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Sample records for cytoplasm prevents phd2-induced

  1. Cytoplasmic Z-RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation

  2. A plasma membrane localization signal in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain prevents localization at sites of vesicular stomatitis virus budding and incorporation into VSV virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Rodgers, W; Rose, J K

    1998-11-25

    Previous studies showed that the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein was not incorporated into vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions unless its cytoplasmic tail was replaced with that of the VSV glycoprotein (G). To determine whether the G tail provided a positive incorporation signal for Env, or if sequences in the Env tail prevented incorporation, we generated mutants of Env with its 150-amino-acid tail shortened to 29, 10, or 3 amino acids (Envtr mutants). Cells infected with VSV recombinants expressing these proteins or an Env-G tail hybrid showed similar amounts of Env protein at the surface. The Env-G tail hybrid or the Envtr3 mutant were incorporated at the highest levels into budding VSV virions. In contrast, the Envtr29 or Envtr10 mutants were incorporated poorly. These results defined a signal preventing incorporation within the 10 membrane-proximal amino acids of the Env tail. Confocal microscopy revealed that this signal functioned by causing localization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env to plasma membrane domains distinct from the VSV budding sites, where VSV proteins were concentrated. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. p38α phosphorylates serine 258 within the cytoplasmic domain of tissue factor and prevents its incorporation into cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelaie, Camille; Elkeeb, Azza M; Maraveyas, Anthony; Collier, Mary Elizabeth W

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that the phosphorylation of Ser253 within the cytoplasmic domain of human tissue factor (TF) initiates the incorporation and release of this protein into cell-derived microparticles. Furthermore, subsequent phosphorylation of Ser258 terminates this process. However, the identity of the kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser258 and mode of action of this enzyme remain unknown. In this study, p38α was identified as the proline-directed kinase capable of phosphorylating Ser258 specifically, and without any detectable activity towards Ser253. Furthermore, using synthetic peptides, it was shown that the Km for the reaction decreased by approximately 10 fold on substitution of Ser253 with phospho-Ser253. Either inhibition of p38 using SB202190 or knockdown of p38α expression in coronary artery endothelial cells overexpressing wild-type TF, resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Ser258, following activation of cells with PAR2-agonist peptide (PAR2-AP). In agreement with our previous data, inhibition of phosphorylation of this residue maintained the release of TF. Activation of PAR2 in cells transfected to overexpress TF, resulted in two separate peaks of p38 activity at approximately 40 and 120 min post-activation. Furthermore, overexpression of Ala253-substituted TF enhanced the second p38 activation peak. However, the second peak was absent in cells devoid of TF or in cells overexpressing the Asp253-substituted TF. Our data clearly identifies p38α as a kinase capable of phosphorylating Ser258 within the cytoplasmic domain of TF. Moreover, it appears that the presence of TF within the cells regulates the late activation of p38 and consequently the termination of TF release into microparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytoplasmic influence of nucleolar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sibdas

    1974-01-01

    The role of cytoplasmic factors on the development of nucleolus in nucleus has been investigated in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells using tritiated thymidine/uridine for autoradiography. It is inferred from the observations that the cytoplasmic factors has some but not absolute control over the development of nucleolus. (M.G.B.)

  5. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanisms for cytoplasmic organization: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, L

    2000-01-01

    One of the basic characteristics of life is the intrinsic organization of cytoplasm, yet we know surprisingly little about the manner in which cytoplasmic macromolecules are arranged. It is clear that cytoplasm is not the homogeneous "soup" it was once envisioned to be, but a comprehensive model for cytoplasmic organization is not available in modern cell biology. The premise of this volume is that phase separation in cytoplasm may play a role in organization at the subcellular level. Other mechanisms for non-membrane-bounded intracellular organization have previously been proposed. Some of these will be reviewed in this chapter. Multiple mechanisms, involving phase separation, specific intracellular targeting, formation of macromolecular complexes, and channeling, all could well contribute to cytoplasmic organization. Temporal and spatial organization, as well as composition, are likely to be important in defining the characteristics of cytoplasm.

  7. Stabilization and Degradation Mechanisms of Cytoplasmic Ataxin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi F. Kohiyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation-prone proteins in neurodegenerative disease disrupt cellular protein stabilization and degradation pathways. The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 is caused by a coding polyglutamine expansion in the Ataxin-1 gene ( ATXN1 , which gives rise to the aggregation-prone mutant form of ATXN1 protein. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons, preferentially vulnerable in SCA1, produce ATXN1 protein in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Cytoplasmic stabilization of ATXN1 by phosphorylation and 14-3-3-mediated mechanisms ultimately drive translocation of the protein to the nucleus where aggregation may occur. However, experimental inhibition of phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding results in rapid degradation of ATXN1, thus preventing nuclear translocation and cellular toxicity. The exact mechanism of cytoplasmic ATXN1 degradation is currently unknown; further investigation of degradation may provide future therapeutic targets. This review examines the present understanding of cytoplasmic ATXN1 stabilization and potential degradation mechanisms during normal and pathogenic states.

  8. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  9. Characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with Lead Rice cytoplasm in comparison with that with Chinsurah Boro II cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Etsuko; Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2009-02-01

    Rice with LD-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) possesses the cytoplasm of 'Lead Rice' and its fertility is recovered by a nuclear fertility restorer gene Rf1. Rf1 promotes processing of a CMS-associated mitochondrial RNA of atp6-orf79, which consists of atp6 and orf79, in BT-CMS with the cytoplasm of 'Chinsurah Boro II'. In this study, we found that LD-cytoplasm contained a sequence variant of orf79 downstream of atp6. Northern blot analysis showed that atp6-orf79 RNA of LD-cytoplasm was co-transcribed and was processed in the presence of Rf1 in the same manner as in BT-cytoplasm. Western blot analysis showed that the ORF79 peptide did not accumulate in an LD-CMS line, while ORF79 accumulated in a BT-CMS line and was diminished by Rf1. These results suggest that accumulation of ORF79 is not the cause of CMS in LD-cytoplasm and the mechanism of male-sterility induction/fertility restoration in LD-CMS is different from that in BT-CMS.

  10. Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan; D'Amelio, Marcello; Criollo, Alfredo; Morselli, Eugenia; Zhu, Changlian; Harper, Francis; Nannmark, Ulf; Samara, Chrysanthi; Pinton, Paolo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Carnuccio, Rosa; Moll, Ute M; Madeo, Frank; Paterlini-Brechot, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Pierron, Gérard; Blomgren, Klas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Codogno, Patrice; Cecconi, Francesco; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-06-01

    Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer cells under conditions of hypoxia and nutrient depletion, allowing them to maintain high ATP levels. Inhibition of p53 led to autophagy in enucleated cells, and cytoplasmic, not nuclear, p53 was able to repress the enhanced autophagy of p53(-/-) cells. Many different inducers of autophagy (for example, starvation, rapamycin and toxins affecting the endoplasmic reticulum) stimulated proteasome-mediated degradation of p53 through a pathway relying on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2. Inhibition of p53 degradation prevented the activation of autophagy in several cell lines, in response to several distinct stimuli. These results provide evidence of a key signalling pathway that links autophagy to the cancer-associated dysregulation of p53.

  11. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabiditis elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature. Cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans at the one-cell stage is bidirectional; the flow near the cortex (“cortical flow”) is oriented toward the anterior, whereas the flow in the central region (“cytoplasmic flow”) is oriented toward the posterior. Both cortical flow and cytoplasmic flow depend on non-muscle-myosin II (NMY-2), which primarily localizes in the cortex. The manner in which NMY-2 proteins drive cytoplasmic flow in the opposite direction from remote locations has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate the forces generated by the cortical myosin to drive bidirectional streaming throughout the cytoplasm. We quantified the flow velocities of cytoplasmic streaming using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and conducted a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation using the moving particle semiimplicit method. Our simulation quantitatively reconstructed the quantified flow velocity distribution resolved through PIV analysis. Furthermore, our PIV analyses detected microtubule-dependent flows during the pronuclear migration stage. These flows were reproduced via hydrodynamic interactions between moving pronuclei and the cytoplasm. The agreement of flow dynamics in vivo and in simulation indicates that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans embryos. PMID:21730185

  12. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  13. Activation of chromatin degradation by a protein factor of thymocyte cytoplasm of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    A cytoplasmic thymocyte fraction isolated 1 h after irradiation of mice accelerates chromatin degradation in isolated nuclei. Treatment of the cytoplasmic fraction by heat and injection of cycloheximide to mice prevent the acceleration of DNA degradation. The analysis of the chromatin degradation products and the kinetics of this process at acid and alkaline pH shows that activation of DNA degradation in thymocytes by a factor obtained from the irradiated cell cytoplasm is specific for a Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ -dependent enzyme. The time- and dose-dependent parameters of the appearance in the thymocyte cytoplasm of the factor influencing degradation of chromatin are in a good agreement with both the time of the onset of its postirradiation degradation and the dose dependence of this process

  14. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  15. Cytoplasmic Estrogen Receptor in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Allison W.; Lannin, Donald R.; Young, Gregory S.; Sherman, Mark E.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Henry, N. Lynn; Ryden, Lisa; Kim, Chungyeul; Love, Richard R.; Schiff, Rachel; Rimm, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In addition to genomic signaling, it is accepted that ERα has non-nuclear signaling functions, which correlate with tamoxifen resistance in preclinical models. However, evidence for cytoplasmic ER localization in human breast tumors is less established. We sought to determine the presence and implications of non-nuclear ER in clinical specimens. Experimental Design A panel of ERα-specific antibodies (SP1, MC20, F10, 60c, 1D5) were validated by western blot and quantitative immunofluorescent (QIF) analysis of cell lines and patient controls. Then eight retrospective cohorts collected on tissue microarrays were assessed for cytoplasmic ER. Four cohorts were from Yale (YTMA 49, 107, 130, 128) and four others (NCI YTMA 99, South Swedish Breast Cancer Group SBII, NSABP B14, and a Vietnamese Cohort) from other sites around the world. Results Four of the antibodies specifically recognized ER by western and QIF, showed linear increases in amounts of ER in cell line series with progressively increasing ER, and the antibodies were reproducible on YTMA 49 with pearson’s correlations (r2 values)ranging from 0.87-0.94. One antibody with striking cytoplasmic staining (MC20) failed validation. We found evidence for specific cytoplasmic staining with the other 4 antibodies across eight cohorts. The average incidence was 1.5%, ranging from 0 to 3.2%. Conclusions Our data shows ERα present in the cytoplasm in a number of cases using multiple antibodies, while reinforcing the importance of antibody validation. In nearly 3,200 cases, cytoplasmic ER is present at very low incidence, suggesting its measurement is unlikely to be of routine clinical value. PMID:21980134

  16. Consequences of cytoplasmic irradiation. Studies from microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongning; Hong, Mei; Chai, Yunfei; Hei, Tom K.

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing dogma for radiation biology is that genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation such as mutations and carcinogenesis are attributed mainly to direct damage to the nucleus. However, with the development of microbeam that can target precise positions inside the cells, accumulating evidences have shown that energy deposit by radiation in nuclear DNA is not required to trigger the damage, extra-nuclear or extra-cellular radiation could induce the similar biological effects as well. This review will summarize the biological responses after cytoplasm irradiated by microbeam, and the possible mechanisms involved in cytoplasmic irradiation. (author)

  17. Detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damoiseaux, Jan; Csernok, Elena; Rasmussen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    of diagnosis) from 251 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), including granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and from 924 disease controls were tested for the presence of cytoplasmic pattern/perinuclear pattern and atypical ANCA (A-ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF...

  18. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert; Ferguson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded

  19. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  20. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  1. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  2. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  4. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of reviews This review focuses on recent advance in the diagnosis pathogenesis and treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis. Recent findings Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are closely associated with Wegener's granulomatosis and

  5. The molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Ito, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to angiosperms. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming have long remained unelucidated. Recent molecular genetic approaches have identified specific myosin members (XI-2 and XI-K as major and XI-1, XI-B, and XI-I as minor motive forces) for the generation of cytoplasmic streaming among 13 myosin XIs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Simultaneous knockout of these myosin XI members led to a reduced velocity of cytoplasmic streaming and marked defects of plant development. Furthermore, the artificial modifications of myosin XI-2 velocity changed plant and cell sizes along with the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. Therefore, we assume that cytoplasmic streaming is one of the key regulators in determining plant size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Acidic pH sensing in the bacterial cytoplasm is required for Salmonella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2016-09-01

    pH regulates gene expression, biochemical activities and cellular behaviors. A mildly acidic pH activates the master virulence regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The sensor PhoQ harbors an extracytoplasmic domain implicated in signal sensing, and a cytoplasmic domain controlling activation of the regulator PhoP. We now report that, surprisingly, a decrease in Salmonella's own cytoplasmic pH induces transcription of PhoP-activated genes even when the extracytoplasmic pH remains neutral. Amino acid substitutions in PhoQ's cytoplasmic domain hindered activation by acidic pH and attenuated virulence in mice, but did not abolish activation by low Mg(2+) or the antimicrobial peptide C18G. Conversely, removal of PhoQ's extracytoplasmic domains prevented the response to the latter PhoQ-activating signals but not to acidic pH. PhoP-dependent genes were minimally induced by acidic pH in the non-pathogenic species Salmonella bongori but were activated by low Mg(2+) and C18G as in pathogenic S. enterica. Our findings indicate that the sensor PhoQ enables S. enterica to respond to both host- and bacterial-derived signals that alter its cytoplasmic pH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cytoplasmic Dynein Promotes HIV-1 Uncoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pawlica

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral capsid (CA cores undergo uncoating during their retrograde transport (toward the nucleus, and/or after reaching the nuclear membrane. However, whether HIV-1 CA core uncoating is dependent upon its transport is not understood. There is some evidence that HIV-1 cores retrograde transport involves cytoplasmic dynein complexes translocating on microtubules. Here we investigate the role of dynein-dependent transport in HIV-1 uncoating. To interfere with dynein function, we depleted dynein heavy chain (DHC using RNA interference, and we over-expressed p50/dynamitin. In immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, DHC depletion caused an accumulation of CA foci in HIV-1 infected cells. Using a biochemical assay to monitor HIV-1 CA core disassembly in infected cells, we observed an increase in amounts of intact (pelletable CA cores upon DHC depletion or p50 over-expression. Results from these two complementary assays suggest that inhibiting dynein-mediated transport interferes with HIV-1 uncoating in infected cells, indicating the existence of a functional link between HIV-1 transport and uncoating.

  8. A physical perspective on cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E; van de Meent, Jan-Willem

    2015-08-06

    Organisms show a remarkable range of sizes, yet the dimensions of a single cell rarely exceed 100 µm. While the physical and biological origins of this constraint remain poorly understood, exceptions to this rule give valuable insights. A well-known counterexample is the aquatic plant Chara, whose cells can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Two spiralling bands of molecular motors at the cell periphery drive the cellular fluid up and down at speeds up to 100 µm s(-1), motion that has been hypothesized to mitigate the slowness of metabolite transport on these scales and to aid in homeostasis. This is the most organized instance of a broad class of continuous motions known as 'cytoplasmic streaming', found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms-algae, plants, amoebae, nematodes and flies-often in unusually large cells. In this overview of the physics of this phenomenon, we examine the interplay between streaming, transport and cell size and discuss the possible role of self-organization phenomena in establishing the observed patterns of streaming.

