surface and the conserved GAEK motif of Nop56/58. Molecular modeling supports a dual C/D RNP structure that closely mimics that recently visualized by electron microscopy. The substrate-bound dual RNP model predicts an asymmetric protein distribution between the RNP that binds and methylates the substrate RNA. The predicted asymmetric nature of the holoenzyme is consistent with previous biochemical data on RNP assembly and provides a simple solution for accommodating base-pairing between the C/D guide RNA and large ribosomal and spliceosomal substrate RNAs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The expanding universe of ribonucleoproteins: of novel RNA-binding proteins and unconventional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Benedikt M; Castello, Alfredo; Medenbach, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in almost all cellular processes. Regulation occurs mostly by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that recognise RNA elements and form ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to control RNA metabolism from synthesis to decay. Recently, the repertoire of RBPs was significantly expanded owing to methodological advances such as RNA interactome capture. The newly identified RNA binders are involved in diverse biological processes and belong to a broad spectrum of protein families, many of them exhibiting enzymatic activities. This suggests the existence of an extensive crosstalk between RNA biology and other, in principle unrelated, cell functions such as intermediary metabolism. Unexpectedly, hundreds of new RBPs do not contain identifiable RNA-binding domains (RBDs), raising the question of how they interact with RNA. Despite the many functions that have been attributed to RNA, our understanding of RNPs is still mostly governed by a rather protein-centric view, leading to the idea that proteins have evolved to bind to and regulate RNA and not vice versa. However, RNPs formed by an RNA-driven interaction mechanism (RNA-determined RNPs) are abundant and offer an alternative explanation for the surprising lack of classical RBDs in many RNA-interacting proteins. Moreover, RNAs can act as scaffolds to orchestrate and organise protein networks and directly control their activity, suggesting that nucleic acids might play an important regulatory role in many cellular processes, including metabolism.

  1. Functions of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins in Stem Cell Potency and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells possess huge importance in developmental biology, disease modelling, cell replacement therapy, and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine because they have the remarkable potential for self-renewal and to differentiate into almost all the cell types in the human body. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating stem cell potency and differentiation is essential and critical for extensive application. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs are modular proteins consisting of RNA-binding motifs and auxiliary domains characterized by extensive and divergent functions in nucleic acid metabolism. Multiple roles of hnRNPs in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation enable them to be effective gene expression regulators. More recent findings show that hnRNP proteins are crucial factors implicated in maintenance of stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency and cell differentiation. The hnRNPs interact with certain sequences in target gene promoter regions to initiate transcription. In addition, they recognize 3′UTR or 5′UTR of specific gene mRNA forming mRNP complex to regulate mRNA stability and translation. Both of these regulatory pathways lead to modulation of gene expression that is associated with stem cell proliferation, cell cycle control, pluripotency, and committed differentiation.

  2. Fragile X mental retardation protein stimulates ribonucleoprotein assembly of influenza A virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuo; Cao, Mengmeng; Guo, Yang; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Jingfeng; Jia, Xue; Li, Jianguo; Wang, Conghui; Gabriel, Gülsah; Xue, Qinghua; Yi, Yonghong; Cui, Sheng; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of the influenza A virus is responsible for the transcription and replication of viral RNA in the nucleus. These processes require interplay between host factors and RNP components. Here, we report that the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) targets influenza virus RNA synthesis machinery and facilitates virus replication both in cell culture and in mice. We demonstrate that FMRP transiently associates with viral RNP and stimulates viral RNP assembly through RNA-mediated interaction with the nucleoprotein. Furthermore, the KH2 domain of FMRP mediates its association with the nucleoprotein. A point mutation (I304N) in the KH2 domain, identified from a Fragile X syndrome patient, disrupts the FMRP-nucleoprotein association and abolishes the ability of FMRP to participate in viral RNP assembly. We conclude that FMRP is a critical host factor used by influenza viruses to facilitate viral RNP assembly. Our observation reveals a mechanism of influenza virus RNA synthesis and provides insights into FMRP functions.

  3. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  5. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of reviews This review focuses on recent advance in the diagnosis pathogenesis and treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis. Recent findings Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are closely associated with Wegener's granulomatosis and

  6. U1 small nuclear RNA variants differentially form ribonucleoprotein particles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarelli, Jason A; Mesa, Annia; Rodriguez, Carol E; Sharma, Shalini; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-04-25

    The U1 small nuclear (sn)RNA participates in splicing of pre-mRNAs by recognizing and binding to 5' splice sites at exon/intron boundaries. U1 snRNAs associate with 5' splice sites in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) that are comprised of the U1 snRNA and 10 core components, including U1A, U1-70K, U1C and the 'Smith antigen', or Sm, heptamer. The U1 snRNA is highly conserved across a wide range of taxa; however, a number of reports have identified the presence of expressed U1-like snRNAs in multiple species, including humans. While numerous U1-like molecules have been shown to be expressed, it is unclear whether these variant snRNAs have the capacity to form snRNPs and participate in splicing. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize biochemically the ability of previously identified human U1-like variants to form snRNPs and bind to U1 snRNP proteins. A bioinformatics analysis provided support for the existence of multiple expressed variants. In vitro gel shift assays, competition assays, and immunoprecipitations (IPs) revealed that the variants formed high molecular weight assemblies to varying degrees and associated with core U1 snRNP proteins to a lesser extent than the canonical U1 snRNA. Together, these data suggest that the human U1 snRNA variants analyzed here are unable to efficiently bind U1 snRNP proteins. The current work provides additional biochemical insights into the ability of the variants to assemble into snRNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining native MS approaches to decipher archaeal box H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particle structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Jean-Michel; Manival, Xavier; Tillault, Anne-Sophie; Atmanene, Cédric; Bobo, Claude; Branlant, Christiane; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Charpentier, Bruno; Cianférani, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Site-specific isomerization of uridines into pseudouridines in RNAs is catalyzed either by stand-alone enzymes or by box H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/sRNPs). The archaeal box H/ACA sRNPs are five-component complexes that consist of a guide RNA and the aCBF5, aNOP10, L7Ae, and aGAR1 proteins. In this study, we performed pairwise incubations of individual constituents of archaeal box H/ACA sRNPs and analyzed their interactions by native MS to build a 2D-connectivity map of direct binders. We describe the use of native MS in combination with ion mobility-MS to monitor the in vitro assembly of the active H/ACA sRNP particle. Real-time native MS was used to monitor how box H/ACA particle functions in multiple-turnover conditions. Native MS also unambiguously revealed that a substrate RNA containing 5-fluorouridine (f(5) U) was hydrolyzed into 5-fluoro-6-hydroxy-pseudouridine (f(5) ho(6) Ψ). In terms of enzymatic mechanism, box H/ACA sRNP was shown to catalyze the pseudouridylation of a first RNA substrate, then to release the RNA product (S22 f(5) ho(6) ψ) from the RNP enzyme and reload a new substrate RNA molecule. Altogether, our native MS-based approaches provide relevant new information about the potential assembly process and catalytic mechanism of box H/ACA RNPs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. N-methylation of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Several of the core proteins on the 40S heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (hnRNP) from HeLa cells contain N/sup G/,N/sup G/-dimethyl-L-arginine (uDMA). 3-deazaadenosine (c 3 Ado), an inhibitor of and substrate for s-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, has been used to study the methylation patterns of the individual polypeptides. Trimethyllysine and uDMA formation in total cellular protein were inhibited in the presence of the drug while other methylated basic amino acids were unaffected. This inhibition was reversed within 60 min after removal of the drug from the medium. Monolayer HeLa cultures were incubated with [methyl- 3 H]-L-methoinine for 12 hours in the presence of 50 uM c 3 Ado. Purified particles were obtained by centrifugation of nuclear extracts on sucrose density gradients. The core proteins were isolated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, acid hydrolyzed and analyzed for radioactivity incorporated into methionine and methylated basic amino acids. The ratio of radioactivity incorporated into uDMA relative to that into methionine for the two major particle proteins with molecular weights of 31,000 (A 1 ) and 43,000 (A 2 ) was about 2.0 and 0.2 in control cultures. In the presence of c 3 Ado, these ratios were depressed 60 to 80%. Results of pulse-chase experiments suggested that A 1 and A 2 are metabolically stable proteins (t/sub 0.5/ > 75 hr), whether or not the proteins were undermethylated. Monomethyl-L-arginine may be a precursor in the formation of u-DMA

  9. Mapping the Topography of Mercury with MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E..; Zubor, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter onboard MESSENGER involves unique design elements that deal with the challenges of being in orbit around Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of seven instruments on NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. MESSENGER was launched on 3 August 2004, and entered into orbit about Mercury on 18 March 2011 after a journey through the inner solar system. This involved six planetary flybys, including three of Mercury. MLA is designed to map the topography and landforms of Mercury's surface. It also measures the planet's forced libration (motion about the spin axis), which helps constrain the state of the core. The first science measurements from orbit taken with MLA were made on 29 March 2011 and continue to date. MLA had accumulated about 8.3 million laser ranging measurements to Mercury's surface, as of 31 July 2012, i.e., over six Mercury years (528 Earth days). Although MLA is the third planetary lidar built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MLA must endure a much harsher thermal environment near Mercury than the previous instruments on Mars and Earth satellites. The design of MLA was derived in part from that of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor. However, MLA must range over greater distances and often in off-nadir directions from a highly eccentric orbit. In MLA we use a single-mode diode-pumped Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser that is highly collimated to maintain a small footprint on the planet. The receiver has both a narrow field of view and a narrow spectral bandwidth to minimize the amount of background light detected from the sunlit hemisphere of Mercury. We achieve the highest possible receiver sensitivity by employing the minimum receiver detection threshold.

  10. MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin. James A.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER'S second flyby of Mercury on October 6,2008, very intense reconnection was observed between the planet's magnetic field and a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dawn magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field normal to its surface, approx.14 nT, that implies a rate of reconnection approx.10 times the typical rate at Earth and a cross-magnetospheric electric potential drop of approx.30 kV. The highest magnetic field observed during this second flyby, approx.160 nT, was found at the core of a large dayside flux transfer event (FTE). This FTE is estimated to contain magnetic flux equal to approx.5% that of Mercury's magnetic tail or approximately one order of magnitude higher fraction of the tail flux than is typically found for FTEs at Earth. Plasmoid and traveling compression region (TCR) signatures were observed throughout MESSENGER'S traversal of Mercury's magnetotail with a repetition rate comparable to the Dungey cycle time of approx.2 min. The TCR signatures changed from south-north, indicating tailward motion, to north-south, indicating sunward motion, at a distance approx.2.6 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius) behind the terminator indicating that the near-Mercury magnetotail neutral line was crossed at that point. Overall, these new MESSENGER observations suggest that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause is very intense relative to what is found at Earth and other planets, while reconnection in Mercury's tail is similar to that in other planetary magnetospheres, but with a very short Dungey cycle time.

  11. Mercury's complex exosphere: results from MESSENGER's third flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J; McClintock, William E; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Anderson, Brian J; Burger, Matthew H; Bradley, E Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2010-08-06

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal altitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere.

  12. Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Phillips, Roger J; Peale, Stanton J; Head, James W; Hauck, Steven A; McNutt, Ralph L; Oberst, Jürgen; Neumann, Gregory A; Lemoine, Frank G; Sun, Xiaoli; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Harmon, John K

    2008-07-04

    A 3200-kilometers-long profile of Mercury by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft spans approximately 20% of the near-equatorial region of the planet. Topography along the profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer dynamic range and 930-meter root-mean-square roughness. At long wavelengths, topography slopes eastward by 0.02 degrees , implying a variation of equatorial shape that is at least partially compensated. Sampled craters on Mercury are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part the result of Mercury's higher gravity. Crater floors vary in roughness and slope, implying complex modification over a range of length scales.

  13. Mercury's Complex Exosphere: Results from MESSENGER's Third Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Burger, Matthew H.; Bradley, E. Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal attitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere,

  14. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 3 NEUTRON SPECTROMETER CDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer (NS) calibrated data records (CDRs). The NS experiment is a neutron spectrometer...

  15. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS DDR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as DDRs. The system...

  16. Modeling MESSENGER Observations of Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew Howard; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sprague, Ann L.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2012-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft has made the first high-spatial-resolution observations of exospheric calcium at Mercury. We use a Monte Carlo model of the exosphere to track the trajectories of calcium atoms ejected from the surface until they are photoionized, escape from the system, or stick to the surface. This model permits an exploration of exospheric source processes and interactions among neutral atoms, solar radiation, and the planetary surface. The MASCS data have suggested that a persistent, high-energy source of calcium that was enhanced in the dawn, equatorial region of Mercury was active during MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury and during the first seven orbits for which MASCS obtained data. The total Ca source rate from the surface varied between 1.2x10(exp 23) and 2.6x10(exp 23) Ca atoms/s, if its temperature was 50,000 K. The origin of this high-energy, asymmetric source is unknown, although from this limited data set it does not appear to be consistent with micrometeoroid impact vaporization, ion sputtering, electron-stimulated desorption, or vaporization at dawn of material trapped on the cold nightside.

  17. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: White Dwarf Binaries, LISA and GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Michael; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves has ushered in a new era in astronomy. The low-frequency band covered by the future LISA detector provides unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy. With the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA) mission, we expect to discover about 1,000 eclipsing binary systems composed of a WD and a main sequence star - a sizeable increase from the approximately 34 currently known binaries of this type. In advance of the first GAIA data release and the launch of LISA within the next decade, we used the Binary Stellar Evolution (BSE) code simulate the evolution of White Dwarf Binaries (WDB) in a fixed galaxy population of about 196,000 sources. Our goal is to assess the detectability of a WDB by LISA and GAIA using the parameters from our population synthesis, we calculate GW strength h, and apparent GAIA magnitude G. We can then use a scale factor to make a prediction of how many multi- messenger sources we expect to be detectable by both LISA and GAIA in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way. We create binaries 10 times to ensure randomness in distance assignment and average our results. We then determined whether or not astronomical chirp is the difference between the total chirp and the GW chirp. With Astronomical chirp and simulations of mass transfer and tides, we can gather more information about the internal astrophysics of stars in ultra-compact binary systems.

  18. Cytoplasmic Hu-Antigen R (HuR) Expression is Associated with Poor Survival in Patients with Surgically Resected Cholangiocarcinoma Treated with Adjuvant Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Naru; Uemura, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Naoya; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2018-05-01

    Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability, translation, and nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of HuR in cholangiocarcinoma patients who received adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (AGC) after surgical resection. Nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 131 patients with resected cholangiocarcinoma, including 91 patients administered AGC and 40 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The correlation between HuR expression and survival was evaluated by statistical analysis. High nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was observed in 67 (51%) and 45 (34%) patients, respectively. Cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01), while high cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival [DFS] (p = 0.03) and overall survival [OS] (p = 0.001) in the 91 patients who received AGC, but not in the 40 patients who did not receive AGC (DFS p = 0.17; OS p = 0.07). In the multivariate analysis of patients who received AGC, high cytoplasmic HuR expression was an independent predictor of poor DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.77; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 2.09; p = 0.02). Nuclear HuR expression did not affect the survival of enrolled patients. High cytoplasmic HuR expression was closely associated with the efficacy of AGC in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The current findings warrant further investigations to optimize adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for resectable cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. An In Vitro RNA Synthesis Assay for Rabies Virus Defines Ribonucleoprotein Interactions Critical for Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Benjamin; Liang, Bo; Gardner, Erica; Ross, Robin A; Whelan, Sean P J

    2017-01-01

    We report an in vitro RNA synthesis assay for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of rabies virus (RABV). We expressed RABV large polymerase protein (L) in insect cells from a recombinant baculovirus vector and the phosphoprotein cofactor (P) in Escherichia coli and purified the resulting proteins by affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Using chemically synthesized short RNA corresponding to the first 19 nucleotides (nt) of the rabies virus genome, we demonstrate that L alone initiates synthesis on naked RNA and that P serves to enhance the initiation and processivity of the RdRP. The L-P complex lacks full processivity, which we interpret to reflect the lack of the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) on the template. Using this assay, we define the requirements in P for stimulation of RdRP activity as residues 11 to 50 of P and formally demonstrate that ribavirin triphosphate (RTP) inhibits the RdRP. By comparing the properties of RABV RdRP with those of the related rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we demonstrate that both polymerases can copy the heterologous promoter sequence. The requirements for engagement of the N-RNA template of VSV by its polymerase are provided by the C-terminal domain (CTD) of P. A chimeric RABV P protein in which the oligomerization domain (OD) and the CTD were replaced by those of VSV P stimulated RABV RdRP activity on naked RNA but was insufficient to permit initiation on the VSV N-RNA template. This result implies that interactions between L and the template N are also required for initiation of RNA synthesis, extending our knowledge of ribonucleoprotein interactions that are critical for gene expression. The current understanding of the structural and functional significance of the components of the rabies virus replication machinery is incomplete. Although structures are available for the nucleocapsid protein in complex with RNA, and also for portions of P, information on both the structure and function of the L

  20. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found

  1. Human hnRNP Q re-localizes to cytoplasmic granules upon PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat-shock treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, Alexandre J.C.; Bressan, G.C.; Gava, L.M.; Lanza, D.C.F.; Ramos, C.H.I; Kobarg, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated on different levels ranging from pre-mRNA processing to translation. One of the most characterized families of RNA-binding proteins is the group of hnRNPs: heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Members of this protein family play important roles in gene expression control and mRNAs metabolism. In the cytoplasm, several hnRNPs proteins are involved in RNA-related processes and they can be frequently found in two specialized structures, known as GW-bodies (GWbs), previously known as processing bodies: PBs, and stress granules, which may be formed in response to specific stimuli. GWbs have been early reported to be involved in the mRNA decay process, acting as a site of mRNA degradation. In a similar way, stress granules (SGs) have been described as cytoplasmic aggregates, which contain accumulated mRNAs in cells under stress conditions and present reduced or inhibited translation. Here, we characterized the hnRNP Q localization after different stress conditions. hnRNP Q is a predominantly nuclear protein that exhibits a modular organization and several RNA-related functions. Our data suggest that the nuclear localization of hnRNP Q might be modified after different treatments, such as: PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat shock. Under different stress conditions, hnRNP Q can fully co-localize with the endoplasmatic reticulum specific chaperone, BiP. However, under stress, this protein only co-localizes partially with the proteins: GW182 - GWbs marker protein and TIA-1 stress granule component

  2. Gravity, Topography, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a dynamic range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and topography have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe

  3. Dual RNA Processing Roles of Pat1b via Cytoplasmic Lsm1-7 and Nuclear Lsm2-8 Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vindry

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pat1 RNA-binding proteins, enriched in processing bodies (P bodies, are key players in cytoplasmic 5′ to 3′ mRNA decay, activating decapping of mRNA in complex with the Lsm1-7 heptamer. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence approaches coupled with RNAi, we provide evidence for a nuclear complex of Pat1b with the Lsm2-8 heptamer, which binds to the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA. Furthermore, we establish the set of interactions connecting Pat1b/Lsm2-8/U6 snRNA/SART3 and additional U4/U6.U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (tri-snRNP components in Cajal bodies, the site of snRNP biogenesis. RNA sequencing following Pat1b depletion revealed the preferential upregulation of mRNAs normally found in P bodies and enriched in 3′ UTR AU-rich elements. Changes in >180 alternative splicing events were also observed, characterized by skipping of regulated exons with weak donor sites. Our data demonstrate the dual role of a decapping enhancer in pre-mRNA processing as well as in mRNA decay via distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic Lsm complexes.

  4. Insights into the Nature of Mercury's Exosphere: Early Results from the MESSENGER Orbital Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft has been making routine observations of Mercury's exosphere since March 29, 2011. Correlations of the spatial distributions of Ca, Mg, and Na with MESSENGER magnetic field and energetic particle distribution data provide insight into the processes that populate the neutral exosphere

  5. MESSENGER observations of magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres is controlled by magnetic reconnection, a process that determines the degree of connectivity between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a planet's magnetic field. During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury, a steady southward IMF was observed and the magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field, indicating a reconnection rate ~10 times that typical at Earth. Moreover, a large flux transfer event was observed in the magnetosheath, and a plasmoid and multiple traveling compression regions were observed in Mercury's magnetotail, all products of reconnection. These observations indicate that Mercury's magnetosphere is much more responsive to IMF direction and dominated by the effects of reconnection than that of Earth or the other magnetized planets.

  6. Gravity field and internal structure of Mercury from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Hauck, Steven A; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Peale, Stanton J; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L; Torrence, Mark H; Perry, Mark E; Rowlands, David D; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W; Taylor, Anthony H

    2012-04-13

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR(2) = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(m)/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. A model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  7. Tissue distribution of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jbilo, O.; Barteles, C.F.; Chatonnet, A.; Toutant, J.P.; Lockridge, O.

    1994-12-31

    Tissue distribution of human acetyicholinesterase and butyryicholinesterase messenger RNA. 1 Cholinesterase inhibitors occur naturally in the calabar bean (eserine), green potatoes (solanine), insect-resistant crab apples, the coca plant (cocaine) and snake venom (fasciculin). There are also synthetic cholinesterase inhibitors, for example man-made insecticides. These inhibitors inactivate acetyicholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as well as other targets. From a study of the tissue distribution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase mRNA by Northern blot analysis, we have found the highest levels of butyrylcholinesterase mRNA in the liver and lungs, tissues known as the principal detoxication sites of the human body. These results indicate that butyrylcholinesterase may be a first line of defense against poisons that are eaten or inhaled.

  8. New Understanding of Mercury's Magnetosphere from MESSENGER'S First Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, M.; Korth, Haje; hide

    2008-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft on 14 January 2008 have revealed new features of the solar system's smallest planetary magnetosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field orientation was unfavorable for large inputs of energy from the solar wind and no evidence of magnetic substorms, internal magnetic reconnection, or energetic particle acceleration was detected. Large-scale rotations of the magnetic field were measured along the dusk flank of the magnetosphere and ultra-tow frequency waves were frequently observed beginning near closest approach. Outbound the spacecraft encountered two current-sheet boundaries across which the magnetic field intensity decreased in a step-like manner. The outer current sheet is the magnetopause boundary. The inner current sheet is similar in structure, but weaker and -1000 km closer to the planet. Between these two current sheets the magnetic field intensity is depressed by the diamagnetic effect of planetary ions created by the photo-ionization of Mercury's exosphere.

  9. The evolution of Mercury's crust: a global perspective from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W; Robinson, Mark S; Solomon, Sean C; Murchie, Scott L; Blewett, David T; Domingue, Deborah L; McCoy, Timothy J; Ernst, Carolyn M; Head, James W; Watters, Thomas R; Chabot, Nancy L

    2009-05-01

    Mapping the distribution and extent of major terrain types on a planet's surface helps to constrain the origin and evolution of its crust. Together, MESSENGER and Mariner 10 observations of Mercury now provide a near-global look at the planet, revealing lateral and vertical heterogeneities in the color and thus composition of Mercury's crust. Smooth plains cover approximately 40% of the surface, and evidence for the volcanic origin of large expanses of plains suggests that a substantial portion of the crust originated volcanically. A low-reflectance, relatively blue component affects at least 15% of the surface and is concentrated in crater and basin ejecta. Its spectral characteristics and likely origin at depth are consistent with its apparent excavation from a lower crust or upper mantle enriched in iron- and titanium-bearing oxides.

  10. The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Sun, Xiaoli; Bartels, Arlin E.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne marie; McGarry, Jan F.; Trunzo, Raymond; Britt, Jamie L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload science instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, which launched on 3 August 2004. The altimeter will measure the round trip time-of-flight of transmitted laser pulses reflected from the surface of the planet that, in combination with the spacecraft orbit position and pointing data, gives a high-precision measurement of surface topography referenced to Mercury's center of mass. The altimeter measurements will be used to determine the planet's forced librations by tracking the motion of large-scale topographic features as a function of time. MLA's laser pulse energy monitor and the echo pulse energy estimate will provide an active measurement of the surface reflectivity at 1064 nm. This paper describes the instrument design, prelaunch testing, calibration, and results of post-launch testing.

  11. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: scientific objectives and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Gold, Robert E.; Acuña, Mario H.; Baker, Daniel N.; Boynton, William V.; Chapman, Clark R.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Gloeckler, George; Head, James W., III; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Peale, Stanton J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Robinson, Mark S.; Slavin, James A.; Smith, David E.; Strom, Robert G.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2001-12-01

    Mercury holds answers to several critical questions regarding the formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets. These questions include the origin of Mercury's anomalously high ratio of metal to silicate and its implications for planetary accretion processes, the nature of Mercury's geological evolution and interior cooling history, the mechanism of global magnetic field generation, the state of Mercury's core, and the processes controlling volatile species in Mercury's polar deposits, exosphere, and magnetosphere. The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission has been designed to fly by and orbit Mercury to address all of these key questions. After launch by a Delta 2925H-9.5, two flybys of Venus, and two flybys of Mercury, orbit insertion is accomplished at the third Mercury encounter. The instrument payload includes a dual imaging system for wide and narrow fields-of-view, monochrome and color imaging, and stereo; X-ray and combined gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers for surface chemical mapping; a magnetometer; a laser altimeter; a combined ultraviolet-visible and visible-near-infrared spectrometer to survey both exospheric species and surface mineralogy; and an energetic particle and plasma spectrometer to sample charged species in the magnetosphere. During the flybys of Mercury, regions unexplored by Mariner 10 will be seen for the first time, and new data will be gathered on Mercury's exosphere, magnetosphere, and surface composition. During the orbital phase of the mission, one Earth year in duration, MESSENGER will complete global mapping and the detailed characterization of the exosphere, magnetosphere, surface, and interior.

  12. MESSENGER Observations of ULF Waves in Mercury's Foreshock Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Chi, Peter J.; Bardsen, Scott; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth s is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury s bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury s foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury s foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the 1-Hz waves in the Earth s foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth s foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  13. The molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Ito, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to angiosperms. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming have long remained unelucidated. Recent molecular genetic approaches have identified specific myosin members (XI-2 and XI-K as major and XI-1, XI-B, and XI-I as minor motive forces) for the generation of cytoplasmic streaming among 13 myosin XIs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Simultaneous knockout of these myosin XI members led to a reduced velocity of cytoplasmic streaming and marked defects of plant development. Furthermore, the artificial modifications of myosin XI-2 velocity changed plant and cell sizes along with the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. Therefore, we assume that cytoplasmic streaming is one of the key regulators in determining plant size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED SYNTHESIS OF VITELLOGENIN .3. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VITELLOGENIN MESSENGER-RNA FROM AVIAN LIVER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, G.; Roskam, W. G.; Dijkstra, J.; Mulder, J.; Willems, M.; van der Ende, A.; Gruber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The messenger RNA of the hormone-induced protein vitellogenin was isolated from the liver of estrogen-treated roosters. Starting from total polysomal RNA, the vitellogenin messenger was purified 67-fold by oligo (dT)-cellulose chromatography and sizing on a sucrose gradient. The messenger was

  15. Stable cavitation induces increased cytoplasmic calcium in L929 fibroblasts exposed to 1-MHz pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Higashiyama, Satoru; Yoshida, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    An increase in cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+) increase) is a second messenger that is often observed under ultrasound irradiation. We hypothesize that cavitation is a physical mechanism that underlies the increase in Ca(2+) in these experiments. To control the presence of cavitation, the wave type was controlled in a sonication chamber. One wave type largely contained a traveling wave (wave type A) while the other wave type largely contained a standing wave (wave type B). Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of a sound field produced by the wave types ascertained that stable cavitation was present only under wave type A ultrasound irradiation. Under the two controlled wave types, the increase in Ca(2+) in L929 fibroblasts was observed with fluorescence imaging. Under wave type A ultrasound irradiation, an increase in Ca(2+) was observed; however, no increase in Ca(2+) was observed under wave type B ultrasound irradiation. We conclude that stable cavitation is involved in the increase of Ca(2+) in cells subjected to pulsed ultrasound. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan; D'Amelio, Marcello; Criollo, Alfredo; Morselli, Eugenia; Zhu, Changlian; Harper, Francis; Nannmark, Ulf; Samara, Chrysanthi; Pinton, Paolo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Carnuccio, Rosa; Moll, Ute M; Madeo, Frank; Paterlini-Brechot, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Pierron, Gérard; Blomgren, Klas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Codogno, Patrice; Cecconi, Francesco; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-06-01

    Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer cells under conditions of hypoxia and nutrient depletion, allowing them to maintain high ATP levels. Inhibition of p53 led to autophagy in enucleated cells, and cytoplasmic, not nuclear, p53 was able to repress the enhanced autophagy of p53(-/-) cells. Many different inducers of autophagy (for example, starvation, rapamycin and toxins affecting the endoplasmic reticulum) stimulated proteasome-mediated degradation of p53 through a pathway relying on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2. Inhibition of p53 degradation prevented the activation of autophagy in several cell lines, in response to several distinct stimuli. These results provide evidence of a key signalling pathway that links autophagy to the cancer-associated dysregulation of p53.

  17. Cytoplasmic Dynein Promotes HIV-1 Uncoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pawlica

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral capsid (CA cores undergo uncoating during their retrograde transport (toward the nucleus, and/or after reaching the nuclear membrane. However, whether HIV-1 CA core uncoating is dependent upon its transport is not understood. There is some evidence that HIV-1 cores retrograde transport involves cytoplasmic dynein complexes translocating on microtubules. Here we investigate the role of dynein-dependent transport in HIV-1 uncoating. To interfere with dynein function, we depleted dynein heavy chain (DHC using RNA interference, and we over-expressed p50/dynamitin. In immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, DHC depletion caused an accumulation of CA foci in HIV-1 infected cells. Using a biochemical assay to monitor HIV-1 CA core disassembly in infected cells, we observed an increase in amounts of intact (pelletable CA cores upon DHC depletion or p50 over-expression. Results from these two complementary assays suggest that inhibiting dynein-mediated transport interferes with HIV-1 uncoating in infected cells, indicating the existence of a functional link between HIV-1 transport and uncoating.

  18. A physical perspective on cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E; van de Meent, Jan-Willem

    2015-08-06

    Organisms show a remarkable range of sizes, yet the dimensions of a single cell rarely exceed 100 µm. While the physical and biological origins of this constraint remain poorly understood, exceptions to this rule give valuable insights. A well-known counterexample is the aquatic plant Chara, whose cells can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Two spiralling bands of molecular motors at the cell periphery drive the cellular fluid up and down at speeds up to 100 µm s(-1), motion that has been hypothesized to mitigate the slowness of metabolite transport on these scales and to aid in homeostasis. This is the most organized instance of a broad class of continuous motions known as 'cytoplasmic streaming', found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms-algae, plants, amoebae, nematodes and flies-often in unusually large cells. In this overview of the physics of this phenomenon, we examine the interplay between streaming, transport and cell size and discuss the possible role of self-organization phenomena in establishing the observed patterns of streaming.

  19. Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody: positivity and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Téllez, Goitybell; Torres Rives, Bárbara; Rangel Velázquez, Suchiquil; Sánchez Rodríguez, Vicky; Ramos Ríos, María Antonia; Fuentes Smith, Lisset Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    To determine positivity and clinical correlation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), taking into account the interference of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). A prospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Immunology of the National Cuban Center of Medical Genetic during one year. Two hounded sixty-seven patients with indication for ANCA determination were included. ANCA and ANA determinations with different cut off points and assays were determined by indirect immunofluorescense. Anti proteinase 3 and antimyeloperoxidase antibodies were determined by ELISA. Most positivity for ANCA was seen in patients with ANCA associated, primary small-vessel vasculitides, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Presence of ANCA without positivity for proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase was higher in patients with ANA and little relation was observed between the perinuclear pattern confirmed in formalin and specificity by myeloperoxidase. Highest sensibility and specificity values for vasculitides diagnostic were achieved by ANCA determination using indirect immunofluorescense with a cut off 1/80 and confirming antigenic specificities with ELISA. ANCA can be present in a great number of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disorders in the population studied. This determination using indirect immunofluorescence and following by ELISA had a great value for vasculitis diagnosis. Anti mieloperoxidasa assay has a higher utility than the formalin assay when ANA is present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeted Genome Editing Using DNA-Free RNA-Guided Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein for CHO Cell Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongoh; Lee, Namil; Cho, Suhyung; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in the CRISPR/Cas9 system have dramatically facilitated genome engineering in various cell systems. Among the protocols, the direct delivery of the Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex into cells is an efficient approach to increase genome editing efficiency. This method uses purified Cas9 protein and in vitro transcribed sgRNA to edit the target gene without vector DNA. We have applied the RNP complex to CHO cell engineering to obtain desirable phenotypes and to reduce unintended insertional mutagenesis and off-target effects. Here, we describe our routine methods for RNP complex-mediated gene deletion including the protocols to prepare the purified Cas9 protein and the in vitro transcribed sgRNA. Subsequently, we also describe a protocol to confirm the edited genomic positions using the T7E1 enzymatic assay and next-generation sequencing.

  1. Navigating the MESSENGER Spacecraft through End of Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. G.; Williams, B. G.; Williams, K. E.; Taylor, A. H.; Carranza, E.; Page, B. R.; Stanbridge, D. R.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; O'Shaughnessy, D. J.; McAdams, J. V.; Calloway, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited the planet Mercury from March 2011 until the end of April 2015, when it impacted the planetary surface after propellant reserves used to maintain the orbit were depleted. This highly successful mission was led by the principal investigator, Sean C. Solomon, of Columbia University. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) designed and assembled the spacecraft and served as the home for spacecraft operations. Spacecraft navigation for the entirety of the mission was provided by the Space Navigation and Flight Dynamics Practice (SNAFD) of KinetX Aerospace. Orbit determination (OD) solutions were generated through processing of radiometric tracking data provided by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) using the MIRAGE suite of orbital analysis tools. The MESSENGER orbit was highly eccentric, with periapsis at a high northern latitude and periapsis altitude in the range 200-500 km for most of the orbital mission phase. In a low-altitude "hover campaign" during the final two months of the mission, periapsis altitudes were maintained within a narrow range between about 35 km and 5 km. Navigating a spacecraft so near a planetary surface presented special challenges. Tasks required to meet those challenges included the modeling and estimation of Mercury's gravity field and of solar and planetary radiation pressure, and the design of frequent orbit-correction maneuvers. Superior solar conjunction also presented observational modeling issues. One key to the overall success of the low-altitude hover campaign was a strategy to utilize data from an onboard laser altimeter as a cross-check on the navigation team's reconstructed and predicted estimates of periapsis altitude. Data obtained from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on a daily basis provided near-real-time feedback that proved invaluable in evaluating alternative orbit estimation strategies, and

  2. Nitric oxide in guard cells as an important secondary messenger during stomatal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunja eGayatri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available he modulation of guard cell function is the basis of stomatal closure, essential for optimizing water use and CO2 uptake by leaves. Nitric oxide (NO in guard cells plays a very important role as a secondary messenger during stomatal closure induced by effectors, including hormones. For example, exposure to abscisic acid (ABA triggers a marked increase in NO of guard cells, well before stomatal closure. In guard cells of multiple species, like Arabidopsis, Vicia and pea, exposure to ABA or methyl jasmonate or even microbial elicitors (e.g. chitosan induces production of NO as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS. The role of NO in stomatal closure has been confirmed by using NO donors (e.g. SNP and NO scavengers (like cPTIO and inhibitors of NOS (L-NAME or NR (tungstate. Two enzymes: a L-NAME-sensitive, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-like enzyme and a tungstate-sensitive nitrate reductase (NR, can mediate ABA-induced NO rise in guard cells. However, the existence of true NOS in plant tissues and its role in guard cell NO-production are still a matter of intense debate. Guard cell signal transduction leading to stomatal closure involves the participation of several components, besides NO, such as cytosolic pH, ROS, free Ca2+ and phospholipids. Use of fluorescent dyes has revealed that the rise in NO of guard cells occurs after the increase in cytoplasmic pH and ROS. The rise in NO causes an elevation in cytosolic free Ca2+ and promotes the efflux of cations as well as anions from guard cells. Stomatal guard cells have become a model system to study the signalling cascade mechanisms in plants, particularly with NO as a dominant component. The interrelationships and interactions of NO with cytosolic pH, ROS, and free Ca2+ are quite complex and need further detailed examination. While assessing critically the available literature, the present review projects possible areas of further work related to NO-action in stomatal guard cells.