  9. Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody: positivity and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Téllez, Goitybell; Torres Rives, Bárbara; Rangel Velázquez, Suchiquil; Sánchez Rodríguez, Vicky; Ramos Ríos, María Antonia; Fuentes Smith, Lisset Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    To determine positivity and clinical correlation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), taking into account the interference of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). A prospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Immunology of the National Cuban Center of Medical Genetic during one year. Two hounded sixty-seven patients with indication for ANCA determination were included. ANCA and ANA determinations with different cut off points and assays were determined by indirect immunofluorescense. Anti proteinase 3 and antimyeloperoxidase antibodies were determined by ELISA. Most positivity for ANCA was seen in patients with ANCA associated, primary small-vessel vasculitides, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Presence of ANCA without positivity for proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase was higher in patients with ANA and little relation was observed between the perinuclear pattern confirmed in formalin and specificity by myeloperoxidase. Highest sensibility and specificity values for vasculitides diagnostic were achieved by ANCA determination using indirect immunofluorescense with a cut off 1/80 and confirming antigenic specificities with ELISA. ANCA can be present in a great number of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disorders in the population studied. This determination using indirect immunofluorescence and following by ELISA had a great value for vasculitis diagnosis. Anti mieloperoxidasa assay has a higher utility than the formalin assay when ANA is present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  11. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Associated With Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Vincent; Lesourd, Anais; Girszyn, Nicolas; Ménard, Jean-Francois; Levesque, Hervé; Caron, Francois; Marie, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in internal medicine; and to compare clinical and biochemical features and outcome between patients exhibiting IE with and without ANCA. Fifty consecutive patients with IE underwent ANCA testing. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. Of the 50 patients with IE, 12 exhibited ANCA (24%). ANCA-positive patients with IE exhibited: longer duration between the onset of first symptoms and IE diagnosis (P = 0.02); and more frequently: weight loss (P = 0.017) and renal impairment (P = 0.08), lower levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.0009) and serum albumin (P = 0.0032), involvement of both aortic and mitral valves (P = 0.009), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.016). Under multivariate analysis, significant factors for ANCA-associated IE were: longer hospital stay (P = 0.004), lower level of serum albumin (P = 0.02), and multiple valve involvement (P = 0.04). Mortality rate was 25% in ANCA patients; death was because of IE complications in all these patients. Our study identifies a high prevalence of ANCA in unselected patients with IE in internal medicine (24%). Our findings further underscore that ANCA may be associated with a subacute form of IE leading to multiple valve involvement and more frequent renal impairment. Because death was due to IE complications in all patients, our data suggest that aggressive therapy may be required to improve such patients’ outcome. PMID:26817911

  12. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-01

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  13. Uniparental Inheritance Promotes Adaptive Evolution in Cytoplasmic Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes-specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance-enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution. Uniparental inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes decreases competition between different beneficial substitutions (clonal interference), promoting the accumulation of beneficial substitutions. Uniparental inheritance also facilitates selection against deleterious cytoplasmic substitutions, slowing Muller's ratchet. In addition, uniparental inheritance generally reduces genetic hitchhiking of deleterious substitutions during selective sweeps. Overall, uniparental inheritance promotes adaptive evolution by increasing the level of beneficial substitutions relative to deleterious substitutions. When we assume that cytoplasmic genome inheritance is biparental, decreasing the number of genomes transmitted during gametogenesis (bottleneck) aids adaptive evolution. Nevertheless, adaptive evolution is always more efficient when inheritance is uniparental. Our findings explain empirical observations that cytoplasmic genomes-despite their asexual mode of reproduction-can readily undergo adaptive evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Uniparental Inheritance Promotes Adaptive Evolution in Cytoplasmic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R.; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes—specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance—enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution. Uniparental inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes decreases competition between different beneficial substitutions (clonal interference), promoting the accumulation of beneficial substitutions. Uniparental inheritance also facilitates selection against deleterious cytoplasmic substitutions, slowing Muller’s ratchet. In addition, uniparental inheritance generally reduces genetic hitchhiking of deleterious substitutions during selective sweeps. Overall, uniparental inheritance promotes adaptive evolution by increasing the level of beneficial substitutions relative to deleterious substitutions. When we assume that cytoplasmic genome inheritance is biparental, decreasing the number of genomes transmitted during gametogenesis (bottleneck) aids adaptive evolution. Nevertheless, adaptive evolution is always more efficient when inheritance is uniparental. Our findings explain empirical observations that cytoplasmic genomes—despite their asexual mode of reproduction—can readily undergo adaptive evolution. PMID:28025277

  15. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  16. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Cytoplasmic Staining of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unusual for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody with cytoplasmic pattern (cANCA to present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD without vasculitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence and characteristics of pediatrics IBD with cANCA. Methods. A retrospective review of pediatric IBD associated with cANCA serology in patients from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, between September 2002 and February 2012. Results. Out of 131 patients with IBD screened for cANCAs, cANCA was positive in 7 (5.3% patients of whom 4 had ulcerative colitis and 3 had Crohn's disease. The median age was 8.8 years (2–14.8 years. Six (86% were males. Of the 7 patients, 5 (71% were Saudi Arabians and 2 were of Indian ethnicity. The most common symptoms were diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. None had family history or clinical features suggestive of vasculitis involving renal and respiratory systems. No difference in the disease location or severity was observed between cANCA positive and cANCA negative patients apart from male preponderance in cANCA positive patients. Conclusion. The occurrence of cANCA in pediatric IBD is rare. Apart from male preponderance, there were no peculiar characteristics for the cANCA positive patients.

  17. Refractory disease in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    Purpose of review Induction treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is not always successful and nonresponding patients are considered refractory. Recent findings Refractory disease should be subdefined to the treatment that was received.

  18. Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Postigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.

  19. Evaluation of cytoplasmic genetic effects for production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2014-12-03

    Dec 3, 2014 ... Cytoplasmic genetic effects are transmitted directly only from mother to offspring through mitochondrial DNA. Normal genetic .... inheritance in three synthetic lines of beef cattle differing in mature size. J. Anim. Sci. 69, 745.

  20. Vasculitis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies associated with propylthiouracil therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, K. M.; Gans, R. O.; Vervaat, T. J.; Zevenbergen, G.; Maingay, D.; Nikkels, R. E.; Donker, A. J.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Goldschmeding, R.

    1993-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare complication of propylthiouracil therapy. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) have been described in association with several vasculitic disorders. We report detection of ANCA against human neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and myeloperoxidase in serum from six

  1. Cytoplasmic chromatin triggers inflammation in senescence and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhixun; Ghosh, Kanad; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Zhu, Jiajun; Sen, Payel; Wangensteen, Kirk J; Simithy, Johayra; Lan, Yemin; Lin, Yanping; Zhou, Zhuo; Capell, Brian C; Xu, Caiyue; Xu, Mingang; Kieckhaefer, Julia E; Jiang, Tianying; Shoshkes-Carmel, Michal; Tanim, K M Ahasan Al; Barber, Glen N; Seykora, John T; Millar, Sarah E; Kaestner, Klaus H; Garcia, Benjamin A; Adams, Peter D; Berger, Shelley L

    2017-10-19

    Chromatin is traditionally viewed as a nuclear entity that regulates gene expression and silencing. However, we recently discovered the presence of cytoplasmic chromatin fragments that pinch off from intact nuclei of primary cells during senescence, a form of terminal cell-cycle arrest associated with pro-inflammatory responses. The functional significance of chromatin in the cytoplasm is unclear. Here we show that cytoplasmic chromatin activates the innate immunity cytosolic DNA-sensing cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase linked to stimulator of interferon genes) pathway, leading both to short-term inflammation to restrain activated oncogenes and to chronic inflammation that associates with tissue destruction and cancer. The cytoplasmic chromatin-cGAS-STING pathway promotes the senescence-associated secretory phenotype in primary human cells and in mice. Mice deficient in STING show impaired immuno-surveillance of oncogenic RAS and reduced tissue inflammation upon ionizing radiation. Furthermore, this pathway is activated in cancer cells, and correlates with pro-inflammatory gene expression in human cancers. Overall, our findings indicate that genomic DNA serves as a reservoir to initiate a pro-inflammatory pathway in the cytoplasm in senescence and cancer. Targeting the cytoplasmic chromatin-mediated pathway may hold promise in treating inflammation-related disorders.

  2. Self-cytoplasmic DNA upregulates the mutator enzyme APOBEC3A leading to chromosomal DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suspène, Rodolphe; Mussil, Bianka; Laude, Hélène; Caval, Vincent; Berry, Noémie; Bouzidi, Mohamed S; Thiers, Valérie; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-07

    Foreign and self-cytoplasmic DNA are recognized by numerous DNA sensor molecules leading to the production of type I interferons. Such DNA agonists should be degraded otherwise cells would be chronically stressed. Most human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases can initiate catabolism of cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA. Using the human myeloid cell line THP-1 with an interferon inducible APOBEC3A gene, we show that cytoplasmic DNA triggers interferon α and β production through the RNA polymerase III transcription/RIG-I pathway leading to massive upregulation of APOBEC3A. By catalyzing C→U editing in single stranded DNA fragments, the enzyme prevents them from re-annealing so attenuating the danger signal. The price to pay is chromosomal DNA damage in the form of CG→TA mutations and double stranded DNA breaks which, in the context of chronic inflammation, could drive cells down the path toward cancer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum Inhibits Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via the c-Fos/nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells, Cytoplasmic 1 Signaling Pathway and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum (APE has been widely shown in herbal medicine to have a therapeutic effect on inflammatory conditions. However, there has been no evidence on whether the extract of APE is involved in the biological bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, we confirmed that the administration of APE could restore normal skeletal conditions in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone loss via a decrease in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio and osteoclast number. We then investigated the effect of APE on the RANKL-induced formation and function of osteoclasts to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. APE suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive cells, as well as the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, APE attenuated nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and c-Fos without affecting any early signal pathway of osteoclastogenesis. Subsequently, APE significantly downregulated the expression of various genes exclusively expressed in osteoclasts. These results demonstrate that APE restores LPS-induced bone loss through a decrease of the serum RANKL/OPG ratio, and inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of APE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  5. Cytoplasmic Flow Enhances Organelle Dispersion in Eukaryotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslover, Elena; Mogre, Saurabh; Chan, Caleb; Theriot, Julie

    The cytoplasm of a living cell is an active environment through which intracellular components move and mix. We explore, using theoretical modeling coupled with microrheological measurements, the efficiency of particle dispersion via different modes of transport within this active environment. In particular, we focus on the role of cytoplasmic flow over different scales in contributing to organelle transport within two different cell types. In motile neutrophil cells, we show that bulk fluid flow associated with rapid cell deformation enhances particle transport to and from the cell periphery. In narrow fungal hyphae, localized flows due to hydrodynamic entrainment are shown to contribute to optimally efficient organelle dispersion. Our results highlight the importance of non-traditional modes of transport associated with flow of the cytoplasmic fluid in the distribution of organelles throughout eukaryotic cells.

  6. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Cai Zhijun; Liang Kangjing; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60 Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F 1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F 2 . Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  7. The antimicrobial peptides lactoferricin B and magainin 2 cross over the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and reside in the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukland, H H; Ulvatne, H; Sandvik, K; Vorland, L H

    2001-11-23

    The localization of immunolabelled antimicrobial peptides was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were exposed to lactoferricin B (17-41), lactoferricin B (17-31) and D-lactoferricin B (17-31). E. coli was also exposed to cecropin P1 and magainin 2. The lactoferricins were found in the cytoplasm of both bacteria. In S. aureus the amount of cytoplasmic lactoferricin B (17-41) was time- and concentration-dependent, reaching a maximum within 30 min. Cecropin P1 was confined to the cell wall, while magainin 2 was found in the cytoplasm of E. coli. The finding of intracellularly localized magainin is not reported previously.

  8. Cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP): New approach for the delivery of biomolecules into cytoplasm in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daeyou; Jeon, Choonju; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mi-Seon; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV-1 TAT has been extensively documented with regard to its membrane transduction potential, as well as its efficient delivery of biomolecules in vivo. However, the majority of PTD and PTD-conjugated molecules translocate to the nucleus rather than to the cytoplasm after transduction, due to the functional nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Here, we report a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP), which was deliberately designed to ensure the efficient cytoplasmic delivery of the CTP-fused biomolecules. In comparison with PTD, CTP and its fusion partners exhibited a clear preference for cytoplasmic localization, and also markedly enhanced membrane transduction potential. Unlike the mechanism underlying PTD-mediated transduction, CTP-mediated transduction occurs independently of the lipid raft-dependent macropinocytosis pathway. The CTP-conjugated Smac/DIABLO peptide (Smac-CTP) was also shown to be much more efficient than Smac-PTD in the blockage of the antiapoptotic properties of XIAP, suggesting that cytoplasmic functional molecules can be more efficiently targeted by CTP-mediated delivery. In in vivo trafficking studies, CTP-fused β-gal exhibited unique organ tropisms to the liver and lymph nodes when systemically injected into mice, whereas PTD-β-gal exhibited no such tropisms. Taken together, our findings implicate CTP as a novel delivery peptide appropriate for (i) molecular targeting to cytoplasmic compartments in vitro, (ii) the development of class I-associated CTL vaccines, and (iii) special drug delivery in vivo, without causing any untoward effects on nuclear genetic material

  9. Animal models of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salama, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    To provide an update on the experimental models that have been developed recapitulating clinical antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. The application of the models in the study of pathogenesis, and the therapeutic implications of this, are covered in the article by van Timmeren and Heeringa in this issue.

  10. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, A.A. van; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  11. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; van Lammeren, A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  12. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study ( Houtman et al., 2007 )

  13. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication

  14. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01


    Introduction

    This manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces

  15. Cytoplasmic Domains and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channel Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro; de la Peña, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The basic architecture of the voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv channels) corresponds to a transmembrane protein core in which the permeation pore, the voltage-sensing components and the gating machinery (cytoplasmic facing gate and sensor–gate coupler) reside. Usually, large protein tails are attached to this core, hanging toward the inside of the cell. These cytoplasmic regions are essential for normal channel function and, due to their accessibility to the cytoplasmic environment, constitute obvious targets for cell-physiological control of channel behavior. Here we review the present knowledge about the molecular organization of these intracellular channel regions and their role in both setting and controlling Kv voltage-dependent gating properties. This includes the influence that they exert on Kv rapid/N-type inactivation and on activation/deactivation gating of Shaker-like and eag-type Kv channels. Some illustrative examples about the relevance of these cytoplasmic domains determining the possibilities for modulation of Kv channel gating by cellular components are also considered. PMID:22470342

  16. Actin polymerisation at the cytoplasmic face of eukaryotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David-Watine Brigitte

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists abundant molecular and ultra-structural evidence to suggest that cytoplasmic actin can physically interact with the nuclear envelope (NE membrane system. However, this interaction has yet to be characterised in living interphase cells. Results Using a fluorescent conjugate of the actin binding drug cytochalasin D (CD-BODIPY we provide evidence that polymerising actin accumulates in vicinity to the NE. In addition, both transiently expressed fluorescent actin and cytoplasmic micro-injection of fluorescent actin resulted in accumulation of actin at the NE-membrane. Consistent with the idea that the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes can support this novel pool of perinuclear actin polymerisation we show that isolated, intact, differentiated primary hepatocyte nuclei support actin polymerisation in vitro. Further this phenomenon was inhibited by treatments hindering steric access to outer-nuclear-membrane proteins (e.g. wheat germ agglutinin, anti-nesprin and anti-nucleoporin antibodies. Conclusion We conclude that actin polymerisation occurs around interphase nuclei of living cells at the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes.

  17. Experimental Analysis of Cell Function Using Cytoplasmic Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Peter; Waldhuber, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming in the fresh water alga "Nitella". Students use the fungal toxin cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, to investigate the mechanism of streaming. Students use simple statistical methods to analyze their data. Typical student data are provided. (Contains 3…

  18. Endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated microtubule alignment governs cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenji; Mamane, Alexandre; Sasaki, Tohru; Sato, Kohta; Takagi, Jun; Niwayama, Ritsuya; Hufnagel, Lars; Shimamoto, Yuta; Joanny, Jean-François; Uchida, Seiichi; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2017-04-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming refers to a collective movement of cytoplasm observed in many cell types. The mechanism of meiotic cytoplasmic streaming (MeiCS) in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes is puzzling as the direction of the flow is not predefined by cell polarity and occasionally reverses. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network structure is required for the collective flow. Using a combination of RNAi, microscopy and image processing of C. elegans zygotes, we devise a theoretical model, which reproduces and predicts the emergence and reversal of the flow. We propose a positive-feedback mechanism, where a local flow generated along a microtubule is transmitted to neighbouring regions through the ER. This, in turn, aligns microtubules over a broader area to self-organize the collective flow. The proposed model could be applicable to various cytoplasmic streaming phenomena in the absence of predefined polarity. The increased mobility of cortical granules by MeiCS correlates with the efficient exocytosis of the granules to protect the zygotes from osmotic and mechanical stresses.

  19. Magnetite nanoparticles as reporters for microcarrier processing in cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibetanz, Uta, E-mail: uta.reibetanz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM) Leipzig, Universitaet Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse 55, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Institute for Medical Physics and Biophysics, Medical Faculty, Universitaet Leipzig, Haertelstrasse 16-18, 04107 Leipzig (Germany); Jankuhn, Steffen, E-mail: jankuhn@uni-leipzig.de [Division of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Geosciences, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Office for Environmental Protection and Occupational Safety, Universitaet Leipzig, Ritterstrasse 24, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The development and therapeutic application of drug delivery systems based on colloidal microcarriers layer-by-layer coated with biopolyelectrolytes requires the investigation of their processing inside the cell for the successful and efficient transport and release of the active agents. The present study is focused on the time-dependent multilayer decomposition and the subsequent release of active agents to the cytoplasm. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were used as reporter agents integrated into the protamine sulfate/dextran sulfate basis multilayer on colloidal SiO{sub 2} cores. This functionalization allows the monitoring of the multilayer decomposition due to the detection of the MNP release, visualized by means of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) by elemental distribution of Si and Fe. The direct correlation between the microcarrier localization in endolysosomes and cytoplasm of HEK293T/17 cells via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the elemental distribution (PIXE) allows tracing the fate of the MNP-coated microcarriers in cytoplasm, and thus the processing of the multilayer. Microcarrier/cell co-incubation experiments of 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h show that a MNP release and a slight expansion into the cytoplasm occurs after a longer co-incubation of 72 h.