  3. Penggunaan Aplikasi Blackberry Messenger (BBM Sebagai Media Untuk Evaluasi Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Kus Indratno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaaan teknologi ke dalam setiap sendi kehidupan mutlak diperlukan untuk masa sekarang ini. Hampir setiap orang mempunyai smartphone untuk mendukung aktivitasnya sehari-hari. Akan tetapi penggunaan teknologi yang serba canggih apabila tidak diimbangi dengan kearifan, akan berdampak pada hal negatif saja, bahkan mengaburkan fungsi penting dari teknologi itu sendiri. Blackberry messenger atau yang lebih dikenal BBM merupakan satu dari sekian banyak aplikasi yang hampir pasti ada di setiap smartphone. Sisi kecepatan transfer data dan kemudahan berkirim berkas (file menjadi daya tarik tersendiri dari aplikasi ini. Pemanfaatan BBM untuk mendukung proses evaluasi mahasiswa telah dilakukan pada penelitian ini. Mahasiswa diberikan soal kuis untuk dikerjakan pada dini hari (mulai Pkl. 03.00 s.d. 05.00, hasil pekerjaan mahasiswa dikirim menggunakan aplikasi BBM dalam bentuk gambar. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian studi lapangan. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mahasiswa merasa lebih leluasa dalam mengerjakan kuis, mereka bisa mengerjakan sesuai gaya belajar masing-masing, tidak dibatasi oleh ruang dan suasana yang menegangkan. Waktu pengerjaan dini haripun membawa pengaruh positif, dengan pikiran yang masih segar, mahasiswa bisa lebih optimal dalam mengerjakan kuis.

  4. Internet messenger based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Internet messenger (IM) has become an important educational technology component in college education, IM makes it possible for students to engage in learning and collaborating at smart virtual class learning (SVCL) using ubiquitous computing. However, the model of IM-based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application to improve engagement and behavior are still limited. In addition, the expectation that IM based SVCL using ubiquitous computing could improve engagement and behavior on smart class cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present the model of IM-based SVCL using ubiquitous computing and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous computing and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect and its contribution to learning

  5. Massive Higher Dimensional Gauge Fields as Messengers of Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, Z.; Luty, Markus A.; Ponton, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    We consider theories with one or more compact dimensions with size r > 1/M, where M is the fundamental Planck scale, with the visible and hidden sectors localized on spatially separated 3 -branes''. We show that a bulk U(1) gauge field spontaneously broken on the hidden-sector 3-brane is an attractive candidate for the messenger of supersymmetry breaking. In this scenario scalar mass-squared terms are proportional to U(1) charges, and therefore naturally conserve flavor. Arbitrary flavor violation at the Planck scale gives rise to exponentially suppressed flavor violation at low energies. Gaugino masses can be generated if the standard gauge fields propagate in the bulk; μ and Bμ terms can be generated by the Giudice-Masiero or by the VEV of a singlet in the visible sector. The latter case naturally solves the SUSY CP problem. Realistic phenomenology can be obtained either if all microscopic parameters are order one in units of M, or if the theory is strongly coupled at the scale M. (For the latter case, we estimate parameters by extending n aive dimensional analysis'' to higher-dimension theories with branes.) In either case, the only unexplained hierarchy is the l arge'' size of the extra dimensions in fundamental units, which need only be an order of magnitude. All soft masses are naturally within an order of magnitude of m 3/2 , and trilinear scalar couplings are negligible. Squark and slepton masses can naturally unify even in the absence of grand unification. (author)

  6. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  7. Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; hide

    2012-01-01

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/M(R(exp 2) = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(sub m)/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. A model for Mercury s radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  8. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  9. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Associated With Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Vincent; Lesourd, Anais; Girszyn, Nicolas; Ménard, Jean-Francois; Levesque, Hervé; Caron, Francois; Marie, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in internal medicine; and to compare clinical and biochemical features and outcome between patients exhibiting IE with and without ANCA. Fifty consecutive patients with IE underwent ANCA testing. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. Of the 50 patients with IE, 12 exhibited ANCA (24%). ANCA-positive patients with IE exhibited: longer duration between the onset of first symptoms and IE diagnosis (P = 0.02); and more frequently: weight loss (P = 0.017) and renal impairment (P = 0.08), lower levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.0009) and serum albumin (P = 0.0032), involvement of both aortic and mitral valves (P = 0.009), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.016). Under multivariate analysis, significant factors for ANCA-associated IE were: longer hospital stay (P = 0.004), lower level of serum albumin (P = 0.02), and multiple valve involvement (P = 0.04). Mortality rate was 25% in ANCA patients; death was because of IE complications in all these patients. Our study identifies a high prevalence of ANCA in unselected patients with IE in internal medicine (24%). Our findings further underscore that ANCA may be associated with a subacute form of IE leading to multiple valve involvement and more frequent renal impairment. Because death was due to IE complications in all patients, our data suggest that aggressive therapy may be required to improve such patients’ outcome. PMID:26817911

  10. MESSENGER H XRS 5 REDUCED DATA RECORD (RDR) FOOTPRINTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER XRS reduced data record (RDR) footprints which are derived from the navigational meta-data for each...

  11. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 5 VIRS DERIVED ANALYSIS DATA V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS derived analysis product, also known as the DAP. The DAP is a 500 meter per pixel mosaic map of...

  12. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 5 VIRS DERIVED ANALYSIS DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS derived analysis product, also known as the DAP. The DAP is a 500 meter per pixel mosaic map of...

  13. Evidence for a Messenger Function of Cyclic GMP During Phosphodiesterase Induction in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Pasveer, Frank J.; Meer, Rob C. van der; Heijden, Paul R. van der; Walsum, Hans van; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    Chemotactic stimulation of vegetative or aggregative Dictyostelium discoideum cells induced a transient elevation of cyclic GMP levels. The addition of chemoattractants to postvegetative cells by pulsing induced phosphodiesterase activity. The following lines of evidence suggest a messenger function

  14. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 2 GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER RAW DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER GRS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs. The GRS experiment is a gamma ray spectrometer designed...

  15. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 3 GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER CALIBDATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER GRS calibrated observations (CDRs) and the reduced data product (RDR). The GRS experiment is a gamma ray...

  16. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-01

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  17. Uniparental Inheritance Promotes Adaptive Evolution in Cytoplasmic Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes-specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance-enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution. Uniparental inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes decreases competition between different beneficial substitutions (clonal interference), promoting the accumulation of beneficial substitutions. Uniparental inheritance also facilitates selection against deleterious cytoplasmic substitutions, slowing Muller's ratchet. In addition, uniparental inheritance generally reduces genetic hitchhiking of deleterious substitutions during selective sweeps. Overall, uniparental inheritance promotes adaptive evolution by increasing the level of beneficial substitutions relative to deleterious substitutions. When we assume that cytoplasmic genome inheritance is biparental, decreasing the number of genomes transmitted during gametogenesis (bottleneck) aids adaptive evolution. Nevertheless, adaptive evolution is always more efficient when inheritance is uniparental. Our findings explain empirical observations that cytoplasmic genomes-despite their asexual mode of reproduction-can readily undergo adaptive evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Uniparental Inheritance Promotes Adaptive Evolution in Cytoplasmic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R.; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes—specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance—enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution. Uniparental inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes decreases competition between different beneficial substitutions (clonal interference), promoting the accumulation of beneficial substitutions. Uniparental inheritance also facilitates selection against deleterious cytoplasmic substitutions, slowing Muller’s ratchet. In addition, uniparental inheritance generally reduces genetic hitchhiking of deleterious substitutions during selective sweeps. Overall, uniparental inheritance promotes adaptive evolution by increasing the level of beneficial substitutions relative to deleterious substitutions. When we assume that cytoplasmic genome inheritance is biparental, decreasing the number of genomes transmitted during gametogenesis (bottleneck) aids adaptive evolution. Nevertheless, adaptive evolution is always more efficient when inheritance is uniparental. Our findings explain empirical observations that cytoplasmic genomes—despite their asexual mode of reproduction—can readily undergo adaptive evolution. PMID:28025277

  19. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  20. Early MESSENGER Results for Less Abundant or Weakly Emitting Species in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Messenger spacecraft is in orbit about Mercury, the extended observing time enables searches for exospheric species that are less abundant or weakly emitting compared with those for which emission has previously been detected. Many of these species cannot be observed from the ground because of terrestrial atmospheric absorption. We report here on the status of MESSENGER orbital-phase searches for additional species in Mercury's exosphere.

  1. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Cytoplasmic Staining of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unusual for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody with cytoplasmic pattern (cANCA to present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD without vasculitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence and characteristics of pediatrics IBD with cANCA. Methods. A retrospective review of pediatric IBD associated with cANCA serology in patients from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, between September 2002 and February 2012. Results. Out of 131 patients with IBD screened for cANCAs, cANCA was positive in 7 (5.3% patients of whom 4 had ulcerative colitis and 3 had Crohn's disease. The median age was 8.8 years (2–14.8 years. Six (86% were males. Of the 7 patients, 5 (71% were Saudi Arabians and 2 were of Indian ethnicity. The most common symptoms were diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. None had family history or clinical features suggestive of vasculitis involving renal and respiratory systems. No difference in the disease location or severity was observed between cANCA positive and cANCA negative patients apart from male preponderance in cANCA positive patients. Conclusion. The occurrence of cANCA in pediatric IBD is rare. Apart from male preponderance, there were no peculiar characteristics for the cANCA positive patients.

  2. Hepatoma-derived growth factor and nucleolin exist in the same ribonucleoprotein complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremer Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF is a protein which is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. HDGF has mitogenic, angiogenic, neurotrophic and antiapoptotic activity but the molecular mechanisms by which it exerts these activities are largely unknown nor has its biological function in tumours been elucidated. Mass spectrometry was performed to analyse the HDGFStrep-tag interactome. By Pull–down-experiments using different protein and nucleic acid constructs the interaction of HDGF and nucleolin was investigated further. Results A number of HDGFStrep-tag copurifying proteins were identified which interact with RNA or are involved in the cellular DNA repair machinery. The most abundant protein, however, copurifying with HDGF in this approach was nucleolin. Therefore we focus on the characterization of the interaction of HDGF and nucleolin in this study. We show that expression of a cytosolic variant of HDGF causes a redistribution of nucleolin into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, formation of HDGF/nucleolin complexes depends on bcl-2 mRNA. Overexpression of full length bcl-2 mRNA increases the number of HDGF/nucleolin complexes whereas expression of only the bcl-2 coding sequence abolishes interaction completely. Further examination reveals that the coding sequence of bcl-2 mRNA together with either the 5′ or 3′ UTR is sufficient for formation of HDGF/nucleolin complexes. When bcl-2 coding sequence within the full length cDNA is replaced by a sequence coding for secretory alkaline phosphatase complex formation is not enhanced. Conclusion The results provide evidence for the existence of HDGF and nucleolin containing nucleoprotein complexes which formation depends on the presence of specific mRNAs. The nature of these RNAs and other components of the complexes should be investigated in future.

  3. Orbital Normalization of MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. A.; Peplowski, P. N.; Evans, L. G.; Hamara, D. K.; Boynton, W. V.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) measures energy spectra of gamma rays emanating from the surface of Mercury. Analysis of these spectra provides elemental abundances of surface material. The MESSENGER mission necessarily provides some data normalization challenges for GRS analysis. So as to keep the spacecraft cool while orbiting the dayside of the planet, the orbits are highly eccentric, with altitudes varying from 200-500 km to ~ 15,000 km. A small fraction of time is spent at the low altitudes where gamma-ray signals are largest, requiring a large number of orbits to yield sufficient counting statistics for elemental analysis. Also, the sunshade must always shield the spacecraft from the Sun, which causes the orientation of the GRS often to be far from nadir-pointing, so the detector efficiency and attenuation of gamma rays from the planet must be known for a wide range of off-nadir orientations. An efficiency/attenuation map for the expected ranges of orientations and energies was constructed in a ground calibration experiment for a limited range of orientations using a nuclear reactor and radioisotope sources, and those results were extended to other orientations by radiation transport computations using as input a computer-aided design model of the spacecraft and its composition. This normalization has allowed abundance determinations of elements K, Th, and U from radioisotopes of these elements in the Mercury regolith during the first quarter of the year-long mission. These results provide constraints on models of Mercury's chemical and thermal evolution. The normalization of gamma-ray spectra for surface elements not having radioisotopes is considerably more complex; these gamma rays come from neutron inelastic-scatter and capture reactions in the regolith, where the neutrons are generated by cosmic ray impact onto the planet. A radiation transport computation was performed to generate the expected count rates in the neutron-generated gamma

  4. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.C.; Boyd, C.K.; Koenigsfeld, A.T.; Okamura, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  5. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring 45 Ca 2+ uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that β-endorphin 1-31 (β-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca 2+ uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that β-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca 2+ uptake was not affected by β-END 1-31. β-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca 2+ uptake by either cell type. Using [ 3 H]thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, β-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. β-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by β-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca 2+ influx was not a major mechanism involved

  6. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that {beta}-endorphin 1-31 ({beta}-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca{sup 2+} uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that {beta}-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} uptake was not affected by {beta}-END 1-31. {beta}-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca{sup 2+} uptake by either cell type. Using ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, {beta}-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. {beta}-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by {beta}-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca{sup 2+} influx was not a major mechanism involved.

  7. Limits to Mercury's Magnesium Exosphere from MESSENGER Second Flyby Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Bradley, E. Todd; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery measurements of Mercury's exospheric magnesium, obtained by the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment, GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) probe during its second Mercury flyby, are modeled to constrain the source and loss processes for this neutral species. Fits to a Chamberlain exosphere reveal that at least two source temperatures are required to reconcile the distribution of magnesium measured far from and near the planet: a hot ejection process at the equivalent temperature of several tens of thousands of degrees K, and a competing, cooler source at temperatures as low as 400 K. For the energetic component, our models indicate that the column abundance that can be attributed to sputtering under constant southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions is at least a factor of five less than the rate dictated by the measurements, Although highly uncertain, this result suggests that another energetic process, such as the rapid dissociation of exospheric MgO, may be the main source of the distant neutral component. If meteoroid and micrometeoroid impacts eject mainly molecules, the total amount of magnesium at altitudes exceeding approximately 100 km is found to be consistent with predictions by impact vaporization models for molecule lifetimes of no more than two minutes. Though a sharp increase in emission observed near the dawn terminator region can be reproduced if a single meteoroid enhanced the impact vapor at equatorial dawn, it is much more likely that observations in this region, which probe heights increasingly near the surface, indicate a reservoir of volatile Mg being acted upon by lower-energy source processes.

  8. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  9. Refractory disease in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    Purpose of review Induction treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is not always successful and nonresponding patients are considered refractory. Recent findings Refractory disease should be subdefined to the treatment that was received.

  10. Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Postigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.

  11. Evaluation of cytoplasmic genetic effects for production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2014-12-03

    Dec 3, 2014 ... Cytoplasmic genetic effects are transmitted directly only from mother to offspring through mitochondrial DNA. Normal genetic .... inheritance in three synthetic lines of beef cattle differing in mature size. J. Anim. Sci. 69, 745.

  12. Vasculitis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies associated with propylthiouracil therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, K. M.; Gans, R. O.; Vervaat, T. J.; Zevenbergen, G.; Maingay, D.; Nikkels, R. E.; Donker, A. J.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Goldschmeding, R.

    1993-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare complication of propylthiouracil therapy. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) have been described in association with several vasculitic disorders. We report detection of ANCA against human neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and myeloperoxidase in serum from six

  13. Cytoplasmic chromatin triggers inflammation in senescence and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhixun; Ghosh, Kanad; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Zhu, Jiajun; Sen, Payel; Wangensteen, Kirk J; Simithy, Johayra; Lan, Yemin; Lin, Yanping; Zhou, Zhuo; Capell, Brian C; Xu, Caiyue; Xu, Mingang; Kieckhaefer, Julia E; Jiang, Tianying; Shoshkes-Carmel, Michal; Tanim, K M Ahasan Al; Barber, Glen N; Seykora, John T; Millar, Sarah E; Kaestner, Klaus H; Garcia, Benjamin A; Adams, Peter D; Berger, Shelley L

    2017-10-19

    Chromatin is traditionally viewed as a nuclear entity that regulates gene expression and silencing. However, we recently discovered the presence of cytoplasmic chromatin fragments that pinch off from intact nuclei of primary cells during senescence, a form of terminal cell-cycle arrest associated with pro-inflammatory responses. The functional significance of chromatin in the cytoplasm is unclear. Here we show that cytoplasmic chromatin activates the innate immunity cytosolic DNA-sensing cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase linked to stimulator of interferon genes) pathway, leading both to short-term inflammation to restrain activated oncogenes and to chronic inflammation that associates with tissue destruction and cancer. The cytoplasmic chromatin-cGAS-STING pathway promotes the senescence-associated secretory phenotype in primary human cells and in mice. Mice deficient in STING show impaired immuno-surveillance of oncogenic RAS and reduced tissue inflammation upon ionizing radiation. Furthermore, this pathway is activated in cancer cells, and correlates with pro-inflammatory gene expression in human cancers. Overall, our findings indicate that genomic DNA serves as a reservoir to initiate a pro-inflammatory pathway in the cytoplasm in senescence and cancer. Targeting the cytoplasmic chromatin-mediated pathway may hold promise in treating inflammation-related disorders.

  14. Systemic delivery of siRNA in pumpkin by a plant PHLOEM SMALL RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 1-ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Jia, Weitao; Leary, Julie A; Lucas, William J

    2014-11-01

    In plants, the vascular system, specifically the phloem, functions in delivery of small RNA (sRNA) to exert epigenetic control over developmental and defense-related processes. Although the importance of systemic sRNA delivery has been established, information is currently lacking concerning the nature of the protein machinery involved in this process. Here, we show that a PHLOEM SMALL-RNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PSRP1) serves as the basis for formation of an sRNA ribonucleoprotein complex (sRNPC) that delivers sRNA (primarily 24 nt) to sink organs. Assembly of this complex is facilitated through PSRP1 phosphorylation by a phloem-localized protein kinase, PSRPK1. During long-distance transport, PSRP1-sRNPC is stable against phloem phosphatase activity. Within target tissues, phosphatase activity results in disassembly of PSRP1-sRNPC, a process that is probably required for unloading cargo sRNA into surrounding cells. These findings provide an insight into the mechanism involved in delivery of sRNA associated with systemic gene silencing in plants. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cloning of the cDNA for U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle 70K protein from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S.; Czernik, A. J.; An, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1992-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a plant cDNA that encodes U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) 70K protein. The plant U1 snRNP 70K protein cDNA is not full length and lacks the coding region for 68 amino acids in the amino-terminal region as compared to human U1 snRNP 70K protein. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the plant U1 snRNP 70K protein with the amino acid sequence of animal and yeast U1 snRNP 70K protein showed a high degree of homology. The plant U1 snRNP 70K protein is more closely related to the human counter part than to the yeast 70K protein. The carboxy-terminal half is less well conserved but, like the vertebrate 70K proteins, is rich in charged amino acids. Northern analysis with the RNA isolated from different parts of the plant indicates that the snRNP 70K gene is expressed in all of the parts tested. Southern blotting of genomic DNA using the cDNA indicates that the U1 snRNP 70K protein is coded by a single gene.

  16. Highly efficient DNA-free gene disruption in the agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata by CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meccariello, Angela; Monti, Simona Maria; Romanelli, Alessandra; Colonna, Rita; Primo, Pasquale; Inghilterra, Maria Grazia; Del Corsano, Giuseppe; Ramaglia, Antonio; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Chiarore, Antonia; Patti, Francesco; Heinze, Svenia D; Salvemini, Marco; Lindsay, Helen; Chiavacci, Elena; Burger, Alexa; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian; Bopp, Daniel; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2017-08-30

    The Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) is an invasive agricultural pest of high economic impact and has become an emerging model for developing new genetic control strategies as an alternative to insecticides. Here, we report the successful adaptation of CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption in the medfly by injecting in vitro pre-assembled, solubilized Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) loaded with gene-specific single guide RNAs (sgRNA) into early embryos. When targeting the eye pigmentation gene white eye (we), a high rate of somatic mosaicism in surviving G0 adults was observed. Germline transmission rate of mutated we alleles by G0 animals was on average above 52%, with individual cases achieving nearly 100%. We further recovered large deletions in the we gene when two sites were simultaneously targeted by two sgRNAs. CRISPR-Cas9 targeting of the Ceratitis ortholog of the Drosophila segmentation paired gene (Ccprd) caused segmental malformations in late embryos and in hatched larvae. Mutant phenotypes correlate with repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) lesions in the two targeted genes. This simple and highly effective Cas9 RNP-based gene editing to introduce mutations in C. capitata will significantly advance the design and development of new effective strategies for pest control management.

  17. The human 64-kDa polyadenylylation factor contains a ribonucleoprotein-type RNA binding domain and unusual auxiliary motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, Yoshio; Manley, J.L.; MacDonald, C.C.; Shenk, T.

    1992-01-01

    Cleavage stimulation factor is one of the multiple factors required for 3'-end cleavage of mammalian pre-mRNAs. The authors have shown previously that this factor is composed of three subunits with estimated molecular masses of 77, 64, and 50 kDa and that the 64-kDa subunit can be UV-cross linked to RNA in a polyadenylylation signal (AAUAAA)-dependent manner. They have now isolated cDNAs encoding the 64-kDa subunit of human cleavage stimulation factor. The 64-kDa subunit contains a ribonucleoprotein-type RNA binding domain in the N-terminal region and a repeat structure in the C-terminal region in which a pentapeptide sequence (consensus MEARA/G) is repeated 12 times and the formation of a long α-helix stabilized by salt bridges is predicted. An ∼270-amino acid segment surrounding this repeat structure is highly enriched in proline and glycine residues (∼20% for each). When cloned 64-kDa subunit was expressed in Escherichia coli, an N-terminal fragment containing the RNA binding domain bound to RNAs in a polyadenylylation-signal-independent manner, suggesting that the RNA binding domain is directly involved in the binding of the 64-kDa subunit to pre-mRNAs

  18. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 protein impairs DNA repair mediated through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Sueoka, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2005-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1, an RNA binding protein, is overexpressed from the early stage of lung cancers; it is evident even in bronchial dysplasia, a premalignant lesion. We evaluated the proteins bound with hnRNP B1 and found that hnRNP B1 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, and recombinant hnRNP B1 protein dose-dependently inhibited DNA-PK activity in vitro. To test the effect of hnRNP B1 on DNA repair, we performed comet assay after irradiation, using normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1: reduction of hnRNP B1 treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1 induced faster DNA repair in normal HBE cells. Considering these results, we assume that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurring in the early stage of carcinogenesis inhibits DNA-PK activity, resulting in subsequent accumulation of erroneous rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks, causing tumor progression

  19. A Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein, Pumpkin RBP50, Forms the Basis of a Phloem-Mobile Ribonucleoprotein Complex[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Brandom, Jeri L.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ringgold, Vanessa; Lough, Tony J.; Lucas, William J.

    2009-01-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are integral components of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and play a central role in RNA processing. In plants, some RBPs function in a non-cell-autonomous manner. The angiosperm phloem translocation stream contains a unique population of RBPs, but little is known regarding the nature of the proteins and mRNA species that constitute phloem-mobile RNP complexes. Here, we identified and characterized a 50-kD pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv Big Max) phloem RNA binding protein (RBP50) that is evolutionarily related to animal polypyrimidine tract binding proteins. In situ hybridization studies indicated a high level of RBP50 transcripts in companion cells, while immunolocalization experiments detected RBP50 in both companion cells and sieve elements. A comparison of the levels of RBP50 present in vascular bundles and phloem sap indicated that this protein is highly enriched in the phloem sap. Heterografting experiments confirmed that RBP50 is translocated from source to sink tissues. Collectively, these findings established that RBP50 functions as a non-cell-autonomous RBP. Protein overlay, coimmunoprecipitation, and cross-linking experiments identified the phloem proteins and mRNA species that constitute RBP50-based RNP complexes. Gel mobility-shift assays demonstrated that specificity, with respect to the bound mRNA, is established by the polypyrimidine tract binding motifs within such transcripts. We present a model for RBP50-based RNP complexes within the pumpkin phloem translocation stream. PMID:19122103

  20. Genome editing of bread wheat using biolistic delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 in vitro transcripts or ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Chen, Kunling; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jinxing; Yin, Kangquan; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2018-03-01

    This protocol is an extension to: Nat. Protoc. 9, 2395-2410 (2014); doi:10.1038/nprot.2014.157; published online 18 September 2014In recent years, CRISPR/Cas9 has emerged as a powerful tool for improving crop traits. Conventional plant genome editing mainly relies on plasmid-carrying cassettes delivered by Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. Here, we describe DNA-free editing of bread wheat by delivering in vitro transcripts (IVTs) or ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) of CRISPR/Cas9 by particle bombardment. This protocol serves as an extension of our previously published protocol on genome editing in bread wheat using CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids delivered by particle bombardment. The methods we describe not only eliminate random integration of CRISPR/Cas9 into genomic DNA, but also reduce off-target effects. In this protocol extension article, we present detailed protocols for preparation of IVTs and RNPs; validation by PCR/restriction enzyme (RE) and next-generation sequencing; delivery by biolistics; and recovery of mutants and identification of mutants by pooling methods and Sanger sequencing. To use these protocols, researchers should have basic skills and experience in molecular biology and biolistic transformation. By using these protocols, plants edited without the use of any foreign DNA can be generated and identified within 9-11 weeks.

  1. An analytical platform for mass spectrometry-based identification and chemical analysis of RNA in ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Nobe, Yuko; Masaki, Shunpei; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2009-11-01

    We describe here a mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical platform of RNA, which combines direct nano-flow reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) on a spray tip column and a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Operating RPLC under a very low flow rate with volatile solvents and MS in the negative mode, we could estimate highly accurate mass values sufficient to predict the nucleotide composition of a approximately 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA, detect post-transcriptional modifications in yeast tRNA, and perform collision-induced dissociation/tandem MS-based structural analysis of nucleolytic fragments of RNA at a sub-femtomole level. Importantly, the method allowed the identification and chemical analysis of small RNAs in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, such as the pre-spliceosomal RNP complex, which was pulled down from cultured cells with a tagged protein cofactor as bait. We have recently developed a unique genome-oriented database search engine, Ariadne, which allows tandem MS-based identification of RNAs in biological samples. Thus, the method presented here has broad potential for automated analysis of RNA; it complements conventional molecular biology-based techniques and is particularly suited for simultaneous analysis of the composition, structure, interaction, and dynamics of RNA and protein components in various cellular RNP complexes.

  2. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation and partial hepatectomy on messenger RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Newly synthesized messenger RNA, as measured by a 40 min uptake of the radioactive precursor (6- 14 C) orotic acid, was studied in the regenerating livers of non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated (1800 rad) adrenal-intact and adrenalectomized rats 24 and 48 hours after partial hepatectomy. Two groups of rats, one with and one without adrenal glands were each divided into four subgroups: (1) control rats, (2) irradiated rats, (3) partially hepatectomized rats and (4) irradiated, partially hepatectomized rats. The radioactive profile of polyribosome formation and distribution was determined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation (10 to 40 per cent). The result of this study indicates that ionizing radiation decreases the synthesis of newly formed messenger RNA in regenerating livers of adrenal-intact rats. However, adrenalectomy largely abolished that inhibition. These data suggest that the decrease in messenger RNA synthesis may be explained by the disturbance of adrenal hormones induced by partial hepatectomy and ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. The effect of addiction to mobile messenger software and mental health among physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bagherianfar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the present study is to the effect of addiction to mobile messenger software on mental health among physical education university students of Torbat-e-Heydarieh city.  Materials and Methods: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study included all physical education university students of Torbat-e-Heydarieh city. 169 students out of 302 were chosen as the sample of study, for which stratified sampling method was applied. In order to collect data, Goldberg general health questionnaire and addiction to mobile messenger software inventory were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive and illative statistics.  Results: The research findings showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between addiction to mobile messenger software's and mental health among the students of physical education (P

  5. Ultrastructure of hepatocyte nuclei in irradiated, adrenalectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orkisz, S.; Bartel, H.; Kmiec, B. (Military Medical Academy, Lodz (Poland))

    1984-01-01

    A cytochemical study of hepatocyte nuclei of adrenalectomized and irradiated rats was performed. After irradiation alone, the behaviour of the ribonucleoprotein components was studied according to Bernhard. The findings suggest that a delay occurs in the synthesis of preribosomal RNA in the nucleoli and in the transport of messenger RNA to the cytoplasm. The indirect effect of ionizing radiation on nuclear RNA synthesis is assumed to occur through the influence of cortical steroid hormones on the transcription process.

  6. Cytoplasmic Flow Enhances Organelle Dispersion in Eukaryotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslover, Elena; Mogre, Saurabh; Chan, Caleb; Theriot, Julie

    The cytoplasm of a living cell is an active environment through which intracellular components move and mix. We explore, using theoretical modeling coupled with microrheological measurements, the efficiency of particle dispersion via different modes of transport within this active environment. In particular, we focus on the role of cytoplasmic flow over different scales in contributing to organelle transport within two different cell types. In motile neutrophil cells, we show that bulk fluid flow associated with rapid cell deformation enhances particle transport to and from the cell periphery. In narrow fungal hyphae, localized flows due to hydrodynamic entrainment are shown to contribute to optimally efficient organelle dispersion. Our results highlight the importance of non-traditional modes of transport associated with flow of the cytoplasmic fluid in the distribution of organelles throughout eukaryotic cells.

  7. Generalized messenger sector for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and the soft spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Diego

    2009-01-01

    We consider a generic renormalizable and gauge invariant messenger sector and derive the sparticle mass spectrum using the formalism introduced for General Gauge Mediation. Our results recover many expressions found in the literature in various limits. Constraining the messenger sector with a global symmetry under which the spurion field is charged, we analyze Extraordinary Gauge Mediation beyond the small SUSY breaking limit. Finally, we include D-term contributions and compute their corrections to the soft masses. This leads to a perturbative framework allowing to explore models capable of fully covering the parameter space of General Gauge Mediation to the Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  8. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Marka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  9. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  10. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Cai Zhijun; Liang Kangjing; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60 Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F 1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F 2 . Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  11. Rapid, Selection-Free, High-Efficiency Genome Editing in Protozoan Parasites Using CRISPR-Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Carolina Soares Medeiros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatids (order Kinetoplastida, including the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma brucei, (African sleeping sickness, and Leishmania (leishmaniasis, affect millions of people and animals globally. T. cruzi is considered one of the least studied and most poorly understood tropical disease-causing parasites, in part because of the relative lack of facile genetic engineering tools. This situation has improved recently through the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9 technology, but a number of limitations remain, including the toxicity of continuous Cas9 expression and the long drug marker selection times. In this study, we show that the delivery of ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes composed of recombinant Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9, but not from the more routinely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9, and in vitro-transcribed single guide RNAs (sgRNAs results in rapid gene edits in T. cruzi and other kinetoplastids at frequencies approaching 100%. The highly efficient genome editing via SaCas9/sgRNA RNPs was obtained for both reporter and endogenous genes and observed in multiple parasite life cycle stages in various strains of T. cruzi, as well as in T. brucei and Leishmania major. RNP complex delivery was also used to successfully tag proteins at endogenous loci and to assess the biological functions of essential genes. Thus, the use of SaCas9 RNP complexes for gene editing in kinetoplastids provides a simple, rapid, and cloning- and selection-free method to assess gene function in these important human pathogens.

  12. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K upregulates the kinetochore complex component NUF2 and promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimasa, Hironobu; Taniue, Kenzui; Kurimoto, Akiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein involved in transcription, mRNA splicing, mRNA stabilization and translation. Although hnRNP K has been suggested to play a role in the development of many cancers, its molecular function in colorectal cancer has remained elusive. Here we show that hnRNP K plays an important role in the mitotic process in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hnRNP K directly transactivates the NUF2 gene, the product of which is a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex and which is known to be critical for a stable spindle microtubule-kinetochore attachment. In addition, knockdown of both hnRNP K and NUF2 caused failure in metaphase chromosome alignment and drastic decrease in the growth of colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the mitotic process and proliferation of colon cancer cells and that this axis could be a target for the therapy of colon cancer. - Highlights: • hnRNP K is required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. • hnRNP K binds to the promoter region of NUF2 and activates its transcription. • NUF2 expression is correlated with hnRNP K expression in colorectal cancer tissue. • hnRNP K and NUF2 are required for metaphase chromosome alignment. • The hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the proliferation of colon cancer cells

  13. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K upregulates the kinetochore complex component NUF2 and promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimasa, Hironobu; Taniue, Kenzui [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Kurimoto, Akiko [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Oncology Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd, 1-2-58, Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-8710 (Japan); Takeda, Yasuko; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Akiyama, Tetsu, E-mail: akiyama@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-03-27

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein involved in transcription, mRNA splicing, mRNA stabilization and translation. Although hnRNP K has been suggested to play a role in the development of many cancers, its molecular function in colorectal cancer has remained elusive. Here we show that hnRNP K plays an important role in the mitotic process in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hnRNP K directly transactivates the NUF2 gene, the product of which is a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex and which is known to be critical for a stable spindle microtubule-kinetochore attachment. In addition, knockdown of both hnRNP K and NUF2 caused failure in metaphase chromosome alignment and drastic decrease in the growth of colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the mitotic process and proliferation of colon cancer cells and that this axis could be a target for the therapy of colon cancer. - Highlights: • hnRNP K is required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. • hnRNP K binds to the promoter region of NUF2 and activates its transcription. • NUF2 expression is correlated with hnRNP K expression in colorectal cancer tissue. • hnRNP K and NUF2 are required for metaphase chromosome alignment. • The hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  14. Protein Kinase C-{delta} mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng-Hou [NO.3 People' s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 201900 (China); The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Wu, Ying-Li [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhao, Meng [Institute of Health Science, SJTU-SM/Shanghai Institutes for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chuan-Xu; Wang, Li-Shun [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@shsmu.edu.cn [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Institute of Health Science, SJTU-SM/Shanghai Institutes for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta ({Delta}PKC-{delta}). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the {Delta}PKC-{delta}, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that {Delta}PKC-{delta} mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-{delta} inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-{delta}-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of {Delta}PKC-{delta} in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of {Delta}PKC-{delta}. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-{delta} down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  15. The antimicrobial peptides lactoferricin B and magainin 2 cross over the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and reside in the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukland, H H; Ulvatne, H; Sandvik, K; Vorland, L H

    2001-11-23

    The localization of immunolabelled antimicrobial peptides was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were exposed to lactoferricin B (17-41), lactoferricin B (17-31) and D-lactoferricin B (17-31). E. coli was also exposed to cecropin P1 and magainin 2. The lactoferricins were found in the cytoplasm of both bacteria. In S. aureus the amount of cytoplasmic lactoferricin B (17-41) was time- and concentration-dependent, reaching a maximum within 30 min. Cecropin P1 was confined to the cell wall, while magainin 2 was found in the cytoplasm of E. coli. The finding of intracellularly localized magainin is not reported previously.