  20. Cytoplasmic tail of coronavirus spike protein has intracellular

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/042/02/0231-0244. Keywords. Coronavirus spike protein trafficking; cytoplasmic tail signal; endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi intermediate complex; lysosome. Abstract. Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spikeprotein is ...

  1. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu

    2015-05-15

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.

  2. Cytoplasmic Drosha Is Aberrant in Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Carcinoma and Its Loss Predicts Worse Outcome for Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Hou, Yixuan; Xu, Liyun; Zeng, Zongyue; Wen, Siyang; Du, Yan-E; Sun, Kexin; Yin, Jiali; Lang, Lei; Tang, Xiaoli; Liu, Manran

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear localization of Drosha is critical for its function as a microRNA maturation regulator. Dephosphorylation of Drosha at serine 300 and serine 302 disrupts its nuclear localization, and aberrant distribution of Drosha has been detected in some tumors. The purpose of the present study was to assess cytoplasmic/nuclear Drosha expression in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Drosha expression and its subcellular location was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of a set of tissue microarrays composed of normal adjacent tissues (374), chronic gastritis (137), precancerous lesions (94), and gastric adenocarcinoma (829) samples, and in gastric cancer cell lines with varying differentiation by immunofluorescence and western blot assay. Gradual loss of cytoplasmic Drosha was accompanied by tumor progression in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and was inversely associated with tumor volume (P = 0.002), tumor grade (P gastric cancer. High levels of cytoplasmic Drosha predicted longer survival (LR = 7.088, P = 0.008) in gastric cancer patients. Our data provide novel insights into gastric cancer that cytoplasmic Drosha potentially plays a role in preventing carcinogenesis and tumor progression, and may be an independent predictor of patient outcome.

  3. Alanine substitution of conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail of herpes simplex virus gB can enhance or abolish cell fusion activity and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, Nancy; Zago, Anna; Spear, Patricia G.

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the four viral glycoproteins required for viral entry and cell fusion and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. Mutants of HSV type 2 gB were generated by substituting conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail with alanine or by deleting 41 amino acids from the C-terminus. Some of the mutations abolished cell fusion activity and also prevented transport of gB to the cell surface, identifying residues in the gB cytoplasmic tail that are critical for intracellular transport of this glycoprotein. These mutations also prevented production of infectious virus, possibly because the mutant forms of gB were not transported to the site of envelopment. Other mutations, particularly the deletion, significantly enhanced cell fusion activity. These mutations, as well as others described previously, identify regions of the gB cytoplasmic domain that modulate cell fusion activity

  4. First cytoplasmic loop of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor can function at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Tose, Koji; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified into several families based on their amino acid sequences. In family 1, GPCRs such as rhodopsin and adrenergic receptor, the structure-function relationship has been extensively investigated to demonstrate that exposure of the third cytoplasmic loop is essential for selective G protein activation. In contrast, much less is known about other families. Here we prepared chimeric mutants between Gt-coupled rhodopsin and Gi/Go- and Gs-coupled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor of family 2 and tried to identify the loop region that functions at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin. We succeeded in expressing a mutant having the first cytoplasmic loop of GLP-1 receptor and found that this mutant activated Gi and Go efficiently but did not activate Gt. Moreover, the rhodopsin mutant having the first loop of Gs-coupled secretin receptor of family 2 decreased the Gi and Go activation efficiencies. Therefore, the first loop of GLP-1 receptor would share a similar role to the third loop of rhodopsin in G protein activation. This result strongly suggested that different families of GPCRs have maintained molecular architectures of their ancestral types to generate a common mechanism, namely exposure of the cytoplasmic loop, to activate peripheral G protein.

  5. Fluoride enhances transfection activity of carbonate apatite by increasing cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA is enhanced by fluoride incorporation into carbonate apatite carrier. → Fluoridated carbonate apatite promotes a robust increase in transgene expression. → Controlled dissolution of fluoridated carbonate apatite in endosomal acidic environment might buffer the endosomes and prevent degradation of the released DNA. -- Abstract: Intracellular delivery of a functional gene or a nucleic acid sequence to specifically knockdown a harmful gene is a potential approach to precisely treat a critical human disease. The intensive efforts in the last few decades led to the development of a number of viral and non-viral synthetic vectors. However, an ideal delivery tool in terms of the safety and efficacy has yet to be established. Recently, we have developed pH-sensing inorganic nanocrystals of carbonate apatite for efficient and cell-targeted delivery of gene and gene-silencing RNA. Here we show that addition of very low level of fluoride to the particle-forming medium facilitates a robust increase in transgene expression following post-incubation of the particles with HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic observation and Southern blotting prove the cytoplasmic existence of plasmid DNA delivered by likely formed fluoridated carbonate apatite particles while degradation of plasmid DNA presumably by cytoplasmic nucleases was noticed following delivery with apatite particles alone. The beneficial role of fluoride in enhancing carbonate apatite-mediated gene expression might be due to the buffering potential of generated fluoridated apatite in endosomal acidic environment, thereby increasing the half-life of delivered plasmid DNA.

  6. Fluoride enhances transfection activity of carbonate apatite by increasing cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, E.H., E-mail: md.ezharul.hoque@med.monash.edu.my [Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA is enhanced by fluoride incorporation into carbonate apatite carrier. {yields} Fluoridated carbonate apatite promotes a robust increase in transgene expression. {yields} Controlled dissolution of fluoridated carbonate apatite in endosomal acidic environment might buffer the endosomes and prevent degradation of the released DNA. -- Abstract: Intracellular delivery of a functional gene or a nucleic acid sequence to specifically knockdown a harmful gene is a potential approach to precisely treat a critical human disease. The intensive efforts in the last few decades led to the development of a number of viral and non-viral synthetic vectors. However, an ideal delivery tool in terms of the safety and efficacy has yet to be established. Recently, we have developed pH-sensing inorganic nanocrystals of carbonate apatite for efficient and cell-targeted delivery of gene and gene-silencing RNA. Here we show that addition of very low level of fluoride to the particle-forming medium facilitates a robust increase in transgene expression following post-incubation of the particles with HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic observation and Southern blotting prove the cytoplasmic existence of plasmid DNA delivered by likely formed fluoridated carbonate apatite particles while degradation of plasmid DNA presumably by cytoplasmic nucleases was noticed following delivery with apatite particles alone. The beneficial role of fluoride in enhancing carbonate apatite-mediated gene expression might be due to the buffering potential of generated fluoridated apatite in endosomal acidic environment, thereby increasing the half-life of delivered plasmid DNA.

  7. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  8. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kevin Pfister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  9. Amorphous areas in the cytoplasm of Dendrobium tepal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Wouter G.; Kirasak, Kanjana; Ketsa, Saichol

    2013-01-01

    In Dendrobium flowers some tepal mesophyll cells showed cytoplasmic areas devoid of large organelles. Such amorphous areas comprised up to about 40% of the cross-section of a cell. The areas were not bound by a membrane. The origin of these areas is not known. We show data suggesting that they can be formed from vesicle-like organelles. The data imply that these organelles and other material become degraded inside the cytoplasm. This can be regarded as a form of autophagy. The amorphous areas became surrounded by small vacuoles, vesicles or double membranes. These seemed to merge and thereby sequester the areas. Degradation of the amorphous areas therefore seemed to involve macroautophagy. PMID:23823702

  10. Algorithms for Cytoplasm Segmentation of Fluorescence Labelled Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Wählby; Joakim Lindblad; Mikael Vondrus; Ewert Bengtsson; Lennart Björkesten

    2002-01-01

    Automatic cell segmentation has various applications in cytometry, and while the nucleus is often very distinct and easy to identify, the cytoplasm provides a lot more challenge. A new combination of image analysis algorithms for segmentation of cells imaged by fluorescence microscopy is presented. The algorithm consists of an image pre?processing step, a general segmentation and merging step followed by a segmentation quality measurement. The quality measurement consists of a statistical ana...

  11. Nucleoporin Nup98 mediates galectin-3 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi, E-mail: funasaka@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Balan, Vitaly; Raz, Avraham [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Wong, Richard W., E-mail: rwong@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Nuclear pore protein Nup98 is a novel binding partner of galectin-3. •Nup98 transports galectin-3 into cytoplasm. •Nup98 depletion leads to galectin-3 nuclear transport and induces growth retardation. •Nup98 may involve in ß-catenin pathway through interaction with galectin-3. -- Abstract: Nucleoporin Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and is important in transport across the nuclear pore. Many studies implicate nucleoporin in cancer progression, but no direct mechanistic studies of its effect in cancer have been reported. We show here that Nup98 specifically regulates nucleus–cytoplasm transport of galectin-3, which is a ß-galactoside-binding protein that affects adhesion, migration, and cancer progression, and controls cell growth through the ß-catenin signaling pathway in cancer cells. Nup98 interacted with galectin-3 on the nuclear membrane, and promoted galectin-3 cytoplasmic translocation whereas other nucleoporins did not show these functions. Inversely, silencing of Nup98 expression by siRNA technique localized galectin-3 to the nucleus and retarded cell growth, which was rescued by Nup98 transfection. In addition, Nup98 RNA interference significantly suppressed downstream mRNA expression in the ß-catenin pathway, such as cyclin D1 and FRA-1, while nuclear galectin-3 binds to ß-catenin to inhibit transcriptional activity. Reduced expression of ß-catenin target genes is consistent with the Nup98 reduction and the galectin-3–nucleus translocation rate. Overall, the results show Nup98’s involvement in nuclear–cytoplasm translocation of galectin-3 and ß-catenin signaling pathway in regulating cell proliferation, and the results depicted here suggest a novel therapeutic target/modality for cancers.

  12. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alene; Voges, Raphael; Schroth, Michael; Schaffrath, Raffael; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-05-01

    Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs) from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl), Pichia acaciae (Pa) and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr) are extremely A/T-rich (>75%) and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases) along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5) results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE) as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A) site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  13. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alene Kast

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl, Pichia acaciae (Pa and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr are extremely A/T-rich (>75% and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5 results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  14. Mutant p53 protein localized in the cytoplasm inhibits autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Soussi, Thierry; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The knockout, knockdown or chemical inhibition of p53 stimulates autophagy. Moreover, autophagy-inducing stimuli such as nutrient depletion, rapamycin or lithium cause the depletion of cytoplasmic p53, which in turn is required for the induction of autophagy. Here, we show that retransfection of p53(-/-) HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with wild type p53 decreases autophagy down to baseline levels. Surprisingly, one third among a panel of 22 cancer-associated p53 single amino acid mutants also inhibited autophagy when transfected into p53(-/-) cells. Those variants of p53 that preferentially localize to the cytoplasm effectively repressed autophagy, whereas p53 mutants that display a prominently nuclear distribution failed to inhibit autophagy. The investigation of a series of deletion mutants revealed that removal of the DNA-binding domain from p53 fails to interfere with its role in the regulation of autophagy. Altogether, these results identify the cytoplasmic localization of p53 as the most important feature for p53-mediated autophagy inhibition. Moreover, the structural requirements for the two biological activities of extranuclear p53, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy, are manifestly different.

  15. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Sinturel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3′-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3′-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3′-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3′-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5′-3′ cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression.

  16. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinturel, Flore; Navickas, Albertas; Wery, Maxime; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; Torchet, Claire; Benard, Lionel

    2015-09-22

    Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3'-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3'-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3'-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3'-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs) form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5'-3' cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday C; Adhimoolam, Premkumar; Bisht, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of CMS/Rf system enabled by modern omics tools and technologies considerably improves our ability to harness hybrid technology for enhancing the productivity of field crops. Harnessing hybrid vigor or heterosis is a promising approach to tackle the current challenge of sustaining enhanced yield gains of field crops. In the context, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) owing to its heritable nature to manifest non-functional male gametophyte remains a cost-effective system to promote efficient hybrid seed production. The phenomenon of CMS stems from a complex interplay between maternally-inherited (mitochondrion) and bi-parental (nucleus) genomic elements. In recent years, attempts aimed to comprehend the sterility-inducing factors (orfs) and corresponding fertility determinants (Rf) in plants have greatly increased our access to candidate genomic segments and the cloned genes. To this end, novel insights obtained by applying state-of-the-art omics platforms have substantially enriched our understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication. Concomitantly, molecular tools including DNA markers have been implicated in crop hybrid breeding in order to greatly expedite the progress. Here, we review the status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.

  18. The Robo4 cytoplasmic domain is dispensable for vascular permeability and neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Prahst, Claudia; Mathivet, Thomas; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Zhang, Jiasheng; Genet, Gael; Tong, Raymond; Dubrac, Alexandre; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-11-24

    Vascular permeability and neovascularization are implicated in many diseases including retinopathies and diabetic wound healing. Robo4 is an endothelial-specific transmembrane receptor that stabilizes the vasculature, as shown in Robo4 -/- mice that develop hyperpermeability, but how Robo4 signals remained unclear. Here we show that Robo4 deletion enhances permeability and revascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and accelerates cutaneous wound healing. To determine Robo4 signalling pathways, we generated transgenic mice expressing a truncated Robo4 lacking the cytoplasmic domain (Robo4ΔCD). Robo4ΔCD expression is sufficient to prevent permeability, and inhibits OIR revascularization and wound healing in Robo4 -/- mice. Mechanistically, Robo4 does not affect Slit2 signalling, but Robo4 and Robo4ΔCD counteract Vegfr2-Y949 (Y951 in human VEGFR2) phosphorylation by signalling through the endothelial UNC5B receptor. We conclude that Robo4 inhibits angiogenesis and vessel permeability independently of its cytoplasmic domain, while activating VEGFR2-Y951 via ROBO4 inhibition might accelerate tissue revascularization in retinopathy of prematurity and in diabetic patients.

  19. The effect of ionizing irradiation on motion of cytoplasm in cells of Elodea canadensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordyiya, N.V.; Grodzyins'kij, D.M.; Danil'chenko, O.O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the velocity of cytoplasm is investigated. It is shown that, for small doses, there is a strong nonlinearity between the velocity of cytoplasm and dose. The nonlinear behavior disappears with increasing a dose

  20. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm.

  1. DMPD: Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18703349 Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Komur...Show Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. PubmedID 18703349 Title Negative r...egulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Authors Komuro A, Bamm

  2. Cytoplasmic TRADD Confers a Worse Prognosis in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Chakraborty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD is an important adaptor in TNFR1 signaling and has an essential role in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activation and survival signaling. Increased expression of TRADD is sufficient to activate NF-κB. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of NF-κB activation as a key pathogenic mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults.We examined the expression of TRADD by immunohistochemistry (IHC and find that TRADD is commonly expressed at high levels in GBM and is detected in both cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. Cytoplasmic IHC TRADD scoring is significantly associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS both in univariate and multivariate analysis but is not associated with overall survival (n = 43 GBMs. PFS is a marker for responsiveness to treatment. We propose that TRADD-mediated NF-κB activation confers chemoresistance and thus a worse PFS in GBM. Consistent with the effect on PFS, silencing TRADD in glioma cells results in decreased NF-κB activity, decreased proliferation of cells, and increased sensitivity to temozolomide. TRADD expression is common in glioma-initiating cells. Importantly, silencing TRADD in GBM-initiating stem cell cultures results in decreased viability of stem cells, suggesting that TRADD may be required for maintenance of GBM stem cell populations. Thus, our study suggests that increased expression of cytoplasmic TRADD is both an important biomarker and a key driver of NF-κB activation in GBM and supports an oncogenic role for TRADD in GBM.

  3. Binders of intravenously administered zinc 65 in rat liver cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortenbeek, A.J.; Hamer, C.J.A. van den.

    1976-01-01

    The fate of intravenously injected trace amounts of 65 Zn 2+ in the rat was studied over a period of ten days after injection. Tissue distributions were determined and a special study was made of 65 Zn-binders in liver cytoplasm. A total of six 65 Zn-binding fractions was found and a tentative identification of the main 65 Zn-binders in these six fractions is given using the collected data regarding their apparent molecular weight, time dependent prominence and content of stable zinc

  4. AtTZF gene family localizes to cytoplasmic foci

    OpenAIRE

    Pomeranz, Marcelo; Lin, Pei-Chi; Finer, John; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNA turnover and translational repression represent important regulatory steps in gene expression. Curiously, when under cellular stresses, factors involved in these processes aggregate into cytoplasmic foci known as Processing bodies (P-bodies) and Stress Granules (SGs). In animals, CCCH Tandem Zinc Finger (TZF) proteins play important roles in mRNA decay within P-bodies. TTP, a P-body localized mammalian TZF, can bind to the 3'UTRs of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs)...