  16. Cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP): New approach for the delivery of biomolecules into cytoplasm in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daeyou; Jeon, Choonju; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mi-Seon; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV-1 TAT has been extensively documented with regard to its membrane transduction potential, as well as its efficient delivery of biomolecules in vivo. However, the majority of PTD and PTD-conjugated molecules translocate to the nucleus rather than to the cytoplasm after transduction, due to the functional nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Here, we report a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP), which was deliberately designed to ensure the efficient cytoplasmic delivery of the CTP-fused biomolecules. In comparison with PTD, CTP and its fusion partners exhibited a clear preference for cytoplasmic localization, and also markedly enhanced membrane transduction potential. Unlike the mechanism underlying PTD-mediated transduction, CTP-mediated transduction occurs independently of the lipid raft-dependent macropinocytosis pathway. The CTP-conjugated Smac/DIABLO peptide (Smac-CTP) was also shown to be much more efficient than Smac-PTD in the blockage of the antiapoptotic properties of XIAP, suggesting that cytoplasmic functional molecules can be more efficiently targeted by CTP-mediated delivery. In in vivo trafficking studies, CTP-fused β-gal exhibited unique organ tropisms to the liver and lymph nodes when systemically injected into mice, whereas PTD-β-gal exhibited no such tropisms. Taken together, our findings implicate CTP as a novel delivery peptide appropriate for (i) molecular targeting to cytoplasmic compartments in vitro, (ii) the development of class I-associated CTL vaccines, and (iii) special drug delivery in vivo, without causing any untoward effects on nuclear genetic material

  17. Animal models of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salama, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    To provide an update on the experimental models that have been developed recapitulating clinical antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. The application of the models in the study of pathogenesis, and the therapeutic implications of this, are covered in the article by van Timmeren and Heeringa in this issue.

  18. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, A.A. van; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  19. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; van Lammeren, A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  20. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study ( Houtman et al., 2007 )

  1. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication

  2. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01


    Introduction

    This manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces

  3. Cytoplasmic Domains and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channel Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro; de la Peña, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The basic architecture of the voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv channels) corresponds to a transmembrane protein core in which the permeation pore, the voltage-sensing components and the gating machinery (cytoplasmic facing gate and sensor–gate coupler) reside. Usually, large protein tails are attached to this core, hanging toward the inside of the cell. These cytoplasmic regions are essential for normal channel function and, due to their accessibility to the cytoplasmic environment, constitute obvious targets for cell-physiological control of channel behavior. Here we review the present knowledge about the molecular organization of these intracellular channel regions and their role in both setting and controlling Kv voltage-dependent gating properties. This includes the influence that they exert on Kv rapid/N-type inactivation and on activation/deactivation gating of Shaker-like and eag-type Kv channels. Some illustrative examples about the relevance of these cytoplasmic domains determining the possibilities for modulation of Kv channel gating by cellular components are also considered. PMID:22470342

  4. Actin polymerisation at the cytoplasmic face of eukaryotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David-Watine Brigitte

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists abundant molecular and ultra-structural evidence to suggest that cytoplasmic actin can physically interact with the nuclear envelope (NE membrane system. However, this interaction has yet to be characterised in living interphase cells. Results Using a fluorescent conjugate of the actin binding drug cytochalasin D (CD-BODIPY we provide evidence that polymerising actin accumulates in vicinity to the NE. In addition, both transiently expressed fluorescent actin and cytoplasmic micro-injection of fluorescent actin resulted in accumulation of actin at the NE-membrane. Consistent with the idea that the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes can support this novel pool of perinuclear actin polymerisation we show that isolated, intact, differentiated primary hepatocyte nuclei support actin polymerisation in vitro. Further this phenomenon was inhibited by treatments hindering steric access to outer-nuclear-membrane proteins (e.g. wheat germ agglutinin, anti-nesprin and anti-nucleoporin antibodies. Conclusion We conclude that actin polymerisation occurs around interphase nuclei of living cells at the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes.

  5. Experimental Analysis of Cell Function Using Cytoplasmic Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Peter; Waldhuber, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming in the fresh water alga "Nitella". Students use the fungal toxin cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, to investigate the mechanism of streaming. Students use simple statistical methods to analyze their data. Typical student data are provided. (Contains 3…

  6. Endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated microtubule alignment governs cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenji; Mamane, Alexandre; Sasaki, Tohru; Sato, Kohta; Takagi, Jun; Niwayama, Ritsuya; Hufnagel, Lars; Shimamoto, Yuta; Joanny, Jean-François; Uchida, Seiichi; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2017-04-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming refers to a collective movement of cytoplasm observed in many cell types. The mechanism of meiotic cytoplasmic streaming (MeiCS) in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes is puzzling as the direction of the flow is not predefined by cell polarity and occasionally reverses. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network structure is required for the collective flow. Using a combination of RNAi, microscopy and image processing of C. elegans zygotes, we devise a theoretical model, which reproduces and predicts the emergence and reversal of the flow. We propose a positive-feedback mechanism, where a local flow generated along a microtubule is transmitted to neighbouring regions through the ER. This, in turn, aligns microtubules over a broader area to self-organize the collective flow. The proposed model could be applicable to various cytoplasmic streaming phenomena in the absence of predefined polarity. The increased mobility of cortical granules by MeiCS correlates with the efficient exocytosis of the granules to protect the zygotes from osmotic and mechanical stresses.

  7. Magnetite nanoparticles as reporters for microcarrier processing in cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibetanz, Uta, E-mail: uta.reibetanz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM) Leipzig, Universitaet Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse 55, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Institute for Medical Physics and Biophysics, Medical Faculty, Universitaet Leipzig, Haertelstrasse 16-18, 04107 Leipzig (Germany); Jankuhn, Steffen, E-mail: jankuhn@uni-leipzig.de [Division of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Geosciences, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Office for Environmental Protection and Occupational Safety, Universitaet Leipzig, Ritterstrasse 24, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The development and therapeutic application of drug delivery systems based on colloidal microcarriers layer-by-layer coated with biopolyelectrolytes requires the investigation of their processing inside the cell for the successful and efficient transport and release of the active agents. The present study is focused on the time-dependent multilayer decomposition and the subsequent release of active agents to the cytoplasm. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were used as reporter agents integrated into the protamine sulfate/dextran sulfate basis multilayer on colloidal SiO{sub 2} cores. This functionalization allows the monitoring of the multilayer decomposition due to the detection of the MNP release, visualized by means of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) by elemental distribution of Si and Fe. The direct correlation between the microcarrier localization in endolysosomes and cytoplasm of HEK293T/17 cells via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the elemental distribution (PIXE) allows tracing the fate of the MNP-coated microcarriers in cytoplasm, and thus the processing of the multilayer. Microcarrier/cell co-incubation experiments of 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h show that a MNP release and a slight expansion into the cytoplasm occurs after a longer co-incubation of 72 h.

  8. Stabilization and Degradation Mechanisms of Cytoplasmic Ataxin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi F. Kohiyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation-prone proteins in neurodegenerative disease disrupt cellular protein stabilization and degradation pathways. The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 is caused by a coding polyglutamine expansion in the Ataxin-1 gene ( ATXN1 , which gives rise to the aggregation-prone mutant form of ATXN1 protein. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons, preferentially vulnerable in SCA1, produce ATXN1 protein in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Cytoplasmic stabilization of ATXN1 by phosphorylation and 14-3-3-mediated mechanisms ultimately drive translocation of the protein to the nucleus where aggregation may occur. However, experimental inhibition of phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding results in rapid degradation of ATXN1, thus preventing nuclear translocation and cellular toxicity. The exact mechanism of cytoplasmic ATXN1 degradation is currently unknown; further investigation of degradation may provide future therapeutic targets. This review examines the present understanding of cytoplasmic ATXN1 stabilization and potential degradation mechanisms during normal and pathogenic states.

  9. Cytoplasmic tail of coronavirus spike protein has intracellular

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/042/02/0231-0244. Keywords. Coronavirus spike protein trafficking; cytoplasmic tail signal; endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi intermediate complex; lysosome. Abstract. Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spikeprotein is ...

  10. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu

    2015-05-15

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.

  11. Realising effective theories of tribrid inflation: are there effects from messenger fields?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David

    2015-01-01

    Tribrid inflation is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in which the inflaton is a matter field (which can be charged under gauge symmetries) and inflation ends by a GUT-scale phase transition of a waterfall field. These features make tribrid inflation a promising framework for realising inflation with particularly close connections to particle physics. Superpotentials of tribrid inflation involve effective operators suppressed by some cutoff scale, which is often taken as the Planck scale. However, these operators may also be generated by integrating out messenger superfields with masses below the Planck scale, which is in fact quite common in GUT and/or flavour models. The values of the inflaton field during inflation can then lie above this mass scale, which means that for reliably calculating the model predictions one has to go beyond the effective theory description. We therefore discuss realisations of effective theories of tribrid inflation and specify in which cases effects from the messenger fields are expected, and under which conditions they can safely be neglected. In particular, we point out how to construct realisations where, despite the fact that the inflaton field values are above the messenger mass scale, the predictions for the observables are (to a good approximation) identical to the ones calculated in the effective theory treatment where the messenger mass scale is identified with the (apparent) cutoff scale

  12. Realising effective theories of tribrid inflation: are there effects from messenger fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David

    2015-09-01

    Tribrid inflation is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in which the inflaton is a matter field (which can be charged under gauge symmetries) and inflation ends by a GUT-scale phase transition of a waterfall field. These features make tribrid inflation a promising framework for realising inflation with particularly close connections to particle physics. Superpotentials of tribrid inflation involve effective operators suppressed by some cutoff scale, which is often taken as the Planck scale. However, these operators may also be generated by integrating out messenger superfields with masses below the Planck scale, which is in fact quite common in GUT and/or flavour models. The values of the inflaton field during inflation can then lie above this mass scale, which means that for reliably calculating the model predictions one has to go beyond the effective theory description. We therefore discuss realisations of effective theories of tribrid inflation and specify in which cases effects from the messenger fields are expected, and under which conditions they can safely be neglected. In particular, we point out how to construct realisations where, despite the fact that the inflaton field values are above the messenger mass scale, the predictions for the observables are (to a good approximation) identical to the ones calculated in the effective theory treatment where the messenger mass scale is identified with the (apparent) cutoff scale.

  13. Realising effective theories of tribrid inflation: are there effects from messenger fields?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel,Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nolde, David [Department of Physics, University of Basel,Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-09-22

    Tribrid inflation is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in which the inflaton is a matter field (which can be charged under gauge symmetries) and inflation ends by a GUT-scale phase transition of a waterfall field. These features make tribrid inflation a promising framework for realising inflation with particularly close connections to particle physics. Superpotentials of tribrid inflation involve effective operators suppressed by some cutoff scale, which is often taken as the Planck scale. However, these operators may also be generated by integrating out messenger superfields with masses below the Planck scale, which is in fact quite common in GUT and/or flavour models. The values of the inflaton field during inflation can then lie above this mass scale, which means that for reliably calculating the model predictions one has to go beyond the effective theory description. We therefore discuss realisations of effective theories of tribrid inflation and specify in which cases effects from the messenger fields are expected, and under which conditions they can safely be neglected. In particular, we point out how to construct realisations where, despite the fact that the inflaton field values are above the messenger mass scale, the predictions for the observables are (to a good approximation) identical to the ones calculated in the effective theory treatment where the messenger mass scale is identified with the (apparent) cutoff scale.

  14. A Contemporary, Laboratory-Intensive Course on Messenger RNA Transcription and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Sue; Miller, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) plays a pivotal role in the central dogma of molecular biology. Importantly, molecular events occurring during and after mRNA synthesis have the potential to create multiple proteins from one gene, leading to some of the remarkable protein diversity that genomes hold. The North Carolina State University…

  15. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  16. Farm Women, Solidarity, and "The Suffrage Messenger": Nebraska Suffrage Activism on the Plains, 1915-1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In 1914 Nebraska men once again voted against the amendment that would have granted full suffrage to Nebraska women. This article focuses on the three years immediately after that defeat. It explores the remaining seventeen issues of the "Suffrage Messenger" and asks the following question: how did the suffrage newspaper portray and…

  17. Audience and Witnessing: Research into Dramatherapy using Vignettes and aMSN Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phil

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the process of research undertaken to examine therapists' responses to the concept of the core processes of change in dramatherapy. The research uses a combination of vignette description and analysis using aMSN messenger. The article describes the theoretical underpinning and rationale to the approach, and the…

  18. Comparing Strategies for Health Information Dissemination: Messengers That Can Help or Hinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jessica; Greenberg, Patricia; Bagga, Margy Barbieri; Casarett, David; Propert, Kathleen

    2018-05-01

    To test the effects of different messengers on the dissemination of health information. An experimental study exposed participants to 12 news articles pertaining to 1 of 3 health topics framed from the perspective of 4 generic messengers: religious figures, doctors, celebrity patients, or ordinary patients. Participants select as many of the 12 articles as desired. A cancer clinic within a large, urban hospital serving a sociodemographically diverse patient population. Eighty-nine patients with a history of cancer. The primary outcome was the frequency with which each news story was selected. Summary statistics and a general estimating equation model. For each health topic, news articles using celebrity messengers were the least likely to be selected; almost half of the participants (36 [41.4%] of 87) rejected all such articles. Articles linked to religious figures were equally unpopular ( P = .59). Articles that used doctors or ordinary patients as the messenger were very likely to be selected: Nearly all women (84 [96.6%] of 87) selected at least one of these. Furthermore, the odds of choosing articles linked to celebrities or religious leaders were statistically significantly lower than the odds of choosing those linked to ordinary patients or doctors ( P dissemination of information. Health materials linked to celebrities or religious figures were consistently less likely to be selected than those linked to ordinary patients, or doctors.

  19. Mobile Immersion: An Experiment Using Mobile Instant Messenger to Support Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Immersion has been an acclaimed approach for second-language acquisition, but is not available to most students. The idea of this study was to create a mobile immersion environment on a smartphone using a mobile instant messenger, WhatsApp™. Forty-five Form-1 (7th grade) students divided into the Mobile Group and Control Group participated in a…

  20. Social and Virtual Networks: Evaluating Synchronous Online Interviewing Using Instant Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliffe, Vanessa; Gavin, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of the quality and utility of synchronous online interviewing for data collection in social network research. Synchronous online interviews facilitated by Instant Messenger as the communication medium, were undertaken with ten final year university students. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of…

  1. Cyclic [G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] Is the Metazoan Second Messenger Produced by DNA-Activated Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu; Ascano, Manuel; Wu, Yang; Barchet, Winfried; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Zillinger, Thomas; Serganov, Artem A.; Liu, Yizhou; Jones, Roger A.; Hartmann, Gunther; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) as a metazoan second messenger triggering an interferon response. cGAMP is generated from GTP and ATP by cytoplasmic dsDNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS). We combined structural, chemical, biochemical, and cellular assays to demonstrate that this second messenger contains G(2′,5′)pA and A(3′,5′)pG phosphodiester linkages, designated c[G(2′,5′) pA(3′,5′)p]. We show that, upon dsDNA binding, cGAS is activated through conformational transitions, resulting in formation of a catalytically competent and accessible nucleotide-binding pocket for generation of c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p]. We demonstrate that cyclization occurs in a stepwise manner through initial generation of 5′-pppG(2′,5′)pA prior to cyclization to c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p], with the latter positioned precisely in the catalytic pocket. Mutants of cGAS dsDNA-binding or catalytic pocket residues exhibit reduced or abrogated activity. Our studies have identified c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] as a founding member of a family of metazoan 2′,5′-containing cyclic heterodinucleotide second messengers distinct from bacterial 3′,5′ cyclic dinucleotides. PMID:23647843

  2. First cytoplasmic loop of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor can function at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Tose, Koji; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified into several families based on their amino acid sequences. In family 1, GPCRs such as rhodopsin and adrenergic receptor, the structure-function relationship has been extensively investigated to demonstrate that exposure of the third cytoplasmic loop is essential for selective G protein activation. In contrast, much less is known about other families. Here we prepared chimeric mutants between Gt-coupled rhodopsin and Gi/Go- and Gs-coupled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor of family 2 and tried to identify the loop region that functions at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin. We succeeded in expressing a mutant having the first cytoplasmic loop of GLP-1 receptor and found that this mutant activated Gi and Go efficiently but did not activate Gt. Moreover, the rhodopsin mutant having the first loop of Gs-coupled secretin receptor of family 2 decreased the Gi and Go activation efficiencies. Therefore, the first loop of GLP-1 receptor would share a similar role to the third loop of rhodopsin in G protein activation. This result strongly suggested that different families of GPCRs have maintained molecular architectures of their ancestral types to generate a common mechanism, namely exposure of the cytoplasmic loop, to activate peripheral G protein.

  3. Localization of calcium-binding proteins and GABA transporter (GAT-1) messenger RNA in the human subthalamic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augood, S.J.; Waldvogel, H.J.; Muenkle, M.C.; Faull, R.L.M.; Emson, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of messenger RNA encoding the human GAT-1 (a high-affinity GABA transporter) was investigated in the subthalamic nucleus of 10 neurologically normal human post mortem cases. Further, the distribution of messenger RNA and protein encoding the three neuronally expressed calcium-binding proteins (calbindin D28k, parvalbumin and calretinin) was similarly investigated using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Cellular sites of calbindin D28k, parvalbumin, calretinin and GAT-1 messenger RNA expression were localized using human-specific oligonucleotide probes radiolabelled with [ 35 S]dATP. Sites of protein localization were visualized using specific anti-calbindin D28k, anti-parvalbumin and anti-calretinin antisera. Examination of emulsion-coated tissue sections processed for in situ hybridization revealed an intense signal for GAT-1 messenger RNA within the human subthalamic nucleus, indeed the majority of Methylene Blue-counterstained cells were enriched in this transcript. Further, a marked heterogeneity was noted with regard to the expression of the messenger RNA's encoding the three calcium-binding proteins; this elliptical nucleus was highly enriched in parvalbumin messenger RNA-positive neurons and calretinin mRNA-positive cells but not calbindin messenger RNA-positive cells. Indeed, only an occasional calbindin messenger RNA-positive cell was detected within the mediolateral extent of the nucleus. In marked contrast, numerous parvalbumin messenger RNA-positive cells and calretinin messenger RNA-positive cells were detected and they were topographically distributed; parvalbumin messenger RNA-positive cells were highly enriched in the dorsal subthalamic nucleus extending mediolaterally; calretinin messenger RNA-positive cells were more enriched ventrally although some degree of overlap was apparent. Computer-assisted analysis of the average cross-sectional somatic area of parvalbumin, calretinin and GAT-1 messenger RNA

  4. ANTI-HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN B1 (ANTI-RA33 ANTIBODIES IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP autoantibodies (AAbs are encountered in many autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs. The potential diagnostic value of the RA33 AAb complex consisting of RNP A2 and alternative domains of the splicing proteins RNP B1 and RNP B2 is now of interest to rheumatologists. Subjects and methods. The authors studied the frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in 300 patients with systemic ARDs, including those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, and Sjö gren's syndrome (SS and in 53 people without ARDs, who constituted a control group. Serum anti-RNP B1 AAbs were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Results and discussion. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in patients with ARDs was much higher than that in the control group: 170/300 (56.6% and 8/53 (13% patients, respectively. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs were detected in 78.5% (113/144 of the patients with RA; 40.3% (23/57 of those with AS, in 67.5% (27/40 of those with SSc, in 36.4% (16/44 of those with SLE, and in 13.3% (2/15 of those with SS. The diagnostic sensitivity of the marker for RA was 78.5%, its diagnostic specificity was 84.9%; the likelihood ratio of positive and negative results was 5.24 and 0.24, respectively. In the patients with RA, the level of anti-RNP B1 AAbs significantly correlated with that of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while in those with SSc the detection of anti-RNP B1 AAbs was related to the rigidity of the vascular wall and the presence of hypertension. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs among the RA patients seronegative for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies was 15.4%. Conclusion. Anti-RNP B1 AAs are a useful laboratory marker (with the upper limit of the normal range being 3.3 U/ml, but are of limited value in the diagnosis of RA. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs may be regarded as an additional diagnostic marker for RA.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase 12 is induced by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and promotes migration and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, I-Che; Li, Hsin-Pai; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Chung, An-Ko; Chao, Mei; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Hsueh, Chuen; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a DNA/RNA binding protein, is associated with metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the mechanisms underlying hnRNP K-mediated metastasis is unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in hnRNP K-mediated metastasis in NPC. We studied hnRNP K-regulated MMPs by analyzing the expression profiles of MMP family genes in NPC tissues and hnRNP K-knockdown NPC cells using Affymetrix microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. The association of hnRNP K and MMP12 expression in 82 clinically proven NPC cases was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The hnRNP K-mediated MMP12 regulation was determined by zymography and Western blot, as well as by promoter, DNA pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The functional role of MMP12 in cell migration and invasion was demonstrated by MMP12-knockdown and the treatment of MMP12-specific inhibitor, PF-356231. MMP12 was overexpressed in NPC tissues, and this high level of expression was significantly correlated with high-level expression of hnRNP K (P = 0.026). The levels of mRNA, protein and enzyme activity of MMP12 were reduced in hnRNP K-knockdown NPC cells. HnRNP K interacting with the region spanning −42 to −33 bp of the transcription start site triggered transcriptional activation of the MMP12 promoter. Furthermore, inhibiting MMP12 by MMP12 knockdown and MMP12-specific inhibitor, PF-356231, significantly reduced the migration and invasion of NPC cells. Overexpression of MMP12 was significantly correlated with hnRNP K in NPC tissues. HnRNP K can induce MMP12 expression and enzyme activity through activating MMP12 promoter, which promotes cell migration and invasion in NPC cells. In vitro experiments suggest that NPC metastasis with high MMP12 expression may be treated with PF-356231. HnRNP K and MMP12 may be potential therapeutic markers for NPC, but

  6. Mechanistic and Structural Studies of Protein-Only RNase P Compared to Ribonucleoproteins Reveal the Two Faces of the Same Enzymatic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Schelcher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RNase P, the essential activity that performs the 5′ maturation of tRNA precursors, can be achieved either by ribonucleoproteins containing a ribozyme present in the three domains of life or by protein-only enzymes called protein-only RNase P (PRORP that occur in eukaryote nuclei and organelles. A fast growing list of studies has investigated three-dimensional structures and mode of action of PRORP proteins. Results suggest that similar to ribozymes, PRORP proteins have two main domains. A clear functional analogy can be drawn between the specificity domain of the RNase P ribozyme and PRORP pentatricopeptide repeat domain, and between the ribozyme catalytic domain and PRORP N4BP1, YacP-like Nuclease domain. Moreover, both types of enzymes appear to dock with the acceptor arm of tRNA precursors and make specific contacts with the corner of pre-tRNAs. While some clear differences can still be delineated between PRORP and ribonucleoprotein (RNP RNase P, the two types of enzymes seem to use, fundamentally, the same catalytic mechanism involving two metal ions. The occurrence of PRORP and RNP RNase P represents a remarkable example of convergent evolution. It might be the unique witness of an ongoing replacement of catalytic RNAs by proteins for enzymatic activities.

  7. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  8. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kevin Pfister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  9. Amorphous areas in the cytoplasm of Dendrobium tepal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Wouter G.; Kirasak, Kanjana; Ketsa, Saichol

    2013-01-01

    In Dendrobium flowers some tepal mesophyll cells showed cytoplasmic areas devoid of large organelles. Such amorphous areas comprised up to about 40% of the cross-section of a cell. The areas were not bound by a membrane. The origin of these areas is not known. We show data suggesting that they can be formed from vesicle-like organelles. The data imply that these organelles and other material become degraded inside the cytoplasm. This can be regarded as a form of autophagy. The amorphous areas became surrounded by small vacuoles, vesicles or double membranes. These seemed to merge and thereby sequester the areas. Degradation of the amorphous areas therefore seemed to involve macroautophagy. PMID:23823702

  10. WhatsApp Messenger as an Adjunctive Tool for Telemedicine: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre; Dias Belangero, William; Esteves Santos Pires, Robinson; Labronici, Pedro

    2017-07-21

    The advent of telemedicine has allowed physicians to deliver medical treatment to patients from a distance. Mobile apps such as WhatsApp Messenger, an instant messaging service, came as a novel concept in all fields of social life, including medicine. The use of instant messaging services has been shown to improve communication within medical teams by providing means for quick teleconsultation, information sharing, and starting treatment as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive systematic review of present literature on the use of the WhatsApp Messenger app as an adjunctive health care tool for medical doctors. Searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the term "whatsapp*" in articles published before January 2016. A bibliography of all relevant original articles that used the WhatsApp Messenger app was created. The level of evidence of each study was determined according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence ranking system produced by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The impact and the indications of WhatsApp Messenger are discussed in order to understand the extent to which this app currently functions as an adjunctive tool for telemedicine. The database search identified a total of 30 studies in which the term "whatsapp*" was used. Each article's list of references was evaluated item-by-item. After literature reviews, letters to the editor, and low-quality studies were excluded, a total of 10 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. Of these studies, 9 had been published in the English language and 1 had been published in Spanish. Five were published by medical doctors. The pooled data presents compelling evidence that the WhatsApp Messenger app is a promising system, whether used as a communication tool between health care professionals, as a means of communication between health care professionals and the general public, or as a learning tool for providing health care information

  11. Mercury Conditions for the MESSENGER Mission Simulated in High- Solar-Radiation Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, planned for launch in March 2004, will perform two flybys of Mercury before entering a year-long orbit of the planet in September 2009. The mission will provide opportunities for detailed characterization of the surface, interior, atmosphere, and magnetosphere of the closest planet to the Sun. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the MESSENGER spacecraft integrator, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, have partnered under a Space Act Agreement to characterize a variety of critical components and materials under simulated conditions expected near Mercury. Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, which is equipped with a solar simulator, can simulate the vacuum and high solar radiation anticipated in Mercury orbit. The MESSENGER test hardware includes a variety of materials and components that are being characterized during the Tank 6 vacuum tests, where the hardware will be exposed to up to 11 suns insolation, simulating conditions expected in Mercury orbit. In 2002, ten solar vacuum tests were conducted, including beginning of life, end of life, backside exposure, and solar panel thermal shock cycling tests. Components tested include candidate solar array panels, sensors, thermal shielding materials, and communication devices. As an example, for the solar panel thermal shock cycling test, two candidate solar array panels were suspended on a lift mechanism that lowered the panels into a liquid-nitrogen-cooled box. After reaching -140 C, the panels were then lifted out of the box and exposed to the equivalent of 6 suns (8.1 kilowatts per square meters). After five cold soak/heating cycles were completed successfully, there was no apparent degradation in panel performance. An anticipated 100-hr thermal shield life test is planned for autumn, followed by solar panel flight qualification tests in winter. Glenn's ongoing support to the MESSENGER program has been instrumental in

  12. Algorithms for Cytoplasm Segmentation of Fluorescence Labelled Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Wählby; Joakim Lindblad; Mikael Vondrus; Ewert Bengtsson; Lennart Björkesten

    2002-01-01

    Automatic cell segmentation has various applications in cytometry, and while the nucleus is often very distinct and easy to identify, the cytoplasm provides a lot more challenge. A new combination of image analysis algorithms for segmentation of cells imaged by fluorescence microscopy is presented. The algorithm consists of an image pre?processing step, a general segmentation and merging step followed by a segmentation quality measurement. The quality measurement consists of a statistical ana...

  13. Nucleoporin Nup98 mediates galectin-3 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi, E-mail: funasaka@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Balan, Vitaly; Raz, Avraham [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Wong, Richard W., E-mail: rwong@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Nuclear pore protein Nup98 is a novel binding partner of galectin-3. •Nup98 transports galectin-3 into cytoplasm. •Nup98 depletion leads to galectin-3 nuclear transport and induces growth retardation. •Nup98 may involve in ß-catenin pathway through interaction with galectin-3. -- Abstract: Nucleoporin Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and is important in transport across the nuclear pore. Many studies implicate nucleoporin in cancer progression, but no direct mechanistic studies of its effect in cancer have been reported. We show here that Nup98 specifically regulates nucleus–cytoplasm transport of galectin-3, which is a ß-galactoside-binding protein that affects adhesion, migration, and cancer progression, and controls cell growth through the ß-catenin signaling pathway in cancer cells. Nup98 interacted with galectin-3 on the nuclear membrane, and promoted galectin-3 cytoplasmic translocation whereas other nucleoporins did not show these functions. Inversely, silencing of Nup98 expression by siRNA technique localized galectin-3 to the nucleus and retarded cell growth, which was rescued by Nup98 transfection. In addition, Nup98 RNA interference significantly suppressed downstream mRNA expression in the ß-catenin pathway, such as cyclin D1 and FRA-1, while nuclear galectin-3 binds to ß-catenin to inhibit transcriptional activity. Reduced expression of ß-catenin target genes is consistent with the Nup98 reduction and the galectin-3–nucleus translocation rate. Overall, the results show Nup98’s involvement in nuclear–cytoplasm translocation of galectin-3 and ß-catenin signaling pathway in regulating cell proliferation, and the results depicted here suggest a novel therapeutic target/modality for cancers.

  14. Mutant p53 protein localized in the cytoplasm inhibits autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Soussi, Thierry; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The knockout, knockdown or chemical inhibition of p53 stimulates autophagy. Moreover, autophagy-inducing stimuli such as nutrient depletion, rapamycin or lithium cause the depletion of cytoplasmic p53, which in turn is required for the induction of autophagy. Here, we show that retransfection of p53(-/-) HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with wild type p53 decreases autophagy down to baseline levels. Surprisingly, one third among a panel of 22 cancer-associated p53 single amino acid mutants also inhibited autophagy when transfected into p53(-/-) cells. Those variants of p53 that preferentially localize to the cytoplasm effectively repressed autophagy, whereas p53 mutants that display a prominently nuclear distribution failed to inhibit autophagy. The investigation of a series of deletion mutants revealed that removal of the DNA-binding domain from p53 fails to interfere with its role in the regulation of autophagy. Altogether, these results identify the cytoplasmic localization of p53 as the most important feature for p53-mediated autophagy inhibition. Moreover, the structural requirements for the two biological activities of extranuclear p53, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy, are manifestly different.

  15. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday C; Adhimoolam, Premkumar; Bisht, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of CMS/Rf system enabled by modern omics tools and technologies considerably improves our ability to harness hybrid technology for enhancing the productivity of field crops. Harnessing hybrid vigor or heterosis is a promising approach to tackle the current challenge of sustaining enhanced yield gains of field crops. In the context, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) owing to its heritable nature to manifest non-functional male gametophyte remains a cost-effective system to promote efficient hybrid seed production. The phenomenon of CMS stems from a complex interplay between maternally-inherited (mitochondrion) and bi-parental (nucleus) genomic elements. In recent years, attempts aimed to comprehend the sterility-inducing factors (orfs) and corresponding fertility determinants (Rf) in plants have greatly increased our access to candidate genomic segments and the cloned genes. To this end, novel insights obtained by applying state-of-the-art omics platforms have substantially enriched our understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication. Concomitantly, molecular tools including DNA markers have been implicated in crop hybrid breeding in order to greatly expedite the progress. Here, we review the status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.

  16. In Vivo Imaging of Diacylglycerol at the Cytoplasmic Leaflet of Plant Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Joop E M; van Wijk, Ringo; Goedhart, Joachim; Geldner, Niko; Chory, Joanne; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Munnik, Teun

    2017-07-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is an important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and plays key roles in cell signaling, either as a second messenger itself or as a precursor of phosphatidic acid. Methods to identify distinct DAG pools have proven difficult because biochemical fractionation affects the pools, and concentrations are limiting. Here, we validate the use of a genetically encoded DAG biosensor in living plant cells. The sensor is composed of a fusion between yellow fluorescent protein and the C1a domain of protein kinase C (YFP-C1aPKC) that specifically binds DAG, and was stably expressed in suspension-cultured tobacco BY-2 cells and whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal imaging revealed that the majority of the YFP-C1aPKC fluorescence did not locate to membranes but was present in the cytosol and nucleus. Treatment with short-chain DAG or PMA (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate), a phorbol ester that binds the C1a domain of PKC, caused the recruitment of the biosensor to the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the biosensor works and that the basal DAG concentration in the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes (i.e. accessible to the biosensor) is in general too low, and confirms that the known pools in plastids, the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria are located at the luminal face of these compartments (i.e. inaccessible to the biosensor). Nevertheless, detailed further analysis of different cells and tissues discovered four novel DAG pools, namely at: (i) the trans-Golgi network; (ii) the cell plate during cytokinesis; (iii) the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells in the transition zone, and (iv) the apex of growing root hairs. The results provide new insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of DAG in plants and offer a new tool to monitor this in vivo. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The effect of ionizing irradiation on motion of cytoplasm in cells of Elodea canadensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordyiya, N.V.; Grodzyins'kij, D.M.; Danil'chenko, O.O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the velocity of cytoplasm is investigated. It is shown that, for small doses, there is a strong nonlinearity between the velocity of cytoplasm and dose. The nonlinear behavior disappears with increasing a dose

  18. Altered expression of estrogen receptor-α variant messenger RNAs between adjacent normal breast and breast tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leygue, Etienne; Dotzlaw, Helmut; Watson, Peter H; Murphy, Leigh C

    2000-01-01

    Using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays, we investigated the expression of variant messenger RNAs relative to wild-type estrogen receptor (ER)-α messenger RNA in normal breast tissues and their adjacent matched breast tumor tissues. Higher ER variant truncated after sequences encoding exon 2 of the wild-type ER-α (ERC4) messenger RNA and a lower exon 3 deleted ER-α variant (ERD3) messenger RNA relative expression in the tumor compartment were observed in the ER-positive/PR-positive and the ER-positive subsets, respectively. A significantly higher relative expression of exon 5 deleted ER-α varient (ERD5) messenger RNA was observed in tumor components overall. These data demonstrate that changes in the relative expression of ER-α variant messenger RNAs occur between adjacent normal and neoplastic breast tissues. We suggest that these changes might be involved in the mechanisms that underlie breast tumorigenesis. Estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β are believed to mediate the action of estradiol in target tissues. Several ER-α and ER-β variant messenger RNAs have been identified in both normal and neoplastic human tissues. Most of these variants contain a deletion of one or more exons of the wild-type (WT) ER messenger RNAs. The putative proteins that are encoded by these variant messenger RNAs would therefore be missing some functional domains of the WT receptors, and might interfere with WT-ER signaling pathways. The detection of ER-α variants in both normal and neoplastic human breast tissues raised the question of their possible role in breast tumorigenesis. We have previously reported an increased relative expression of exon 5 deleted ER-α variant (ERD5) messenger RNA and of another ER-α variant truncated of all sequences following the exon 2 of the WT ER-α (ERC4) messenger RNA in breast tumor samples versus independent normal breast tissues. In contrast, a decreased relative expression of exon 3 deleted ER

  19. Emotion elicitor or emotion messenger? Subliminal priming reveals two faces of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Stapel, Diederik A

    2008-06-01

    Facial emotional expressions can serve both as emotional stimuli and as communicative signals. The research reported here was conducted to illustrate how responses to both roles of facial emotional expressions unfold over time. As an emotion elicitor, a facial emotional expression (e.g., a disgusted face) activates a response that is similar to responses to other emotional stimuli of the same valence (e.g., a dirty, nonflushed toilet). As an emotion messenger, the same facial expression (e.g., a disgusted face) serves as a communicative signal by also activating the knowledge that the sender is experiencing a specific emotion (e.g., the sender feels disgusted). By varying the duration of exposure to disgusted, fearful, angry, and neutral faces in two subliminal-priming studies, we demonstrated that responses to faces as emotion elicitors occur prior to responses to faces as emotion messengers, and that both types of responses may unfold unconsciously.

  20. Global Distribution of Mercury's Neutrals from MESSENGER Measurements Combined with a Tomographic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; McClintock, Bill; Vervack, Ron, Jr.; Killen, Rosemary; Merkel, Aimee; Slavin, James; Solomon, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) onboard this spacecraft has been observing Mercury's collisionless exosphere. We present measurements by MESSENGER UVVS of the sodium, calcium, and magnesium distributions that were obtained during multiple passes through the tail over a period of one month. Global maps of the exosphere were constructed daily from such measurements using a recently developed tomographic technique. During this period, Mercury moved towards the Sun from being about 0.44 astronomical units (AU) to approximately 0.32 AU from the Sun. Hence, our reconstructions provide information about the three-dimensional structure of the exosphere, the source processes for these species, and their dependence with orbital distance during the entire in-leg of Mercury's orbit.