  5. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Much

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  6. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Christian; Auchynnikava, Tania; Pavlinic, Dinko; Buness, Andreas; Rappsilber, Juri; Benes, Vladimir; Allshire, Robin; O'Carroll, Dónal

    2016-06-01

    Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  7. Algorithms for Cytoplasm Segmentation of Fluorescence Labelled Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Wählby

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cell segmentation has various applications in cytometry, and while the nucleus is often very distinct and easy to identify, the cytoplasm provides a lot more challenge. A new combination of image analysis algorithms for segmentation of cells imaged by fluorescence microscopy is presented. The algorithm consists of an image pre‐processing step, a general segmentation and merging step followed by a segmentation quality measurement. The quality measurement consists of a statistical analysis of a number of shape descriptive features. Objects that have features that differ to that of correctly segmented single cells can be further processed by a splitting step. By statistical analysis we therefore get a feedback system for separation of clustered cells. After the segmentation is completed, the quality of the final segmentation is evaluated. By training the algorithm on a representative set of training images, the algorithm is made fully automatic for subsequent images created under similar conditions. Automatic cytoplasm segmentation was tested on CHO‐cells stained with calcein. The fully automatic method showed between 89% and 97% correct segmentation as compared to manual segmentation.

  8. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Takaya; Yoshida, Michihiro; Fukuda, Shinji; Ebi, Masahide; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2012-05-30

    Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation induce gastric cancer growth, whereas HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation independently plays a critical role in gastric cancer invasion. The present study demonstrated that HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation

  9. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimura Takaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C, translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC, which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Results Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 % and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %. The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P  Conclusions Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation induce gastric cancer growth, whereas HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation independently plays a critical role in gastric cancer invasion. The present study demonstrated that HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation might be crucial in gastric cancer invasion. HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation may offer a prognostic marker and a new molecular target for gastric cancer therapy.

  10. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Takaya; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi; Yoshida, Michihiro; Fukuda, Shinji; Ebi, Masahide; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P < 0.01). The growth of wt-HB-EGF- and HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells significantly increased compared with control cells, but the growth of HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells was significantly decreased compared with wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells. Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for

  11. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1982-03-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M/sub 4/ generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets.

  12. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro

    1982-01-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M 4 generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets. (Kaihara, S.)

  13. Exclusion of NFAT5 from mitotic chromatin resets its nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution in interphase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Estrada-Gelonch

    signals acting in interphase, resets the cytoplasmic localization of NFAT5 and prevents its nuclear accumulation and association with DNA in the absence of hypertonic stress.

  14. Propylthiouracil-Induced Vasculitis With Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Grizzo Peres Martins, Ana Claudia; Gaviolli, Camila Fatima; Alavi, Afsaneh

    2015-06-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU)-associated vasculitis is a potentially life-threatening disease with a recent increase in the reported cases in the medical literature. This increase may suggest that some earlier cases have been unrecognized or assigned to an alternative nosology category. Although the skin can be the only organ affected by PTU-associated vasculitis, there are many reports with multiple-system involvement. Classically, the symptoms appear under a tetrad of fever, sore throat, arthralgia, and skin lesions. Cutaneous lesions in reported cases of PTU vasculitis have most commonly consisted of retiform acral, purpuric plaques, or nodules. We report a case of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis developed during treatment with PTU for Grave's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Investigation of radiation enhanced reactivation of cytoplasmic replicating human virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Haynes, K.F.; Stafford, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    When monolayers of CV-1 monkey kidney cells were exposed to ultraviolet (uv) radiation (0 to 200 erg/nm 2 ) or x rays (0 to 10 krads) before infection with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus, an increase in the infectivity of this nuclear replicating virus occurred as measured by plaque formation. These phenomena are known as uv (Weigle) reactivation (WR) and x-ray reactivation (x-ray R). In this study the presence of WR and x-ray R was examined in CV-1 cells infected with uv-irradiated vaccinia virus or poliovirus, both cytoplasmic replicating viruses. Little or no WR or x-ray R was observed for either of these viruses. These results suggest that WR and x-ray R in mammalian cells may be restricted to viruses which are synthesized in the cell nucleus

  16. [Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated with infective endocarditis: Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, V; Marie, I

    2017-07-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated with infective endocarditis are a rare disorder. The condition can mimic primary systemic vasculitis (i.e. granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Thus, a wrong diagnosis of valvular involvement related to primary systemic vasculitis can be made in patients exhibiting ANCA associated with infective endocarditis. Because treatment of both conditions is different, this wrong diagnosis will lead to dramatic consequences in these latter patients. This review reports the state of knowledge and proposes an algorithm to follow when confronted to a possible case of ANCA associated with infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Water diffusion in cytoplasmic streaming in Elodea internodal cells under the effect of antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Alexander V; Dautova, Nailya R

    2008-07-01

    The translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water in Elodea stem cells resulting from protein motor activity was measured using the NMR method. A 24-h treatment with vincristine results in a reduction of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water. With a constant cytoplasmic streaming velocity, the dynamics of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water under the effect of taxol are characterized by a continuous increase at a concentration of 0.05 mM, and reaching a plateau at a concentration of 0.5 mM.

  18. Pollen mitochondria in cytoplasmically male sterile tobacco zygotic and embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symillides, Y.

    1985-09-01

    An attempt is being made to establish cytoplasmic organelles transmission during the process of fertilization, by using tobacco grain pollen labelled with leucine 14 C and tritiated thymidine. Through autoradiography the fate of pollen germination and its entry into the embryo sac has been studied. A few days after fertilization, labelled cytoplasmic organelles - mainly mitochondria - were detected in the embryo sac. However, labelling was not observed in cytoplasmic organelles by using tritiated thymidine. For more conclusive results labelled DNA incorporated in cytoplasmic organelles have to be traced during the embryo and endosperm development

  19. Genetic variation among the male sterile cytoplasms induced by gamma irradiation in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Toshiro; Takahashi, Man-emon

    1976-01-01

    In sugar beets, cytoplasmic male sterility was induced artificially by radiation treatment. In the present study, four kinds of male sterile strain made from the strain H-2002 with normal cytoplasms were used, and the mode of inheritance of the sterility maintained by these strains was confirmed. Also the hereditary mechanism of pollen fructification recovery was studied, and the newly induced heterotypic property of sterile cytoplasms was examined in comparison with naturally found sterile strains. In each of four produced strains, the male sterility was inherited down to M 4 lines stably through mother plants, and it was presumed that the sterility was caused by highly stable cytoplasmic mutation. In each strain, two pairs of nuclear genes took part in the recovery of pollen fructification, but the mode of action of two genes was different. As the result of mating for verification with O type strain to S cytoplasm strain, it seemed that at least the function as O type was not shown to three strains of γ-60, γ-114 and γ-165, and in the sterile cytoplasms of these three strains, the action of fructification recovery genes different from X and Z arose. It was presumed that the genes of X locus did not take effect in these induced cytoplasms. The possibility that at least four kinds of male sterile cytoplasms different from S were induced from normal cytoplasms by artificial mutation was proved indirectly. (Kako, I.)

  20. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  1. Lessons from Animal Models of Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Magin, Thomas M

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies. Epidermal keratins, together with desmin, are essential to protect corresponding tissues against mechanical force but also participate in stabilizing cell adhesion and in inflammatory signalling. Surprisingly, other IF proteins contribute to tissue integrity to a much lesser extent than anticipated, pointing towards their role in stress situations. In support, the overexpression of small chaperones or the interference with inflammatory signalling in several settings has been shown to rescue severe tissue pathologies that resulted from the expression of mutant IF proteins. It stills remains an open issue whether the wide range of IF disorders share similar pathomechanisms. Moreover, we lack an understanding how IF proteins participate in signalling processes. Now, with a large number of mouse models in hand, the next challenge will be to develop organotypic cell culture models to dissect pathomechanisms at the molecular level, to employ Crispr/Cas-mediated genome engineering to optimize models and, finally, to combine available animal models with medicinal chemistry for the development of molecular therapies.

  2. Sexy sons: a dead end for cytoplasmic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Jeanne A

    2004-08-07

    Critics of sexual conflict theory argue that females may gain a net reproductive benefit from mating with manipulative males because the direct costs that they suffer may be offset by the production of sexy, i.e. manipulative, sons. However, this exclusive focus on nuclear gene effects represents an incomplete view of female fitness. Females differ fundamentally from males in transmitting not only nuclear genes but also a wide range of cytoplasmic genetic elements (CGEs) that can have profound effects, from male killing to influencing development of the nervous system and cognitive ability. Maternal transmission of CGEs has two major implications for sexual selection. First, the evolution of male fitness traits, such as sperm competitive ability, may be constrained because response to selection on mitochondrial genomes can occur only through the female line. Second, CGEs bear the direct costs of male manipulation but gain no indirect benefits when females produce sexy sons. This should result in perpetual antagonistic coevolution between nuclear genes involved in male manipulation and CGEs that promote female resistance to male sexually selected traits. Explicit consideration of the consequences of selection acting on CGEs is therefore necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between sexual selection and sexual conflict.

  3. TRIM5α association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5α, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5α proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5α from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5α proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5α-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5α fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5α domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α

  4. High viscosity and anisotropy characterize the cytoplasm of fungal dormant stress resistant spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Golovina, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ascospores of the fungus Talaromyces macrosporus are dormant and extremely stress resistant, whereas fungal conidia¿the main airborne vehicles of distribution¿are not. Here, physical parameters of the cytoplasm of these types of spores were compared. Cytoplasmic viscosity and level of anisotropy as

  5. Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Volumes by Plant Cells in Suspension Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Poole, Ronald J

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative microscopical measurements have been made of the proportion of cell volume occupied by cytoplasm in a cell suspension culture derived from cotyledons of bush bean (cv. Contender). On a 7-day culture cycle, the content of cytoplasm varies from 25% at the time of transfer to 45% at the...

  6. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  7. Cytoplasmic p21 is a potential predictor for cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xi; Weng, Yanjie; Liao, Shujie; Han, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ronghua; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Shixuan; Xu, Gang; Meng, Li; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Ma, Quanfu; Li, Xiao; Ji, Teng; Chen, Pingbo; Xu, Hongbin; Li, Kezhen; Fang, Yong; Weng, Danhui

    2011-01-01

    P21 (WAF1/Cip1) binds to cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and inhibits their activities. It was originally described as an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation. However, many recent studies have shown that p21 promotes tumor progression when accumulated in the cell cytoplasm. So far, little is known about the correlation between cytoplasmic p21 and drug resistance. This study was aimed to investigate the role of p21 in the cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer. RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect p21 expression and location in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line C13* and its parental line OV2008. Regulation of cytoplasmic p21 was performed through transfection of p21 siRNA, Akt2 shRNA and Akt2 constitutively active vector in the two cell lines; their effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Tumor tissue sections of clinical samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. p21 predominantly localizes to the cytoplasm in C13* compared to OV2008. Persistent exposure to low dose cisplatin in OV2008 leads to p21 translocation from nuclear to cytoplasm, while it had not impact on p21 localization in C13*. Knockdown of cytoplasmic p21 by p21 siRNA transfection in C13* notably increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis through activation of caspase 3. Inhibition of p21 translocation into the cytoplasm by transfection of Akt2 shRNA into C13* cells significantly increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, while induction of p21 translocation into the cytoplasm by transfection of constitutively active Akt2 in OV2008 enhanced the resistance to cisplatin. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical ovarian tumor tissues demonstrated that cytoplasmic p21 was negatively correlated with the response to cisplatin based treatment. Cytoplasmic p21 is a novel biomarker of cisplatin resistance and it may represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian tumors that are refractory to conventional treatment

  8. Urinary Biomarkers in Relapsing Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Jason G.; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Merkel, Peter A.; Monach, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glomerulonephritis (GN) is common in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), but tools for early detection of renal involvement are imperfect. We investigated 4 urinary proteins as markers of active renal AAV: alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Methods Patients with active renal AAV (n = 20), active nonrenal AAV (n = 16), and AAV in longterm remission (n = 14) were identified within a longitudinal cohort. Urinary biomarker concentrations (by ELISA) were normalized for urine creatinine. Marker levels during active AAV were compared to baseline remission levels (from 1–4 visits) for each patient. Areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivities, specificities, and likelihood ratios (LR) comparing disease states were calculated. Results Baseline biomarker levels varied among patients. All 4 markers increased during renal flares (p < 0.05). MCP-1 discriminated best between active renal disease and remission: a 1.3-fold increase in MCP-1 had 94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for active renal disease (AUC = 0.93, positive LR 8.5, negative LR 0.07). Increased MCP-1 also characterized 50% of apparently nonrenal flares. Change in AGP, KIM-1, or NGAL showed more modest ability to distinguish active renal disease from remission (AUC 0.71–0.75). Hematuria was noted in 83% of active renal episodes, but also 43% of nonrenal flares and 25% of remission samples. Conclusion Either urinary MCP-1 is not specific for GN in AAV, or it identifies early GN not detected by standard assessment and thus has potential to improve care. A followup study with kidney biopsy as the gold standard is needed. PMID:23547217

  9. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Results Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P HB-EGF- and HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells significantly increased compared with control cells, but the growth of HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells was significantly decreased compared with wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells. Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Conclusions Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand

  10. Cytoplasmic genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Bindu; Corwin, Jason A.; Li, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding genome to phenotype linkages has been greatly enabled by genomic sequencing. However, most genome analysis is typically confined to the nuclear genome. We conducted a metabolomic QTL analysis on a reciprocal RIL population structured to examine how variation in the organelle genomes...... was a central hub in the epistatic network controlling the plant metabolome. This epistatic influence manifested such that the cytoplasmic background could alter or hide pairwise epistasis between nuclear loci. Thus, cytoplasmic genetic variation plays a central role in controlling natural variation...... in metabolomic networks. This suggests that cytoplasmic genomes must be included in any future analysis of natural variation....

  11. Conformational alterations resulting from mutations in cytoplasmic domains of the alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blostein, R; Daly, S E; MacAulay, Nanna

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes experiments concerned with the functional consequences of mutations in cytoplasmic regions of the alpha 1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, in particular the amino terminus, the first cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane segments M2 and M3, and the major cytoplasmic loop between...

  12. Proteomic response of Bacillus subtilis to lantibiotics reflects differences in interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, M.; Kohl, B.; Münch, D.; Raatschen, N.; Albada, H.B.; Hamoen, L.; Metzler-Nolte, N.; Sahl, H.G.; Bandow, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Mersacidin, gallidermin, and nisin are lantibiotics, antimicrobial peptides containing lanthionine. They show potent antibacterial activity. All three interfere with cell wall biosynthesis by binding lipid II, but they display different levels of interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. On one end

  13. Cytoplasmic Dynein Regulation by Subunit Heterogeneity and Its Role in Apical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew W.; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2001-01-01

    Despite the existence of multiple subunit isoforms for the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, it has not yet been directly shown that dynein complexes with different compositions exhibit different properties. The 14-kD dynein light chain Tctex-1, but not its homologue RP3, binds directly to rhodopsin's cytoplasmic COOH-terminal tail, which encodes an apical targeting determinant in polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 and RP3 compete for binding to dynein intermediate chain and that overexpressed RP3 displaces endogenous Tctex-1 from dynein complexes in MDCK cells. Furthermore, replacement of Tctex-1 by RP3 selectively disrupts the translocation of rhodopsin to the MDCK apical surface. These results directly show that cytoplasmic dynein function can be regulated by its subunit composition and that cytoplasmic dynein is essential for at least one mode of apical transport in polarized epithelia. PMID:11425878

  14. Organization of the cytoplasmic reticulum in the central vacuole of parenchyma cells in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An elaborate and complex cytoplasmic reticulum composed of fine filaments and lamellae ranging from 0.1 to 4 microns in size is revealed by viewing the central vacuole of onion bulb parenchyma cells with the scanning election microscope. The larger cytoplasmic strands, visible with the light microscope, are composed of numerous smaller filaments (some tubular which might explain the observed bidirectional movement of particles in these larger strands. The finely divided cytoplasmic network of filaments is continuous with the parietal cytoplasm inclosing the vacuolar sap. In these highly vacuolated cells the mass of the protoplast is in the form of an intravacuolar reticulum immersed in the cell sap. The probable significance of the vacuolar sap in relation to physiological processes of the cell is discussed.