  1. Radiative natural SUSY spectrum from deflected AMSB scenario with messenger-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei [School of Physics, Zhengzhou University,Zhengzhou 450000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China); Yang, Jin Min [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Zhang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080 (China)

    2016-04-29

    A radiative natural SUSY spectrum are proposed in the deflected anomaly mediation scenario with general messenger-matter interactions. Due to the contributions from the new interactions, positive slepton masses as well as a large |A{sub t}| term can naturally be obtained with either sign of deflection parameter and few messenger species (thus avoid the possible Landau pole problem). In this scenario, in contrast to the ordinary (radiative) natural SUSY scenario with under-abundance of dark matter (DM), the DM can be the mixed bino-higgsino and have the right relic density. The 125 GeV Higgs mass can also be easily obtained in our scenario. The majority of low EW fine tuning points can be covered by the XENON-1T direct detection experiments.

  2. Planetary science. Low-altitude magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER reveal Mercury's ancient crustal field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L; Phillips, Roger J; Purucker, Michael E; Anderson, Brian J; Byrne, Paul K; Denevi, Brett W; Feinberg, Joshua M; Hauck, Steven A; Head, James W; Korth, Haje; James, Peter B; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Philpott, Lydia C; Siegler, Matthew A; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Solomon, Sean C

    2015-05-22

    Magnetized rocks can record the history of the magnetic field of a planet, a key constraint for understanding its evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft at altitudes below 150 kilometers, we have detected remanent magnetization in Mercury's crust. We infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7 to 3.9 billion years. Our findings indicate that a global magnetic field driven by dynamo processes in the fluid outer core operated early in Mercury's history. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust inferred from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's exosphere: detection of magnesium and distribution of constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Vervack, Ronald J; Bradley, E Todd; Killen, Rosemary M; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L; Burger, Matthew H; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2009-05-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a tenuous exosphere that is supplied primarily by the planet's surface materials and is known to contain sodium, potassium, and calcium. Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer during MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed the presence of neutral magnesium in the tail (anti-sunward) region of the exosphere, as well as differing spatial distributions of magnesium, calcium, and sodium atoms in both the tail and the nightside, near-planet exosphere. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby, as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  4. Return to Mercury: a global perspective on MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Watters, Thomas R; Lawrence, David J; Feldman, William C; Head, James W; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Murchie, Scott L; Phillips, Roger J; Slavin, James A; Zuber, Maria T

    2008-07-04

    In January 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft became the first probe to fly past the planet Mercury in 33 years. The encounter revealed that Mercury is a dynamic system; its liquid iron-rich outer core is coupled through a dominantly dipolar magnetic field to the surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere, all of which interact with the solar wind. MESSENGER images confirm that lobate scarps are the dominant tectonic landform and record global contraction associated with cooling of the planet. The history of contraction can be related to the history of volcanism and cratering, and the total contractional strain is at least one-third greater than inferred from Mariner 10 images. On the basis of measurements of thermal neutrons made during the flyby, the average abundance of iron in Mercury's surface material is less than 6% by weight.

  5. Evidence for young volcanism on Mercury from the third MESSENGER flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M; Ernst, Carolyn M; Denevi, Brett W; Chapman, Clark R; Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Merline, William J; Solomon, Sean C; Watters, Thomas R; Strom, Robert G; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-08-06

    During its first two flybys of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired images confirming that pervasive volcanism occurred early in the planet's history. MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby revealed a 290-kilometer-diameter peak-ring impact basin, among the youngest basins yet seen, having an inner floor filled with spectrally distinct smooth plains. These plains are sparsely cratered, postdate the formation of the basin, apparently formed from material that once flowed across the surface, and are therefore interpreted to be volcanic in origin. An irregular depression surrounded by a halo of bright deposits northeast of the basin marks a candidate explosive volcanic vent larger than any previously identified on Mercury. Volcanism on the planet thus spanned a considerable duration, perhaps extending well into the second half of solar system history.

  6. Expected Geochemical and Mineralogical Properties of Meteorites from Mercury: Inferences from Messenger Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; McCoy, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and many types of asteroid bodies have been identified among our global inventory of meteorites, however samples of Mercury and Venus have not been identified. The absence of mercurian and venusian meteorites could be attributed to an inability to recognize them in our collections due to a paucity of geochemical information for Venus and Mercury. In the case of mercurian meteorites, this possibility is further supported by dynamical calculations that suggest mercurian meteorites should be present on Earth at a factor of 2-3 less than meteorites from Mars [1]. In the present study, we focus on the putative mineralogy of mercurian meteorites using data obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has provided us with our first quantitative constraints on the geochemistry of planet Mercury. We have used the MESSENGER data to compile a list of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that a meteorite from Mercury is likely to exhibit.

  7. Effect of Thymine Starvation on Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzati, Denise

    1966-01-01

    Luzzati, Denise (Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Paris, France). Effect of thymine starvation on messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1435–1446. 1966.—During the course of thymine starvation, the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA, the rapidly labeled fraction of the RNA which decays in the presence of dinitrophenol or which hybridizes with deoxyribonucleic acid) decreases exponentially, in parallel with the viability of the thymine-starved bacteria. The ability of cell-free extracts of starved bacteria to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates into RNA was determined; it was found to be inferior to that of extracts from control cells. The analysis of the properties of cell-free extracts of starved cells shows that their decreased RNA polymerase activity is the consequence of a modification of their deoxyribonucleic acid, the ability of which to serve as a template for RNA polymerase decreases during starvation. PMID:5332402

  8. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit to out to a young adult audience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Marka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. In 2010, an extended version of this exhibit will appear in a New York City venue that is accessible to a large and diverse cross section of the general public. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  9. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail increased by factors of 2 to 3.5 over intervals of 2 to 3 min. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approx.10 times less and typical durations are approx.1 hour. The extreme tail loading observed at Mercury implies that the relative intensity of sub storms must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail field enhancements and the characteristic time for the Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere. suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles, but no acceleration signatures were seen during the MESSENGER flyby.

  10. 3',5'-cIMP as Potential Second Messenger in the Vascular Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Susan W S; Gao, Yuansheng; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, only the 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates of adenosine and guanosine (produced by adenylyl cyclase and guanylyl cyclase, respectively) are regarded as true "second messengers" in the vascular wall, despite the presence of other cyclic nucleotides in different tissues. Among these noncanonical cyclic nucleotides, inosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cIMP) is synthesized by soluble guanylyl cyclase in porcine coronary arteries in response to hypoxia, when the enzyme is activated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Its production is associated with augmentation of vascular contraction mediated by stimulation of Rho kinase. Based on these findings, cIMP appears to meet most, if not all, of the criteria required for it to be accepted as a "second messenger," at least in the vascular wall.

  11. HIGH-RESOLUTION TOPOGRAPHY OF MERCURY FROM MESSENGER ORBITAL STEREO IMAGING – THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE QUADRANGLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Preusker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We produce high-resolution (222 m/grid element Digital Terrain Models (DTMs for Mercury using stereo images from the MESSENGER orbital mission. We have developed a scheme to process large numbers, typically more than 6000, images by photogrammetric techniques, which include, multiple image matching, pyramid strategy, and bundle block adjustments. In this paper, we present models for map quadrangles of the southern hemisphere H11, H12, H13, and H14.

  12. ALLTALK™- A Windows Phone Messenger With Cross Language Communication For Customer Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Abraham; Royston Pinto

    2014-01-01

    In day to day life, messengers or chatting applications provide facility for instant messaging over the internet. Exchange of messages takes place in universally used languages like English, French, etc. where both the users know how to communicate in a common language. Thus chatting on mobile phones is a luxury when both the parties involved know a common language. When any company wants to provide customer care services to its customer they use mediums like talking to the cu...

  13. The space environment of Mercury at the times of the second and third MESSENGER flybys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, D. N.; Odstrčil, D.; Anderson, B.J.; Arge, C. N.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Korth, H.; Mayer, L. R.; Raines, J.M.; Schriver, D.; Slavin, J.A.; Solomon, S.C.; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Zurbuchen, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 15 (2011), s. 2066-2074 ISSN 0032-0633 Grant - others: NASA (US) NASW-00002; NASA (US) NAS5-97271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mercury * Solar wind * Interplanetary magnetic field * Magnetospheres * MESSENGER Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.224, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032063311000481

  14. Dissection of the couplings between cellular messengers and the circadian clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jian; Edmunds, L.N.

    1995-12-01

    It has been known in recent years that living cells can exhibit circadian rhythms in totally different physiological processes. Intracellular messengers were demonstrated to mediate the entrained pathways linking rhythmic components between circadian clock and its output signalling. Levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in synchronized cells, and activities of the two key enzymes (AC and PDE) responsible for the cyclic AMP metabolism were measured by applying the isotopic techniques. Bimodal circadian oscillations of the messenger levels and the enzyme activities were disclosed in LD: 12, 12 cycle and constant darkness, as well as in the dividing and non-dividing cultures of the Euglena ZC mutant. Interference experiments with the enzyme activator and inhibitor such as forskolin, 8-Br-cGMP and LY 83583, and analysis of the cell division cycle (CDC) and coupling messengers suggested that the peak pulse of cyclic AMP, circadian oscillation of the AC-cAMP-PDE system and phase-dependent regulation by cyclic GMP might be important coupling factors in downstream mediation between the circadian clock and the CDC. (7 figs.)

  15. Dashboard Monitoring System Berbasis Web Sebagai Pemantau Layanan liteBIG Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigih Forda Nama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini hampir semua pengguna ponsel pintar menggunakan layanan perpesanan instan sebagai media komunikasi dikarenakan layanan perpesanan instan lebih hemat biaya dengan hanya menggunakan jaringan internet dibandingkan layanan pesan singkat (SMS. Layanan yang diberikan harus dapat melayani pengguna dengan baik agar pesan yang dikirim oleh pengirim dapat diterima oleh penerima dengan cepat dan akurat. Layanan ini juga harus dijaga keandalannya untuk menjamin kualitas pelayanan dan untuk menghindari ketidaknyamanan pengguna. Sehingga, diperlukan adanya sistem pemantauan berupa perangkat lunak untuk pengawasan status layanan setiap saat dapat diakses dari manapun dan kapanpun. PT.Sandika Cahaya Mandiri memiliki produk layanan perpesanan instan dengan brand name liteBIG Messenger. Perusahaan ini memerlukan perangkat lunak untuk pemantauan layanan liteBIG Messenger. Dengan adanya perangkat lunak pemantauan layanan, petugas pemantauan dapat melihat secara realtime status layanan utama pada setiap komputer server, pemakaian sumber daya (cpu, memory, dan harddisk, dan statistik pengguna baru liteBIG Messenger  melalui antarmuka web. Petugas pemantauan juga akan mendapat pemberitahuan ketika terjadi masalah pada layanan sehingga masalah dapat lebih dini diketahui dan downtime dapat dikurangi.

  16. Optimal and fast E/B separation with a dual messenger field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodi Ramanah, Doogesh; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-05-01

    We adapt our recently proposed dual messenger algorithm for spin field reconstruction and showcase its efficiency and effectiveness in Wiener filtering polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Unlike conventional preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solvers, our preconditioner-free technique can deal with high-resolution joint temperature and polarization maps with inhomogeneous noise distributions and arbitrary mask geometries with relative ease. Various convergence diagnostics illustrate the high quality of the dual messenger reconstruction. In contrast, the PCG implementation fails to converge to a reasonable solution for the specific problem considered. The implementation of the dual messenger method is straightforward and guarantees numerical stability and convergence. We show how the algorithm can be modified to generate fluctuation maps, which, combined with the Wiener filter solution, yield unbiased constrained signal realizations, consistent with observed data. This algorithm presents a pathway to exact global analyses of high-resolution and high-sensitivity CMB data for a statistically optimal separation of E and B modes. It is therefore relevant for current and next-generation CMB experiments, in the quest for the elusive primordial B-mode signal.

  17. Monte Carlo Modeling of Sodium in Mercury's Exosphere During the First Two MESSENGER Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; McClintock, William E.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Mouawad, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model of the distribution of neutral sodium in Mercury's exosphere and tail using data from the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft during the first two flybys of the planet in January and September 2008. We show that the dominant source mechanism for ejecting sodium from the surface is photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and that the desorption rate is limited by the diffusion rate of sodium from the interior of grains in the regolith to the topmost few monolayers where PSD is effective. In the absence of ion precipitation, we find that the sodium source rate is limited to approximately 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per square centimeter per second, depending on the sticking efficiency of exospheric sodium that returns to the surface. The diffusion rate must be at least a factor of 5 higher in regions of ion precipitation to explain the MASCS observations during the second MESSENGER f1yby. We estimate that impact vaporization of micrometeoroids may provide up to 15% of the total sodium source rate in the regions observed. Although sputtering by precipitating ions was found not to be a significant source of sodium during the MESSENGER flybys, ion precipitation is responsible for increasing the source rate at high latitudes through ion-enhanced diffusion.

  18. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm.

  19. DMPD: Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18703349 Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Komur...Show Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. PubmedID 18703349 Title Negative r...egulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Authors Komuro A, Bamm

  20. MESSENGER E/V/H MLA 3/4 CDR/RDR DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Calibrated Data Record (CDR) and Reduced Data Record (RDR) products. The MLA...

  1. Pengaruh Social Media Marketing melalui Blackberry Messenger terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen di PT Agung Automall (Agung Toyota) Harapan Raya Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Evawani Elysa; Pratama, Lian

    2016-01-01

    The rise of social media is the new media can be used as marketing at once to do consumer interaction, called social media marketing. One of the social media marketing which is now popular among business people, IE blackberry messenger. Through this application can send a message text, sound, and images for free about their business or place information and promotions offered from their products so that it formed an interest to buy from someone, with the blackberry messenger messages or infor...

  2. INSTANT MESSENGER (IM) APPLICATION USAGE AT WORKPLACE AND WORKING CULTURE OF A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SUPPORTING STAFF IN KOTA KINABALU SABAH.

    OpenAIRE

    Nading, Dorina; Morshidi, Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Instant Messenger (IM) has becoming a new form of social relations tool in which people interact, dialogue, collaborate and exchange information. Many organizations and companies have adapted their management strategies with the utilization of IM applications, both internally or externally. The popularity of IM in local organizational management in such a way that government agencies, companies, universities, colleges and schools. The use of applications such as wechat, whatsApp messenger...

  3. On cryptographic security of end-to-end encrypted connections in WhatsApp and Telegram messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Zapechnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the available possibilities for improving secure messaging with end-to-end connections under conditions of external violator actions and distrusted service provider. We made a comparative analysis of cryptographic security mechanisms for two widely used messengers: Telegram and WhatsApp. It was found that Telegram is based on MTProto protocol, while WhatsApp is based on the alternative Signal protocol. We examine the specific features of messengers implementation associated with random number generation on the most popular Android mobile platform. It was shown that Signal has better security properties. It is used in several other popular messengers such as TextSecure, RedPhone, GoogleAllo, FacebookMessenger, Signal along with WhatsApp. A number of possible attacks on both messengers were analyzed in details. In particular, we demonstrate that the metadata are poorly protected in both messengers. Metadata security may be one of the goals for further studies.

  4. Cytoplasmic TRADD Confers a Worse Prognosis in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Chakraborty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD is an important adaptor in TNFR1 signaling and has an essential role in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activation and survival signaling. Increased expression of TRADD is sufficient to activate NF-κB. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of NF-κB activation as a key pathogenic mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults.We examined the expression of TRADD by immunohistochemistry (IHC and find that TRADD is commonly expressed at high levels in GBM and is detected in both cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. Cytoplasmic IHC TRADD scoring is significantly associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS both in univariate and multivariate analysis but is not associated with overall survival (n = 43 GBMs. PFS is a marker for responsiveness to treatment. We propose that TRADD-mediated NF-κB activation confers chemoresistance and thus a worse PFS in GBM. Consistent with the effect on PFS, silencing TRADD in glioma cells results in decreased NF-κB activity, decreased proliferation of cells, and increased sensitivity to temozolomide. TRADD expression is common in glioma-initiating cells. Importantly, silencing TRADD in GBM-initiating stem cell cultures results in decreased viability of stem cells, suggesting that TRADD may be required for maintenance of GBM stem cell populations. Thus, our study suggests that increased expression of cytoplasmic TRADD is both an important biomarker and a key driver of NF-κB activation in GBM and supports an oncogenic role for TRADD in GBM.

  5. Binders of intravenously administered zinc 65 in rat liver cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortenbeek, A.J.; Hamer, C.J.A. van den.

    1976-01-01

    The fate of intravenously injected trace amounts of 65 Zn 2+ in the rat was studied over a period of ten days after injection. Tissue distributions were determined and a special study was made of 65 Zn-binders in liver cytoplasm. A total of six 65 Zn-binding fractions was found and a tentative identification of the main 65 Zn-binders in these six fractions is given using the collected data regarding their apparent molecular weight, time dependent prominence and content of stable zinc

  6. AtTZF gene family localizes to cytoplasmic foci

    OpenAIRE

    Pomeranz, Marcelo; Lin, Pei-Chi; Finer, John; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNA turnover and translational repression represent important regulatory steps in gene expression. Curiously, when under cellular stresses, factors involved in these processes aggregate into cytoplasmic foci known as Processing bodies (P-bodies) and Stress Granules (SGs). In animals, CCCH Tandem Zinc Finger (TZF) proteins play important roles in mRNA decay within P-bodies. TTP, a P-body localized mammalian TZF, can bind to the 3'UTRs of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs)...

  7. Cloning and expression of a nuclear encoded plastid specific 33 kDa ribonucleoprotein gene (33RNP) from pea that is light stimulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M K; Nair, S; Singh, B N; Mudgil, Y; Tewari, K K; Sopory, S K

    2001-01-24

    We report the cloning and sequencing of both cDNA and genomic DNA of a 33 kDa chloroplast ribonucleoprotein (33RNP) from pea. The analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA clone revealed that the encoded protein contains two RNA binding domains, including the conserved consensus ribonucleoprotein sequences CS-RNP1 and CS-RNP2, on the C-terminus half and the presence of a putative transit peptide sequence in the N-terminus region. The phylogenetic and multiple sequence alignment analysis of pea chloroplast RNP along with RNPs reported from the other plant sources revealed that the pea 33RNP is very closely related to Nicotiana sylvestris 31RNP and 28RNP and also to 31RNP and 28RNP of Arabidopsis and spinach, respectively. The pea 33RNP was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The in vitro import of precursor protein into chloroplasts confirmed that the N-terminus putative transit peptide is a bona fide transit peptide and 33RNP is localized in the chloroplast. The nucleic acid-binding properties of the recombinant protein, as revealed by South-Western analysis, showed that 33RNP has higher binding affinity for poly (U) and oligo dT than for ssDNA and dsDNA. The steady state transcript level was higher in leaves than in roots and the expression of this gene is light stimulated. Sequence analysis of the genomic clone revealed that the gene contains four exons and three introns. We have also isolated and analyzed the 5' flanking region of the pea 33RNP gene.

  8. Non-canonical binding interactions of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of P34 protein modulate binding within the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamina, Anyango D; Williams, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    RNA binding proteins are involved in many aspects of RNA metabolism. In Trypanosoma brucei, our laboratory has identified two trypanosome-specific RNA binding proteins P34 and P37 that are involved in the maturation of the 60S subunit during ribosome biogenesis. These proteins are part of the T. brucei 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP) and P34 binds to 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal protein L5 through its N-terminus and its RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains. We generated truncated P34 proteins to determine these domains' interactions with 5S rRNA and L5. Our analyses demonstrate that RRM1 of P34 mediates the majority of binding with 5S rRNA and the N-terminus together with RRM1 contribute the most to binding with L5. We determined that the consensus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) 1 and 2 sequences, characteristic of canonical RRM domains, are not fully conserved in the RRM domains of P34. However, the aromatic amino acids previously described to mediate base stacking interactions with their RNA target are conserved in both of the RRM domains of P34. Surprisingly, mutation of these aromatic residues did not disrupt but instead enhanced 5S rRNA binding. However, we identified four arginine residues located in RRM1 of P34 that strongly impact L5 binding. These mutational analyses of P34 suggest that the binding site for 5S rRNA and L5 are near each other and specific residues within P34 regulate the formation of the 5S RNP. These studies show the unique way that the domains of P34 mediate binding with the T. brucei 5S RNP.

  9. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Much

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  10. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Christian; Auchynnikava, Tania; Pavlinic, Dinko; Buness, Andreas; Rappsilber, Juri; Benes, Vladimir; Allshire, Robin; O'Carroll, Dónal

    2016-06-01

    Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  11. Algorithms for Cytoplasm Segmentation of Fluorescence Labelled Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Wählby

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cell segmentation has various applications in cytometry, and while the nucleus is often very distinct and easy to identify, the cytoplasm provides a lot more challenge. A new combination of image analysis algorithms for segmentation of cells imaged by fluorescence microscopy is presented. The algorithm consists of an image pre‐processing step, a general segmentation and merging step followed by a segmentation quality measurement. The quality measurement consists of a statistical analysis of a number of shape descriptive features. Objects that have features that differ to that of correctly segmented single cells can be further processed by a splitting step. By statistical analysis we therefore get a feedback system for separation of clustered cells. After the segmentation is completed, the quality of the final segmentation is evaluated. By training the algorithm on a representative set of training images, the algorithm is made fully automatic for subsequent images created under similar conditions. Automatic cytoplasm segmentation was tested on CHO‐cells stained with calcein. The fully automatic method showed between 89% and 97% correct segmentation as compared to manual segmentation.

  12. PLCζ Induced Ca2+ Oscillations in Mouse Eggs Involve a Positive Feedback Cycle of Ca2+ Induced InsP3 Formation From Cytoplasmic PIP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jessica R.; Ashley, Bethany; Moon, Anna; Woolley, Thomas E.; Swann, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Egg activation at fertilization in mammalian eggs is caused by a series of transient increases in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, referred to as Ca2+ oscillations. It is widely accepted that these Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by a sperm derived phospholipase C isoform, PLCζ that hydrolyses its substrate PIP2 to produce the Ca2+ releasing messenger InsP3. However, it is not clear whether PLCζ induced InsP3 formation is periodic or monotonic, and whether the PIP2 source for generating InsP3 from PLCζ is in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm. In this study we have uncaged InsP3 at different points of the Ca2+ oscillation cycle to show that PLCζ causes Ca2+ oscillations by a mechanism which requires Ca2+ induced InsP3 formation. In contrast, incubation in Sr2+ media, which also induces Ca2+ oscillations in mouse eggs, sensitizes InsP3-induced Ca2+ release. We also show that the cytosolic level Ca2+ is a key factor in setting the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations since low concentrations of the Ca2+ pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, accelerates the frequency of PLCζ induced Ca2+ oscillations in eggs, even in Ca2+ free media. Given that Ca2+ induced InsP3 formation causes a rapid wave during each Ca2+ rise, we use a mathematical model to show that InsP3 generation, and hence PLCζ's substate PIP2, has to be finely distributed throughout the egg cytoplasm. Evidence for PIP2 distribution in vesicles throughout the egg cytoplasm is provided with a rhodamine-peptide probe, PBP10. The apparent level of PIP2 in such vesicles could be reduced by incubating eggs in the drug propranolol which also reversibly inhibited PLCζ induced, but not Sr2+ induced, Ca2+ oscillations. These data suggest that the cytosolic Ca2+ level, rather than Ca2+ store content, is a key variable in setting the pace of PLCζ induced Ca2+ oscillations in eggs, and they imply that InsP3 oscillates in synchrony with Ca2+ oscillations. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that PLCζ and sperm

  13. MESSENGER Searches for Less Abundant or Weakly Emitting Species in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    Mercury's exosphere is composed of material that originates at the planet's surface, whether that material is native or delivered by the solar wind and micrometeoroids. Many exospheric species have been detected by remote sensing, including H and He by Mariner 10, Na, K, and Ca by ground-based observations, and H, Na, Ca, Mg, and Ca+ by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Other exospheric species, including Fe, AI, Si, 0, S, Mn, CI, Ti, OH, and their ions, are expected to be present on the basis of MESSENGER surface measurements and models of Mercury's surface chemistry. Here we report on searches for these species made with the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS). No obvious signatures of the listed species have yet been observed in Mercury's exosphere by the UVVS as of this writing. It is possible that detections are elusive because the optimum regions of the exosphere have not been sampled. The Sun-avoidance constraints on MESSENGER place tight limits on instrument boresight directions, and some regions are probed infrequently. If there are strong spatial gradients in the distribution of weakly emitting species, a high-resolution sampling of specific regions may be required to detect them. Summing spectra over time will also aid in the ability to detect weaker emission. Observations to date nonetheless permit strong upper limits to be placed on the abundances of many undetected species, in some cases as functions of time and space. As those limits are lowered with time, the absence of detections can provide insight into surface composition and the potential source mechanisms of exospheric material.

  14. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1982-03-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M/sub 4/ generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets.

  15. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro

    1982-01-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M 4 generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets. (Kaihara, S.)

  16. Vector-like fields, messenger mixing and the Higgs mass in gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, Willy; Tangarife, Walter [Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center,The University of Texas at Austin,TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-30

    In order to generate, in the context of gauge mediation, a Higgs mass around 126 GeV that avoids the little hierarchy problem, we explore a set of models where the messengers are directly coupled to new vector-like fields at the TeV scale in addition to the usual low energy degrees of freedom. We find that in this context, stop masses lighter than 2 TeV and large A-terms are generated, thereby improving issues of fine tuning.

  17. Suppressing gravitino thermal production with a temperature-dependent messenger coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badziak, Marcin; Dalianis, Ioannis; Lalak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    We show that the constraints on GMSB theories from the gravitino cosmology can be significantly relaxed if the messenger-spurion coupling is temperature dependent. We demonstrate this novel mechanism in a scenario in which this coupling depends on the VEV of an extra singlet field S that interacts with the thermalized plasma which can result in a significantly suppressed gravitino production rate. In such a scenario the relic gravitino abundance is determined by the thermal dynamics of the S field and it is easy to fit the observed dark matter abundance evading the stringent constraints on the reheating temperature, thus making gravitino dark matter consistent with thermal leptogenesis.

  18. MESSENGER Observations of the Spatial Distribution of Planetary Ions Near Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Gloeckler, George; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Global measurements by MESSENGER of the fluxes of heavy ions at Mercury, particularly sodium (Na(+)) and oxygen (O(+)), exhibit distinct maxima in the northern magnetic-cusp region, indicating that polar regions are important sources of Mercury's ionized exosphere, presumably through solar-wind sputtering near the poles. The observed fluxes of helium (He(+)) are more evenly distributed, indicating a more uniform source such as that expected from evaporation from a helium-saturated surface. In some regions near Mercury, especially the nightside equatorial region, the Na(+) pressure can be a substantial fraction of the proton pressure.

  19. Bifurcations in the interplay of messenger RNA, protein and nonprotein coding RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P

    2008-01-01

    The interplay of messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, produced via translation of this RNA, and nonprotein coding RNA (ncRNA) may include regulation of the ncRNA production by protein and (i) ncRNA-protein association resulting in suppression of the protein regulatory activity or (ii) ncRNA-mRNA association resulting in degradation of the miRNA-mRNA complex. The kinetic models describing these two scenarios are found to predict bistability provided that protein suppresses the ncRNA formation

  20. Mercury's Hollows: New Information on Distribution and Morphology from MESSENGER Observations at Low Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, D. T.; Stadermann, A. C.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    MESSENGER's orbital mission at Mercury led to the discovery of an unusual landform not known from other airless rocky bodies of the Solar System. Hollows are irregularly shaped, shallow, rimless depressions, often occurring in clusters and with high-reflectance interiors and halos. The fresh appearance of hollows suggests that they are relatively young features. For example, hollows are uncratered, and talus aprons downslope of hollows in certain cases appear to be covering small impact craters (100-200 in diameter). Hence, some hollows may be actively forming at present. The characteristics of hollows are suggestive of formation via destruction of a volatile-bearing phase (possibly one or more sulfides) through solar heating, micrometeoroid bombardment, and/or ion impact. Previous analysis showed that hollows are associated with low-reflectance material (LRM), a color unit identified from global color images. The material hosting hollows has often been excavated from depth by basin or crater impacts. Hollows are small features (tens of meters to several kilometers), so their detection and characterization with MESSENGER's global maps have been limited. MESSENGER's low-altitude orbits provide opportunities for collection of images at high spatial resolutions, which reveal new occurrences of hollows and offer views of hollows with unprecedented detail. As of this writing, we have examined more than 21,000 images with pixel sizes Shadow-length measurements were made on 280 images, yielding the depths of 1343 individual hollows. The mean depth is 30 m, with a standard deviation of 17 m. We also explored correlations between the geographic locations of hollows and maps provided by the MESSENGER geochemical sensors (X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Spectrometers), including the abundances of Al/Si, Ca/Si, Fe/Si, K, Mg/Si, and S/Si, as well as total neutron cross-section. No clear compositional trends emerged; it is likely that any true compositional preference for terrain

  1. Propylthiouracil-Induced Vasculitis With Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Grizzo Peres Martins, Ana Claudia; Gaviolli, Camila Fatima; Alavi, Afsaneh

    2015-06-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU)-associated vasculitis is a potentially life-threatening disease with a recent increase in the reported cases in the medical literature. This increase may suggest that some earlier cases have been unrecognized or assigned to an alternative nosology category. Although the skin can be the only organ affected by PTU-associated vasculitis, there are many reports with multiple-system involvement. Classically, the symptoms appear under a tetrad of fever, sore throat, arthralgia, and skin lesions. Cutaneous lesions in reported cases of PTU vasculitis have most commonly consisted of retiform acral, purpuric plaques, or nodules. We report a case of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis developed during treatment with PTU for Grave's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Investigation of radiation enhanced reactivation of cytoplasmic replicating human virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Haynes, K.F.; Stafford, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    When monolayers of CV-1 monkey kidney cells were exposed to ultraviolet (uv) radiation (0 to 200 erg/nm 2 ) or x rays (0 to 10 krads) before infection with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus, an increase in the infectivity of this nuclear replicating virus occurred as measured by plaque formation. These phenomena are known as uv (Weigle) reactivation (WR) and x-ray reactivation (x-ray R). In this study the presence of WR and x-ray R was examined in CV-1 cells infected with uv-irradiated vaccinia virus or poliovirus, both cytoplasmic replicating viruses. Little or no WR or x-ray R was observed for either of these viruses. These results suggest that WR and x-ray R in mammalian cells may be restricted to viruses which are synthesized in the cell nucleus

  3. [Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated with infective endocarditis: Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, V; Marie, I

    2017-07-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated with infective endocarditis are a rare disorder. The condition can mimic primary systemic vasculitis (i.e. granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Thus, a wrong diagnosis of valvular involvement related to primary systemic vasculitis can be made in patients exhibiting ANCA associated with infective endocarditis. Because treatment of both conditions is different, this wrong diagnosis will lead to dramatic consequences in these latter patients. This review reports the state of knowledge and proposes an algorithm to follow when confronted to a possible case of ANCA associated with infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Public information in radiation emergencies - the messenger, the public and the message

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is based on experience as a lecturer on emergency planning courses in east and west Europe, in the USA and in Hong Kong. The complex language of radiation protection confuses the public and so the messenger must avoid unnecessary jargon. In some cases the messenger may have little experience of speaking in public but this can be remedied in exercise and the fear of speaking in public may be reduced. Communication would be more efficient and possibly cause less anxiety if the public was better educated about ionizing radiation. A European initiative is described and the author' s revision of the CEC teacher's manual is reported. The debate over the linear-no-threshold model seems to undermine the credibility of the radiological protection message. The author proposes that a dose threshold should be set, preferably internationally, so those individual doses below threshold could be excluded from records and research effort redirected to more hazardous factors. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  5. Online De-Radicalization? Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ashour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Is “online de-radicalization” possible? Given the two growing phenomena of “online radicalization” and “behavioral/ideological/organizational de-radicalization,” this article outlines a broad strategy for countering the narratives of violent extremists. It argues that an effective counter-narrative should be built on three pillars. The first is an effective comprehensive message that dismantles and counter-argues against every dimension of the extremist narrative, namely the theological, political, historical, instrumental and socio-psychological dimensions. The second pillar is the messengers. The article argues that for the first time in the history of Jihadism a “critical mass” of former militants, who rebelled not only against the current behaviour of their former colleagues but also against the ideology supporting it, has come into existence. This “critical mass” can constitute the core of credible messengers, especially the few de-radicalized individuals and groups that still maintain influence and respect among vulnerable communities. The third pillar is the dissemination and attraction strategy of the counter-narratives(s which focuses on the role of the media. The author of the article outlines a broad framework, which is a part of a UN-sponsored, comprehensive research project on countering the extremists narrative.

  6. Time Domain Astronomy with Fermi GBM in the Multi-messenger Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fermi GBM team, GBM-LIGO team

    2018-01-01

    As the Multi-Messenger era begins with detections of gravitational waves with LIGO/Virgo and neutrinos with IceCube, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) provides context observations of gamma-ray transients between 8 keV and 40 MeV. Fermi GBM has a wide field of view, high uptime, and both in-orbit triggering and high time resolution continuous data enabling offline searches for weaker transients. GBM detects numerous gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray bursters, solar flares and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Longer timescale transients, predominantly in our galaxy so far, are detected using the Earth occultation technique and epoch-folding for periodic sources. The GBM team has developed two ground-based searches to enhance detections of faint transients, especially short GRBs. The targeted search uses the time and location of an event detected with another instrument to coherently search the GBM data, increasing the sensitivity to a transient. The untargeted search agnostically searches the GBM data for all directions and times to find weaker transients. This search finds about 80 short GRBs per year, adding to the 40 per year triggered on-orbit. With its large field of view, high duty cycle and increasingly sophisticated detection methods, Fermi GBM is expected to have a major role in the Multi-Messenger era.

  7. MESSENGER Orbital Observations of Large-Amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at Mercury's Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Torbjorn; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of Kelvi\\ n-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orb it. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub -sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopau are much larger than at Earth. We attribute these greater rates to the limited wave energy dissipation in Mercury's highly resistive regolith. The wave amplitude was often on the order of ' 00 nT or more, and the wave periods were - 10- 20 s. A clear dawn-dusk asymmetry is present in the data, in that all of the observed wave events occurred in the post-noon and dusk-side sectors of the magnetopause. This asymmetry is like ly related to finite Larmor-radius effects and is in agreement with results from particle-in-cell simulations of the instability. The waves were observed almost exclusively during periods when the north-south component of the magnetosheath magnetic field was northward, a pattern similar to that for most terrestrial KH wave events. Accompanying plasma measurements show that the waves were associated with the transport of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere.

  8. Exosomes as divine messengers: are they the Hermes of modern molecular oncology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicu, C; Tomuleasa, C; Monroig, P; Cucuianu, A; Berindan-Neagoe, I; Calin, G A

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that convey key elements with the potential to modulate intercellular communication. They are known to be secreted from all types of cells, and are crucial messengers that can regulate cellular processes by ‘trafficking' molecules from cells of one tissue to another. The exosomal content has been shown to be broad, composed of different types of cytokines, growth factors, proteins, or nucleic acids. Besides messenger RNA (mRNA) they can also contain noncoding transcripts such as microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small endogenous cellular regulators of protein expression. In diseases such as cancer, exosomes can facilitate tumor progression by altering their vesicular content and supplying the tumor niche with molecules that favor the progression of oncogenic processes such as proliferation, invasion and metastasis, or even drug resistance. The packaging of their molecular content is known to be tissue specific, a fact that makes them interesting tools in clinical diagnostics and ideal candidates for biomarkers. In the current report, we describe the main properties of exosomes and explain their involvement in processes such as cell differentiation and cell death. Furthermore, we emphasize the need of developing patient-targeted treatments by applying the conceptualization of exosomal-derived miRNA-based therapeutics. PMID:25236394

  9. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  10. A new methodology of second messenger imaging for higher cortical functions by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, Yoshio; Ueda, Satoshi

    1992-01-01

    Neuronal manifestations are driven by second messenger systems in central nervous system through the neuronal transmission process. Receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) response images may reflect neuronal activation in higher cortical function with a high sensitivity based on the common amplifying mechanism of the second messenger. Many bioactive compounds related to PI turnover have simple carbohydrate structures without amines and [ 11 C]ethylketene acylation has been found as the most effective labeling method of these compounds for positron emission tomography. [ 11 C]ethylketene was produced by the pyrolytic decomposition of [1- 11 C]butyric acid. This new method was made possible by the reaction under the no-carrier-added condition. To visualize the response in vivo, we synthesized sn-1,2-[ 11 C]diacylglycerols (DAGs) as a specific tracer for the PI response and [ 11 C]phorbol esters as a ligand for protein kinase C. In autoradiographic studies it was demonstrated that sn-1,2-[ 11 C]DAGs incorporation sites were discretely localized especially in the neocortex, which were concomitant with columnar structures. These results suggested that sn-1,2-[ 11 C]DAG can serve as an extrinsic substrate for the PI turnover by the phosphorylation mechanism and intensive neuronal processing, as a higher cortical function, occurs in these areas on the basis of receptor-mediated PI response. (author)

  11. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  12. Modeling of the Magnetosphere of Mercury at the Time of the First MESSENGER Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, Mehdi; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft flyby of Mercury on 14 January 2008 provided a new opportunity to study the intrinsic magnetic field of the innermost planet and its interaction with the solar wind, The model presented in this paper is based on the solution of the three-dimensional, bi-f1uid equations for solar wind protons and electrons in the absence of mass loading, In this study we provide new estimates of Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind conditions that prevailed at the time of the flyby. We show that the location of the boundary layers and the strength of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory can be reproduced with a solar wind ram pressure P(sub sw) = 6.8 nPa and a planetary magnetic dipole having a magnitude of 210 R(sub M)(exp 3)- nT and an offset of 0.18 R(sub M) to the north of the equator, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius. Analysis of the plasma flow reveals the existence of a stable drift belt around the planet; such a belt can account for the locations of diamagnetic decreases observed by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. Moreover, we determine that the ion impact rate at the n011hern cusp was four times higher than at the southern cusp, a result that provides a possible explanation for the observed north-south asymmetry in exospheric sodium in the neutral tail.

  13. Water diffusion in cytoplasmic streaming in Elodea internodal cells under the effect of antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Alexander V; Dautova, Nailya R

    2008-07-01

    The translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water in Elodea stem cells resulting from protein motor activity was measured using the NMR method. A 24-h treatment with vincristine results in a reduction of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water. With a constant cytoplasmic streaming velocity, the dynamics of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water under the effect of taxol are characterized by a continuous increase at a concentration of 0.05 mM, and reaching a plateau at a concentration of 0.5 mM.

  14. Pollen mitochondria in cytoplasmically male sterile tobacco zygotic and embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symillides, Y.

    1985-09-01

    An attempt is being made to establish cytoplasmic organelles transmission during the process of fertilization, by using tobacco grain pollen labelled with leucine 14 C and tritiated thymidine. Through autoradiography the fate of pollen germination and its entry into the embryo sac has been studied. A few days after fertilization, labelled cytoplasmic organelles - mainly mitochondria - were detected in the embryo sac. However, labelling was not observed in cytoplasmic organelles by using tritiated thymidine. For more conclusive results labelled DNA incorporated in cytoplasmic organelles have to be traced during the embryo and endosperm development

  15. Genetic variation among the male sterile cytoplasms induced by gamma irradiation in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Toshiro; Takahashi, Man-emon

    1976-01-01

    In sugar beets, cytoplasmic male sterility was induced artificially by radiation treatment. In the present study, four kinds of male sterile strain made from the strain H-2002 with normal cytoplasms were used, and the mode of inheritance of the sterility maintained by these strains was confirmed. Also the hereditary mechanism of pollen fructification recovery was studied, and the newly induced heterotypic property of sterile cytoplasms was examined in comparison with naturally found sterile strains. In each of four produced strains, the male sterility was inherited down to M 4 lines stably through mother plants, and it was presumed that the sterility was caused by highly stable cytoplasmic mutation. In each strain, two pairs of nuclear genes took part in the recovery of pollen fructification, but the mode of action of two genes was different. As the result of mating for verification with O type strain to S cytoplasm strain, it seemed that at least the function as O type was not shown to three strains of γ-60, γ-114 and γ-165, and in the sterile cytoplasms of these three strains, the action of fructification recovery genes different from X and Z arose. It was presumed that the genes of X locus did not take effect in these induced cytoplasms. The possibility that at least four kinds of male sterile cytoplasms different from S were induced from normal cytoplasms by artificial mutation was proved indirectly. (Kako, I.)

  16. Effects of the foliar-applied protein "Harpin(Ea)" (messenger) on tomatoes infected with Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, M; Montes, M; De Prado, R

    2005-01-01

    The active ingredient in Messenger, is Harpin(Ea), a naturally occurring protein derived from Erwinia amylovora, a causal agent of fire blight. When Messenger is applied to a plant, the protein Harpin(Ea) binds foliar receptors to it. The receptors recognize the presence of Harpin(Ea), sending a signal that a pathogen is present, actually "tricking" the plant into thinking that it is under attack. This binding process triggers a cascade of responses affecting a global change of gene expressions, stimulating several distinct biochemical pathways within the plant responsible for growth and disease and insect resistance. The objective of this work is to characterize the development of an induced resistance against Phytophthora infestans. No effective treatment is currently available against this pathogenic agent, which causes the loss of complete harvests of different crops. Tomato plants with and without Messenger applications were inoculated with Phytophthora infestans in the same way. In addition, some plants with and without Messenger applications were not inoculated. Inoculated plants were symptomatologically checked for local and systemic symptoms. Evaluations of the number of tomatoes produced, with or without damage, and their growth, were also carried out. Based on the data obtained from the assays, significant changes were observed in the parameters measured due to Messenger treatment. The severe damage of this disease was reduced in the plants which received Messenger applications. These results open up new pathways in the control of diseases like Phytophthora infestans, in which effective means to combat them still do not exist, or these means are harmful to the environment.

  17. Coronal mass ejection hits mercury: A.I.K.E.F. hybrid-code results compared to MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, W.; Heyner, D.; Liuzzo, L.; Motschmann, U.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.; Shibayama, T.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury is the closest orbiting planet around the sun and is therefore embedded in an intensive and highly varying solar wind. In-situ data from the MESSENGER spacecraft of the plasma environment near Mercury indicates that a coronal mass ejection (CME) passed the planet on 23 November 2011 over the span of the 12 h MESSENGER orbit. Slavin et al. (2014) derived the upstream parameters of the solar wind at the time of that orbit, and were able to explain the observed MESSENGER data in the cusp and magnetopause segments of MESSENGER's trajectory. These upstream parameters will be used for our first simulation run. We use the hybrid code A.I.K.E.F. which treats ions as individual particles and electrons as a mass-less fluid, to conduct hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetospheric response to the impact of the CME on ion gyro time scales. Results from the simulation are in agreement with magnetic field measurements from the inner day-side magnetosphere and the bow-shock region. However, at the planet's nightside, Mercury's plasma environment seemed to be governed by different solar wind conditions, in conclusion, Mercury's interaction with the CME is not sufficiently describable by only one set of upstream parameters. Therefore, to simulate the magnetospheric response while MESSENGER was located in the tail region, we use parameters obtained from the MHD solar wind simulation code SUSANOO (Shiota et al. (2014)) for our second simulation run. The parameters of the SUSANOO model achieve a good agreement of the data concerning the plasma tail crossing and the night-side approach to Mercury. However, the polar and closest approach are hardly described by both upstream parameters, namely, neither upstream dataset is able to reproduce the MESSENGER crossing of Mercury's magnetospheric cusp. We conclude that the respective CME was too variable on the timescale of the MESSENGER orbit to be described by only two sets of upstream conditions. Our results suggest locally strong

  18. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  19. Lessons from Animal Models of Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Magin, Thomas M

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies. Epidermal keratins, together with desmin, are essential to protect corresponding tissues against mechanical force but also participate in stabilizing cell adhesion and in inflammatory signalling. Surprisingly, other IF proteins contribute to tissue integrity to a much lesser extent than anticipated, pointing towards their role in stress situations. In support, the overexpression of small chaperones or the interference with inflammatory signalling in several settings has been shown to rescue severe tissue pathologies that resulted from the expression of mutant IF proteins. It stills remains an open issue whether the wide range of IF disorders share similar pathomechanisms. Moreover, we lack an understanding how IF proteins participate in signalling processes. Now, with a large number of mouse models in hand, the next challenge will be to develop organotypic cell culture models to dissect pathomechanisms at the molecular level, to employ Crispr/Cas-mediated genome engineering to optimize models and, finally, to combine available animal models with medicinal chemistry for the development of molecular therapies.

  20. Sexy sons: a dead end for cytoplasmic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Jeanne A

    2004-08-07

    Critics of sexual conflict theory argue that females may gain a net reproductive benefit from mating with manipulative males because the direct costs that they suffer may be offset by the production of sexy, i.e. manipulative, sons. However, this exclusive focus on nuclear gene effects represents an incomplete view of female fitness. Females differ fundamentally from males in transmitting not only nuclear genes but also a wide range of cytoplasmic genetic elements (CGEs) that can have profound effects, from male killing to influencing development of the nervous system and cognitive ability. Maternal transmission of CGEs has two major implications for sexual selection. First, the evolution of male fitness traits, such as sperm competitive ability, may be constrained because response to selection on mitochondrial genomes can occur only through the female line. Second, CGEs bear the direct costs of male manipulation but gain no indirect benefits when females produce sexy sons. This should result in perpetual antagonistic coevolution between nuclear genes involved in male manipulation and CGEs that promote female resistance to male sexually selected traits. Explicit consideration of the consequences of selection acting on CGEs is therefore necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between sexual selection and sexual conflict.

  1. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cDNA cloning, two-dimensional gel immunoblotting, and amino acid microsequencing identified three sequence-unique and distinct proteins that constitute a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins corresponding to hnRNPs H, H', and F. These proteins share...... epitopes and sequence identity with two other proteins, isoelectric focusing sample spot numbers 2222 (37.6 kDa; pI 6.5) and 2326 (39.5 kDa; pI 6.6), indicating that the subfamily may contain additional members. The identity between hnRNPs H and H' is 96%, between H and F 78%, and between H' and F 75......%, respectively. The three proteins contain three repeats, which we denote quasi-RRMs (qRRMs) since they have a remote similarity to the RNA recognition motif (RRM). The three qRRMs of hnRNP H, with a few additional NH2-terminal amino acids, were constructed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and used...

  2. CmRBP50 protein phosphorylation is essential for assembly of a stable phloem-mobile high-affinity ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingfang; Ham, Byung-Kook; Lucas, William J

    2011-07-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that play crucial roles in RNA processing for gene regulation. The angiosperm sieve tube system contains a unique population of transcripts, some of which function as long-distance signaling agents involved in regulating organ development. These phloem-mobile mRNAs are translocated as RNP complexes. One such complex is based on a phloem RBP named Cucurbita maxima RNA-binding protein 50 (CmRBP50), a member of the polypyrimidine track binding protein family. The core of this RNP complex contains six additional phloem proteins. Here, requirements for assembly of this CmRBP50 RNP complex are reported. Phosphorylation sites on CmRBP50 were mapped, and then coimmunoprecipitation and protein overlay studies established that the phosphoserine residues, located at the C terminus of CmRBP50, are critical for RNP complex assembly. In vitro pull-down experiments revealed that three phloem proteins, C. maxima phloem protein 16, C. maxima GTP-binding protein, and C. maxima phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-like protein, bind directly with CmRBP50. This interaction required CmRBP50 phosphorylation. Gel mobility-shift assays demonstrated that assembly of the CmRBP50-based protein complex results in a system having enhanced binding affinity for phloem-mobile mRNAs carrying polypyrimidine track binding motifs. This property would be essential for effective long-distance translocation of bound mRNA to the target tissues.

  3. RNA-binding domain of the A protein component of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein analyzed by NMR spectroscopy is structurally similar to ribosomal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.W.; Query, C.C.; Golden, B.L.; White, S.W.; Keene, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    An RNA recognition motif (RRM) of ∼80 amino acids constitutes the core of RNA-binding domains found in a large family of proteins involved in RNA processing. The U1 RNA-binding domain of the A protein component of the human U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which encompasses the RRM sequence, was analyzed by using NMR spectroscopy. The domain of the A protein is a highly stable monomer in solution consisting of four antiparallel β-strands and two α-helices. The highly conserved RNP1 and RNP2 consensus sequences, containing residues previously suggested to be involved in nucleic acid binding, are juxtaposed in adjacent β-strands. Conserved aromatic side chains that are critical for RNA binding are clustered on the surface to the molecule adjacent to a variable loop that influences recognition of specific RNA sequences. The secondary structure and topology of the RRM are similar to those of ribosomal proteins L12 and L30, suggesting a distant evolutionary relationship between these two types of RNA-associated proteins

  4. Purification of the spliced leader ribonucleoprotein particle from Leptomonas collosoma revealed the existence of an Sm protein in trypanosomes. Cloning the SmE homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, I; Palfi, Z; Bindereif, A; Michaeli, S

    1999-04-30

    Trans-splicing in trypanosomes involves the addition of a common spliced leader (SL) sequence, which is derived from a small RNA, the SL RNA, to all mRNA precursors. The SL RNA is present in the cell in the form of a ribonucleoprotein, the SL RNP. Using conventional chromatography and affinity selection with 2'-O-methylated RNA oligonucleotides at high ionic strength, five proteins of 70, 16, 13, 12, and 8 kDa were co-selected with the SL RNA from Leptomonas collosoma, representing the SL RNP core particle. Under conditions of lower ionic strength, additional proteins of 28 and 20 kDa were revealed. On the basis of peptide sequences, the gene coding for a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 11.9 kDa was cloned and identified as homologue of the cis-spliceosomal SmE. The protein carries the Sm motifs 1 and 2 characteristic of Sm antigens that bind to all known cis-spliceosomal uridylic acid-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNAs), suggesting the existence of Sm proteins in trypanosomes. This finding is of special interest because trypanosome snRNPs are the only snRNPs examined to date that are not recognized by anti-Sm antibodies. Because of the early divergence of trypanosomes from the eukaryotic lineage, the trypanosome SmE protein represents one of the primordial Sm proteins in nature.

  5. Activation of Akt is essential for the propagation of mitochondrial respiratory stress signaling and activation of the transcriptional coactivator heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Manti; Fang, Ji-Kang; Monks, Robert; Birnbaum, Morris J; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2010-10-15

    Mitochondrial respiratory stress (also called mitochondrial retrograde signaling) activates a Ca(2+)/calcineurin-mediated signal that culminates in transcription activation/repression of a large number of nuclear genes. This signal is propagated through activation of the regulatory proteins NFκB c-Rel/p50, C/EBPδ, CREB, and NFAT. Additionally, the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNPA2) functions as a coactivator in up-regulating the transcription of Cathepsin L, RyR1, and Glut-4, the target genes of stress signaling. Activation of IGF1R, which causes a metabolic switch to glycolysis, cell invasiveness, and resistance to apoptosis, is a phenotypic hallmark of C2C12 myoblasts subjected to mitochondrial stress. In this study, we report that mitochondrial stress leads to increased expression, activation, and nuclear localization of Akt1. Mitochondrial respiratory stress also activates Akt1-gene expression, which involves hnRNPA2 as a coactivator, indicating a complex interdependency of these two factors. Using Akt1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and Akt1 mRNA-silenced C2C12 cells, we show that Akt1-mediated phosphorylation is crucial for the activation and recruitment of hnRNPA2 to the enhanceosome complex. Akt1 mRNA silencing in mtDNA-depleted cells resulted in reversal of the invasive phenotype, accompanied by sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. These results show that Akt1 is an important regulator of the nuclear transcriptional response to mitochondrial stress.

  6. The nuclear export protein of H5N1 influenza A viruses recruits Matrix 1 (M1) protein to the viral ribonucleoprotein to mediate nuclear export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunotte, Linda; Flies, Joe; Bolte, Hardin; Reuther, Peter; Vreede, Frank; Schwemmle, Martin

    2014-07-18

    In influenza A virus-infected cells, replication and transcription of the viral genome occurs in the nucleus. To be packaged into viral particles at the plasma membrane, encapsidated viral genomes must be exported from the nucleus. Intriguingly, the nuclear export protein (NEP) is involved in both processes. Although NEP stimulates viral RNA synthesis by binding to the viral polymerase, its function during nuclear export implicates interaction with viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP)-associated M1. The observation that both interactions are mediated by the C-terminal moiety of NEP raised the question whether these two features of NEP are linked functionally. Here we provide evidence that the interaction between M1 and the vRNP depends on the NEP C terminus and its polymerase activity-enhancing property for the nuclear export of vRNPs. This suggests that these features of NEP are linked functionally. Furthermore, our data suggest that the N-terminal domain of NEP interferes with the stability of the vRNP-M1-NEP nuclear export complex, probably mediated by its highly flexible intramolecular interaction with the NEP C terminus. On the basis of our data, we propose a new model for the assembly of the nuclear export complex of Influenza A vRNPs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Centromere Protein (CENP)-W Interacts with Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U and May Contribute to Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment in Mitotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Younghwa; Kim, Raehyung; Lee, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), a component of the hnRNP complex, contributes to stabilize the kinetochore-microtubule interaction during mitosis. CENP-W was identified as an inner centromere component that plays crucial roles in the formation of a functional kinetochore complex. Results We report that hnRNP U interacts with CENP-W, and the interaction between hnRNP U and CENP-W mutually increased each other’s protein stability by inhibiting the proteasome-mediated degradation. Further, their co-localization was observed chiefly in the nuclear matrix region and at the microtubule-kinetochore interface during interphase and mitosis, respectively. Both microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing agents significantly decreased the protein stability of CENP-W. Furthermore, loss of microtubules and defects in microtubule organization were observed in CENP-W-depleted cells. Conclusion Our data imply that CENP-W plays an important role in the attachment and interaction between microtubules and kinetochore during mitosis. PMID:26881882

  8. Membranous glomerulonephritis in a patient with anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody-positive mixed connective tissue disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Toriu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 33-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD who developed nephrotic proteinuria. Both speckled antinuclear antibody (ANA and anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody were positive, but anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antibody and anti-Smith (Sm antibody were negative, while complement levels were normal. Renal biopsy revealed membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN with diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM plus spike and bubble formation. Immunofluorescence demonstrated granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the GBM. Analysis of IgG subclasses showed predominant deposition of IgG1 and IgG4, unlike typical lupus nephritis in which there is predominant deposition of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and C1q. Electron microscopy identified numerous large electron-dense deposits (EDD of various types in the subepithelial region of the GBM, but there were no EDD localized in the mesangium or subendothelium. Based on these findings, MGN was considered to be closely related to MCTD in this patient.

  9. TRIM5α association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5α, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5α proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5α from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5α proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5α-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5α fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5α domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α

  10. High viscosity and anisotropy characterize the cytoplasm of fungal dormant stress resistant spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Golovina, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ascospores of the fungus Talaromyces macrosporus are dormant and extremely stress resistant, whereas fungal conidia¿the main airborne vehicles of distribution¿are not. Here, physical parameters of the cytoplasm of these types of spores were compared. Cytoplasmic viscosity and level of anisotropy as

  11. Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Volumes by Plant Cells in Suspension Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Poole, Ronald J

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative microscopical measurements have been made of the proportion of cell volume occupied by cytoplasm in a cell suspension culture derived from cotyledons of bush bean (cv. Contender). On a 7-day culture cycle, the content of cytoplasm varies from 25% at the time of transfer to 45% at the...

  12. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  13. Topography of the Northern Hemisphere of Mercury from MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber,Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Hauck, Steven A., Jr.; Peale, Stanton J.; Barnouin, Oliver S.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Laser altimetry by the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a topographic model of the northern hemisphere of Mercury. The dynamic range of elevations is considerably smaller than those of Mars or the Moon. The most prominent feature is an extensive lowland at high northern latitudes that hosts the volcanic northern plains. Within this lowland is a broad topographic rise that experienced uplift after plains emplacement. The interior of the 1500-km-diameter Caloris impact basin has been modified so that part of the basin floor now stands higher than the rim. The elevated portion of the floor of Caloris appears to be part of a quasi-linear rise that extends for approximately half the planetary circumference at mid-latitudes. Collectively, these features imply that long-wavelength changes to Mercury s topography occurred after the earliest phases of the planet s geological history.

  14. A Two-Sided Market Model of Optimal Price Structure for Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger (IM is one of the most popular Internet applications all over the world. This paper examines the pricing problem of IM based on two-sided market model. IM serves as a two-sided platform, which gets both Internet users and advertisers on board. This paper concludes that IM operator adopts a heavily skewed price structure that favors IM users both under monopolistic case and under horizontal differentiated duopolistic case. When advertising revenue is large enough relatively to marginal cost for serving IM users, IM users can enjoy free service provided by IM operators. The competitive equilibrium of duopolistic case is not necessarily symmetric when advertisers choose singlehoming. Even in the symmetric equilibrium platform would rather deter all advertisers.

  15. Probing the Milky Way electron density using multi-messenger astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane

    2015-04-01

    Multi-messenger observations of ultra-compact binaries in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation supply highly complementary information, providing new ways of characterizing the internal dynamics of these systems, as well as new probes of the galaxy itself. Electron density models, used in pulsar distance measurements via the electron dispersion measure, are currently not well constrained. Simultaneous radio and gravitational wave observations of pulsars in binaries provide a method of measuring the average electron density along the line of sight to the pulsar, thus giving a new method for constraining current electron density models. We present this method and assess its viability with simulations of the compact binary component of the Milky Way using the public domain binary evolution code, BSE. This work is supported by NASA Award NNX13AM10G.

  16. MESSENGER observations of the composition of Mercury's ionized exosphere and plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H; Raines, Jim M; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Slavin, James A; Koehn, Patrick L; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    The region around Mercury is filled with ions that originate from interactions of the solar wind with Mercury's space environment and through ionization of its exosphere. The MESSENGER spacecraft's observations of Mercury's ionized exosphere during its first flyby yielded Na+, O+, and K+ abundances, consistent with expectations from observations of neutral species. There are increases in ions at a mass per charge (m/q) = 32 to 35, which we interpret to be S+ and H2S+, with (S+ + H2S+)/(Na+ + Mg+) = 0.67 +/- 0.06, and from water-group ions around m/q = 18, at an abundance of 0.20 +/- 0.03 relative to Na+ plus Mg+. The fluxes of Na+, O+, and heavier ions are largest near the planet, but these Mercury-derived ions fill the magnetosphere. Doubly ionized ions originating from Mercury imply that electrons with energies less than 1 kiloelectron volt are substantially energized in Mercury's magnetosphere.

  17. Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Evans, Larry G; Hauck, Steven A; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Gillis-Davis, Jeffery J; Ebel, Denton S; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Nittler, Larry R; Solomon, Sean C; Rhodes, Edgar A; Sprague, Ann L; Starr, Richard D; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measured the average surface abundances of the radioactive elements potassium (K, 1150 ± 220 parts per million), thorium (Th, 220 ± 60 parts per billion), and uranium (U, 90 ± 20 parts per billion) in Mercury's northern hemisphere. The abundance of the moderately volatile element K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent with physical models for the formation of Mercury requiring extreme heating of the planet or its precursor materials, and supports formation from volatile-containing material comparable to chondritic meteorites. Abundances of K, Th, and U indicate that internal heat production has declined substantially since Mercury's formation, consistent with widespread volcanism shortly after the end of late heavy bombardment 3.8 billion years ago and limited, isolated volcanic activity since.

  18. The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R; Starr, Richard D; Weider, Shoshana Z; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Ebel, Denton S; Ernst, Carolyn M; Evans, Larry G; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Schlemm, Charles E; Solomon, Sean C; Sprague, Ann L

    2011-09-30

    X-ray fluorescence spectra obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury indicate that the planet's surface differs in composition from those of other terrestrial planets. Relatively high Mg/Si and low Al/Si and Ca/Si ratios rule out a lunarlike feldspar-rich crust. The sulfur abundance is at least 10 times higher than that of the silicate portion of Earth or the Moon, and this observation, together with a low surface Fe abundance, supports the view that Mercury formed from highly reduced precursor materials, perhaps akin to enstatite chondrite meteorites or anhydrous cometary dust particles. Low Fe and Ti abundances do not support the proposal that opaque oxides of these elements contribute substantially to Mercury's low and variable surface reflectance.

  19. Viruses transfer the antiviral second messenger cGAMP between cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, A; Maelfait, J; Davenne, T; Partridge, T; Peng, Y; Mayer, A; Dong, T; Kaever, V; Borrow, P; Rehwinkel, J

    2015-09-11

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) detects cytosolic DNA during virus infection and induces an antiviral state. cGAS signals by synthesis of a second messenger, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING). We show that cGAMP is incorporated into viral particles, including lentivirus and herpesvirus virions, when these are produced in cGAS-expressing cells. Virions transferred cGAMP to newly infected cells and triggered a STING-dependent antiviral program. These effects were independent of exosomes and viral nucleic acids. Our results reveal a way by which a signal for innate immunity is transferred between cells, potentially accelerating and broadening antiviral responses. Moreover, infection of dendritic cells with cGAMP-loaded lentiviruses enhanced their activation. Loading viral vectors with cGAMP therefore holds promise for vaccine development. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  1. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Magnetic Tail Loading and Unloading During its Third Flyby of Mercury: Substorms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury on September 29, 2009, a variable interplanetary magnetic field produced a series of several minute enhancements of the tail magnetic field hy factors of approx. 2 to 3.5. The magnetic field flaring during these intervals indicates that they result from loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. The unloading intervals were associated with plasmoids and traveling compression regions, signatures of tail reconnection. The peak tail magnetic flux during the smallest loading events equaled 30% of the magnetic flux emanating from Mercury, and may have reached 100% for the largest event. In this case the dayside magnetic shielding is reduced and solar wind flux impacting the surface may be greatly enhanced. Despite the intensity of these events and their similarity to terrestrial substorm magnetic flux dynamics, no energetic charged particles with energies greater than 36 keV were observed.

  2. The synthesis of polyadenylated messenger RNA in herpes simplex type I virus infected BHK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T J; Wildy, P

    1975-09-01

    The pattern of polyadenylated messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis in BHK cell monolayers, infected under defined conditions with herpes simplex type I virus has been investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or pulse-labelled RNA isolated by oligo dT-cellulose chromatography. Two classes of mRNA molecules were synthesized in infected cells; these were not detected in uninfected cells. The rate of synthesis of the larger, 18 to 30S RNA class reached a maximum soon after injection and then declined, whereas the rate of synthesis of the 7 to 11 S RNA class did not reach a maximum until much later and did not decline. In the presence of cytosine arabinoside, the rate of mRNA synthesis in infected cells was reduced but the electrophoretic pattern remained the same.

  3. The jabber chat tool EFDA Messenger and screen sharing tool EFDATV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Beck, S.; Wilhelm, B.

    2008-01-01

    Two Remote Participation (RP) tools are described. The first tool, named EFDA Messenger, is a secure Instant Messaging (IM) tool based on a Jabber server that only accepts SSL encrypted communication and does not allow file transfers as well as audio and video transmissions. This tool is useful to have as another mean of communication during video or teleconferences. The second tool, named EFDATV, is a multipurposeVirtual Network Computing (VNC) based desktop screen sharing system used to share presentations via the Internet. A Java enabled web browser or a VNC client is sufficient for the presenter and the audience to use EFDATV. It is also possible from an EFDATV channel to connect to another VNC server and broadcast the view from that VNC server

  4. The jabber chat tool EFDA Messenger and screen sharing tool EFDATV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Knud.Thomsen@efda.org; Beck, S. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wilhelm, B. [EFDA CSU Barcelona, c/Josep Pla n.2, Torres Diag. Litoral Edificio B3, 7a planta, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Two Remote Participation (RP) tools are described. The first tool, named EFDA Messenger, is a secure Instant Messaging (IM) tool based on a Jabber server that only accepts SSL encrypted communication and does not allow file transfers as well as audio and video transmissions. This tool is useful to have as another mean of communication during video or teleconferences. The second tool, named EFDATV, is a multipurposeVirtual Network Computing (VNC) based desktop screen sharing system used to share presentations via the Internet. A Java enabled web browser or a VNC client is sufficient for the presenter and the audience to use EFDATV. It is also possible from an EFDATV channel to connect to another VNC server and broadcast the view from that VNC server.

  5. MESSENGER observations of transient bursts of energetic electrons in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, George C; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Gold, Robert E; Baker, Daniel N; Slavin, James A; Anderson, Brian J; Korth, Haje; Starr, Richard D; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER spacecraft began detecting energetic electrons with energies greater than 30 kilo-electron volts (keV) shortly after its insertion into orbit about Mercury. In contrast, no energetic protons were observed. The energetic electrons arrive as bursts lasting from seconds to hours and are most intense close to the planet, distributed in latitude from the equator to the north pole, and present at most local times. Energies can exceed 200 keV but often exhibit cutoffs near 100 keV. Angular distributions of the electrons about the magnetic field suggest that they do not execute complete drift paths around the planet. This set of characteristics demonstrates that Mercury's weak magnetic field does not support Van Allen-type radiation belts, unlike all other planets in the solar system with internal magnetic fields.

  6. NEUTRINOS AS COSMIC MESSENGERS IN THE ERA OF ICECUBE, ANTARES AND KM3NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli F. Katz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using neutrinos as cosmic messengers for observation of non-thermal processes in the Universe is a highly attractive and promising vision, which has been pursued in various neutrino telescope projects for more than two decades. Recent results from ground-based TeV gamma-ray observatories and refinements of model calculations of the expected neutrino fluxes indicate that Gigaton target volumes will be necessary to establish neutrino astronomy. A first neutrino telescope of that size, IceCube, is operational at the South Pole. Based on experience with the smaller first-generation ANTARES telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, the multi-Gigaton KM3NeT device is in preparation. These neutrino telescopes are presented, and some selected results and the expected KM3NeT performance are discussed.

  7. Postage for the messenger: Designating routes for Nuclear mRNA Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalizio, Barbara J.; Wente, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of messenger(m) RNA occurs in the nucleus, making the translocation of mRNA across the nuclear envelope (NE) boundary a critical determinant of proper gene expression and cell survival. A major mRNA export route occurs via the NXF1-dependent pathway through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the NE. However, recent findings have discovered new evidence supporting the existence of multiple mechanisms for crossing the NE, including both NPC-mediated and NE budding-mediated pathways. An analysis of the trans-acting factors and cis components that define these pathways reveals shared elements as well as mechanistic differences. We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms that characterize each pathway and highlight the determinants that influence mRNA transport fate. PMID:23583578

  8. MESSENGER Magnetic Field Observations of Upstream Ultra-Low Frequency Waves at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Boardsen, S.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Anderosn, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury's foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury's foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the I-Hz waves in the Earth's foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth's foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at near 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at near 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  9. The Velocity Distribution Of Pickup He+ Measured at 0.3 AU by MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Gloeckler, George; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-06-01

    During its interplanetary trajectory in 2007-2009, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvrionment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft passed through the gravitational focusing cone for interstellar helium multiple times at a heliocentric distance R ≈ 0.3 AU. Observations of He+ interstellar pickup ions made by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer sensor on MESSENGER during these transits provide a glimpse into the structure of newly formed inner heliospheric pickup-ion distributions. This close to the Sun, these ions are picked up in a nearly radial interplanetary magnetic field. Compared with the near-Earth environment, pickup ions observed near 0.3 AU will not have had sufficient time to be energized substantially. Such an environment results in a nearly pristine velocity distribution function that should depend only on pickup-ion injection velocities (related to the interstellar gas), pitch-angle scattering, and cooling processes. From measured energy-per-charge spectra obtained during multiple spacecraft observational geometries, we have deduced the phase-space density of He+ as a function of magnetic pitch angle. Our measurements are most consistent with a distribution that decreases nearly monotonically with increasing pitch angle, rather than the more commonly modeled isotropic or hemispherically symmetric forms. These results imply that pitch-angle scattering of He+ may not be instantaneous, as is often assumed, and instead may reflect the velocity distribution of initially injected particles. In a slow solar wind stream, we find a parallel-scattering mean free path of λ || ~ 0.1 AU and a He+ production rate of ~0.05 m-3 s-1 within 0.3 AU.

  10. Serotonergic transmission at Merkel discs: modulation by exogenously applied chemical messengers and involvement of Ih currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In this study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers. We found that SA1 responses were potentiated by serotonin at low concentration (10 μM) but almost completely occluded by serotonin at high concentration (2 mM). In contrast, SA1 responses were not significantly affected by ATP and its metabolically stable analog α,β-methylene-ATP, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and histamine. SA1 responses were also not affected by antagonists for P2X receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reconfirm the presence of both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors on afferent neurons and their terminals innervating whisker hair follicles. All whisker afferent neurons expressed hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (I h ), which are potentiated by serotonin through the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Taken together, the findings substantiate the serotonergic mechanism of tactile transmission at Merkel discs and identify the involvement of I h currents in postsynaptic excitatory actions of serotonin. In addition, the findings do not favor any significant involvement of ATP, glutamate, histamine, GABA, or glycine in tactile transmission at the Merkel discs of whisker hair follicles. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  12. Just How Important Is the Messenger versus the Message? The Case of Framing Physician-Assisted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider-Markel, Donald P.; Joslyn, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    As a political issue, death and dying topics only sometimes reach the political agenda. However, some issues, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been highly salient. This article explores attitudes toward PAS by examining the malleability of opinion when respondents are exposed to issue frames and when specific messengers present those…

  13. Early changes of placenta-derived messenger RNA in maternal plasma – potential value for preeclampsia prediction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surugiu Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the pourpose of the study was to determine if there are any differences between placenta derived plasmatic levels of messenger RNA in normal and future preeclamptic pregnancies and if these placental transcripts can predict preeclampsia long before clinical onset

  14. The Effectiveness of Using WhatsApp Messenger as One of Mobile Learning Techniques to Develop Students' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Said Fathy El Said Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to determine the effectiveness of using a WhatsApp Messenger as one of mobile learning techniques to develop students' writing skills. Participants were 30 second year college students, English department from a private university in Saudi Arabia. The experimental group (N = 15) used WhatsApp technology to develop…

  15. The Effects of a Synchronous Communication Tool (Yahoo Messenger) on Online Learners' Sense of Community and Their Multimedia Authoring Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Kwei

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that developing a community of learners is the key to a successful online-learning experience. In this study, the instructor of a multimedia authoring course adopted a synchronous communication tool (Yahoo Messenger) to interact with learners orally on a weekly basis and, thereby, to establish a sense among the learners that…

  16. Cytoplasmic p21 is a potential predictor for cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xi; Weng, Yanjie; Liao, Shujie; Han, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ronghua; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Shixuan; Xu, Gang; Meng, Li; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Ma, Quanfu; Li, Xiao; Ji, Teng; Chen, Pingbo; Xu, Hongbin; Li, Kezhen; Fang, Yong; Weng, Danhui

    2011-01-01

    P21 (WAF1/Cip1) binds to cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and inhibits their activities. It was originally described as an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation. However, many recent studies have shown that p21 promotes tumor progression when accumulated in the cell cytoplasm. So far, little is known about the correlation between cytoplasmic p21 and drug resistance. This study was aimed to investigate the role of p21 in the cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer. RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect p21 expression and location in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line C13* and its parental line OV2008. Regulation of cytoplasmic p21 was performed through transfection of p21 siRNA, Akt2 shRNA and Akt2 constitutively active vector in the two cell lines; their effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Tumor tissue sections of clinical samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. p21 predominantly localizes to the cytoplasm in C13* compared to OV2008. Persistent exposure to low dose cisplatin in OV2008 leads to p21 translocation from nuclear to cytoplasm, while it had not impact on p21 localization in C13*. Knockdown of cytoplasmic p21 by p21 siRNA transfection in C13* notably increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis through activation of caspase 3. Inhibition of p21 translocation into the cytoplasm by transfection of Akt2 shRNA into C13* cells significantly increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, while induction of p21 translocation into the cytoplasm by transfection of constitutively active Akt2 in OV2008 enhanced the resistance to cisplatin. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical ovarian tumor tissues demonstrated that cytoplasmic p21 was negatively correlated with the response to cisplatin based treatment. Cytoplasmic p21 is a novel biomarker of cisplatin resistance and it may represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian tumors that are refractory to conventional treatment

  17. Urinary Biomarkers in Relapsing Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Jason G.; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Merkel, Peter A.; Monach, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glomerulonephritis (GN) is common in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), but tools for early detection of renal involvement are imperfect. We investigated 4 urinary proteins as markers of active renal AAV: alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Methods Patients with active renal AAV (n = 20), active nonrenal AAV (n = 16), and AAV in longterm remission (n = 14) were identified within a longitudinal cohort. Urinary biomarker concentrations (by ELISA) were normalized for urine creatinine. Marker levels during active AAV were compared to baseline remission levels (from 1–4 visits) for each patient. Areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivities, specificities, and likelihood ratios (LR) comparing disease states were calculated. Results Baseline biomarker levels varied among patients. All 4 markers increased during renal flares (p < 0.05). MCP-1 discriminated best between active renal disease and remission: a 1.3-fold increase in MCP-1 had 94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for active renal disease (AUC = 0.93, positive LR 8.5, negative LR 0.07). Increased MCP-1 also characterized 50% of apparently nonrenal flares. Change in AGP, KIM-1, or NGAL showed more modest ability to distinguish active renal disease from remission (AUC 0.71–0.75). Hematuria was noted in 83% of active renal episodes, but also 43% of nonrenal flares and 25% of remission samples. Conclusion Either urinary MCP-1 is not specific for GN in AAV, or it identifies early GN not detected by standard assessment and thus has potential to improve care. A followup study with kidney biopsy as the gold standard is needed. PMID:23547217

  18. Cytoplasmic genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Bindu; Corwin, Jason A.; Li, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding genome to phenotype linkages has been greatly enabled by genomic sequencing. However, most genome analysis is typically confined to the nuclear genome. We conducted a metabolomic QTL analysis on a reciprocal RIL population structured to examine how variation in the organelle genomes...... was a central hub in the epistatic network controlling the plant metabolome. This epistatic influence manifested such that the cytoplasmic background could alter or hide pairwise epistasis between nuclear loci. Thus, cytoplasmic genetic variation plays a central role in controlling natural variation...... in metabolomic networks. This suggests that cytoplasmic genomes must be included in any future analysis of natural variation....