  15. Characterization of Novel Cytoplasmic PARP in the Brain of Octopus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LISA, EMILIA; DE MAIO, ANNA; MOROZ, LEONID L.; MOCCIA, FRANCESCO; MENNELLA, MARIA ROSARIA FARAONE; DI COSMO, ANNA

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigation has focused on the participation of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) reaction in the invertebrate central nervous system (CNS) during the process of long-term memory (LTM). In this paper, we characterize, localize, and assign a possible role to a cytoplasmic PARP in the brain of Octopus vulgaris. PARP activity was assayed in optic lobes, supraesophageal mass, and optic nerves. The highest levels of enzyme were found in the cytoplasmic fraction. Hyper-activation of the enzyme was detected in Octopus brain after visual discrimination training. Finally, cytoplasmic PARP was found to inhibit Octopus vulgaris actin polymerization. We propose that the cytoplasmic PARP plays a role in vivo to induce the cytoskeletonal reorganization that occurs during learning-induced neuronal plasticity. PMID:22815366

  16. Evaluation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody seroconversion induced by minocycline, sulfasalazine, or penicillamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, HK; Slot, MC; Pan, GL; Weissbach, CA; Niles, JL; Merkel, PA

    Objective, Case reports have suggested that minocycline, sulfasalazine, and penicillamine are associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis, This study evaluated ANCA seroconversion due to these agents in serum samples prospectively collected in randomized,

  17. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversi...

  18. Anticorpos contra o citoplasma de neutrófilos Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Stiel Radu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta do marcador sorológico denominado anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos revolucionou o diagnóstico e o seguimento das vasculites pulmonares, especialmente da granulomatose de Wegener. Seu padrão pode ser citoplasmático e perinuclear. Sua titulação auxilia no diagnóstico e no seguimento das vasculites pulmonares.The discovery of the serological markers known as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies revolutionized the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of the various forms of pulmonary vasculitis, especially that of Wegener's granulomatosis. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies pattern can be cytoplasmic or perinuclear. Determination of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies titers aids the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of pulmonary vasculitis.

  19. The membrane-cytoplasm interface of integrin alpha subunits is critical for receptor latency.

    OpenAIRE

    Briesewitz, R; Kern, A; Smilenov, L B; David, F S; Marcantonio, E E

    1996-01-01

    Localization of integrin receptors to focal contact sites occurs upon ligand binding. This activity is latent, since unoccupied integrin receptors do not localize to focal contacts. Deletion analysis has revealed that the alpha cytoplasmic domains is required for the maintenance of integrin receptor latency. Our current hypothesis for the mechanism of integrin post-ligand binding events is that there is a change in relationship of alpha and beta cytoplasmic domains, which overcomes receptor l...

  20. Control of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein kinase A by phosphodiesterases and phosphatases in cardiac myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Slimane, Zeineb; Bedioune, Ibrahim; Lechêne, Patrick; Varin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Florence; Mateo, Philippe; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Dewenter, Matthias; Richter, Wito; Conti, Marco; El-Armouche, Ali; Zhang, Jin; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Vandecasteele, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Aims The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) regulation of cardiac contraction and gene expression. Whereas PKA activity is well characterized in various subcellular compartments of adult cardiomyocytes, its regulation in the nucleus remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the modalities of PKA regulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. Methods and results Cytoplasmic and nuclear cAMP and PKA activity were measured with targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (Iso) led to fast cAMP elevation in both compartments, whereas PKA activity was fast in the cytoplasm but markedly slower in the nucleus. Iso was also more potent and efficient in activating cytoplasmic than nuclear PKA. Similar slow kinetics of nuclear PKA activation was observed upon adenylyl cyclase activation with L-858051 or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine. Consistently, pulse stimulation with Iso (15 s) maximally induced PKA and myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation in the cytoplasm, but marginally activated PKA and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the nucleus. Inhibition of PDE4 or ablation of the Pde4d gene in mice prolonged cytoplasmic PKA activation and enhanced nuclear PKA responses. In the cytoplasm, phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) contributed to the termination of PKA responses, whereas only PP1 played a role in the nucleus. Conclusion Our study reveals a differential integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear PKA responses to β-AR stimulation in cardiac myocytes. This may have important implications in the physiological and pathological hypertrophic response to β-AR stimulation. PMID:24550350

  1. The Composition and Organization of Cytoplasm in Prebiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack T. Trevors

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the hypothesized composition and organization of cytoplasm in prebiotic cells from a theoretical perspective and also based upon what is currently known about bacterial cytoplasm. It is unknown if the first prebiotic, microscopic scale, cytoplasm was initially contained within a primitive, continuous, semipermeable membrane, or was an uncontained gel substance, that later became enclosed by a continuous membrane. Another possibility is that the first cytoplasm in prebiotic cells and a primitive membrane organized at the same time, permitting a rapid transition to the first cell(s capable of growth and division, thus assisting with the emergence of life on Earth less than a billion years after the formation of the Earth. It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1–0.2 µm3 (possibly less if a nanocell prior to the first cell division.

  2. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: two case reports and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoerl David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are typically detected in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis, but are also present in a number of chronic inflammatory non-vasculitic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Rare cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, a vasculitic disorder frequently associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been described in literature. Case presentation We report two middle-aged female patients with rheumatoid arthritis who developed anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and symptoms reminiscent of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Despite the lack of antibodies specific for proteinase 3 and the absence of a classical histology, we report a probable case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the first patient, and consider rheumatoid vasculitis in the second patient. Conclusion Taken together with previous reports, these cases highlight that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies have to be evaluated very carefully in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this context, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence appear to have a low diagnostic value for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Instead they may have prognostic value for assessing the course of rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Production of ABA responses requires both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functional involvement of PYR1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, EunJoo; Kim, Tae-Houn

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) enhances stress tolerant responses in plants against unfavorable environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis, ABA promotes interactions between PYR/PYL/RCARs and PP2C, thereby allowing SnRK2s to phosphorylate downstream components required for the regulation of gene expression or for gating ion channels. Because PYR1 is known to localize to nucleus and cytoplasm it is a question whether nuclear or cytoplasmic PYR1 confer different functions to the ABA signaling pathway, as has been previously shown for regulatory proteins. In order to answer this question, transgenic lines expressing nuclear PYR1 were generated in an ABA insensitive mutant background. Enforced nuclear expression of PYR1 was examined by confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. Physiological analyses of the transgenic lines demonstrated that nuclear PYR1 is sufficient to generate ABA responses, such as, the inhibition of seed germination, root growth inhibition, the induction of gene expression, and stomatal closing movement. However, for the full recovery of ABA responses in the mutant background cytoplasmic PYR1 was required. The study suggests both nuclear and cytoplasmic PYR1 participate in the control of ABA signal transduction. - Highlights: • Nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were studied in the mutant which lacked majority of ABA responses. • Nuclear PYR1 reconstituted partially the ABA responses during seed germination, root growth, and guard cell movement. • Both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were required for the full generation of ABA responses.

  4. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui; Wen, Jin-kun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs

  5. Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongbo; Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-11-15

    Subcellular Raman analysis is a promising clinic tool for cancer diagnosis, but constrained by the difficulty of deciphering subcellular spectra in actual human tissues. We report a label-free subcellular Raman analysis for use in cancer diagnosis that integrates subcellular signature spectra by subtracting cytoplasm from nucleus spectra (Nuc.-Cyt.) with a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. Raman mapping with the classical least-squares (CLS) model allowed direct visualization of the distribution of the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PLS-DA model was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five types of spectral datasets, including non-selective, nucleus, cytoplasm, ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (Nuc./Cyt.), and nucleus minus cytoplasm (Nuc.-Cyt.), resulting in diagnostic sensitivity of 88.3%, 84.0%, 98.4%, 84.5%, and 98.9%, respectively. Discriminating between normal and cancerous cells of actual human tissues through subcellular Raman markers is feasible, especially when using the nucleus-cytoplasm difference spectra. The subcellular Raman approach had good stability, and had excellent diagnostic performance for rectal as well as colon tissues. The insights gained from this study shed new light on the general applicability of subcellular Raman analysis in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microtubule–microtubule sliding by kinesin-1 is essential for normal cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Winding, Michael; Lakonishok, Margot; Wildonger, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule–microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes. We demonstrated that streaming is reduced by genomic replacement of wild-type Khc with this sliding-deficient mutant. Streaming can be fully rescued by wild-type KHC and partially rescued by a chimeric motor that cannot move organelles but is active in microtubule sliding. Consistent with these data, we identified two populations of microtubules in fast-streaming oocytes: a network of stable microtubules anchored to the actin cortex and free cytoplasmic microtubules that moved in the ooplasm. We further demonstrated that the reduced streaming in sliding-deficient oocytes resulted in posterior determination defects. Together, we propose that kinesin-1 slides free cytoplasmic microtubules against cortically immobilized microtubules, generating forces that contribute to cytoplasmic streaming and are essential for the refinement of posterior determinants. PMID:27512034

  7. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijazhuang (China); Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); Wen, Jin-kun, E-mail: wjk@hebmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.

  8. Ubiquitination of MBNL1 Is Required for Its Cytoplasmic Localization and Function in Promoting Neurite Outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Muscleblind-like protein family (MBNL plays an important role in regulating the transition between differentiation and pluripotency and in the pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, a CTG expansion disorder. How different MBNL isoforms contribute to the differentiation and are affected in DM1 has not been investigated. Here, we show that the MBNL1 cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, isoform promotes neurite morphogenesis and reverses the morphological defects caused by expanded CUG RNA. Cytoplasmic MBNL1 is polyubiquitinated by lysine 63 (K63. Reduced cytoplasmic MBNL1 in the DM1 mouse brain is consistent with the reduced extent of K63 ubiquitination. Expanded CUG RNA induced the deubiqutination of cytoplasmic MBNL1, which resulted in nuclear translocation and morphological impairment that could be ameliorated by inhibiting K63-linked polyubiquitin chain degradation. Our results suggest that K63-linked ubiquitination of MBNL1 is required for its cytoplasmic localization and that deubiquitination of cytoplasmic MBNL1 is pathogenic in the DM1 brain.

  9. Brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 suppresses smooth muscle differentiation and vascular development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung-Chun; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Shao, Qiang; Chen, Jian-Fu; Chen, Shi-You

    2018-04-13

    The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether long noncoding RNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, using the murine cell line C3H10T1/2, we found that brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 (BC1) is an important regulator of SMC differentiation. BC1 overexpression suppressed, whereas BC1 knockdown promoted, TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation, as indicated by altered cell morphology and expression of multiple SMC markers, including smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA), calponin, and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α). BC1 appeared to block SMAD3 activity and inhibit SMC marker gene transcription. Mechanistically, BC1 bound to SMAD3 via RNA SMAD-binding elements (rSBEs) and thus impeded TGF-β-induced SMAD3 translocation to the nucleus. This prevented SMAD3 from binding to SBEs in SMC marker gene promoters, an essential event in SMC marker transcription. In vivo , BC1 overexpression in mouse embryos impaired vascular SMC differentiation, leading to structural defects in the artery wall, such as random breaks in the elastic lamina, abnormal collagen deposition on SM fibers, and disorganized extracellular matrix proteins in the media of the neonatal aorta. Our results suggest that BC1 is a suppressor of SMC differentiation during vascular development. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Integration of irradiation with cytoplasmic incompatibility to facilitate a lymphatic filariasis vector elimination approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobson Stephen L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass drug administration (MDA is the emphasis of an ongoing global lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination program by the World Health Organization, in which the entire 'at risk' human population is treated annually with anti-filarial drugs. However, there is evidence that the MDA strategy may not be equally appropriate in all areas of LF transmission, leading to calls for the augmentation of MDA with anti-vector interventions. One potential augmentative intervention is the elimination of vectors via repeated inundative releases of male mosquitoes made cytoplasmically incompatible via an infection with Wolbachia bacteria. However, with a reduction in the vector population size, there is the risk that an accidental female release would permit the establishment of the incompatible Wolbachia infection type, resulting in population replacement instead of population elimination. To avoid the release of fertile females, we propose the exposure of release individuals to low doses of radiation to sterilize any accidentally released females, reducing the risk of population replacement. Results Aedes polynesiensis pupae of differing ages were irradiated to determine a radiation dose that results in sterility but that does not affect the survival and competitiveness of males. Laboratory assays demonstrate that males irradiated at a female sterilizing dosage of 40 Gy are equally competitive with un-irradiated males. No effect of irradiation on the ability of Wolbachia to affect egg hatch was observed. Conclusion An irradiation dose of 40 Gy is sufficient to cause female sterility, but has no observed negative effect on male fitness. The results support further development of this approach as a preventative measure against accidental population replacement.

  11. Cytoplasmic Kaiso is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shun-Dong; Wang, Yan; Miao, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Zhang, Peng-Xin; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, En-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Kaiso has been identified as a new member of the POZ-zinc finger family of transcription factors that are implicated in development and cancer. Although controversy still exists, Kaiso is supposed to be involved in human cancer. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical significance of cytoplasmic/nuclear Kaiso in human lung cancer. In this study, immunohistochemical studies were performed on 20 cases of normal lung tissues and 294 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including 50 cases of paired lymph node metastases and 88 cases with complete follow-up records. Three lung cancer cell lines showing primarily nuclear localization of Kaiso were selected to examine whether roles of Kaiso in cytoplasm and in nucleus are identical. Nuclear Kaiso was down-regulated by shRNA technology or addition a specific Kaiso antibody in these cell lines. The proliferative and invasive abilities were evaluated by MTT and Matrigel invasive assay, transcription of Kaiso's target gene matrilysin was detected by RT-PCR. Kaiso was primarily expressed in the cytoplasm of lung cancer tissues. Overall positive cytoplasmic expression rate was 63.61% (187/294). The positive cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was higher in advanced TNM stages (III+IV) of NSCLC, compared to lower stages (I+II) (p = 0.019). A correlation between cytoplasmic Kaiso expression and lymph node metastasis was found (p = 0.003). In 50 paired cases, cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was 78.0% (41/50) in primary sites and 90.0% (45/50) in lymph node metastases (p = 0.001). The lung cancer-related 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients who were cytoplasmic Kaiso-positive (22.22%), compared to those with cytoplasmic Kaiso-negative tumors (64.00%) (p = 0.005). Nuclear Kaiso staining was seen in occasional cases with only a 5.10% (15/294) positive rate and was not associated with any clinicopathological features of NSCLC. Furthermore, after the down-regulation of the nuclear

  12. Infection of human and non-human cells by a highly fusogenic primary CD4-independent HIV-1 isolate with a truncated envelope cytoplasmic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Kunal; Yan Hui; Nelson, Julie A.E.; Zerhouni-Layachi, Bouchra

    2005-01-01

    Truncation of the envelope cytoplasmic tail has enabled FIV, SIV, and some laboratory HIV-1 strains to acquire broader cellular tropism and enhanced fusogenicity. Here we have characterized a primary CD4-independent HIV-1 isolate (92UG046-T8) with a truncated cytoplasmic tail that was able to infect and induce syncytia in primary lymphocytes from human, chimpanzee, and monkey, as well as CD4-negative cell lines from human and monkey. Increased syncytia were also noticeable with 293 cells expressing the cloned envelope from the 92UG046-T8 isolate suggesting envelope-mediated cellular fusion. Except pooled serum from HIV-1-infected individuals, monoclonal anti-envelope antibodies or antibodies/antagonists against CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 were not able to prevent infection by the 92UG046-T8 isolate. This is the first report showing a primary HIV-1 variant with truncated cytoplasmic tail which is highly fusogenic and can infect a broad range of cells from human and non-human origins. In vivo evolution of similar HIV-1 mutants may have important implications in AIDS pathogenesis

  13. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-06-19

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl(-) ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl(-) flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl(-). The location of these Cl(-)-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl(-) ions from the cytoplasm. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-10-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  15. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke [Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akitsugu [Department of Animal Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga, 526‐0829 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuhiro, E-mail: osaru3@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1–2 h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. - Highlights: • The Golgi apparatus reversibly disassembles by low pH treatment. • The cis-Golgi disassembles quickly generating tubular structures. • Both anterograde and retrograde transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus are reduced. • Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO

  16. Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects in vivo by the cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jung-Gul; Kim, Eun Hee; Kang, Hae Eun; Yim, In Been; Kim, Ji Yeon; Joo, Hong-Gu; Woo, Hee Jong

    2004-03-01

    The immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) were investigated. Cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum were tested for the antiproliferative activity in vitro to SNUC2A, SNU1, NIH/3T3 and Jurkat cell lines by crystal violet assay. All cytoplasmic fraction suppressed proliferation of tumor cells, though L. casei and B. longum were more effective. From these results, cytoplasmic fraction of L. casei and B. longum with Y400 as a control were administered as dietary supplements to Balb/c mice for 2, and 4 consecutive wks. Administration for 4 wks enhanced the number of total T cells, NK cells and MHC class II+ cells, and CD4-CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry analysis. To determine of antitumor activity of LABs preparation in vivo, F9 teratocarcinoma cells were inoculated on mice at 14th day. Body weight was decreased with increased survival rate in all groups with the cytoplasm of LABs. Our results showed that cytoplasmic fraction of LABs had direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cell lines in vitro, effects on immune cells in vivo, and antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice with prolonged survival periods.