  19. Myosin Va associates with mRNA in ribonucleoprotein particles present in myelinated peripheral axons and in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliari, Aldo; Farías, Joaquina; Puppo, Agostina; Canclini, Lucía; Mercer, John A; Munroe, David; Sotelo, José R; Sotelo-Silveira, José R

    2014-03-01

    Sorting of specific mRNAs to particular cellular locations and regulation of their translation is an essential mechanism underlying cell polarization. The transport of RNAs by kinesins and dyneins has been clearly established in several cell models, including neurons in culture. A similar role appears to exist in higher eukaryotes for the myosins. Myosin Va (Myo5a) has been described as a component of ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) in the adult rat nervous system and associated to ZBP1 and ribosomes in ribosomal periaxoplasmic plaques (PARPs), making it a likely candidate for mediating some aspects of RNA transport in neurons. To test this hypothesis, we have characterized RNPs containing Myo5a in adult brains of rats and mice. Microarray analysis of RNAs co-immunoprecipitated with Myo5a indicates that this motor may associate with a specific subpopulation of neuronal mRNAs. We found mRNAs encoding α-synuclein and several proteins with functions in translation in these RNPs. Immunofluorescence analyses of RNPs showed apparent co-localization of Myo5a with ribosomes, mRNA and RNA-binding proteins in discrete structures present both in axons of neurons in culture and in myelinated fibers of medullary roots. Our data suggest that PARPs include RNPs bearing the mRNA coding for Myo5a and are equipped with kinesin and Myo5a molecular motors. In conclusion, we suggest that Myo5a is involved in mRNA trafficking both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Concerted effects of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 to control vitamin D-directed gene transcription and RNA splicing in human bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Park, Juw Won; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Zavala, Kathryn; Sea, Jessica L; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Xing, Yi; Hewison, Martin

    2017-01-25

    Traditionally recognized as an RNA splicing regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 (hnRNPC1/C2) can also bind to double-stranded DNA and function in trans as a vitamin D response element (VDRE)-binding protein. As such, hnRNPC1/C2 may couple transcription induced by the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) with subsequent RNA splicing. In MG63 osteoblastic cells, increased expression of the 1,25(OH) 2 D target gene CYP24A1 involved immunoprecipitation of hnRNPC1/C2 with CYP24A1 chromatin and RNA. Knockdown of hnRNPC1/C2 suppressed expression of CYP24A1, but also increased expression of an exon 10-skipped CYP24A1 splice variant; in a minigene model the latter was attenuated by a functional VDRE in the CYP24A1 promoter. In genome-wide analyses, knockdown of hnRNPC1/C2 resulted in 3500 differentially expressed genes and 2232 differentially spliced genes, with significant commonality between groups. 1,25(OH) 2 D induced 324 differentially expressed genes, with 187 also observed following hnRNPC1/C2 knockdown, and a further 168 unique to hnRNPC1/C2 knockdown. However, 1,25(OH) 2 D induced only 10 differentially spliced genes, with no overlap with differentially expressed genes. These data indicate that hnRNPC1/C2 binds to both DNA and RNA and influences both gene expression and RNA splicing, but these actions do not appear to be linked through 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated induction of transcription. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Binding of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K to the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2 enhances viral LMP2A expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Gross

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV -encoded EBNA2 protein, which is essential for the in vitro transformation of B-lymphocytes, interferes with cellular processes by binding to proteins via conserved sequence motifs. Its Arginine-Glycine (RG repeat element contains either symmetrically or asymmetrically di-methylated arginine residues (SDMA and ADMA, respectively. EBNA2 binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to the survival motor neurons protein (SMN and via the ADMA-RG-repeat to the NP9 protein of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K (HML-2 Type 1. The hypothesis of this work was that the methylated RG-repeat mimics an epitope shared with cellular proteins that is used for interaction with target structures. With monoclonal antibodies against the modified RG-repeat, we indeed identified cellular homologues that apparently have the same surface structure as methylated EBNA2. With the SDMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the Sm protein D3 (SmD3 which, like EBNA2, binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to SMN. With the ADMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K. Specific binding of the ADMA- antibody to hnRNP K was demonstrated using E. coli expressed/ADMA-methylated hnRNP K. In addition, we show that EBNA2 and hnRNP K form a complex in EBV- infected B-cells. Finally, hnRNP K, when co-expressed with EBNA2, strongly enhances viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A expression by an unknown mechanism as we did not detect a direct association of hnRNP K with DNA-bound EBNA2 in gel shift experiments. Our data support the notion that the methylated surface of EBNA2 mimics the surface structure of cellular proteins to interfere with or co-opt their functional properties.

  2. Epitope mapping of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarelli, J A; Mesa, A; Rodriguez, R; Avellan, R; Martinez, L; Zang, Y J; Greidinger, E L; Herrera, R J

    2011-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are autoimmune illnesses characterized by the presence of high titers of autoantibodies directed against a wide range of 'self ' antigens. Proteins of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) are among the most immunogenic molecules in patients with SLE and MCTD. The recent release of a crystallized U1 snRNP provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of tertiary and quaternary structures on autoantigenicity within the U1 snRNP. In the present study, an epitope map was created using the U1 snRNP crystal structure. A total of 15 peptides were tested in a cohort of 68 patients with SLE, 29 with MCTD and 26 healthy individuals and mapped onto the U1 snRNP structure. Antigenic sites were detected in a variety of structures and appear to include RNA binding domains, but mostly exclude regions necessary for protein-protein interactions. These data suggest that while some autoantibodies may target U1 snRNP proteins as monomers or apoptosis-induced, protease-digested fragments, others may recognize epitopes on assembled protein subcomplexes of the U1 snRNP. Although nearly all of the peptides are strong predictors of autoimmune illness, none were successful at distinguishing between SLE and MCTD. The antigenicity of some peptides significantly correlated with several clinical symptoms. This investigation implicitly highlights the complexities of autoimmune epitopes, and autoimmune illnesses in general, and demonstrates the variability of antigens in patient populations, all of which contribute to difficult clinical diagnoses.

  3. Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F stimulates renal Ace-2 gene expression and prevents TGF-β1-induced kidney injury in a mouse model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chao-Sheng; Shi, Yixuan; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Abdo, Shaaban; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Chan, John S D

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) stimulates renal ACE-2 expression and prevents TGF-β1 signalling, TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression and induction of tubulo-fibrosis in an Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Adult male Akita transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing specifically hnRNP F in their renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) were studied. Non-Akita littermates and Akita mice served as controls. Immortalised rat RPTCs stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Hnrnpf cDNA or rat Ace-2 gene promoter were also studied. Overexpression of hnRNP F attenuated systemic hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, albumin/creatinine ratio, urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin (Ang) II levels, renal fibrosis and profibrotic gene (Agt, Tgf-β1, TGF-β receptor II [Tgf-βrII]) expression, stimulated anti-profibrotic gene (Ace-2 and Ang 1-7 receptor [MasR]) expression, and normalised urinary Ang 1-7 level in Akita Hnrnpf-Tg mice as compared with Akita mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression stimulated Ace-2 gene promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and attenuated Agt, Tgf-β1 and Tgf-βrII gene expression. Furthermore, hnRNP F overexpression prevented TGF-β1 signalling and TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression. These data demonstrate that hnRNP F stimulates Ace-2 gene transcription, prevents TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene transcription and induction of kidney injury in diabetes. HnRNP F may be a potential target for treating hypertension and renal fibrosis in diabetes.

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis in Petunia × hybrida protoplast system using direct delivery of purified recombinant Cas9 ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Chung, Sung Jin; Lee, Choongil; Ryu, Seuk-Min; Kim, Duk Hyoung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bae, Sangsu; Lee, Geung-Joo

    2016-07-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of nitrate reductase genes using direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein preassembled with guide RNA produces mutations efficiently in Petunia × hybrida protoplast system. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has been recently announced as a powerful molecular breeding tool for site-directed mutagenesis in higher plants. Here, we report a site-directed mutagenesis method targeting Petunia nitrate reductase (NR) gene locus. This method could create mutations efficiently using direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein and single guide RNA (sgRNA) into protoplast cells. After transient introduction of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN) ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) with different sgRNAs targeting NR genes, mutagenesis at the targeted loci was detected by T7E1 assay and confirmed by targeted deep sequencing. T7E1 assay showed that RGEN RNPs induced site-specific mutations at frequencies ranging from 2.4 to 21 % at four different sites (NR1, 2, 4 and 6) in the PhNR gene locus with average mutation efficiency of 14.9 ± 2.2 %. Targeted deep DNA sequencing revealed mutation rates of 5.3-17.8 % with average mutation rate of 11.5 ± 2 % at the same NR gene target sites in DNA fragments of analyzed protoplast transfectants. Further analysis from targeted deep sequencing showed that the average ratio of deletion to insertion produced collectively by the four NR-RGEN target sites (NR1, 2, 4, and 6) was about 63:37. Our results demonstrated that direct delivery of RGEN RNPs into protoplast cells of Petunia can be exploited as an efficient tool for site-directed mutagenesis of genes or genome editing in plant systems.

  5. MESSENGER Educator Fellows Taking the Nation on a Ride to the Innermost Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhala, H. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K. G.; Hirshon, B.; Weir, H. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the mysterious planet Mercury offers an unprecedented opportunity for teachers, students, and citizens to tag along for the ride, and the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) Educator Fellows are making sure classrooms across the U.S. are treated to quite a show. The Fellows, a nationally selected team of 30 master science educator volunteers, conduct workshops to teachers on how to bring educational materials developed in support of the mission into the classroom. The goal of the program is to provide teachers and school districts with exceptional educational materials and professional development strongly tied to the space science curriculum, and the materials are designed to inspire the next generation of America's scientists and engineers through NASA missions. Since the program's inception in 2003, more than 17,000 educators have been trained by the Fellows. On the basis of data gathered from the Fellows, this figure could translate to over two million student experiences. The success of the Fellowship program can also be gauged by determining how well it has maintained its volunteer corps over the years. The Fellows, selected to the program through a national announcement of opportunity every two years, reflect a geographically and institutionally diverse mix of individuals from a variety of settings such as science centers, museums, school districts, and universities. The Fellows sign up to the program for two years at a time, and at the end of their term they have the option to reapply. To keep the number of Fellows at 30 in each cadre, new Fellows are recruited to replace those who have retired. The current, fourth cadre of Fellows includes 30 individuals in 19 states and territories. Of these, seven have been in the program since the first cadre, and the other 23 include Fellows from the second, third, and fourth recruitment campaigns in 2006, 2008, and 2010. The current cadre is conducting its work

  6. The effect of 648 nm diode laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent human keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins Evans, D.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Background/purpose: Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) is defined as the long-term effect of subcytotoxic stress on proliferative cell types. Cells in SIPS display differences at the level of protein expression which affect energy metabolism, defense systems, redox potential, cell morphology and transduction pathways. This study aimed to determine the effect of laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent cells and to establish if that effect can be directly linked to changes in cellular function such as cell viability or proliferation. Materials and Methods: Human keratinocyte cell cultures were modified to induce premature senescence using repeated sub-lethal stresses of 200 uM H2O2 or 5% OH every day for four days with two days recovery. SIPS was confirmed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Control conditions included normal, repeated stress of 500 uM H2O2 to induce apoptosis and 200 uM PBN as an anti-oxidant or free radical scavenger. Cells were irradiated with 1.5 J/cm2 on day 1 and 4 using a 648 nm diode laser (3.3 mW/cm2) and cellular responses were measured 1 h post irradiation. The affect on second messengers was assessed by measuring cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) while functional changes were assessed using cell morphology, ATP cell viability, LDH membrane integrity and WST-1 cell proliferation. Results: Results indicate an increase in NO and a decrease in cGMP and Ca2+ in 200 uM H2O2 irradiated cells while PBN irradiated cells showed a decrease in cAMP and an increase in ATP viability and cell proliferation. Conclusion: Laser irradiation influences cell signaling which ultimately changes the biological function of senescent cells. If laser therapy can stimulate the biological function of senescent cells it may be beneficial to conditions such as immune senescence, skin ageing, muscle atrophy, premature ageing of arteries in patients with advanced heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders and

  7. What Might We Learn About Magnetospheric Substorms at the Earth from the MESSENGER Measurements at Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite observations at the Earth, supported by theory and modeling, have established a close connection between the episodes of intense magnetospheric convection termed substorms and the occurrence of magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause results in strong energy input to the magnetosphere. This energy can either be stored or used immediately to power the magnetospheric convection that produces the phenomena that collectively define the 'substorm.' However, many aspects of magnetic reconnection and the dynamic response of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere system at the Earth during substorms remain poorly understood. For example, the rate of magnetic reconnection is thought to be proportional to the local Alfven speed, but the limited range of changes in this solar wind parameter at 1 AU have made it difficult to detect its influence over energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere. In addition, the electrical conductance of the ionosphere and how it changes in response to auroral charged particle precipitation are hypothesized to play a critical role in the development of substorms, but the nature of this electrodynamic interaction remain difficult to deduce from Earth observations alone. The amount of energy the terrestrial magnetosphere can store in its tail, the duration of the storage, and the trigger(s) for its dissipation are all thought to be determined by not only the microphysics of the cross-tail current layer, but also the properties of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system. Again, the separation of microphysics effects from system response has proved very difficult using measurements taken only at the Earth. If MESSENGER'S charged particle and magnetic field measurements confirm the occurrence of terrestrial-style substorms in Mercury's miniature magnetosphere, then it may be possible to determine how magnetospheric convection, field-aligned currents, charged particle acceleration

  8. Conformational alterations resulting from mutations in cytoplasmic domains of the alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blostein, R; Daly, S E; MacAulay, Nanna

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes experiments concerned with the functional consequences of mutations in cytoplasmic regions of the alpha 1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, in particular the amino terminus, the first cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane segments M2 and M3, and the major cytoplasmic loop between...

  9. Proteomic response of Bacillus subtilis to lantibiotics reflects differences in interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, M.; Kohl, B.; Münch, D.; Raatschen, N.; Albada, H.B.; Hamoen, L.; Metzler-Nolte, N.; Sahl, H.G.; Bandow, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Mersacidin, gallidermin, and nisin are lantibiotics, antimicrobial peptides containing lanthionine. They show potent antibacterial activity. All three interfere with cell wall biosynthesis by binding lipid II, but they display different levels of interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. On one end

  10. Cytoplasmic Dynein Regulation by Subunit Heterogeneity and Its Role in Apical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew W.; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2001-01-01

    Despite the existence of multiple subunit isoforms for the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, it has not yet been directly shown that dynein complexes with different compositions exhibit different properties. The 14-kD dynein light chain Tctex-1, but not its homologue RP3, binds directly to rhodopsin's cytoplasmic COOH-terminal tail, which encodes an apical targeting determinant in polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 and RP3 compete for binding to dynein intermediate chain and that overexpressed RP3 displaces endogenous Tctex-1 from dynein complexes in MDCK cells. Furthermore, replacement of Tctex-1 by RP3 selectively disrupts the translocation of rhodopsin to the MDCK apical surface. These results directly show that cytoplasmic dynein function can be regulated by its subunit composition and that cytoplasmic dynein is essential for at least one mode of apical transport in polarized epithelia. PMID:11425878

  11. Organization of the cytoplasmic reticulum in the central vacuole of parenchyma cells in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An elaborate and complex cytoplasmic reticulum composed of fine filaments and lamellae ranging from 0.1 to 4 microns in size is revealed by viewing the central vacuole of onion bulb parenchyma cells with the scanning election microscope. The larger cytoplasmic strands, visible with the light microscope, are composed of numerous smaller filaments (some tubular which might explain the observed bidirectional movement of particles in these larger strands. The finely divided cytoplasmic network of filaments is continuous with the parietal cytoplasm inclosing the vacuolar sap. In these highly vacuolated cells the mass of the protoplast is in the form of an intravacuolar reticulum immersed in the cell sap. The probable significance of the vacuolar sap in relation to physiological processes of the cell is discussed.

  12. Characterization of Novel Cytoplasmic PARP in the Brain of Octopus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LISA, EMILIA; DE MAIO, ANNA; MOROZ, LEONID L.; MOCCIA, FRANCESCO; MENNELLA, MARIA ROSARIA FARAONE; DI COSMO, ANNA

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigation has focused on the participation of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) reaction in the invertebrate central nervous system (CNS) during the process of long-term memory (LTM). In this paper, we characterize, localize, and assign a possible role to a cytoplasmic PARP in the brain of Octopus vulgaris. PARP activity was assayed in optic lobes, supraesophageal mass, and optic nerves. The highest levels of enzyme were found in the cytoplasmic fraction. Hyper-activation of the enzyme was detected in Octopus brain after visual discrimination training. Finally, cytoplasmic PARP was found to inhibit Octopus vulgaris actin polymerization. We propose that the cytoplasmic PARP plays a role in vivo to induce the cytoskeletonal reorganization that occurs during learning-induced neuronal plasticity. PMID:22815366

  13. Evaluation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody seroconversion induced by minocycline, sulfasalazine, or penicillamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, HK; Slot, MC; Pan, GL; Weissbach, CA; Niles, JL; Merkel, PA

    Objective, Case reports have suggested that minocycline, sulfasalazine, and penicillamine are associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis, This study evaluated ANCA seroconversion due to these agents in serum samples prospectively collected in randomized,

  14. Activation of chromatin degradation by a protein factor of thymocyte cytoplasm of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    A cytoplasmic thymocyte fraction isolated 1 h after irradiation of mice accelerates chromatin degradation in isolated nuclei. Treatment of the cytoplasmic fraction by heat and injection of cycloheximide to mice prevent the acceleration of DNA degradation. The analysis of the chromatin degradation products and the kinetics of this process at acid and alkaline pH shows that activation of DNA degradation in thymocytes by a factor obtained from the irradiated cell cytoplasm is specific for a Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ -dependent enzyme. The time- and dose-dependent parameters of the appearance in the thymocyte cytoplasm of the factor influencing degradation of chromatin are in a good agreement with both the time of the onset of its postirradiation degradation and the dose dependence of this process

  15. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversi...

  16. Anticorpos contra o citoplasma de neutrófilos Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Stiel Radu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta do marcador sorológico denominado anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos revolucionou o diagnóstico e o seguimento das vasculites pulmonares, especialmente da granulomatose de Wegener. Seu padrão pode ser citoplasmático e perinuclear. Sua titulação auxilia no diagnóstico e no seguimento das vasculites pulmonares.The discovery of the serological markers known as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies revolutionized the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of the various forms of pulmonary vasculitis, especially that of Wegener's granulomatosis. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies pattern can be cytoplasmic or perinuclear. Determination of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies titers aids the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of pulmonary vasculitis.

  17. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heinze, Jonas; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Murase, Kohta, E-mail: bustamanteramirez.1@osu.edu, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de, E-mail: jonas.heinze@desy.de, E-mail: murase@psu.edu [Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA16802 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  18. Arnold Sommerfeld. Atomic physicist and messenger of culture 1868-1951. A biography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Arnold Sommerfeld is beside Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and Max Planck one of the founders of modern atomic and quantum theory. His career began in the 1890th years at the University of Goettingen, the world center of mathematics of that time. Since 1906 he created on the professorship for theoretical physics at the Munich university one of the most important schools of science, the students of which are well-known theorists of the atomic era like as the Nobel-price winners Hans Bethe, Peter Debye, Wolfgang Pauli, and Werner Heisenberg. He also developed far beyond his subject an unprecedented impact. He travelled as ''messenger of culture'' in many countries in order to advertise in the years after the first world war for the reputation of Germany as culture nation. By the nationalsocialism the Munich ''nursery of theoretical physics'' however was prepared an inglorious end, because Sommerfeld counted for a ''main propagandist of Jewish theories''. By the example of this life of a physicist also the eventful history of a whole subject.

  19. Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, D L; Reddy, V; Plaga, K

    1999-03-01

    We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.

  20. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10-5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, J2⊙J2⊙ = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10-7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, GM⊙°/GM⊙GM⊙°/GM⊙ = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10-14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain ∣∣G°∣∣/GG°/G to be <4 × 10-14 per year.

  1. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T

    2018-01-18

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10 -5 . By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10 -5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, [Formula: see text] = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10 -7 . Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, [Formula: see text] = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10 -14 , which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain [Formula: see text] to be <4 × 10 -14 per year.

  2. Cyclic GMP-AMP as an Endogenous Second Messenger in Innate Immune Signaling by Cytosolic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuki; Omura, Hiroki; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-06-20

    The innate immune system functions as the first line of defense against invading bacteria and viruses. In this context, the cGAS/STING [cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase/STING] signaling axis perceives the nonself DNA associated with bacterial and viral infections, as well as the leakage of self DNA by cellular dysfunction and stresses, to elicit the host's immune responses. In this pathway, the noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide 2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (2',3'-cGAMP) functions as a second messenger for signal transduction: 2',3'-cGAMP is produced by the enzyme cGAS upon its recognition of double-stranded DNA, and then the 2',3'-cGAMP is recognized by the receptor STING to induce the phosphorylation of downstream factors, including TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1) and IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3). Numerous crystal structures of the components of this cGAS/STING signaling axis have been reported and these clarify the structural basis for their signal transduction mechanisms. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in the structural dissection of this signaling pathway and indicate possible directions of forthcoming research.

  3. Disturbances in lipid second messengers generation by stimulated blood lymphocytes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan H. M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main objective of this study was the comparative investigation of diverse lipid second messenger (LSM generation by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL at different (5, 10, 30 and 60 s time points of cell co-stimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in norm and breast cancer (BC. Methods. Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Results. The data obtained indicate that some mechanisms of LSM generation/utilization in stimulated crude HPBL were significantly altered in BC compared to norm. Particularly, the reliable generation of arachidonyl-1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG at the initial step (5 s of cell stimulation observed in norm was depressed in BC and reached the value below the basal level in unstimulated cells. It is important that the disturbances in 1,2-DAG formation in HPBL obtained from patients with BC were identical with those observed earlier in other forms of cancer. Conclusions. We conclude that the regularities revealed are common characteristics for all the types of malignancy studied and can be used as additional testing parameters for cancer definition and individual correction of the chemotherapy programs for disease treatment

  4. A Bayesian approach to multi-messenger astronomy: identification of gravitational-wave host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, XiLong; Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong

    2014-01-01

    We present a general framework for incorporating astrophysical information into Bayesian parameter estimation techniques used by gravitational wave data analysis to facilitate multi-messenger astronomy. Since the progenitors of transient gravitational wave events, such as compact binary coalescences, are likely to be associated with a host galaxy, improvements to the source sky location estimates through the use of host galaxy information are explored. To demonstrate how host galaxy properties can be included, we simulate a population of compact binary coalescences and show that for ∼8.5% of simulations within 200 Mpc, the top 10 most likely galaxies account for a ∼50% of the total probability of hosting a gravitational wave source. The true gravitational wave source host galaxy is in the top 10 galaxy candidates ∼10% of the time. Furthermore, we show that by including host galaxy information, a better estimate of the inclination angle of a compact binary gravitational wave source can be obtained. We also demonstrate the flexibility of our method by incorporating the use of either the B or K band into our analysis.

  5. POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics) Science and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Perkins, Jeremy S.; POEMMA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this poster we describe the preliminary design of POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics). The two satellites flying in formation consists of an innovative Schmidt telescope design optimized for low energy threshold and large geometry factor for observations. The 4 meter mirror was designed to fit in a dual manifest launch vehicle. A novel corrector lens and fast optics are design to optimized the full field of view to 45 degrees. The large focal surface will be populated by two systems: a multi-anode PMT (MAPMT) array for fluorescence detection and a Silicon PM (SiPM) array for Cherenkov detection around the limb of the Earth. At an altitude of 525 km, the LEO orbit will have a 28.5o inclination the mission can be launched from KSC and have a mission life of 3 years with a 5 year goal. The mission will improve by orders of magnitude the observations of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above tens of EeV and search for neutrinos above tens of PeVs.

  6. FMRP acts as a key messenger for dopamine modulation in the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hansen; Wu, Long-Jun; Kim, Susan S; Lee, Frank J S; Gong, Bo; Toyoda, Hiroki; Ren, Ming; Shang, Yu-Ze; Xu, Hui; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Zhuo, Min

    2008-08-28

    The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that controls translational efficiency and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that FMRP is involved in dopamine (DA) modulation of synaptic potentiation. AMPA glutamate receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) surface expression and phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation were reduced in cultured Fmr1(-/-) prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. Furthermore, D1 receptor signaling was impaired, accompanied by D1 receptor hyperphosphorylation at serine sites and subcellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in both PFC and striatum of Fmr1(-/-) mice. FMRP interacted with GRK2, and pharmacological inhibition of GRK2 rescued D1 receptor signaling in Fmr1(-/-) neurons. Finally, D1 receptor agonist partially rescued hyperactivity and enhanced the motor function of Fmr1(-/-) mice. Our study has identified FMRP as a key messenger for DA modulation in the forebrain and may provide insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fragile X syndrome.

  7. Phloroglucinol functions as an intracellular and intercellular chemical messenger influencing gene expression in Pseudomonas protegens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Buchanan, Alex; Vining, Oliver; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Chang, Jeff H; McPhail, Kerry L; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria can be both highly communicative and highly competitive in natural habitats and antibiotics are thought to play a role in both of these processes. The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 produces a spectrum of antibiotics, two of which, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), function in intracellular and intercellular communication, both as autoinducers of their own production. Here, we demonstrate that phloroglucinol, an intermediate in DAPG biosynthesis, can serve as an intercellular signal influencing the expression of pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes, the production of pyoluteorin, and inhibition of Pythium ultimum, a phytopathogenic oomycete sensitive to pyoluteorin. Through analysis of RNAseq data sets, we show that phloroglucinol had broad effects on the transcriptome of Pf-5, significantly altering the transcription of more than two hundred genes. The effects of nanomolar versus micromolar concentrations of phloroglucinol differed both quantitatively and qualitatively, influencing the expression of distinct sets of genes or having opposite effects on transcript abundance of certain genes. Therefore, our results support the concept of hormesis, a phenomenon associated with signalling molecules that elicit distinct responses at different concentrations. Phloroglucinol is the first example of an intermediate of antibiotic biosynthesis that functions as a chemical messenger influencing gene expression in P. protegens. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Role of WhatsApp Messenger in the Laboratory Management System: A Boon to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwal, Pranav; Sachdev, Ritesh; Gautam, Dheeraj; Jain, Dharmendra; Sharma, Pooja; Tiwari, Assem Kumar; Raina, Vimarsh

    2016-01-01

    The revolution of internet and specifically mobile internet has occurred at a blinding pace over the last decade. With the advent of smart phones, the hand held device has become much more than a medium of voice calling. Healthcare has been catching up with the digital revolution in the form of Hospital Information System and Laboratory Information System. However, the advent of instant messaging services, which are abundantly used by the youth, can be used to improve communication and coordination among the various stake holders in the healthcare sector. We have tried to look at the impact of using the WhatsApp messenger service in the laboratory management system, by forming multiple groups of the various subsections of the laboratory. A total of 35 members used this service for a period of 3 months and their response was taken on a scale of 1 to 10. There was significant improvement in the communication in the form of sharing photographic evidence, information about accidents, critical alerts, duty rosters, academic activities and getting directives from seniors. There was also some increase in the load of adding information to the application and disturbance in the routine activities; but the benefits far outweighed the minor hassles. We thereby suggest and foresee another communication revolution which will change the way information is shared in a healthcare sector, with hospital specific dedicated apps.

  9. Multi-messenger light curves from gamma-ray bursts in the internal shock model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP); Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Murase, Kohta [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure tend to be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  10. The Gravity Field, Orientation, and Ephemeris of Mercury from MESSENGER Observations After Three Years in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan M.; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Gregory; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed three years of radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury and determined the gravity field, planetary orientation, and ephemeris of the innermost planet. With improvements in spatial coverage, force modeling, and data weighting, we refined an earlier global gravity field both in quality and resolution, and we present here a spherical harmonic solution to degree and order 50. In this field, termed HgM005, uncertainties in low-degree coefficients are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to the earlier global field, and we obtained a preliminary value of the tidal Love number k(sub 2) of 0.451+/-0.014. We also estimated Mercury's pole position, and we obtained an obliquity value of 2.06 +/- 0.16 arcmin, in good agreement with analysis of Earth-based radar observations. From our updated rotation period (58.646146 +/- 0.000011 days) and Mercury ephemeris, we verified experimentally the planet's 3: 2 spin-orbit resonance to greater accuracy than previously possible. We present a detailed analysis of the HgM005 covariance matrix, and we describe some near-circular frozen orbits around Mercury that could be advantageous for future exploration.

  11. Large Impact Basins on Mercury: Global Distribution, Characteristics, and Modification History from MESSENGER Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Klimczak, Christian; Strom, Robert G.; Chapman, Clark R.; Prockter, Louise M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The formation of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) was an important process in the early evolution of Mercury and influenced the planet's topography, stratigraphy, and crustal structure. We catalog and characterize this basin population on Mercury from global observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft, and we use the new data to evaluate basins suggested on the basis of the Mariner 10 flybys. Forty-two certain or probable impact basins are recognized a few additional basins that may have been degraded to the point of ambiguity are plausible on the basis of new data but are classified as uncertain. The spatial density of large basins (D greater than or equal to 500 km) on Mercury is lower than that on the Moon. Morphological characteristics of basins on Mercury suggest that on average they are more degraded than lunar basins. These observations are consistent with more efficient modification, degradation, and obliteration of the largest basins on Mercury than on the Moon. This distinction may be a result of differences in the basin formation process (producing fewer rings), greater relaxation of topography after basin formation (subduing relief), and/or higher rates of volcanism during the period of heavy bombardment on Mercury compared to the Moon (burying basin rings and interiors).

  12. The membrane-cytoplasm interface of integrin alpha subunits is critical for receptor latency.

    OpenAIRE

    Briesewitz, R; Kern, A; Smilenov, L B; David, F S; Marcantonio, E E

    1996-01-01

    Localization of integrin receptors to focal contact sites occurs upon ligand binding. This activity is latent, since unoccupied integrin receptors do not localize to focal contacts. Deletion analysis has revealed that the alpha cytoplasmic domains is required for the maintenance of integrin receptor latency. Our current hypothesis for the mechanism of integrin post-ligand binding events is that there is a change in relationship of alpha and beta cytoplasmic domains, which overcomes receptor l...

  13. Control of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein kinase A by phosphodiesterases and phosphatases in cardiac myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Slimane, Zeineb; Bedioune, Ibrahim; Lechêne, Patrick; Varin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Florence; Mateo, Philippe; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Dewenter, Matthias; Richter, Wito; Conti, Marco; El-Armouche, Ali; Zhang, Jin; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Vandecasteele, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Aims The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) regulation of cardiac contraction and gene expression. Whereas PKA activity is well characterized in various subcellular compartments of adult cardiomyocytes, its regulation in the nucleus remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the modalities of PKA regulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. Methods and results Cytoplasmic and nuclear cAMP and PKA activity were measured with targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (Iso) led to fast cAMP elevation in both compartments, whereas PKA activity was fast in the cytoplasm but markedly slower in the nucleus. Iso was also more potent and efficient in activating cytoplasmic than nuclear PKA. Similar slow kinetics of nuclear PKA activation was observed upon adenylyl cyclase activation with L-858051 or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine. Consistently, pulse stimulation with Iso (15 s) maximally induced PKA and myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation in the cytoplasm, but marginally activated PKA and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the nucleus. Inhibition of PDE4 or ablation of the Pde4d gene in mice prolonged cytoplasmic PKA activation and enhanced nuclear PKA responses. In the cytoplasm, phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) contributed to the termination of PKA responses, whereas only PP1 played a role in the nucleus. Conclusion Our study reveals a differential integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear PKA responses to β-AR stimulation in cardiac myocytes. This may have important implications in the physiological and pathological hypertrophic response to β-AR stimulation. PMID:24550350

  14. ANALISIS PREFERENSI KONSUMEN DALAM PENGGUNAAN SOCIAL MESSENGER DI KOTA BANDUNG TAHUN 2014 (Studi Kasus : LINE, KAKAOTALK, WECHAT, WHATSAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noventi Ersa Putri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui “preferensi konsumen dalam penggunaan Social Messenger di kota Bandung”. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksploratif dan deskriptif, dengan meng- gunakan teknik Nonprobability sampling dan purposive sampling, dengan jumlah sampel 384 responden. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah Conjoint Analysis. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa keseluruhan responden menjadikan atribut fasilitas fi tur sebagai preferensi utama dalam memilih social messenger dengan nilai kepentingan tertinggi yaitu 48.361% dan level tertinggi yang menjadi preferensi fasilitas fi tur adalah free chat dengan nilai kepentingan sebesar 0.603% dan atribut desain sesuai kebutuhan pelanggan sebagai atribut terendah dengan nilai kepentingan 15.256% dan level ter- tinggi yang menjadi preferensi desain sesuai kebutuhan pelanggan adalah memiliki tampilan yang menarik dengan nilai kepentingan sebesar 0.078%.

  15. The Composition and Organization of Cytoplasm in Prebiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack T. Trevors

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the hypothesized composition and organization of cytoplasm in prebiotic cells from a theoretical perspective and also based upon what is currently known about bacterial cytoplasm. It is unknown if the first prebiotic, microscopic scale, cytoplasm was initially contained within a primitive, continuous, semipermeable membrane, or was an uncontained gel substance, that later became enclosed by a continuous membrane. Another possibility is that the first cytoplasm in prebiotic cells and a primitive membrane organized at the same time, permitting a rapid transition to the first cell(s capable of growth and division, thus assisting with the emergence of life on Earth less than a billion years after the formation of the Earth. It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1–0.2 µm3 (possibly less if a nanocell prior to the first cell division.

  16. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: two case reports and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoerl David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are typically detected in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis, but are also present in a number of chronic inflammatory non-vasculitic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Rare cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, a vasculitic disorder frequently associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been described in literature. Case presentation We report two middle-aged female patients with rheumatoid arthritis who developed anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and symptoms reminiscent of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Despite the lack of antibodies specific for proteinase 3 and the absence of a classical histology, we report a probable case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the first patient, and consider rheumatoid vasculitis in the second patient. Conclusion Taken together with previous reports, these cases highlight that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies have to be evaluated very carefully in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this context, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence appear to have a low diagnostic value for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Instead they may have prognostic value for assessing the course of rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Production of ABA responses requires both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functional involvement of PYR1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, EunJoo; Kim, Tae-Houn

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) enhances stress tolerant responses in plants against unfavorable environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis, ABA promotes interactions between PYR/PYL/RCARs and PP2C, thereby allowing SnRK2s to phosphorylate downstream components required for the regulation of gene expression or for gating ion channels. Because PYR1 is known to localize to nucleus and cytoplasm it is a question whether nuclear or cytoplasmic PYR1 confer different functions to the ABA signaling pathway, as has been previously shown for regulatory proteins. In order to answer this question, transgenic lines expressing nuclear PYR1 were generated in an ABA insensitive mutant background. Enforced nuclear expression of PYR1 was examined by confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. Physiological analyses of the transgenic lines demonstrated that nuclear PYR1 is sufficient to generate ABA responses, such as, the inhibition of seed germination, root growth inhibition, the induction of gene expression, and stomatal closing movement. However, for the full recovery of ABA responses in the mutant background cytoplasmic PYR1 was required. The study suggests both nuclear and cytoplasmic PYR1 participate in the control of ABA signal transduction. - Highlights: • Nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were studied in the mutant which lacked majority of ABA responses. • Nuclear PYR1 reconstituted partially the ABA responses during seed germination, root growth, and guard cell movement. • Both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were required for the full generation of ABA responses.

  18. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui; Wen, Jin-kun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs

  19. Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongbo; Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-11-15

    Subcellular Raman analysis is a promising clinic tool for cancer diagnosis, but constrained by the difficulty of deciphering subcellular spectra in actual human tissues. We report a label-free subcellular Raman analysis for use in cancer diagnosis that integrates subcellular signature spectra by subtracting cytoplasm from nucleus spectra (Nuc.-Cyt.) with a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. Raman mapping with the classical least-squares (CLS) model allowed direct visualization of the distribution of the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PLS-DA model was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five types of spectral datasets, including non-selective, nucleus, cytoplasm, ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (Nuc./Cyt.), and nucleus minus cytoplasm (Nuc.-Cyt.), resulting in diagnostic sensitivity of 88.3%, 84.0%, 98.4%, 84.5%, and 98.9%, respectively. Discriminating between normal and cancerous cells of actual human tissues through subcellular Raman markers is feasible, especially when using the nucleus-cytoplasm difference spectra. The subcellular Raman approach had good stability, and had excellent diagnostic performance for rectal as well as colon tissues. The insights gained from this study shed new light on the general applicability of subcellular Raman analysis in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microtubule–microtubule sliding by kinesin-1 is essential for normal cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Winding, Michael; Lakonishok, Margot; Wildonger, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule–microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes. We demonstrated that streaming is reduced by genomic replacement of wild-type Khc with this sliding-deficient mutant. Streaming can be fully rescued by wild-type KHC and partially rescued by a chimeric motor that cannot move organelles but is active in microtubule sliding. Consistent with these data, we identified two populations of microtubules in fast-streaming oocytes: a network of stable microtubules anchored to the actin cortex and free cytoplasmic microtubules that moved in the ooplasm. We further demonstrated that the reduced streaming in sliding-deficient oocytes resulted in posterior determination defects. Together, we propose that kinesin-1 slides free cytoplasmic microtubules against cortically immobilized microtubules, generating forces that contribute to cytoplasmic streaming and are essential for the refinement of posterior determinants. PMID:27512034

  1. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijazhuang (China); Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); Wen, Jin-kun, E-mail: wjk@hebmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.

  2. Ubiquitination of MBNL1 Is Required for Its Cytoplasmic Localization and Function in Promoting Neurite Outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Muscleblind-like protein family (MBNL plays an important role in regulating the transition between differentiation and pluripotency and in the pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, a CTG expansion disorder. How different MBNL isoforms contribute to the differentiation and are affected in DM1 has not been investigated. Here, we show that the MBNL1 cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, isoform promotes neurite morphogenesis and reverses the morphological defects caused by expanded CUG RNA. Cytoplasmic MBNL1 is polyubiquitinated by lysine 63 (K63. Reduced cytoplasmic MBNL1 in the DM1 mouse brain is consistent with the reduced extent of K63 ubiquitination. Expanded CUG RNA induced the deubiqutination of cytoplasmic MBNL1, which resulted in nuclear translocation and morphological impairment that could be ameliorated by inhibiting K63-linked polyubiquitin chain degradation. Our results suggest that K63-linked ubiquitination of MBNL1 is required for its cytoplasmic localization and that deubiquitination of cytoplasmic MBNL1 is pathogenic in the DM1 brain.

  3. Shopping Orientation And Sales Promotion On Sales Purchase Intention At Blackberry Messenger Group Clothing Sales In Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Suratman, Richo Eko

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping becomes a new phenomenon in the society due to the various benefits offered. Blackberry Messenger (BBM) as a chatting application began to be used by marketer to promote their products and to attract customers through the BBM group of online shop. People in Manado tend to fashionable, stylish, up to date about the trend, and consumptive, and therefore affect the consumer purchase intention. There are some factors which affect sales purchase intention some of them are shopping ...

  4. Synaptic plasticity in the medial vestibular nuclei: role of glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers in rat brainstem slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-01

    The analysis of cellular-molecular events mediating synaptic plasticity within vestibular nuclei is an attempt to explain the mechanisms underlying vestibular plasticity phenomena. The present review is meant to illustrate the main results, obtained in vitro, on the mechanisms underlying long-term changes in synaptic strength within the medial vestibular nuclei. The synaptic plasticity phenomena taking place at the level of vestibular nuclei could be useful for adapting and consolidating the efficacy of vestibular neuron responsiveness to environmental requirements, as during visuo-vestibular recalibration and vestibular compensation. Following a general introduction on the most salient features of vestibular compensation and visuo-vestibular adaptation, which are two plastic events involving neuronal circuitry within the medial vestibular nuclei, the second and third sections describe the results from rat brainstem slice studies, demonstrating the possibility to induce long-term potentiation and depression in the medial vestibular nuclei, following high frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. In particular the mechanisms sustaining the induction and expression of vestibular long-term potentiation and depression, such as the role of various glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers have been described. The relevant role of the interaction between the platelet-activating factor, acting as a retrograde messenger, and the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, in determining the full expression of vestibular long-term potentiation is also underlined. In addition, the mechanisms involved in vestibular long-term potentiation have been compared with those leading to long-term potentiation in the hippocampus to emphasize the most significant differences emerging from vestibular studies. The fourth part, describes recent results demonstrating the essential role of nitric oxide, another retrograde messenger, in the induction of vestibular

  5. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  6. Cytoplasmic electric fields and electroosmosis: possible solution for the paradoxes of the intracellular transport of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Victor P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to show that electroosmotic flow might play an important role in the intracellular transport of biomolecules. The paper presents two mathematical models describing the role of electroosmosis in the transport of the negatively charged messenger proteins to the negatively charged nucleus and in the recovery of the fluorescence after photobleaching. The parameters of the models were derived from the extensive review of the literature data. Computer simulations were performed within the COMSOL 4.2a software environment. The first model demonstrated that the presence of electroosmosis might intensify the flux of messenger proteins to the nucleus and allow the efficient transport of the negatively charged phosphorylated messenger proteins against the electrostatic repulsion of the negatively charged nucleus. The second model revealed that the presence of the electroosmotic flow made the time of fluorescence recovery dependent on the position of the bleaching spot relative to cellular membrane. The magnitude of the electroosmotic flow effect was shown to be quite substantial, i.e. increasing the flux of the messengers onto the nucleus up to 4-fold relative to pure diffusion and resulting in the up to 3-fold change in the values of fluorescence recovery time, and therefore the apparent diffusion coefficient determined from the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Based on the results of the modeling and on the universal nature of the electroosmotic flow, the potential wider implications of electroosmotic flow in the intracellular and extracellular biological processes are discussed. Both models are available for download at ModelDB.

  7. Cytoplasmic Kaiso is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shun-Dong; Wang, Yan; Miao, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Zhang, Peng-Xin; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, En-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Kaiso has been identified as a new member of the POZ-zinc finger family of transcription factors that are implicated in development and cancer. Although controversy still exists, Kaiso is supposed to be involved in human cancer. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical significance of cytoplasmic/nuclear Kaiso in human lung cancer. In this study, immunohistochemical studies were performed on 20 cases of normal lung tissues and 294 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including 50 cases of paired lymph node metastases and 88 cases with complete follow-up records. Three lung cancer cell lines showing primarily nuclear localization of Kaiso were selected to examine whether roles of Kaiso in cytoplasm and in nucleus are identical. Nuclear Kaiso was down-regulated by shRNA technology or addition a specific Kaiso antibody in these cell lines. The proliferative and invasive abilities were evaluated by MTT and Matrigel invasive assay, transcription of Kaiso's target gene matrilysin was detected by RT-PCR. Kaiso was primarily expressed in the cytoplasm of lung cancer tissues. Overall positive cytoplasmic expression rate was 63.61% (187/294). The positive cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was higher in advanced TNM stages (III+IV) of NSCLC, compared to lower stages (I+II) (p = 0.019). A correlation between cytoplasmic Kaiso expression and lymph node metastasis was found (p = 0.003). In 50 paired cases, cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was 78.0% (41/50) in primary sites and 90.0% (45/50) in lymph node metastases (p = 0.001). The lung cancer-related 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients who were cytoplasmic Kaiso-positive (22.22%), compared to those with cytoplasmic Kaiso-negative tumors (64.00%) (p = 0.005). Nuclear Kaiso staining was seen in occasional cases with only a 5.10% (15/294) positive rate and was not associated with any clinicopathological features of NSCLC. Furthermore, after the down-regulation of the nuclear

  8. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: new insights into geological processes and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W., III; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Blewett, David T.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Evans, Larry G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Helbert, Jörn; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Merline, William J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larrz R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Sprague, Ann L.; Strom, Robert G.; Vilas, Faith; Watters, Thomas R.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2008-09-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a part of NASA's Discovery Program, was designed to answer six questions [1]: (1) What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high ratio of metal to silicate? (2) What is the geological history of Mercury? (3) What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? (4) What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? (5) What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? (6) What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks near Mercury? MESSENGER is currently midway through a complex interplanetary cruise phase that involves three flybys of Mercury. The first of these, on 14 January 2008, provided important new information relating to several of the questions above [2-13]. Here we summarize observations made during the flyby that are most relevant to new insights about geological processes that have operated on Mercury and implications for the planet's history [3, 8-13]. The instruments that provided the most direct information on the geological history of Mercury during this first encounter were the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [14], the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) [15], and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [16]. Among the many specific questions remaining following the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury (1974- 1975) were (1) the level of mineralogical and compositional diversity of the crust, which appeared relatively bland in Mariner 10 data, (2) the nature of the rest of the huge Caloris impact basin seen only partially in Mariner 10 images, (3) the origin of the extensive plains observed on the surface (ponded impact ejecta or extrusive lava flows?), (4) the diversity and global distribution of tectonic features that have deformed the crust and their implications for strain as a function of time, and (5) the bombardment chronology and geological history of Mercury [1, 17-19]. The viewing

  9. The heterodimeric structure of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 dictates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-directed transcriptional events in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Thomas S; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Bajaj, S Paul; Chun, Rene F; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C plays a key role in RNA processing. More recently hnRNP C has also been shown to function as a DNA binding protein exerting a dominant-negative effect on transcriptional responses to the vitamin D hormone,1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D), via interaction in cis with vitamin D response elements (VDREs). The physiologically active form of human hnRNPC is a tetramer of hnRNPC1 (huC1) and C2 (huC2) subunits known to be critical for specific RNA binding activity in vivo , yet the requirement for heterodimerization of huC1 and C2 in DNA binding and downstream action is not well understood. While over-expression of either huC1 or huC2 alone in mouse osteoblastic cells did not suppress 1,25(OH) 2 D-induced transcription, over-expression of huC1 and huC2 in combination using a bone-specific polycistronic vector successfully suppressed 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated induction of osteoblast target gene expression. Over-expression of either huC1 or huC2 in human osteoblasts was sufficient to confer suppression of 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated transcription, indicating the ability of transfected huC1 and huC2 to successfully engage as heterodimerization partners with endogenously expressed huC1 and huC2. The failure of the chimeric combination of mouse and human hnRNPCs to impair 1,25(OH) 2 D-driven gene expression in mouse cells was structurally predicted, owing to the absence of the last helix in the leucine zipper (LZ) heterodimerization domain of hnRNPC gene product in lower species, including the mouse. These results confirm that species-specific heterodimerization of hnRNPC1 and hnRNPC2 is a necessary prerequisite for DNA binding and down-regulation of 1,25(OH) 2 D-VDR-VDRE-directed gene transactivation in osteoblasts.

  10. Structural analysis of respiratory syncytial virus reveals the position of M2-1 between the matrix protein and the ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella; Holl, Jens M; Williams, Grant M; Alonas, Eric; Vanover, Daryll; Lifland, Aaron W; Gudheti, Manasa; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Nair, Vinod; Yi, Hong; Graham, Barney S; Santangelo, Philip J; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome viruses, is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and the elderly or immunocompromised. There are many open questions regarding the processes that regulate human RSV (hRSV) assembly and budding. Here, using cryo-electron tomography, we identified virus particles that were spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric in structure, all within the same virus preparation. The three particle morphologies maintained a similar organization of the surface glycoproteins, matrix protein (M), M2-1, and the ribonucleoprotein (RNP). RNP filaments were traced in three dimensions (3D), and their total length was calculated. The measurements revealed the inclusion of multiple full-length genome copies per particle. RNP was associated with the membrane whenever the M layer was present. The amount of M coverage ranged from 24% to 86% in the different morphologies. Using fluorescence light microscopy (fLM), direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), and a proximity ligation assay (PLA), we provide evidence illustrating that M2-1 is located between RNP and M in isolated viral particles. In addition, regular spacing of the M2-1 densities was resolved when hRSV viruses were imaged using Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) cryo-electron tomography. Our studies provide a more complete characterization of the hRSV virion structure and substantiation that M and M2-1 regulate virus organization. hRSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children as well as elderly or immunocompromised individuals. We used cryo-electron tomography and Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography to visualize populations of purified hRSV in 3D. We observed the three distinct morphologies, spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric, which maintained comparable organizational profiles

  11. Mercury: a final prediction for internal thermal and physical structure, prior to MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2008-05-01

    The confirmation by the NASA MESSENGER spacecraft that Mercury has an internal magnetic field that is well described by a dipole nearly aligned with the spin axis strongly suggests that the planet may have an outer core of molten metal (S. Solomon, MESSENGER news release of 30 January 2008). The existence of an internal layer of liquid has also been invoked to explain radar measurements of the large amplitude of the longitudinal libration of Mercury relative to the value expected for a wholly solid planet (J.L. Margot et al 2007 Science 316 710). The existence of molten metal in the planet`s interior is surprising since previous numerical models for the thermal evolution of the planet, calculated on the basis of the heat released by the decay of the radioactive isotopes of U and Th, indicated that the present temperature at the edge of the metal core is only ~ 1200 K (cf. Siegfried & Solomon 1974 Icarus 23 192) . This value is well below the melting temperature Tm = 2030 K of Fe-Ni alloy at the core/mantle boundary (CMB) pressure of ~ 70 kbar. Those earlier thermal calculations were, however, based on low abundances of U and Th found in lunar samples. Prentice (2008 LPSC 2008 abs. # 1945.pdf - see URL below) has put forward a new model for the bulk chemical composition of Mercury. It is based on the idea that this planet condensed from a gas ring that was cast off by the protosolar cloud close to the planet`s present orbit. The temperature of the gas ring Tn at the moment of detachment from the cloud is 1628 K and the pressure on the mean orbit of the ring is 0.168 bar. Because Tn is so high, the condensate contains a much reduced proportion of magnesium silicates relative to metals. This is because metals have a much lower vapour pressure than those silicates. The condensate consists mostly of Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-V (mass fraction 0.671), gehlenite (0.190) and Mg-silicates (0.081). What is really important in the gas ring model of solar system origin, however, is that the

  12. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-06-19

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl(-) ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl(-) flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl(-). The location of these Cl(-)-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl(-) ions from the cytoplasm. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-10-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  14. Mercury's Solar Wind Interaction as Characterized by Magnetospheric Plasma Mantle Observations With MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; DiBraccio, Gina A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze 94 traversals of Mercury's southern magnetospheric plasma mantle using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The mean and median proton number densities in the mantle are 1.5 and 1.3 cm-3, respectively. For sodium number density these values are 0.004 and 0.002 cm-3. Moderately higher densities are observed on the magnetospheric dusk side. The mantle supplies up to 1.5 × 108 cm-2 s-1 and 0.8 × 108 cm-2 s-1 of proton and sodium flux to the plasma sheet, respectively. We estimate the cross-electric magnetospheric potential from each observation and find a mean of 19 kV (standard deviation of 16 kV) and a median of 13 kV. This is an important result as it is lower than previous estimations and shows that Mercury's magnetosphere is at times not as highly driven by the solar wind as previously thought. Our values are comparable to the estimations for the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, but lower than Earth. The estimated potentials do have a very large range of values (1-74 kV), showing that Mercury's magnetosphere is highly dynamic. A correlation of the potential is found to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude, supporting evidence that dayside magnetic reconnection can occur at all shear angles at Mercury. But we also see that Mercury has an Earth-like magnetospheric response, favoring -BZ IMF orientation. We find evidence that -BX orientations in the IMF favor the southern cusp and southern mantle. This is in agreement with telescopic observations of exospheric emission, but in disagreement with modeling.

  15. The ribosome uses two active mechanisms to unwind messenger RNA during translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wen, Jin-Der; Lancaster, Laura; Noller, Harry F; Bustamante, Carlos; Tinoco, Ignacio

    2011-07-06

    The ribosome translates the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA into protein. Folded structures in the coding region of an mRNA represent a kinetic barrier that lowers the peptide elongation rate, as the ribosome must disrupt structures it encounters in the mRNA at its entry site to allow translocation to the next codon. Such structures are exploited by the cell to create diverse strategies for translation regulation, such as programmed frameshifting, the modulation of protein expression levels, ribosome localization and co-translational protein folding. Although strand separation activity is inherent to the ribosome, requiring no exogenous helicases, its mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a single-molecule optical tweezers assay on mRNA hairpins, we find that the translation rate of identical codons at the decoding centre is greatly influenced by the GC content of folded structures at the mRNA entry site. Furthermore, force applied to the ends of the hairpin to favour its unfolding significantly speeds translation. Quantitative analysis of the force dependence of its helicase activity reveals that the ribosome, unlike previously studied helicases, uses two distinct active mechanisms to unwind mRNA structure: it destabilizes the helical junction at the mRNA entry site by biasing its thermal fluctuations towards the open state, increasing the probability of the ribosome translocating unhindered; and it mechanically pulls apart the mRNA single strands of the closed junction during the conformational changes that accompany ribosome translocation. The second of these mechanisms ensures a minimal basal rate of translation in the cell; specialized, mechanically stable structures are required to stall the ribosome temporarily. Our results establish a quantitative mechanical basis for understanding the mechanism of regulation of the elongation rate of translation by structured mRNAs. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  16. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  17. Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Becker, Kris J.; Blewett, David T.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Hash, Christopher D.; Hawkins, S. Edward; Keller, Mary R.; Laslo, Nori R.; Nair, Hari; Robinson, Mark S.; Seelos, Frank P.; Stephens, Grant K.; Turner, F. Scott; Solomon, Sean C.

    2018-02-01

    We present an overview of the operations, calibration, geodetic control, photometric standardization, and processing of images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER spacecraft's mission at Mercury (18 March 2011-30 April 2015). We also provide a summary of all of the MDIS products that are available in NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). Updates to the radiometric calibration included slight modification of the frame-transfer smear correction, updates to the flat fields of some wide-angle camera (WAC) filters, a new model for the temperature dependence of narrow-angle camera (NAC) and WAC sensitivity, and an empirical correction for temporal changes in WAC responsivity. Further, efforts to characterize scattered light in the WAC system are described, along with a mosaic-dependent correction for scattered light that was derived for two regional mosaics. Updates to the geometric calibration focused on the focal lengths and distortions of the NAC and all WAC filters, NAC-WAC alignment, and calibration of the MDIS pivot angle and base. Additionally, two control networks were derived so that the majority of MDIS images can be co-registered with sub-pixel accuracy; the larger of the two control networks was also used to create a global digital elevation model. Finally, we describe the image processing and photometric standardization parameters used in the creation of the MDIS advanced products in the PDS, which include seven large-scale mosaics, numerous targeted local mosaics, and a set of digital elevation models ranging in scale from local to global.

  18. Medical Information Exchange: Pattern of Global Mobile Messenger Usage among Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil; Dagan, Elad; Wolf, Michael; Duvdevani, Shay; Alon, Eran E

    2016-11-01

    Information technology has revolutionized health care. However, the development of dedicated mobile health software has been lagging, leading to the use of general mobile applications to fill in the void. The use of such applications has several legal, ethical, and regulatory implications. We examined the experience and practices governing the usage of a global mobile messenger application (WhatsApp) for mobile health purposes in a national cohort of practicing otolaryngologists in Israel, a known early adaptor information technology society. Cross-sectional data were collected from practicing otolaryngologists and otolaryngology residents via self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of a demographic section, a section surveying the practices of mobile application use, mobile health application use, and knowledge regarding institutional policies governing the transmission of medical data. The sample included 22 otolaryngology residents and 47 practicing otolaryngologists. Of the physicians, 83% worked in academic centers, and 88% and 40% of the physicians who worked in a hospital setting or a community clinic used WhatsApp for medical use, respectively. Working with residents increased the medical usage of WhatsApp from 50% to 91% (P = .006). Finally, 72% were unfamiliar with any institutional policy regarding the transfer of medical information by personal smartphones. Mobile health is becoming an integral part of modern medical systems, improving accessibility, efficiency, and possibly quality of medical care. The need to incorporate personal mobile devices in the overall information technology standards, guidelines, and regulation is becoming more acute. Nonetheless, practices must be properly instituted to prevent unwanted consequences. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  19. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 , the second messenger for intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P 3 have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with [ 3 H]-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 , which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 , while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P 3 was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 has any functional effects on Ca 2+ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from [ 3 H]-Ins(1,4,5)P 3 using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. [ 3 H]-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 up to 10 μM does not release Ca 2+ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 -induced Ca 2+ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 on plasma membrane Ca 2+ fluxes are presently being investigated

  20. Faraday rotation fluctuations of MESSENGER radio signals through the equatorial lower corona near solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, D. B.; Jensen, E. A.; Hollweg, J. V.; Heiles, C.; Efimov, A. I.; Vierinen, J.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) of transcoronal radio transmissions from spacecraft near superior conjunction enables study of the temporal variations in coronal plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field. The MESSENGER spacecraft 8.4 GHz radio, transmitting through the corona with closest line-of-sight approach 1.63-1.89 solar radii and near-equatorial heliolatitudes, was recorded soon after the deep solar minimum of solar cycle 23. During egress from superior conjunction, FR gradually decreased, and an overlay of wave-like FR fluctuations (FRFs) with periods of hundreds to thousands of seconds was found. The FRF power spectrum was characterized by a power law relation, with the baseline spectral index being -2.64. A transient power increase showed relative flattening of the spectrum and bands of enhanced spectral power at 3.3 mHz and 6.1 mHz. Our results confirm the presence of coronal FRF similar to those described previously at greater solar offset. Interpreted as Alfvén waves crossing the line of sight radially near the proximate point, low-frequency FRF convey an energy flux density higher than that of the background solar wind kinetic energy, but only a fraction of that required to accelerate the solar wind. Even so, this fraction is quite variable and potentially escalates to energetically significant values with relatively modest changes in estimated magnetic field strength and electron concentration. Given the uncertainties in these key parameters, as well as in solar wind properties close to the Sun at low heliolatitudes, we cannot yet confidently assign the quantitative role for Alfvén wave energy from this region in driving the slow solar wind.

  1. Characterization of long noncoding RNA and messenger RNA signatures in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis.

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    Siqi Wang

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive and life-threatening form of skin cancer, has significantly risen over recent decades. Therefore, it is essential to identify the mechanisms that underlie melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and to explore novel and effective melanoma treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence s uggests that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have vital functions in multiple cancers. However, lncRNA functions in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles in primary melanomas, metastatic melanomas and normal skin samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We used GSE15605 as the training set (n = 74 and GSE7553 as the validation set (n = 58. In three comparisons (primary melanoma versus normal skin, metastatic melanoma versus normal skin, and metastatic melanoma versus primary melanoma, 178, 295 and 48 lncRNAs and 847, 1758, and 295 mRNAs were aberrantly expressed, respectively. We performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses to examine the differentially expressed mRNAs, and potential core lncRNAs were predicted by lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks. Based on our results, 15 lncRNAs and 144 mRNAs were significantly associated with melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. A subsequent analysis suggested a critical role for a five-lncRNA signature during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. Low expression of U47924.27 was significantly associated with decreased survival of patients with melanoma. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis by re-annotating microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO microarray dataset. These findings reveal potential roles for lncRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and provide a rich candidate

  2. MESSENGER and Mariner 10 Flyby Observations of Magnetotail Structure and Dynamics at Mercury

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    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian Jay; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The first (M1), second (M2), and third (M3) MESSENGER flybys of Mercury traversed the planet's magnetotail from 1.25 to 3.25 RM downstream of the planet, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius (2440 km). The encounters took place under northward, southward, and variable-polarity interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), respectively. The magnetic field strength B in Mercury's magnetotail follows a power law decrease with increasing antisunward distance |X|, B approximately |X|(sup G), with G varying from -5.4 for northward to -1.6 for southward IMF. Low-latitude boundary layers (LLBLs) containing strong northward magnetic field were detected at the tail flanks during two of the flybys. The observed thickness of the LLBL was 33% and 16% of the radius of the tail during M1 and M3, respectively, but the boundary layer was completely absent during M2. Clear signatures of tail reconnection are evident in the M2 and M3 magnetic field measurements. Plasmoids and traveling compression regions were observed during M2 and M3 with typical durations of approximately 1-3 s, suggesting diameters of approximately 500-1500 km. Overall, the response of Mercury's magnetotail to the steady southward IMF during M2 appeared very similar to steady magnetospheric convection events at Earth, which are believed to be driven by quasi-continuous reconnection. In contrast, the M3 measurements are dominated by tail loading and unloading events that resemble the large-scale magnetic field reconfigurations observed during magnetospheric substorms at Earth.

  3. Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects in vivo by the cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum.

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    Lee, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jung-Gul; Kim, Eun Hee; Kang, Hae Eun; Yim, In Been; Kim, Ji Yeon; Joo, Hong-Gu; Woo, Hee Jong

    2004-03-01

    The immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) were investigated. Cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum were tested for the antiproliferative activity in vitro to SNUC2A, SNU1, NIH/3T3 and Jurkat cell lines by crystal violet assay. All cytoplasmic fraction suppressed proliferation of tumor cells, though L. casei and B. longum were more effective. From these results, cytoplasmic fraction of L. casei and B. longum with Y400 as a control were administered as dietary supplements to Balb/c mice for 2, and 4 consecutive wks. Administration for 4 wks enhanced the number of total T cells, NK cells and MHC class II+ cells, and CD4-CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry analysis. To determine of antitumor activity of LABs preparation in vivo, F9 teratocarcinoma cells were inoculated on mice at 14th day. Body weight was decreased with increased survival rate in all groups with the cytoplasm of LABs. Our results showed that cytoplasmic fraction of LABs had direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cell lines in vitro, effects on immune cells in vivo, and antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice with prolonged survival periods.

  4. Phase separation between nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli as defined by immersive refractometry.

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    Valkenburg, J A; Woldringh, C L

    1984-01-01

    The refractive indices of nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli were derived theoretically and experimentally. For the theoretical estimates, we made use of the known macromolecular composition of E. coli B/r (G. Churchward and H. Bremer, J. Theor. Biol. 94:651-670, 1982) and of estimates of cell and nucleoid volumes. These were obtained from micrographs of living bacteria made with a confocal scanning light microscope. The theoretical values were calculated, assuming that all DNA occurred in the nucleoid and that all protein and RNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Comparison with experimental refractive index values directly obtained by immersive refractometry showed that, besides its DNA, the nucleoid must contain an additional amount of solids equivalent to 8.6% (wt/vol) protein. With the nucleoid containing 6.8% (wt/vol) DNA and 8.6% (wt/vol) protein and the cytoplasm containing 21% (wt/vol) protein and 4% (wt/vol) RNA, a mass difference is obtained, which accounts for the phase separation observed between the nucleoid and cytoplasm in living cells by phase-contrast microscopy. The decrease in the refractive index of the nucleoid relative to that of the cytoplasm observed upon, for instance, OsO4 fixation was interpreted as being indicative of the loss of protein content in the nucleoid. Images PMID:6389508

  5. Bayesian Inference of Forces Causing Cytoplasmic Streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos and Mouse Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Nagao, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Tomoya S; Hufnagel, Lars; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2016-01-01

    Cellular structures are hydrodynamically interconnected, such that force generation in one location can move distal structures. One example of this phenomenon is cytoplasmic streaming, whereby active forces at the cell cortex induce streaming of the entire cytoplasm. However, it is not known how the spatial distribution and magnitude of these forces move distant objects within the cell. To address this issue, we developed a computational method that used cytoplasm hydrodynamics to infer the spatial distribution of shear stress at the cell cortex induced by active force generators from experimentally obtained flow field of cytoplasmic streaming. By applying this method, we determined the shear-stress distribution that quantitatively reproduces in vivo flow fields in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and mouse oocytes during meiosis II. Shear stress in mouse oocytes were predicted to localize to a narrower cortical region than that with a high cortical flow velocity and corresponded with the localization of the cortical actin cap. The predicted patterns of pressure gradient in both species were consistent with species-specific cytoplasmic streaming functions. The shear-stress distribution inferred by our method can contribute to the characterization of active force generation driving biological streaming.

  6. α6-Integrin alternative splicing: distinct cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate specification and niche interaction.

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    Zhou, Zijing; Qu, Jing; He, Li; Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Yong

    2018-05-02

    α6-Integrin subunit (also known as CD49f) is a stemness signature that has been found on the plasma membrane of more than 30 stem cell populations. A growing body of studies have focused on the critical role of α6-containing integrins (α6β1 and α6β4) in the regulation of stem cell properties, lineage-specific differentiation, and niche interaction. α6-Integrin subunit can be alternatively spliced at the post-transcriptional level, giving rise to divergent isoforms which differ in the cytoplasmic and/or extracellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain of integrins is an important functional part of integrin-mediated signals. Structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of α6 provide an efficient means for the regulation of stem cell responses to biochemical stimuli and/or biophysical cues in the stem cell niche, thus impacting stem cell fate determination. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural variants of the α6-integrin subunit and spatiotemporal expression of α6 cytoplasmic variants in embryonic and adult stem/progenitor cells. We highlight the roles of α6 cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate decision and niche interaction, and discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Understanding of the distinct functions of α6 splicing variants in stem cell biology may inform the rational design of novel stem cell-based therapies for a range of human diseases.

  7. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of Anion Exchanger 1 Sequestrates p16 in the Cytoplasm in Gastric, Colonic Adenocarcinoma

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    Wei-Wei Shen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available p16INK4A (p16 binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, negatively regulates cell growth. Recent studies have led to an understanding of additional biologic functions for p16; however, the detailed mechanisms involved are still elusive. In this article, we show an unexpected expression of anion exchanger 1 (AEi in the cytoplasm in poorly, moderately differentiated gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma cells, in its interaction with p16, thereby sequestrating the protein in the cytoplasm. Genetic alterations of p16, AEi were not detectable. Forced expression of AEi in these cells sequestrated more p16 in the cytoplasm, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of AEi in the cells induced the release of p16 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, leading to cell death, growth inhibition of tumor cells. By analyzing tissue samples obtained from patients with gastric, colonic cancers, we found that 83.33% of gastric cancers, 56.52% of colonic cancers coexpressed AEi, p16 in the cytoplasm. We conclude that AEi plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma, that p16 dysfunction is a novel pathway of carcinogenesis.

  9. Elucidating the role of select cytoplasmic proteins in altering diffusion of integrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Suzanne; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2012-06-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins that affect integrin diffusion in the cell membrane are identified using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and RNA interference. Integrin receptors are essential for many cellular events, and alterations in lateral diffusion are one mechanism for modulating their function. In cells expressing native cytoplasmic protein concentrations and spread on a slide containing integrin extracellular ligand, 45 ± 2% of the integrin is mobile with a time-dependent 5.2 ± 0.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s diffusion coefficient at 1 s. The time exponent is 0.90 ± 0.07, indicating integrin diffusion moderately slows at longer times. The role of a specific cytoplasmic protein in altering integrin diffusion is revealed through changes in the FRAP curve after reducing the cytoplasmic protein's expression. Decreased expression of cytoplasmic proteins rhea, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or steamer duck decreases the integrin mobile fraction. For rhea and FAK, there is a concomitant shift to Brownian (i.e., time-independent) diffusion at reduced concentrations of these proteins. In contrast, when the expression of actin 42A, dreadlocks, paxillin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), or vinculin is reduced, integrin diffusion generally becomes more constrained with an increase in the integrin mobile fraction. This same change in integrin diffusion is measured in the absence of integrin extracellular ligand. The results indicate breaking the extracellular ligand-integrin-cytoskeletal linkage alters integrin diffusion properties, and, in most cases, there is no correlation between integrin and lipid diffusion properties.

  10. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with p-Akt1 and predicts poor prognosis in human breast carcinomas.

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    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2, an oncogenic protein, is a key regulator in different cellular and molecular processes, through ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. Increased levels of Skp2 are observed in various types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. However, in human breast carcinomas, the underlying mechanism and prognostic significance of cytoplasmic Skp2 is still undefined. METHODS: To investigate the role of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression in human breast carcinomas, we immnohistochemically assessed cytoplasmic Skp2, p-Akt1, and p27 expression in 251 patients with invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Association of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with p-Akt1 and p27 was analyzed as well as correspondence with other clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free survival and overall survival were determined based on the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic of Skp2 was detected in 165 out of 251 (65.7% patients. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was associated with larger tumor size, more advanced histological grade, and positive HER2 expression. Increased cytoplasmic Skp2 expression correlated with p-Akt1 expression, with 54.2% (51/94 of low p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas, but 72.6% (114/157 of high p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas exhibiting cytoplasmic Skp2 expression. Elevated cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with low p-Akt1 expression was associated with poor disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS, and Cox regression models demonstrated that cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for invasive breast carcinomas. CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with aggressive prognostic factors, such as larger tumor size, and advanced histological grade of the breast cancers. Results demonstrate that combined cytoplasmic Skp2 and p-Akt1 expression may be prognostic for patients with invasive breast carcinomas, and cytoplasmic Skp2 may serve as a

  11. Analysis of cytoplasmic effects and fine-mapping of a genic male sterile line in rice.

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    Peng Qin

    Full Text Available Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS, including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS, have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction.