  17. Phase separation between nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli as defined by immersive refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, J A; Woldringh, C L

    1984-01-01

    The refractive indices of nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli were derived theoretically and experimentally. For the theoretical estimates, we made use of the known macromolecular composition of E. coli B/r (G. Churchward and H. Bremer, J. Theor. Biol. 94:651-670, 1982) and of estimates of cell and nucleoid volumes. These were obtained from micrographs of living bacteria made with a confocal scanning light microscope. The theoretical values were calculated, assuming that all DNA occurred in the nucleoid and that all protein and RNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Comparison with experimental refractive index values directly obtained by immersive refractometry showed that, besides its DNA, the nucleoid must contain an additional amount of solids equivalent to 8.6% (wt/vol) protein. With the nucleoid containing 6.8% (wt/vol) DNA and 8.6% (wt/vol) protein and the cytoplasm containing 21% (wt/vol) protein and 4% (wt/vol) RNA, a mass difference is obtained, which accounts for the phase separation observed between the nucleoid and cytoplasm in living cells by phase-contrast microscopy. The decrease in the refractive index of the nucleoid relative to that of the cytoplasm observed upon, for instance, OsO4 fixation was interpreted as being indicative of the loss of protein content in the nucleoid. Images PMID:6389508

  18. Bayesian Inference of Forces Causing Cytoplasmic Streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos and Mouse Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Nagao, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Tomoya S; Hufnagel, Lars; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2016-01-01

    Cellular structures are hydrodynamically interconnected, such that force generation in one location can move distal structures. One example of this phenomenon is cytoplasmic streaming, whereby active forces at the cell cortex induce streaming of the entire cytoplasm. However, it is not known how the spatial distribution and magnitude of these forces move distant objects within the cell. To address this issue, we developed a computational method that used cytoplasm hydrodynamics to infer the spatial distribution of shear stress at the cell cortex induced by active force generators from experimentally obtained flow field of cytoplasmic streaming. By applying this method, we determined the shear-stress distribution that quantitatively reproduces in vivo flow fields in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and mouse oocytes during meiosis II. Shear stress in mouse oocytes were predicted to localize to a narrower cortical region than that with a high cortical flow velocity and corresponded with the localization of the cortical actin cap. The predicted patterns of pressure gradient in both species were consistent with species-specific cytoplasmic streaming functions. The shear-stress distribution inferred by our method can contribute to the characterization of active force generation driving biological streaming.

  19. α6-Integrin alternative splicing: distinct cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate specification and niche interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijing; Qu, Jing; He, Li; Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Yong

    2018-05-02

    α6-Integrin subunit (also known as CD49f) is a stemness signature that has been found on the plasma membrane of more than 30 stem cell populations. A growing body of studies have focused on the critical role of α6-containing integrins (α6β1 and α6β4) in the regulation of stem cell properties, lineage-specific differentiation, and niche interaction. α6-Integrin subunit can be alternatively spliced at the post-transcriptional level, giving rise to divergent isoforms which differ in the cytoplasmic and/or extracellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain of integrins is an important functional part of integrin-mediated signals. Structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of α6 provide an efficient means for the regulation of stem cell responses to biochemical stimuli and/or biophysical cues in the stem cell niche, thus impacting stem cell fate determination. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural variants of the α6-integrin subunit and spatiotemporal expression of α6 cytoplasmic variants in embryonic and adult stem/progenitor cells. We highlight the roles of α6 cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate decision and niche interaction, and discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Understanding of the distinct functions of α6 splicing variants in stem cell biology may inform the rational design of novel stem cell-based therapies for a range of human diseases.

  20. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of Anion Exchanger 1 Sequestrates p16 in the Cytoplasm in Gastric, Colonic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Shen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available p16INK4A (p16 binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, negatively regulates cell growth. Recent studies have led to an understanding of additional biologic functions for p16; however, the detailed mechanisms involved are still elusive. In this article, we show an unexpected expression of anion exchanger 1 (AEi in the cytoplasm in poorly, moderately differentiated gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma cells, in its interaction with p16, thereby sequestrating the protein in the cytoplasm. Genetic alterations of p16, AEi were not detectable. Forced expression of AEi in these cells sequestrated more p16 in the cytoplasm, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of AEi in the cells induced the release of p16 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, leading to cell death, growth inhibition of tumor cells. By analyzing tissue samples obtained from patients with gastric, colonic cancers, we found that 83.33% of gastric cancers, 56.52% of colonic cancers coexpressed AEi, p16 in the cytoplasm. We conclude that AEi plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma, that p16 dysfunction is a novel pathway of carcinogenesis.

  2. Elucidating the role of select cytoplasmic proteins in altering diffusion of integrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Suzanne; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2012-06-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins that affect integrin diffusion in the cell membrane are identified using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and RNA interference. Integrin receptors are essential for many cellular events, and alterations in lateral diffusion are one mechanism for modulating their function. In cells expressing native cytoplasmic protein concentrations and spread on a slide containing integrin extracellular ligand, 45 ± 2% of the integrin is mobile with a time-dependent 5.2 ± 0.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s diffusion coefficient at 1 s. The time exponent is 0.90 ± 0.07, indicating integrin diffusion moderately slows at longer times. The role of a specific cytoplasmic protein in altering integrin diffusion is revealed through changes in the FRAP curve after reducing the cytoplasmic protein's expression. Decreased expression of cytoplasmic proteins rhea, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or steamer duck decreases the integrin mobile fraction. For rhea and FAK, there is a concomitant shift to Brownian (i.e., time-independent) diffusion at reduced concentrations of these proteins. In contrast, when the expression of actin 42A, dreadlocks, paxillin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), or vinculin is reduced, integrin diffusion generally becomes more constrained with an increase in the integrin mobile fraction. This same change in integrin diffusion is measured in the absence of integrin extracellular ligand. The results indicate breaking the extracellular ligand-integrin-cytoskeletal linkage alters integrin diffusion properties, and, in most cases, there is no correlation between integrin and lipid diffusion properties.

  3. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with p-Akt1 and predicts poor prognosis in human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2, an oncogenic protein, is a key regulator in different cellular and molecular processes, through ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. Increased levels of Skp2 are observed in various types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. However, in human breast carcinomas, the underlying mechanism and prognostic significance of cytoplasmic Skp2 is still undefined. METHODS: To investigate the role of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression in human breast carcinomas, we immnohistochemically assessed cytoplasmic Skp2, p-Akt1, and p27 expression in 251 patients with invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Association of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with p-Akt1 and p27 was analyzed as well as correspondence with other clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free survival and overall survival were determined based on the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic of Skp2 was detected in 165 out of 251 (65.7% patients. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was associated with larger tumor size, more advanced histological grade, and positive HER2 expression. Increased cytoplasmic Skp2 expression correlated with p-Akt1 expression, with 54.2% (51/94 of low p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas, but 72.6% (114/157 of high p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas exhibiting cytoplasmic Skp2 expression. Elevated cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with low p-Akt1 expression was associated with poor disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS, and Cox regression models demonstrated that cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for invasive breast carcinomas. CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with aggressive prognostic factors, such as larger tumor size, and advanced histological grade of the breast cancers. Results demonstrate that combined cytoplasmic Skp2 and p-Akt1 expression may be prognostic for patients with invasive breast carcinomas, and cytoplasmic Skp2 may serve as a

  4. Analysis of cytoplasmic effects and fine-mapping of a genic male sterile line in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qin

    Full Text Available Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS, including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS, have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction.

  5. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-08-01

    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (D_{tot}) and the displacement distribution functions (P(r,t)) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ, which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ=0.65, while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ. We also investigate the distribution (P(θ,t)) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  6. A Mechanism for Cytoplasmic Streaming: Kinesin-Driven Alignment of Microtubules and Fast Fluid Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Corey E; Brunner, Matthew E; Djagaeva, Inna; Bielecki, Anthony M; Deutsch, Joshua M; Saxton, William M

    2016-05-10

    The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling. In the fast state, microtubules tethered to the cortex form a thin subcortical layer and undergo correlated sinusoidal bending. Organelles moving in flows along the arrays show velocities that are slow near the cortex and fast on the inward side of the subcortical microtubule layer. Starting with fundamental physical principles suggested by qualitative hypotheses, and with published values for microtubule stiffness, kinesin velocity, and cytoplasmic viscosity, we developed a quantitative coupled hydrodynamic model for streaming. The fully detailed mathematical model and its simulations identify key variables that can shift the system between disordered (slow) and ordered (fast) states. Measurements of array curvature, wave period, and the effects of diminished kinesin velocity on flow rates, as well as prior observations on f-actin perturbation, support the model. This establishes a concrete mechanistic framework for the ooplasmic streaming process. The self-organizing fast phase is a result of viscous drag on kinesin-driven cargoes that mediates equal and opposite forces on cytoplasmic fluid and on microtubules whose minus ends are tethered to the cortex. Fluid moves toward plus ends and microtubules are forced backward toward their minus ends, resulting in buckling. Under certain conditions, the buckling microtubules self-organize into parallel bending arrays, guiding varying directions

  7. Relative Roles of Gap Junction Channels and Cytoplasm in Cell-to-Cell Diffusion of Fluorescent Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranyos, Richard G. A.; Caveney, Stanley; Miller, James G.; Petersen, Nils O.

    1987-04-01

    Intercellular (tissue) diffusion of molecules requires cytoplasmic diffusion and diffusion through gap junctional (or cell-to-cell) channels. The rates of tissue and cytoplasmic diffusion of fluorescent tracers, expressed as an effective diffusion coefficient, De, and a cytoplasmic diffusion coefficient, Dcyt, have been measured among the developing epidermal cells of a larval beetle, Tenebrio molitor L., to determine the contribution of the junctional channels to intercellular diffusion. Tracer diffusion was measured by injecting fluorescent tracers into cells and quantitating the rate of subsequent spread into adjacent cells. Cytoplasmic diffusion was determined by fluorescence photobleaching. These experiments show that gap junctional channels constitute approximately 70-80% of the total cell-to-cell resistance to the diffusion of organic tracers at high concentrations in this tissue. At low concentrations, however, the binding of tracer to cytoplasm slows down the cytoplasmic diffusion, which may limit intercellular diffusion.

  8. Wild Nicotiana Species as a Source of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Nicotianatabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikova V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of our experiments executed to obtain tobacco male sterile lines through interspecific hybridization are summarized. Ten wild species from the genus Nicotiana: N. excelsior (exc, N. amplexicaulis (amp, N. rustica (rus, Nicotianaglauca (gla, N. velutina (vel, N. benthamiana (ben, N. maritima (mar, N. paniculata (pan, N. longiflora (lon and N. africana (afr were used as cytoplasmic donors and N. tabacum, cv. HarmanliiskaBasma (HB as a donor of the nucleus. Genetic effects of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction of the studied species are discussed. Our results suggested that cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS was expressed when the cytoplasms of the above mentioned wild Nicotiana species were combined with the nucleus of N. tabacum. The 10 sources of CMS obtained in tobacco were characterized by altered flower phenotypes. Flowers are classified into types according the stamen, pistil and corolla modification. All these CMS sources were backcrossed to Oriental tobaccos, cvs. Tekne, Nevrokop B-12, Kroumovgrad 90 and Djebel 576, to develop corresponding CMS lines. The investigated cytoplasms produced compete male sterility in all those cultivars. The CMS lines preserved flower types, specific for every “sterile” cytoplasm. The extent of male organ modifications varied from apparently normal (but pollenless stamens in CMS (pan, (afr, some plants of (vel (mar through different degrees of malformations (shriveled anther on shortened filaments (lon, pinnate-like anthers on filaments of normal length (amp, petal - (ben, pistil- or stigma-like structures (rus, (gla to lack of male reproductive organs in (exc and in some plants of (vel, (mar, (rus and (gla. Most of the above mentioned cytoplasms had normal female gametophyte and good seed productivity. Alterations of the pistils were observed in CMS (rus, (exc and (ben causing reduction of the seed set. Electrophoresis of seed proteins of the tobacco cultivars and their CMS lines also suggested that

  9. Transcytosis of Aminopeptidase N in caco-2 cells is mediated by a Non-cytoplasmic Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Norén, Ove; Sjöström, H

    1995-01-01

    In Caco-2 cells, aminopeptidase N is transported to the apical membrane from the trans Golgi network by both the direct and the indirect pathway (Matter, K., Brauchbar, M., Bucher, K., and Hauri, H.-P. (1990) Cell 60, 429-437). The aim of this study was to determine the importance...... of the transmembrane or cytoplasmic domain of aminopeptidase N for transport of aminopeptidase N by the indirect pathway by analysis of mutated forms of aminopeptidase N recombinantly expressed in Caco-2 cells. A tail-less and two secretory forms of aminopeptidase N, all deprived of the cytoplasmic tail, were...

  10. Titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by a tissue microculture assay: some applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloncik, S; Chagnon, A

    1980-01-01

    A simple tissue microculture technique was developed for the titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) from Euxoa scandens. The procedure was similar to the 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay, but a single infected cell, detected by the presence of cytoplasmic polyhedra, was scored rather than the degeneration of cell monolayers. The filtration of CPV suspensions resulted in decreased virus titers under certain conditions. This microculture assay was used to determine the effect of cell disruption methods on virus yields. Sonication of infected cells was more efficient than freeze-thawing for the recovery of nonoccluded virus.

  11. Cytoplasmic streaming in Chara rhizoids: studies in a reduced gravitational field during parabolic flights of rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchen, B; Hejnowicz, Z; Braun, M; Sievers, A

    1991-01-01

    In-vivo videomicroscopy of Chara rhizoids under 10(-4)g demonstrated that gravity affected the velocities of cytoplasmic streaming. Both, the acropetal and basipetal streaming velocities increased on the change to microgravity. The endogenous difference in the velocities of the oppositely directed cytoplasmic streams was maintained under microgravity, yet the difference was diminished as the basipetal streaming velocity increased more than the acropetal streaming velocity. Direction and structure of microfilaments labeled by rhodamine-phalloidin had not changed after 6 min of microgravity.

  12. Evidence for catabolite degradation in the glucose-dependent inactivation of yeast cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeff, J.; Haegele, E.; Nauhaus, J.; Heer, U.; Mecke, D.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was radioactively labeled during its synthesis on a glucose-free derepression medium. After purification a sensitive radioimmunoassay for this enzyme could be developed. The assay showed that after the physiological, glucose-dependent 'catabolite inactivation' of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase an inactive enzyme protein is immunologically not detectable. Together with the irreversibility of this reaction in vivo this finding strongly suggests a proteolytic mechanism of enzyme inactivation. For this process the term 'catabolite degradation' is used. (orig.) [de

  13. Promising SINEs for embargoing nuclear-cytoplasmic export as an anticancer strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, David S P; Bedard, Philippe L; Kuruvilla, John; Siu, Lillian L; Razak, Albiruni R Abdul

    2014-05-01

    In cancer cells, the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport machinery is frequently disrupted, resulting in mislocalization and loss of function for many key regulatory proteins. In this review, the mechanisms by which tumor cells co-opt the nuclear transport machinery to facilitate carcinogenesis, cell survival, drug resistance, and tumor progression will be elucidated, with a particular focus on the role of the nuclear-cytoplasmic export protein. The recent development of a new generation of selective inhibitors of nuclear export (XPO1 antagonists) and how these novel anticancer drugs may bring us closer to the implementation of this therapeutic strategy in the clinic will be discussed.

  14. Silicon scaffolds promoting three-dimensional neuronal web of cytoplasmic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Evie L; Samara, Athina; Barberoglou, Marios; Manousaki, Aleka; Pagakis, Stamatis N; Anastasiadou, Ema; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Primary neurons were grown on structured silicon (Si) substrates, in the absence of chemotropic factors or synthetic extracellular matrix. The Si substrates used for the study comprise hierarchical structures in the micro- and nanolength scales. The substrates were structured via femtosecond laser irradiation of the Si wafer, in a reactive SF(6) environment. Electron microscopy revealed that the neurons formed an elaborate web of cytoplasmic processes in the absence of glial elements. The neuronal cytoplasm autografted the depth of the spikes, and the neurite sprouting took place over the spikes surface. Here we demonstrate how microfabrication of a Si surface provides an excellent platform for multifaceted studies of neuronal specimens.

  15. Cytological study of radiation induced alterations in cytoplasmic factors controlling male sterility in corn. Progress report, February 28, 1975--December 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: cytoplasmic constituents of the embryo of various gymnosperms and angiosperms; cytoplasmic male sterility in corn; modification of cytoplasmic sterility factors using gamma radiation, EMS, and ethidium bromide; selection for sterile, blight-resistant corn plants; electron microscopy study of abnormal mitochondria in cytoplasm of corn; cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia; non-Mendelian variegation in Petunia and Nicotiana; graft transmission of cytoplasmic male sterility; cytoplasmic male sterility in Vicia faba; and studies on Blakeslee's I virus in Datura

  16. Plasma exchange in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis--a 25-year perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpirt, Wladimir M

    2015-01-01

    Demonstration of a pathogenic role for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) underlies the scientific rationale for plasma exchange (PLEX) in the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Most clinical evidence of efficacy concerns the use of PLEX for the recovery of renal function...