  12. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-08-01

    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (D_{tot}) and the displacement distribution functions (P(r,t)) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ, which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ=0.65, while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ. We also investigate the distribution (P(θ,t)) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  13. A Mechanism for Cytoplasmic Streaming: Kinesin-Driven Alignment of Microtubules and Fast Fluid Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Corey E; Brunner, Matthew E; Djagaeva, Inna; Bielecki, Anthony M; Deutsch, Joshua M; Saxton, William M

    2016-05-10

    The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling. In the fast state, microtubules tethered to the cortex form a thin subcortical layer and undergo correlated sinusoidal bending. Organelles moving in flows along the arrays show velocities that are slow near the cortex and fast on the inward side of the subcortical microtubule layer. Starting with fundamental physical principles suggested by qualitative hypotheses, and with published values for microtubule stiffness, kinesin velocity, and cytoplasmic viscosity, we developed a quantitative coupled hydrodynamic model for streaming. The fully detailed mathematical model and its simulations identify key variables that can shift the system between disordered (slow) and ordered (fast) states. Measurements of array curvature, wave period, and the effects of diminished kinesin velocity on flow rates, as well as prior observations on f-actin perturbation, support the model. This establishes a concrete mechanistic framework for the ooplasmic streaming process. The self-organizing fast phase is a result of viscous drag on kinesin-driven cargoes that mediates equal and opposite forces on cytoplasmic fluid and on microtubules whose minus ends are tethered to the cortex. Fluid moves toward plus ends and microtubules are forced backward toward their minus ends, resulting in buckling. Under certain conditions, the buckling microtubules self-organize into parallel bending arrays, guiding varying directions

  14. Three Pillars of Success: The Partners, The Messenger, The Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to deal with climate impacts in coastal cities and bring change, hinges on our ability to effectively communicate impacts. Incorporating sea level rise and climate impacts into city planning and community action plans is too often done in response to a devastating impact rather than through preventative planning. In New York the impact came in the form of Hurricane Sandy. Prior to Sandy, NYC, NY State and regional scientists had prepared planning documents, reports and communications directed at public officials and decision makers, warning of potential impacts from a changing climate. Presentations and reports identified the most exposed locations and infrastructure, but disbelief and a false sense of time mired any meaningful change. Effective communication about climate and impacts is at the root of planning and resilience. To be meaningful it must come from a trusted messenger, use well vetted materials that address both larger climate processes and drivers and local impacts, be accessible to the non-science community, and incorporate multiple modes of communication. The Polar Explorer: Sea Level app is a tool that has been used to this end (http://www.polarexplorer.org). An interactive multi-layered communication tool, it uses vetted data structured through a series of commonly asked questions and displayed through visualizations. We have been partnering with New York State, local community groups, and state and educational organizations to reach a broad cross section of the public with information useful for planning. We have co-presented at conferences for local planning and advisory groups, and incorporated the use of the app into local planning charrettes and have found the visualizations, interactivity of the delivery and the layered scaffolding make the app a useful tool for planners and decision makers. The app includes the physical science drivers of climate change and the social science impacts, and a look at the past the present and

  15. Fox-2 protein regulates the alternative splicing of scleroderma-associated lysyl hydroxylase 2 messenger RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puneet; Yeowell, Heather N

    2010-04-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a complex connective tissue disorder characterized by hardening and thickening of the skin. One hallmark of scleroderma is excessive accumulation of collagen accompanied by increased levels of pyridinoline collagen crosslinks derived from hydroxylysine residues in the collagen telopeptide domains. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an important alternatively spliced enzyme in collagen biosynthesis, acts as a collagen telopeptide hydroxylase. Changes in the pattern of LH2 alternative splicing, favoring increased inclusion of the alternatively spliced LH2 exon 13A, thereby increasing the levels of the long transcript of LH2 (LH2[long]), are linked to scleroderma disease. This study was undertaken to examine the role played by RNA binding protein Fox-2 in regulating exon 13A inclusion, which leads to the generation of scleroderma-associated LH2(long) messenger RNA (mRNA). Phylogenetic sequence analysis of introns flanking exon 13A was performed. A tetracycline-inducible system in T-Rex 293 cells was used to induce Fox-2 protein, and endogenous LH2(long) mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. An LH2 minigene was designed, validated, and used in Fox-2 overexpression and mutagenesis experiments. Knockdown of Fox-2 was performed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from SSc patients. Overexpression of Fox-2 enhanced the inclusion of exon 13A and increased the generation of LH2(long) mRNA, whereas knockdown of Fox-2 decreased LH2(long) transcripts. Mutational analysis of an LH2 minigene demonstrated that 2 of the 4 Fox binding motifs flanking LH2 exon 13A are required for inclusion of exon 13A. In early passage fibroblasts derived from patients with scleroderma, the knockdown of Fox-2 protein significantly decreased the endogenous levels of LH2(long) mRNA. Our findings indicate that Fox-2 plays an integral role in the regulation of LH2 splicing. Knockdown of Fox-2 and other methods to decrease

  16. Venus upper clouds and the UV-absorber from MESSENGER/MASCS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia Munoz, Antonio; Irwin, Patrick; Peralta, Javier; Holsclaw, Greg; McClintock, William

    2014-11-01

    In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed its second Venus flyby on its route to Mercury. The spacecraft’s MASCS instrument (VIRS channel) acquired numerous spectra of the sunlight reflected from the equatorial region of the planet at wavelengths from the near ultraviolet (300nm) to the near infrared (1450 nm). In this work we present an analysis of the data and their spectral and spatial variability following the mission footprint on the Venus disk. In order to reproduce the observed reflectivity and obtain information on the upper clouds and the unknown UV absorber, we use the NEMESIS retrieval code, including SO2 , CO2 and H2O absorption together with absorption and scattering by mode-1, -2 and -3 cloud particles. This spectral range provides sensitivity to the uppermost cloud levels, above 60 km. Vertical profiles of the mode-1 and mode-2 particles have been retrieved along the equatorial region of Venus, with average retrieved sounding levels of 70 +/- 2 km at 1 micron, in good agreement with previous investigations. This spectral range is also very interesting because of the existence of a mysterious absorber in the blue and UV side of the reflected spectra, whose origin remains as one of the key questions about the Venus atmosphere. Here we report a comparison with some of the previously proposed absorbers: (1) sulfur-related compounds (amorphous and liquid sulfur, S3, S4, S8, S2O); (2) chlorine related species (Cl2, FeCl3); (3) organics (C3O2, Croconic acid). Preliminary results show that the first group provides better fits to the data, although combinations of the proposed agents might be required in order to produce better results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009- 10701, AYA2012-38897-C02-01, and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICIT-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13, and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. S.P.-H. acknowledges support from the Jose Castillejo Program funded by Ministerio de Educaci

  17. THERMAL EFFECTS ON CAMERA FOCAL LENGTH IN MESSENGER STAR CALIBRATION AND ORBITAL IMAGING

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    S. Burmeister

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse images taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENviorment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER spacecraft for the camera’s thermal response in the harsh thermal environment near Mercury. Specifically, we study thermally induced variations in focal length of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS. Within the several hundreds of images of star fields, the Wide Angle Camera (WAC typically captures up to 250 stars in one frame of the panchromatic channel. We measure star positions and relate these to the known star coordinates taken from the Tycho-2 catalogue. We solve for camera pointing, the focal length parameter and two non-symmetrical distortion parameters for each image. Using data from the temperature sensors on the camera focal plane we model a linear focal length function in the form of f(T = A0 + A1 T. Next, we use images from MESSENGER’s orbital mapping mission. We deal with large image blocks, typically used for the production of a high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM. We analyzed images from the combined quadrangles H03 and H07, a selected region, covered by approx. 10,600 images, in which we identified about 83,900 tiepoints. Using bundle block adjustments, we solved for the unknown coordinates of the control points, the pointing of the camera – as well as the camera’s focal length. We then fit the above linear function with respect to the focal plane temperature. As a result, we find a complex response of the camera to thermal conditions of the spacecraft. To first order, we see a linear increase by approx. 0.0107 mm per degree temperature for the Narrow-Angle Camera (NAC. This is in agreement with the observed thermal response seen in images of the panchromatic channel of the WAC. Unfortunately, further comparisons of results from the two methods, both of which use different portions of the available image data, are limited. If leaving uncorrected, these effects may pose significant difficulties in

  18. Mercury's radius change estimates revisited using high incidence angle MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Popa, C.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    obtained in the present study are up to five times higher with respect to previous estimates. Our results are more compatible with recent studies suggesting that the Mercury's radius contraction could have been up to 5-6 km throughout its thermal evolution than previous results, supporting the idea that Mercury could have recorded more tectonism than that required to account for 1-2 km of radial contraction. These estimates should be confirmed by further observations over significant portions of the planet and at most favorable sun angle conditions using data from the MESSENGER orbital phase and the high resolution basemaps which will be provided by the next BepiColombo mission.

  19. Relative Roles of Gap Junction Channels and Cytoplasm in Cell-to-Cell Diffusion of Fluorescent Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranyos, Richard G. A.; Caveney, Stanley; Miller, James G.; Petersen, Nils O.

    1987-04-01

    Intercellular (tissue) diffusion of molecules requires cytoplasmic diffusion and diffusion through gap junctional (or cell-to-cell) channels. The rates of tissue and cytoplasmic diffusion of fluorescent tracers, expressed as an effective diffusion coefficient, De, and a cytoplasmic diffusion coefficient, Dcyt, have been measured among the developing epidermal cells of a larval beetle, Tenebrio molitor L., to determine the contribution of the junctional channels to intercellular diffusion. Tracer diffusion was measured by injecting fluorescent tracers into cells and quantitating the rate of subsequent spread into adjacent cells. Cytoplasmic diffusion was determined by fluorescence photobleaching. These experiments show that gap junctional channels constitute approximately 70-80% of the total cell-to-cell resistance to the diffusion of organic tracers at high concentrations in this tissue. At low concentrations, however, the binding of tracer to cytoplasm slows down the cytoplasmic diffusion, which may limit intercellular diffusion.

  20. Wild Nicotiana Species as a Source of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Nicotianatabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikova V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of our experiments executed to obtain tobacco male sterile lines through interspecific hybridization are summarized. Ten wild species from the genus Nicotiana: N. excelsior (exc, N. amplexicaulis (amp, N. rustica (rus, Nicotianaglauca (gla, N. velutina (vel, N. benthamiana (ben, N. maritima (mar, N. paniculata (pan, N. longiflora (lon and N. africana (afr were used as cytoplasmic donors and N. tabacum, cv. HarmanliiskaBasma (HB as a donor of the nucleus. Genetic effects of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction of the studied species are discussed. Our results suggested that cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS was expressed when the cytoplasms of the above mentioned wild Nicotiana species were combined with the nucleus of N. tabacum. The 10 sources of CMS obtained in tobacco were characterized by altered flower phenotypes. Flowers are classified into types according the stamen, pistil and corolla modification. All these CMS sources were backcrossed to Oriental tobaccos, cvs. Tekne, Nevrokop B-12, Kroumovgrad 90 and Djebel 576, to develop corresponding CMS lines. The investigated cytoplasms produced compete male sterility in all those cultivars. The CMS lines preserved flower types, specific for every “sterile” cytoplasm. The extent of male organ modifications varied from apparently normal (but pollenless stamens in CMS (pan, (afr, some plants of (vel (mar through different degrees of malformations (shriveled anther on shortened filaments (lon, pinnate-like anthers on filaments of normal length (amp, petal - (ben, pistil- or stigma-like structures (rus, (gla to lack of male reproductive organs in (exc and in some plants of (vel, (mar, (rus and (gla. Most of the above mentioned cytoplasms had normal female gametophyte and good seed productivity. Alterations of the pistils were observed in CMS (rus, (exc and (ben causing reduction of the seed set. Electrophoresis of seed proteins of the tobacco cultivars and their CMS lines also suggested that

  1. Transcytosis of Aminopeptidase N in caco-2 cells is mediated by a Non-cytoplasmic Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Norén, Ove; Sjöström, H

    1995-01-01

    In Caco-2 cells, aminopeptidase N is transported to the apical membrane from the trans Golgi network by both the direct and the indirect pathway (Matter, K., Brauchbar, M., Bucher, K., and Hauri, H.-P. (1990) Cell 60, 429-437). The aim of this study was to determine the importance...... of the transmembrane or cytoplasmic domain of aminopeptidase N for transport of aminopeptidase N by the indirect pathway by analysis of mutated forms of aminopeptidase N recombinantly expressed in Caco-2 cells. A tail-less and two secretory forms of aminopeptidase N, all deprived of the cytoplasmic tail, were...

  2. Titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by a tissue microculture assay: some applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloncik, S; Chagnon, A

    1980-01-01

    A simple tissue microculture technique was developed for the titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) from Euxoa scandens. The procedure was similar to the 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay, but a single infected cell, detected by the presence of cytoplasmic polyhedra, was scored rather than the degeneration of cell monolayers. The filtration of CPV suspensions resulted in decreased virus titers under certain conditions. This microculture assay was used to determine the effect of cell disruption methods on virus yields. Sonication of infected cells was more efficient than freeze-thawing for the recovery of nonoccluded virus.

  3. Cytoplasmic streaming in Chara rhizoids: studies in a reduced gravitational field during parabolic flights of rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchen, B; Hejnowicz, Z; Braun, M; Sievers, A

    1991-01-01

    In-vivo videomicroscopy of Chara rhizoids under 10(-4)g demonstrated that gravity affected the velocities of cytoplasmic streaming. Both, the acropetal and basipetal streaming velocities increased on the change to microgravity. The endogenous difference in the velocities of the oppositely directed cytoplasmic streams was maintained under microgravity, yet the difference was diminished as the basipetal streaming velocity increased more than the acropetal streaming velocity. Direction and structure of microfilaments labeled by rhodamine-phalloidin had not changed after 6 min of microgravity.

  4. Evidence for catabolite degradation in the glucose-dependent inactivation of yeast cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeff, J.; Haegele, E.; Nauhaus, J.; Heer, U.; Mecke, D.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was radioactively labeled during its synthesis on a glucose-free derepression medium. After purification a sensitive radioimmunoassay for this enzyme could be developed. The assay showed that after the physiological, glucose-dependent 'catabolite inactivation' of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase an inactive enzyme protein is immunologically not detectable. Together with the irreversibility of this reaction in vivo this finding strongly suggests a proteolytic mechanism of enzyme inactivation. For this process the term 'catabolite degradation' is used. (orig.) [de

  5. Promising SINEs for embargoing nuclear-cytoplasmic export as an anticancer strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, David S P; Bedard, Philippe L; Kuruvilla, John; Siu, Lillian L; Razak, Albiruni R Abdul

    2014-05-01

    In cancer cells, the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport machinery is frequently disrupted, resulting in mislocalization and loss of function for many key regulatory proteins. In this review, the mechanisms by which tumor cells co-opt the nuclear transport machinery to facilitate carcinogenesis, cell survival, drug resistance, and tumor progression will be elucidated, with a particular focus on the role of the nuclear-cytoplasmic export protein. The recent development of a new generation of selective inhibitors of nuclear export (XPO1 antagonists) and how these novel anticancer drugs may bring us closer to the implementation of this therapeutic strategy in the clinic will be discussed.

  6. Silicon scaffolds promoting three-dimensional neuronal web of cytoplasmic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Evie L; Samara, Athina; Barberoglou, Marios; Manousaki, Aleka; Pagakis, Stamatis N; Anastasiadou, Ema; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Primary neurons were grown on structured silicon (Si) substrates, in the absence of chemotropic factors or synthetic extracellular matrix. The Si substrates used for the study comprise hierarchical structures in the micro- and nanolength scales. The substrates were structured via femtosecond laser irradiation of the Si wafer, in a reactive SF(6) environment. Electron microscopy revealed that the neurons formed an elaborate web of cytoplasmic processes in the absence of glial elements. The neuronal cytoplasm autografted the depth of the spikes, and the neurite sprouting took place over the spikes surface. Here we demonstrate how microfabrication of a Si surface provides an excellent platform for multifaceted studies of neuronal specimens.

  7. Cytological study of radiation induced alterations in cytoplasmic factors controlling male sterility in corn. Progress report, February 28, 1975--December 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: cytoplasmic constituents of the embryo of various gymnosperms and angiosperms; cytoplasmic male sterility in corn; modification of cytoplasmic sterility factors using gamma radiation, EMS, and ethidium bromide; selection for sterile, blight-resistant corn plants; electron microscopy study of abnormal mitochondria in cytoplasm of corn; cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia; non-Mendelian variegation in Petunia and Nicotiana; graft transmission of cytoplasmic male sterility; cytoplasmic male sterility in Vicia faba; and studies on Blakeslee's I virus in Datura

  8. Appendix: a solution hybridization assay to detect radioactive globin messenger RNA nucleotide sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J

    1976-09-15

    In view of the sensitivity and specificity of the solution hybridization assay for unlabeled globin mRNA a similar technique has been devised to detect radioactive globin mRNA sequences with unlabeled globin cDNA. Several properties of the hybridization reaction are presented since RNA kinetic experiments reported recently depend on the validity of this assay. Data on hybridization analysis of (/sup 3/H)RNA from mouse fetal liver or erythroleukemia cell cytoplasm are presented. These data indicate that the excess cDNA solution assay for radioactive globin mRNA detection is specific for globin mRNA sequences. It can be performed rapidly and is highly reproducible from experiment. It is at least 500-fold less sensitive than the assay for unlabeled globin mRNA, due to the RNAase backgrounds of 0.05 to 0.15 %. However, this limitation has not affected kinetic experiments with non-dividing fetal liver erythroid cells, which synthesize relatively large quantities of globin mRNA.

  9. Photoreversible UV-inactivation of messenger RNA in an insect embryo (Smittia spec., chironomidae, diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckle, H.; Kalthoff, K.

    1980-01-01

    Smittia embryos were UV-irradiated during intravitelline cleavage while nuclei are heavily shielded by yolk-rich cytoplasm and do not synthesize detectable amounts of RNA. Irradiation at 265, 285 and 295 nm wavelength caused biological inactivation, and pyrimidine dimer formation in maternal RNA. Marked effects on protein synthesis were also observed: (1) the overall rate of 35 S-methionine incorporation in vivo was reduced to less than half of the normal rate, (2) two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed quantitative variations in the synthetic rate of some polypeptides and the appearance of new ones in UV-irradiated embryos, (3) translation of polyadenylated RNA from Smittia embryos in a cell-free system was inhibited by UV-irradiation in vivo, (4) the apparent degradation during early embryogenesis, of maternal polyadenylated RNA was retarded in UV-irradiated embryos. Exposure to light (400 nm) after UV caused partial photoreversal of all UV effects observed. This is the first data showing that animal mRNA, after UV-irradiation, can be photoreactivated in vivo. The results also strongly suggest that the photorepairable lesions consist of pyrimidine dimers generated in a photosensitized reaction. (author)

  10. MCT-1 protein interacts with the cap complex and modulates messenger RNA translational profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line; Shi, B; Nandi, S

    2006-01-01

    MCT-1 is an oncogene that was initially identified in a human T cell lymphoma and has been shown to induce cell proliferation as well as activate survival-related pathways. MCT-1 contains the PUA domain, a recently described RNA-binding domain that is found in several tRNA and rRNA modification...... enzymes. Here, we established that MCT-1 protein interacts with the cap complex through its PUA domain and recruits the density-regulated protein (DENR/DRP), containing the SUI1 translation initiation domain. Through the use of microarray analysis on polysome-associated mRNAs, we showed that up......-regulation of MCT-1 was able to modulate the translation profiles of BCL2L2, TFDP1, MRE11A, cyclin D1, and E2F1 mRNAs, despite equivalent levels of mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Our data establish a role for MCT-1 in translational regulation, and support a linkage between translational control and oncogenesis....

  11. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  12. Immunohistochemical identification of messenger RNA-related proteins in basophilic inclusions of adult-onset atypical motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kengo; Ito, Hidefumi; Nakano, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Yoshimi; Wate, Reika; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    This report concerns an immunohistochemical investigation on RNA-related proteins in the basophilic inclusions (BIs) from patients with adult-onset atypical motor neuron disease. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the motor cortex and the lumbar spinal cord were examined. The BIs appeared blue in color with H&E and Nissl stain, and pink with methylgreen-pyronin stain. Ribonuclease pretreatment abolished the methylgreen-pyronin staining, suggesting that the BIs contained RNA. Immunohistochemically, the BIs were distinctly labeled with the antibodies against poly(A)-binding protein 1, T cell intracellular antigen 1, and ribosomal protein S6. These proteins are essential constituents of stress granules. In contrast, the BIs were not immunoreactive for ribosomal protein L28 and decapping enzyme 1, which are core components of transport ribonucleoprotein particles and processing bodies, respectively. Moreover, the BIs were not immunopositive for TDP-43. Our results imply that translation attenuation could be involved in the processes of BI formation in this disorder.

  13. Plasma exchange in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis--a 25-year perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpirt, Wladimir M

    2015-01-01

    Demonstration of a pathogenic role for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) underlies the scientific rationale for plasma exchange (PLEX) in the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Most clinical evidence of efficacy concerns the use of PLEX for the recovery of renal function...

  14. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be

  15. Diffusive Promotion by Velocity Gradient of Cytoplasmic Streaming (CPS in Nitella Internodal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic streaming (CPS is well known to assist the movement of nutrients, organelles and genetic material by transporting all of the cytoplasmic contents of a cell. CPS is generated by motility organelles that are driven by motor proteins near a membrane surface, where the CPS has been found to have a flat velocity profile in the flow field according to the sliding theory. There is a consistent mixing of contents inside the cell by CPS if the velocity gradient profile is flattened, which is not assisted by advection diffusion but is only supported by Brownian diffusion. Although the precise flow structure of the cytoplasm has an important role for cellular metabolism, the hydrodynamic mechanism of its convection has not been clarified. We conducted an experiment to visualise the flow of cytoplasm in Nitella cells by injecting tracer fluorescent nanoparticles and using a flow visualisation system in order to understand how the flow profile affects their metabolic system. We determined that the velocity field in the cytosol has an obvious velocity gradient, not a flattened gradient, which suggests that the gradient assists cytosolic mixing by Taylor-Aris dispersion more than by Brownian diffusion.

  16. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF THE CYTOPLASMIC PH IN LACTOCOCCUS-LACTIS WITH A FLUORESCENT PH INDICATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLENAAR, D; ABEE, T; KONINGS, WN

    1991-01-01

    The cytoplasmic pH of Lactococcus lactis was studied with the fluorescent pH indicator 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). A novel method was applied for loading bacterial cells with BCECF, which consists of briefly treating a dense cell suspension with acid in the

  17. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida : a structural and histochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait

  18. Usefulness of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in diagnosing and managing systemic vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of reviewAntineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) are considered important diagnostic tests in the work-up of patients suspected of vasculitis. Here we discuss new developments in the methodology of testing, the pitfalls in using these tests as diagnostic tools, and the value of

  19. Dynamics of vegetative cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes of pollen cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. The pollen cytoplasm develops a complicated ultrastructure and changes dramatically during these stages. Lipid droplets increase after generative cell formation and their organization and distribution change with the developmental stage. Starch grains in amyloplasts increase in number and size during generative and sperm cell formation and decrease at pollen maturity. The shape and membrane system of mitochondria change only slightly. Dictyosomes become very prominent, and numerous associated vesicles are observed during and after sperm cell formation. Endoplasmic reticulum appears extensively as stacks during sperm cell formation. Free and polyribosomes are abundant in the cytoplasm at all developmental stages although they appear denser at certain stages and in some areas. In mature pollen, all organelles are randomly distributed throughout the vegetative cytoplasm and numerous small particles appear. Organization and distribution of storage substances and appearance of these small particles during generative and sperm cell formation and pollen maturation are discussed.

  20. Acidic pH sensing in the bacterial cytoplasm is required for Salmonella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2016-09-01

    pH regulates gene expression, biochemical activities and cellular behaviors. A mildly acidic pH activates the master virulence regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The sensor PhoQ harbors an extracytoplasmic domain implicated in signal sensing, and a cytoplasmic domain controlling activation of the regulator PhoP. We now report that, surprisingly, a decrease in Salmonella's own cytoplasmic pH induces transcription of PhoP-activated genes even when the extracytoplasmic pH remains neutral. Amino acid substitutions in PhoQ's cytoplasmic domain hindered activation by acidic pH and attenuated virulence in mice, but did not abolish activation by low Mg(2+) or the antimicrobial peptide C18G. Conversely, removal of PhoQ's extracytoplasmic domains prevented the response to the latter PhoQ-activating signals but not to acidic pH. PhoP-dependent genes were minimally induced by acidic pH in the non-pathogenic species Salmonella bongori but were activated by low Mg(2+) and C18G as in pathogenic S. enterica. Our findings indicate that the sensor PhoQ enables S. enterica to respond to both host- and bacterial-derived signals that alter its cytoplasmic pH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Making it big : how characean algae use cytoplasmic streaming to enhance transport in giant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meent, Jan Willem van de

    2010-01-01

    Organisms show a remarkable variation in sizes, yet cell sizes are surprisingly similar across species, typically ranging from 10 μm to 100 μm. A striking exception are the giant cells of the algal weed Chara, which can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. A circulation known as cytoplasmic

  2. p25alpha relocalizes in oligodendroglia from myelin to cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yun Ju C; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Huang, Yue

    2007-01-01

    cytoplasmic inclusions. Overall, the data indicate that changes in the cellular interactions between MBP and p25alpha occur early in MSA and contribute to abnormalities in myelin and subsequent alpha-synuclein aggregation and the ensuing neuronal degeneration that characterizes this disease....

  3. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna; de Goffau, Marcus C; van Timmeren, Mirjan M; Schulze, Mirja L; Jansen, Benita; Tavakol, Mehri; van Wamel, Willem J B; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Arends, Jan P; Rossen, John W; Heeringa, Peter; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-01-01

    The proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at comparing the

  4. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Glasner (Corinna); M.C. De Goffau (Marcus C.); M.M. Van Timmeren (Mirjan M.); Schulze, M.L. (Mirja L.); Jansen, B. (Benita); M. Tavakol (Mehri); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); C.A. Stegeman; C.G.M. Kallenberg (Cees G. M.); J.P.A. Arends (Jan); J.W. Rossen (John); P. Heeringa (Peter); J.M. Dijl (Jan Maarten)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at

  5. Ion permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane limits the maximum growth temperature of bacteria and archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vossenberg, J.L C M; Ubbink-Kok, T.; Elferink, M.G.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1995-01-01

    Protons and sodium ions are the most commonly used coupling ions in energy transduction in bacteria and archaea. At their growth temperature, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of thermophilic bacteria to protons is high compared with that of sodium ions. In some thermophiles, sodium is

  6. Cytoplasmic tethering of a RING protein RBCK1 by its splice variant lacking the RING domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Koyanagi, Tomoyoshi; Okajima, Toshihide; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2005-01-01

    RBCC protein interacting with PKC 1 (RBCK1) is a transcription factor belonging to the RING-IBR protein family and has been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, possessing both the nuclear export and localization signals within its amino acid sequence. RBCK2, lacking the C-terminal half of RBCK1 including the RING-IBR domain, has also been identified as an alternative splice variant of RBCK1. RBCK2 shows no transcriptional activity and instead it represses the transcriptional activity of RBCK1. Here, we show that RBCK2 is present usually in the cytoplasm containing two Leu-rich regions that presumably serve as a nuclear export signal (NES). Moreover, an NES-disrupted RBCK1 that is mostly localized within the nucleus is translocated to the cytoplasm when coexpressed with RBCK2, suggesting that RBCK2 serves as a cytoplasmic tethering protein for RBCK1. We propose a novel and general function of RING-lacking splice variants of RING proteins to control the intracellular localization and functions of the parental RING proteins by forming a hetero-oligomeric complex

  7. Probing the biology of cell boundary conditions through confinement of Xenopus cell-free cytoplasmic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Jessica G; Chen, Hui; Einstein, Lily C; Good, Matthew C

    2017-01-01

    Cell-free cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Xenopus eggs and embryos have for decades provided a biochemical system with which to interrogate complex cell biological processes in vitro. Recently, the application of microfabrication and microfluidic strategies in biology has narrowed the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies by enabling formation of cell-size compartments containing functional cytoplasm. These approaches provide numerous advantages over traditional biochemical experiments performed in a test tube. Most notably, the cell-free cytoplasm is confined using a two- or three-dimensional boundary, which mimics the natural configuration of a cell. This strategy enables characterization of the spatial organization of a cell, and the role that boundaries play in regulating intracellular assembly and function. In this review, we describe the marriage of Xenopus cell-free cytoplasm and confinement technologies to generate synthetic cell-like systems, the recent biological insights they have enabled, and the promise they hold for future scientific discovery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The early noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Kristiansen, Karen; Durand, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    All human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) early mRNAs are polyadenylated at the poly(A) signal within the early 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). The 3'end of the early E5 open reading frame and the 3'UTR of HPV-16 is very AU-rich, with five regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (...

  9. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  10. pH-Responsive Micelle-Based Cytoplasmic Delivery System for Induction of Cellular Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yuba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability. (2 Methods: Interaction of micelles with fluorescence dye-loaded liposomes, intracellular distribution of micelles, and antigenic proteins were observed. Finally, antigen-specific cellular immune response was evaluated in vivo using ELIspot assay. (3 Results: Micelles induced leakage of contents from liposomes via lipid mixing at low pH. Micelles were taken up by dendritic cells mainly via macropinocytosis and delivered ovalbumin (OVA into the cytosol. After intradermal injection of micelles and OVA, OVA-specific cellular immunity was induced in the spleen. (4 Conclusions: pH-responsive micelles composed of DLPC and deoxycholic acid are promising as enhancers of cytosol delivery of antigens and the induction capability of cellular immunity for the treatment of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases.

  11. Urinary matrix metalloproteinases reflect renal damage in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody-associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.S.F.; Huitema, M.G.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Goor, H. van; Kallenberg, C.G.M.; Stegeman, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Renal expression of MMP-2, -9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1) correlates with histological disease activity in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We studied whether urinary and plasma levels of MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-1 reflect renal expression of these

  12. Non-coding RNA may be associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Silene vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stone, James D.; Koloušková, Pavla; Sloan, D.B.; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 1599-1612 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09220S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility * Editing * Mitochondrion * Non-coding RNA * Silene vulgaris * Splicing * Transcriptome Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  13. Pleckstrin Homology Domain Diffusion in Dictyostelium Cytoplasm Studied Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Hink, Mark A.; Bosgraaf, Leonard; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  14. Pleckstrin homology domain diffusion in Dictyostelium cytoplasm studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchira, A.; Hink, M.A.; Bosgraaf, L.; Haastert, van P.J.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  15. Ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) to improve engagement and behavior for smart campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The recent popularity of internet messenger based smartphone technologies has motivated some university lecturers to use them for educational activities. These technologies have enormous potential to enhance the teaching and ubiquitous learning experience for smart campus development. However, the design ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application of mobile and ubiquitous learning in smart campus settings to improve engagement and behavior is still limited. In addition, the expectation that mobile learning could improve engagement and behavior on smart campus cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present ubiquitous learning model design and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior using IIMG for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous learning and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect, and its contribution to learning.

  16. Intense energetic electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N; Dewey, Ryan M; Lawrence, David J; Goldsten, John O; Peplowski, Patrick N; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Anderson, Brian J; Ho, George C; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C

    2016-03-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer, as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary nightside. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and prenoon sectors, at times executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  17. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, condensate fragmentation and gravitino dark matter in gauge-mediation with a large messenger mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John

    2011-01-01

    We study the conditions for successful Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and the origin of gravitino dark matter in GMSB models. AD baryogenesis in GMSB models is ruled out by neutron star stability unless Q-balls are unstable and decay before nucleosynthesis. Unstable Q-balls can form if the messenger mass scale is larger than the flat-direction field Φ when the condensate fragments. We provide an example based on AD baryogenesis along a d = 6 flat direction for the case where m 3/2 ≈ 2GeV, as predicted by gravitino dark matter from Q-ball decay. Using a phenomenological GMSB potential which models the Φ dependence of the SUSY breaking terms, we numerically solve for the evolution of Φ and show that the messenger mass can be sufficiently close to the flat-direction field when the condensate fragments. We compute the corresponding reheating temperature and the baryonic charge of the condensate fragments and show that the charge is large enough to produce late-decaying Q-balls which can be the origin of gravitino dark matter

  18. The Effect of WhatsApp Messenger As Mobile Learning Integrated with Group Investigation Method of Learning Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Pratama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was determined the effect of application WhatsApp Messenger in the Group Investigation (GI method on learning achievement. The methods used experimental research with control group pretest-postest design. The sampling procedure used the purposive sampling technique that consists of 17 students as a control group and 17 students as an experimental group. The sample in this research is students in Electrical Engineering Education Study Program. The experimental group used the GI method that integrated with WhatsApp Messenger. The control group used lecture method without social media integration. The collecting data used observation, documentation, interview, questionnaire, and test. The researcher used a t-test for compared the control group and the experimental group’s learning outcomes at an alpha level of 0,05. The results showed differences between the experiment group and the control group. The study result of the experimental higher than the control groups. This learning was designed with start, grouping, planning, presenting, organizing, investigating, evaluating, ending’s stage. Integration of WhatsApp with group investigation method could cause the positive communication between student and lecturer. Discussion in this learning was well done, the student’s knowledge could appear in a group and the information could spread evenly and quickly.

  19. The poly(rC)-binding protein αCP2 is a noncanonical factor in X. laevis cytoplasmic polyadenylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu, Melanie R.; Sumaroka, Marina; Klein, Peter S.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation is central to multiple developmental pathways. This control can be linked to cytoplasmic polyadenylation in certain settings. In maturing Xenopus oocytes, specific mRNAs are targeted for polyadenylation via recruitment of the Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element (CPE) binding protein (CPEB) to CPE(s) within the 3′ UTR. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is also critical to early embryonic events, although corresponding determinants are less defined. Here, we demonstrate that the Xenopus ortholog of the poly(rC) binding protein αCP2 can recruit cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase activity to mRNAs in Xenopus post-fertilization embryos, and that this recruitment relies on cis sequences recognized by αCP2. We find that the hα-globin 3′ UTR, a validated mammalian αCP2 target, constitutes an effective target for cytoplasmic polyadenylation in Xenopus embryos, but not during Xenopus oocyte maturation. We further demonstrate that the cytoplasmic polyadenylation activity is dependent on the action of the C-rich αCP-binding site in conjunction with the adjacent AAUAAA. Consistent with its ability to target mRNA for poly(A) addition, we find that XαCP2 associates with core components of the Xenopus cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex, including the cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase XGLD2. Furthermore, we observe that the C-rich αCP-binding site can robustly enhance the activity of a weak canonical oocyte maturation CPE in early embryos, possibly via a direct interaction between XαCP2 and CPEB1. These studies establish XαCP2 as a novel cytoplasmic polyadenylation trans factor, indicate that C-rich sequences can function as noncanonical cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements, and expand our understanding of the complexities underlying cytoplasmic polyadenylation in specific developmental settings. PMID:21444632

  20. Multi-messenger constraints and pressure from dark matter annihilation into e--e+ pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechakama, Maneenate

    2013-01-01

    Despite striking evidence for the existence of dark matter from astrophysical observations, dark matter has still escaped any direct or indirect detection until today. Therefore a proof for its existence and the revelation of its nature belongs to one of the most intriguing challenges of nowadays cosmology and particle physics. The present work tries to investigate the nature of dark matter through indirect signatures from dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs in two different ways, pressure from dark matter annihilation and multi-messenger constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section. We focus on dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs and adopt a model-independent approach, where all the electrons and positrons are injected with the same initial energy E 0 ∝m dm c 2 . The propagation of these particles is determined by solving the diffusion-loss equation, considering inverse Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, Coulomb collisions, bremsstrahlung, and ionization. The first part of this work, focusing on pressure from dark matter annihilation, demonstrates that dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs may affect the observed rotation curve by a significant amount. The injection rate of this calculation is constrained by INTEGRAL, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. data. The pressure of the relativistic electron-positron gas is computed from the energy spectrum predicted by the diffusion-loss equation. For values of the gas density and magnetic field that are representative of the Milky Way, it is estimated that the pressure gradients are strong enough to balance gravity in the central parts if E 0 0 . By comparing the predicted rotation curves with observations of dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies, we show that the pressure from dark matter annihilation may improve the agreement between theory and observations in some cases, but it also imposes severe constraints on the model parameters (most notably, the