  17. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be

  18. Diffusive Promotion by Velocity Gradient of Cytoplasmic Streaming (CPS in Nitella Internodal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic streaming (CPS is well known to assist the movement of nutrients, organelles and genetic material by transporting all of the cytoplasmic contents of a cell. CPS is generated by motility organelles that are driven by motor proteins near a membrane surface, where the CPS has been found to have a flat velocity profile in the flow field according to the sliding theory. There is a consistent mixing of contents inside the cell by CPS if the velocity gradient profile is flattened, which is not assisted by advection diffusion but is only supported by Brownian diffusion. Although the precise flow structure of the cytoplasm has an important role for cellular metabolism, the hydrodynamic mechanism of its convection has not been clarified. We conducted an experiment to visualise the flow of cytoplasm in Nitella cells by injecting tracer fluorescent nanoparticles and using a flow visualisation system in order to understand how the flow profile affects their metabolic system. We determined that the velocity field in the cytosol has an obvious velocity gradient, not a flattened gradient, which suggests that the gradient assists cytosolic mixing by Taylor-Aris dispersion more than by Brownian diffusion.

  19. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF THE CYTOPLASMIC PH IN LACTOCOCCUS-LACTIS WITH A FLUORESCENT PH INDICATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLENAAR, D; ABEE, T; KONINGS, WN

    1991-01-01

    The cytoplasmic pH of Lactococcus lactis was studied with the fluorescent pH indicator 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). A novel method was applied for loading bacterial cells with BCECF, which consists of briefly treating a dense cell suspension with acid in the

  20. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida : a structural and histochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait

  1. Usefulness of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in diagnosing and managing systemic vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of reviewAntineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) are considered important diagnostic tests in the work-up of patients suspected of vasculitis. Here we discuss new developments in the methodology of testing, the pitfalls in using these tests as diagnostic tools, and the value of

  2. Dynamics of vegetative cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes of pollen cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. The pollen cytoplasm develops a complicated ultrastructure and changes dramatically during these stages. Lipid droplets increase after generative cell formation and their organization and distribution change with the developmental stage. Starch grains in amyloplasts increase in number and size during generative and sperm cell formation and decrease at pollen maturity. The shape and membrane system of mitochondria change only slightly. Dictyosomes become very prominent, and numerous associated vesicles are observed during and after sperm cell formation. Endoplasmic reticulum appears extensively as stacks during sperm cell formation. Free and polyribosomes are abundant in the cytoplasm at all developmental stages although they appear denser at certain stages and in some areas. In mature pollen, all organelles are randomly distributed throughout the vegetative cytoplasm and numerous small particles appear. Organization and distribution of storage substances and appearance of these small particles during generative and sperm cell formation and pollen maturation are discussed.

  3. Making it big : how characean algae use cytoplasmic streaming to enhance transport in giant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meent, Jan Willem van de

    2010-01-01

    Organisms show a remarkable variation in sizes, yet cell sizes are surprisingly similar across species, typically ranging from 10 μm to 100 μm. A striking exception are the giant cells of the algal weed Chara, which can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. A circulation known as cytoplasmic

  4. p25alpha relocalizes in oligodendroglia from myelin to cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yun Ju C; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Huang, Yue

    2007-01-01

    cytoplasmic inclusions. Overall, the data indicate that changes in the cellular interactions between MBP and p25alpha occur early in MSA and contribute to abnormalities in myelin and subsequent alpha-synuclein aggregation and the ensuing neuronal degeneration that characterizes this disease....

  5. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna; de Goffau, Marcus C; van Timmeren, Mirjan M; Schulze, Mirja L; Jansen, Benita; Tavakol, Mehri; van Wamel, Willem J B; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Arends, Jan P; Rossen, John W; Heeringa, Peter; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-01-01

    The proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at comparing the

  6. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Glasner (Corinna); M.C. De Goffau (Marcus C.); M.M. Van Timmeren (Mirjan M.); Schulze, M.L. (Mirja L.); Jansen, B. (Benita); M. Tavakol (Mehri); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); C.A. Stegeman; C.G.M. Kallenberg (Cees G. M.); J.P.A. Arends (Jan); J.W. Rossen (John); P. Heeringa (Peter); J.M. Dijl (Jan Maarten)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at

  7. Ion permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane limits the maximum growth temperature of bacteria and archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vossenberg, J.L C M; Ubbink-Kok, T.; Elferink, M.G.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1995-01-01

    Protons and sodium ions are the most commonly used coupling ions in energy transduction in bacteria and archaea. At their growth temperature, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of thermophilic bacteria to protons is high compared with that of sodium ions. In some thermophiles, sodium is

  8. Cytoplasmic tethering of a RING protein RBCK1 by its splice variant lacking the RING domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Koyanagi, Tomoyoshi; Okajima, Toshihide; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2005-01-01

    RBCC protein interacting with PKC 1 (RBCK1) is a transcription factor belonging to the RING-IBR protein family and has been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, possessing both the nuclear export and localization signals within its amino acid sequence. RBCK2, lacking the C-terminal half of RBCK1 including the RING-IBR domain, has also been identified as an alternative splice variant of RBCK1. RBCK2 shows no transcriptional activity and instead it represses the transcriptional activity of RBCK1. Here, we show that RBCK2 is present usually in the cytoplasm containing two Leu-rich regions that presumably serve as a nuclear export signal (NES). Moreover, an NES-disrupted RBCK1 that is mostly localized within the nucleus is translocated to the cytoplasm when coexpressed with RBCK2, suggesting that RBCK2 serves as a cytoplasmic tethering protein for RBCK1. We propose a novel and general function of RING-lacking splice variants of RING proteins to control the intracellular localization and functions of the parental RING proteins by forming a hetero-oligomeric complex

  9. Probing the biology of cell boundary conditions through confinement of Xenopus cell-free cytoplasmic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Jessica G; Chen, Hui; Einstein, Lily C; Good, Matthew C

    2017-01-01

    Cell-free cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Xenopus eggs and embryos have for decades provided a biochemical system with which to interrogate complex cell biological processes in vitro. Recently, the application of microfabrication and microfluidic strategies in biology has narrowed the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies by enabling formation of cell-size compartments containing functional cytoplasm. These approaches provide numerous advantages over traditional biochemical experiments performed in a test tube. Most notably, the cell-free cytoplasm is confined using a two- or three-dimensional boundary, which mimics the natural configuration of a cell. This strategy enables characterization of the spatial organization of a cell, and the role that boundaries play in regulating intracellular assembly and function. In this review, we describe the marriage of Xenopus cell-free cytoplasm and confinement technologies to generate synthetic cell-like systems, the recent biological insights they have enabled, and the promise they hold for future scientific discovery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The early noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Kristiansen, Karen; Durand, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    All human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) early mRNAs are polyadenylated at the poly(A) signal within the early 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). The 3'end of the early E5 open reading frame and the 3'UTR of HPV-16 is very AU-rich, with five regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (...

  11. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  12. pH-Responsive Micelle-Based Cytoplasmic Delivery System for Induction of Cellular Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yuba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability. (2 Methods: Interaction of micelles with fluorescence dye-loaded liposomes, intracellular distribution of micelles, and antigenic proteins were observed. Finally, antigen-specific cellular immune response was evaluated in vivo using ELIspot assay. (3 Results: Micelles induced leakage of contents from liposomes via lipid mixing at low pH. Micelles were taken up by dendritic cells mainly via macropinocytosis and delivered ovalbumin (OVA into the cytosol. After intradermal injection of micelles and OVA, OVA-specific cellular immunity was induced in the spleen. (4 Conclusions: pH-responsive micelles composed of DLPC and deoxycholic acid are promising as enhancers of cytosol delivery of antigens and the induction capability of cellular immunity for the treatment of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases.

  13. Urinary matrix metalloproteinases reflect renal damage in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody-associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.S.F.; Huitema, M.G.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Goor, H. van; Kallenberg, C.G.M.; Stegeman, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Renal expression of MMP-2, -9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1) correlates with histological disease activity in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We studied whether urinary and plasma levels of MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-1 reflect renal expression of these

  14. Non-coding RNA may be associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Silene vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stone, James D.; Koloušková, Pavla; Sloan, D.B.; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 1599-1612 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09220S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility * Editing * Mitochondrion * Non-coding RNA * Silene vulgaris * Splicing * Transcriptome Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  15. Pleckstrin Homology Domain Diffusion in Dictyostelium Cytoplasm Studied Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Hink, Mark A.; Bosgraaf, Leonard; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  16. Pleckstrin homology domain diffusion in Dictyostelium cytoplasm studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchira, A.; Hink, M.A.; Bosgraaf, L.; Haastert, van P.J.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  17. The poly(rC)-binding protein αCP2 is a noncanonical factor in X. laevis cytoplasmic polyadenylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu, Melanie R.; Sumaroka, Marina; Klein, Peter S.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation is central to multiple developmental pathways. This control can be linked to cytoplasmic polyadenylation in certain settings. In maturing Xenopus oocytes, specific mRNAs are targeted for polyadenylation via recruitment of the Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element (CPE) binding protein (CPEB) to CPE(s) within the 3′ UTR. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is also critical to early embryonic events, although corresponding determinants are less defined. Here, we demonstrate that the Xenopus ortholog of the poly(rC) binding protein αCP2 can recruit cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase activity to mRNAs in Xenopus post-fertilization embryos, and that this recruitment relies on cis sequences recognized by αCP2. We find that the hα-globin 3′ UTR, a validated mammalian αCP2 target, constitutes an effective target for cytoplasmic polyadenylation in Xenopus embryos, but not during Xenopus oocyte maturation. We further demonstrate that the cytoplasmic polyadenylation activity is dependent on the action of the C-rich αCP-binding site in conjunction with the adjacent AAUAAA. Consistent with its ability to target mRNA for poly(A) addition, we find that XαCP2 associates with core components of the Xenopus cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex, including the cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase XGLD2. Furthermore, we observe that the C-rich αCP-binding site can robustly enhance the activity of a weak canonical oocyte maturation CPE in early embryos, possibly via a direct interaction between XαCP2 and CPEB1. These studies establish XαCP2 as a novel cytoplasmic polyadenylation trans factor, indicate that C-rich sequences can function as noncanonical cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements, and expand our understanding of the complexities underlying cytoplasmic polyadenylation in specific developmental settings. PMID:21444632

  18. Human B cells fail to secrete type I interferons upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Anna M; Sun, Chenglong; Landman, Sanne L; Oosenbrug, Timo; Koppejan, Hester J; Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Hoeben, Rob C; Paludan, Søren R; Ressing, Maaike E

    2017-11-01

    Most cells are believed to be capable of producing type I interferons (IFN I) as part of an innate immune response against, for instance, viral infections. In macrophages, IFN I is potently induced upon cytoplasmic exposure to foreign nucleic acids. Infection of these cells with herpesviruses leads to triggering of the DNA sensors interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). Thereby, the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and the downstream molecules TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) are sequentially activated culminating in IFN I secretion. Human gamma-herpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), exploit B cells as a reservoir for persistent infection. In this study, we investigated whether human B cells, similar to macrophages, engage the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway to induce an innate immune response. We found that the B cells fail to secrete IFN I upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure, although they express the DNA sensors cGAS and IFI16 and the signaling components TBK1 and IRF3. In primary human B lymphocytes and EBV-negative B cell lines, this deficiency is explained by a lack of detectable levels of the central adaptor protein STING. In contrast, EBV-transformed B cell lines did express STING, yet both these lines as well as STING-reconstituted EBV-negative B cells did not produce IFN I upon dsDNA or cGAMP stimulation. Our combined data show that the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway is dysfunctional in human B cells. This exemplifies that certain cell types cannot induce IFN I in response to cytoplasmic DNA exposure providing a potential niche for viral persistence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Cole, Rex A; Fowler, John E; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  20. Nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation in microscopic images using K-means clustering and region growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of leukocytes acts as the foundation for all automated image-based hematological disease recognition systems. Most of the time, hematologists are interested in evaluation of white blood cells only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment them into their two dominant elements, nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using two stages of applying K-means clustering. First, the nuclei are segmented using K-means clustering. Then, a proposed method based on region growing is applied to separate the connected nuclei. Next, the nuclei are subtracted from the original image. Finally, the cytoplasm is segmented using the second stage of K-means clustering. The results indicate that the proposed method is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm regions accurately and works well even though there is no significant contrast between the components in the image. In this paper, a method based on K-means clustering and region growing is proposed in order to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As region growing step of the algorithm relies on the information of edges, it will not able to separate the connected nuclei more accurately in poor edges and it requires at least a weak edge to exist between the nuclei. The nucleus and cytoplasm segments of a leukocyte can be used for feature extraction and classification which leads to automated leukemia detection.

  1. Cytoplasmic RAP1 mediates cisplatin resistance of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lu; Lan, Xiaoying; Shi, Xianping; Zhao, Kai; Wang, Dongrui; Wang, Xuejun; Li, Faqian; Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Jinbao

    2017-05-18

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy agents (e.g., cisplatin) are the first-line drugs to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but NSCLC develops resistance to the agent, limiting therapeutic efficacy. Despite many approaches to identifying the underlying mechanism for cisplatin resistance, there remains a lack of effective targets in the population that resist cisplatin treatment. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of cytoplasmic RAP1, a previously identified positive regulator of NF-κB signaling, in the development of cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. We found that the expression of cytoplasmic RAP1 was significantly higher in high-grade NSCLC tissues than in low-grade NSCLC; compared with a normal pulmonary epithelial cell line, the A549 NSCLC cells exhibited more cytoplasmic RAP1 expression as well as increased NF-κB activity; cisplatin treatment resulted in a further increase of cytoplasmic RAP1 in A549 cells; overexpression of RAP1 desensitized the A549 cells to cisplatin, and conversely, RAP1 depletion in the NSCLC cells reduced their proliferation and increased their sensitivity to cisplatin, indicating that RAP1 is required for cell growth and has a key mediating role in the development of cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. The RAP1-mediated cisplatin resistance was associated with the activation of NF-κB signaling and the upregulation of the antiapoptosis factor BCL-2. Intriguingly, in the small portion of RAP1-depleted cells that survived cisplatin treatment, no induction of NF-κB activity and BCL-2 expression was observed. Furthermore, in established cisplatin-resistant A549 cells, RAP1 depletion caused BCL2 depletion, caspase activation and dramatic lethality to the cells. Hence, our results demonstrate that the cytoplasmic RAP1-NF-κB-BCL2 axis represents a key pathway to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells, identifying RAP1 as a marker and a potential therapeutic target for cisplatin resistance of NSCLC.

  2. Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1) interacts with the ROCK-I kinase at the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeken, Peter J. M.; Alvarez, Belén; van Rheenen, Jacco; Wijnands, Yvonne M.; Geerts, Dirk; Jalink, Kees; Roos, Ed

    2006-01-01

    The integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1) binds via its C-terminal PTB (phosphotyrosine-binding) domain to the cytoplasmic tails of beta1 but not other integrins. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that ICAP-1 binds the ROCK-I kinase, an effector of the RhoA GTPase. By

  3. Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Moneger, Françoise; Leaver, Christopher J.; Petrov, Peter; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3, was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1 + 5 and

  4. The effects of moisture and temperature on the ageing kinetics of pollen : Interpretation based on cytoplasmic mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, J.; Leprince, O.; Hemminga, M.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study shows that characterization of the molecular mobility in the cytoplasm of pollen provides a new understanding of the effects of moisture and temperature on ageing rates. Using EPR spectroscopy, we determined the rotational motion of the polar spin probe, 3-carboxy-proxyl, in the cytoplasm

  5. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Møller, Ian Max; Studer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    to increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant...

  6. Homologous Transcription Factors DUX4 and DUX4c Associate with Cytoplasmic Proteins during Muscle Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénie Ansseau

    Full Text Available Hundreds of double homeobox (DUX genes map within 3.3-kb repeated elements dispersed in the human genome and encode DNA-binding proteins. Among these, we identified DUX4, a potent transcription factor that causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens and protein co-purifications with HaloTag-DUX fusions or GST-DUX4 pull-down to identify protein partners of DUX4, DUX4c (which is identical to DUX4 except for the end of the carboxyl terminal domain and DUX1 (which is limited to the double homeodomain. Unexpectedly, we identified and validated (by co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down, co-immunofluorescence and in situ Proximal Ligation Assay the interaction of DUX4, DUX4c and DUX1 with type III intermediate filament protein desmin in the cytoplasm and at the nuclear periphery. Desmin filaments link adjacent sarcomere at the Z-discs, connect them to sarcolemma proteins and interact with mitochondria. These intermediate filament also contact the nuclear lamina and contribute to positioning of the nuclei. Another Z-disc protein, LMCD1 that contains a LIM domain was also validated as a DUX4 partner. The functionality of DUX4 or DUX4c interactions with cytoplasmic proteins is underscored by the cytoplasmic detection of DUX4/DUX4c upon myoblast fusion. In addition, we identified and validated (by co-immunoprecipitation, co-immunofluorescence and in situ Proximal Ligation Assay as DUX4/4c partners several RNA-binding proteins such as C1QBP, SRSF9, RBM3, FUS/TLS and SFPQ that are involved in mRNA splicing and translation. FUS and SFPQ are nuclear proteins, however their cytoplasmic translocation was reported in neuronal cells where they associated with ribonucleoparticles (RNPs. Several other validated or identified DUX4/DUX4c partners are also contained in mRNP granules, and the co-localizations with cytoplasmic DAPI-positive spots is in keeping with such an association. Large muscle RNPs

  7. Antibody-mediated enzyme replacement therapy targeting both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen in Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Haiqing; Sun, Tao; Armstrong, Dustin; Borneman, Scott; Yang, Chunyu; Austin, Stephanie; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2017-05-01

    Pompe disease is characterized by accumulation of both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen primarily in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mannose-6-phosphate receptor-mediated enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) targets the enzyme to lysosomes and thus is unable to digest cytoplasmic glycogen. Studies have shown that anti-DNA antibody 3E10 penetrates living cells and delivers "cargo" proteins to the cytosol or nucleus via equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT2. We speculate that 3E10-mediated ERT with GAA will target both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen in Pompe disease. A fusion protein (FabGAA) containing a humanized Fab fragment derived from the murine 3E10 antibody and the 110 kDa human GAA precursor was constructed and produced in CHO cells. Immunostaining with an anti-Fab antibody revealed that the Fab signals did not co-localize with the lysosomal marker LAMP2 in cultured L6 myoblasts or Pompe patient fibroblasts after incubation with FabGAA. Western blot with an anti-GAA antibody showed presence of the 150 kDa full-length FabGAA in the cell lysates, in addition to the 95- and 76 kDa processed forms of GAA that were also seen in the rhGAA-treated cells. Blocking of mannose-6-phosphate receptor with mannose-6-phosphate markedly reduced the 95- and the 76 kDa forms but not the 150 kDa form. In GAA-KO mice, FabGAA achieved similar treatment efficacy as rhGAA at an equal molar dose in reducing tissue glycogen contents. Our data suggest that FabGAA retains the ability of rhGAA to treat lysosomal glycogen accumulation and has the beneficial potential over rhGAA to reduce cytoplasmic glycogen storage in Pompe disease. FabGAA can be delivered to both the cytoplasm and lysosomes in cultured cells. FabGAA equally reduced lysosomal glycogen accumulation as rhGAA in GAA-KO mice. FabGAA has the beneficial potential over rhGAA to clear cytoplasmic glycogen. This study suggests a novel antibody-enzyme fusion protein therapy

  8. The cytoplasmic C-terminus of polycystin-1 increases cell proliferation in kidney epithelial cells through serum-activated and Ca2+-dependent pathway(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzati, Elisa; Aguiari, Gianluca; Banzi, Manuela; Manzati, Michele; Selvatici, Rita; Falzarano, Sofia; Maestri, Iva; Pinton, Paolo; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del

    2005-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC1) is a large transmembrane protein important in renal differentiation and defective in most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a common cause of renal failure in adults. Although the genetic basis of ADPKD has been elucidated, molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the dysregulation of epithelial cell growth in ADPKD cysts are still not well defined. We approached this issue by investigating the role of the carboxyl cytoplasmic domain of PC1 involved in signal transduction on the control of kidney cell proliferation. Therefore, we generated human HEK293 cells stably expressing the PC1 cytoplasmic tail as a membrane targeted TrkA-PC1 chimeric receptor protein (TrkPC1). We found that TrkPC1 increased cell proliferation through an increase in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ levels and activation of PKCα, thereby upregulating D1 and D3 cyclin, downregulating p21 waf1 and p27 kip1 cyclin inhibitors, and thus inducing cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to the S phase. Interestingly, TrkPC1-dependent Ca 2+ increase and PKCα activation are not constitutive, but require serum factor(s) as parallel component. In agreement with this observation, a significant increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed. Consistently, inhibitors specifically blocking either PKCα or ERK1/2 prevented the TrkPC1-dependent proliferation increase. NGF, the TrkA ligand, blocked this increase. We propose that in kidney epithelial cells the overexpression of PC1 C-terminus upregulates serum-evoked intracellular Ca 2+ by counteracting the growth-suppression activity of endogenous PC1 and leading to an increase in cell proliferation

  9. Monoacylated Cellular Prion Proteins Reduce Amyloid-β-Induced Activation of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Synapse Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan West

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ and the loss of synapses. Aggregation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC by Aβ oligomers induced synapse damage in cultured neurons. PrPC is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor, the composition of which affects protein targeting and cell signaling. Monoacylated PrPC incorporated into neurons bound “natural Aβ”, sequestering Aβ outside lipid rafts and preventing its accumulation at synapses. The presence of monoacylated PrPC reduced the Aβ-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 and Aβ-induced synapse damage. This protective effect was stimulus specific, as treated neurons remained sensitive to α-synuclein, a protein associated with synapse damage in Parkinson’s disease. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by Aβ oligomers triggered the formation of a signaling complex containing the cPLA2.a process, disrupted by monoacylated PrPC. We propose that monoacylated PrPC acts as a molecular sponge, binding Aβ oligomers at the neuronal perikarya without activating cPLA2 or triggering synapse damage.

  10. IP3 Receptor-Dependent Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Signals Are Tightly Controlled by Cavβ3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar Belkacemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs are major Ca2+ entry pathways in excitable cells. Their β subunits facilitate membrane trafficking of the channel’s ion-conducting α1 pore and modulate its gating properties. We report that one β subunit, β3, reduces Ca2+ release following stimulation of phospholipase C-coupled receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 formation. This effect requires the SH3-HOOK domain of Cavβ3, includes physical β3/IP3 receptor interaction, and prevails when agonist-induced IP3 formation is bypassed by photolysis of caged IP3. In agreement with β3 acting as a brake on Ca2+ release, fibroblast migration is enhanced in vitro, and in vivo, closure of skin wounds is accelerated in the absence of β3. To mediate specific physiological responses and to prevent Ca2+ toxicity, cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals must be tightly controlled. The described function of β3, unrelated to its function as a Cav subunit, adds to this tight control.

  11. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-03-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  12. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-01-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added 14 CO 2 was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle

  13. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, J E; Suarez, E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz, Bauta, Havana (Cuba); Fuentes, J L; Alvarez, A; Padron, E [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, Miramar, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2001-05-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  14. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, J.E.; Suarez, E.; Fuentes, J.L.; Alvarez, A.; Padron, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  15. The cytoplasmic tails of infectious bronchitis virus E and M proteins mediate their interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corse, Emily; Machamer, Carolyn E.

    2003-01-01

    Virus-like particle (VLP) formation by the coronavirus E and M proteins suggests that interactions between these proteins play a critical role in coronavirus assembly. We studied interactions between the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) E and M proteins using in vivo crosslinking and VLP assembly assays. We show that IBV E and M can be crosslinked to each other in IBV-infected and transfected cells, indicating that they interact. The cytoplasmic tails of both proteins are important for this interaction. We also examined the ability of the mutant and chimeric E and M proteins to form VLPs. IBV M proteins that are missing portions of their cytoplasmic tails or transmembrane regions were not able to support VLP formation, regardless of their ability to be crosslinked to IBV E. Interactions between the E and M proteins and the membrane bilayer are likely to play an important role in VLP formation and virus budding

  16. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes

  17. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with massive intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of generalized edema and proteinuria. Her renal function deteriorated rapidly. Serum immunoglobulin and complement levels were within normal ranges. An autoantibody examination showed negative for antinuclear antibody and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. Histologic examination of a renal biopsy specimen revealed that all of the glomeruli had severe crescent formations with no immune deposits. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy with cyclophosphamide followed by oral prednisolone. Fifteen days later, she experienced massive recurrent hematochezia. Angiography revealed an active contrast extravasation in a branch of the distal ileal artery. We selectively embolized with a permanent embolic agent. On the 45th hospital day, the patient suddenly lost consciousness. Brain computed tomography showed intracerebral hemorrhage. We report a case of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with massive intestinal bleeding and cerebral hemorrhage.

  18. Quantifying Multistate Cytoplasmic Molecular Diffusion in Bacterial Cells via Inverse Transform of Confined Displacement Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Yen; Jung, Won; Santiago, Ace George; Yang, Feng; Krzemiński, Łukasz; Chen, Peng

    2015-11-12

    Single-molecule tracking (SMT) of fluorescently tagged cytoplasmic proteins can provide valuable information on the underlying biological processes in living cells via subsequent analysis of the displacement distributions; however, the confinement effect originated from the small size of a bacterial cell skews the protein's displacement distribution and complicates the quantification of the intrinsic diffusive behaviors. Using the inverse transformation method, we convert the skewed displacement distribution (for both 2D and 3D imaging conditions) back to that in free space for systems containing one or multiple (non)interconverting Brownian diffusion states, from which we can reliably extract the number of diffusion states as well as their intrinsic diffusion coefficients and respective fractional populations. We further demonstrate a successful application to experimental SMT data of a transcription factor in living E. coli cells. This work allows a direct quantitative connection between cytoplasmic SMT data with diffusion theory for analyzing molecular diffusive behavior in live bacteria.

  19. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin, E-mail: tanmja@gis.a-star.edu.sg; Parrish, Colin R., E-mail: crp3@cornell.edu

    2014-05-15

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  20. Perturbation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport affects size of nucleus and nucleolus in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Abira; Bhattacharjee, Chumki; Bhave, Madhura; Kailaje, Vaishali; Jain, Bhawik K; Sengupta, Isha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2016-03-01

    Size regulation of human cell nucleus and nucleolus are poorly understood subjects. 3D reconstruction of live image shows that the karyoplasmic ratio (KR) increases by 30-80% in transformed cell lines compared to their immortalized counterpart. The attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes the KR value to increase by 30-50% in immortalized cell lines. Nucleolus volumes are significantly increased in transformed cell lines and the attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes a significant increase in the nucleolus volume of immortalized cell lines. A cytosol and nuclear fraction swapping experiment emphasizes the potential role of unknown cytosolic factors in nuclear and nucleolar size regulation. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. [Role of erythrocyte cytoplasmic structures in changes in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgalova, N Iu; Brazhe, N A; Iusipovich, A U; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the refractive index of the cytoplasm and the affinity of haemoporphyrin of erythrocyte haemoglobin to oxygen (pH, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) have been investigated using laser interference microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It has been established that a decrease in pH and an increase in the content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate are accompanied by changes in both the form of the cell and the refractive index of the cytoplasm and the affinity of haemoporphyrin of hemoglobin to oxygen. It has been shown that as pH is reduced, the capacity of haemoporphyrin for binding oxygen decreases and as the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is increased, the ability of haemoporphyrin for oxygen reabsorption increases.

  2. Polarized trafficking: the palmitoylation cycle distributes cytoplasmic proteins to distinct neuronal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Elena; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2018-02-01

    In neurons, polarized cargo distribution occurs mainly between the soma and axonal and dendritic compartments, and requires coordinated regulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane trafficking. The Golgi complex plays a critical role during neuronal polarization and secretory trafficking has been shown to differentially transport proteins to both axons and dendrites. Besides the Golgi protein sorting, recent data revealed that palmitoylation cycles are an efficient mechanism to localize cytoplasmic, non-transmembrane proteins to particular neuronal compartments, such as the newly formed axon. Palmitoylation allows substrate proteins to bind to and ride with Golgi-derived secretory vesicles to all neuronal compartments. By allowing cytoplasmic proteins to 'hitchhike' on transport carriers in a non-polarized fashion, compartmentalized depalmitoylation may act as a selective retention mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear anti-apoptotic roles of αB-crystallin in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available In addition to its well-characterized role in the lens, αB-crystallin performs other functions. Methylglyoxal (MGO can alter the function of the basement membrane of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Thus, if MGO is not efficiently detoxified, it can induce adverse reactions in RPE cells. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the anti-apoptotic activity of αB-crystallin in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 following MGO treatment using various assays, including nuclear staining, flow cytometry, DNA electrophoresis, pulse field gel electrophoresis, western blot analysis, confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays. To directly assess the role of phosphorylation of αB-crystallin, we used site-directed mutagenesis to convert relevant serine residues to alanine residues. Using these techniques, we demonstrated that MGO induces apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Silencing αB-crystallin sensitized ARPE-19 cells to MGO-induced apoptosis, indicating that αB-crystallin protects ARPE-19 cells from MGO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that αB-crystallin interacts with the caspase subtypes, caspase-2L, -2S, -3, -4, -7, -8, -9 and -12 in untreated control ARPE-19 cells and that MGO treatment caused the dissociation of these caspase subtypes from αB-crystallin; transfection of S19A, S45A or S59A mutants caused the depletion of αB-crystallin from the nuclei of untreated control RPE cells leading to the release of caspase subtypes. Additionally, transfection of these mutants enhanced MGO-induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells, indicating that phosphorylation of nuclear αB-crystallin on serine residues 19, 45 and 59 plays a pivotal role in preventing apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that αB-crystallin prevents caspase activation by physically interacting with caspase subtypes in the cytoplasm and nucleus, thereby protecting RPE cells from MGO-induced apoptosis.

  4. Control of nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of Ankrd54 by PKCδ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy L Samuels; Alison Louw; Reza Zareie; Evan Ingley

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify and characterize the effect of phosphorylation on the subcellular localization of Ankrd54.METHODS HEK293 T cells were treated with calyculin A, staurosporin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA). Cells were transfected with eG FP-tagged Ankrd54 with or without Lyn tyrosine kinase(wild-type, Y397 F mutant, or Y508 F mutant). The subcellular localization was assessed by immunofluorescence imaging of cells, immunoblotting of subcellular fractionations. The phosphorylation of Ankrd54 was monitored using Phos-tagT M gel retardation. Phosphorylated peptides were analysed by multiplereaction-monitoring(MRM) proteomic analysis.RESULTS Activation of PKC kinases using PMA promoted nuclear export of Ankrd54 and correlated with increased Ankrd54 phosphorylation, assayed using Phos-tag TM gel retardation. Co-expression of an active form of the PKCδisoform specifically promoted both phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization of Ankrd54, while PKCδ, Akt and PKA did not. Alanine mutation of several serine residues in the amino-terminal region of Ankrd54(Ser14, Ser17, Ser18, Ser19) reduced both PMA induced cytoplasmic localization and phosphorylation of Ankrd54. Using MRM proteomic analysis, phosphorylation of the Ser18 residue of Ankrd54 was readily detectable in response to PMA stimulation. PMA stimulation of cells co-expressing Ankrd54 and Lyn tyrosine kinase displayed increased coimmunoprecipitation and enhanced co-localization in the cytoplasm.CONCLUSION We identify phosphorylation by PKCδ as a major regulator of nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of Ankrd54, and its interaction with the tyrosine kinase Lyn.

  5. The role of non-coding RNAs in cytoplasmic male sterility in flowering plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 2429. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09220S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility * Gene expression * Global transcriptome * Non-coding RNA * Pollen development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  6. Generation of micronuclei during interphase by coupling between cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and nuclear budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh-ichi Utani

    Full Text Available Micronucleation, mediated by interphase nuclear budding, has been repeatedly suggested, but the process is still enigmatic. In the present study, we confirmed the previous observation that there are lamin B1-negative micronuclei in addition to the positive ones. A large cytoplasmic bleb was found to frequently entrap lamin B1-negative micronuclei, which were connected to the nucleus by a thin chromatin stalk. At the bottom of the stalk, the nuclear lamin B1 structure appeared broken. Chromatin extrusion through lamina breaks has been referred to as herniation or a blister of the nucleus, and has been observed after the expression of viral proteins. A cell line in which extrachromosomal double minutes and lamin B1 protein were simultaneously visualized in different colors in live cells was established. By using these cells, time-lapse microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic membrane blebbing occurred simultaneously with the extrusion of nuclear content, which generated lamin B1-negative micronuclei during interphase. Furthermore, activation of cytoplasmic membrane blebbing by the addition of fresh serum or camptothecin induced nuclear budding within 1 to 10 minutes, which suggested that blebbing might be the cause of the budding. After the induction of blebbing, the frequency of lamin-negative micronuclei increased. The budding was most frequent during S phase and more efficiently entrapped small extrachromosomal chromatin than the large chromosome arm. Based on these results, we suggest a novel mechanism in which cytoplasmic membrane dynamics pulls the chromatin out of the nucleus through the lamina break. Evidence for such a mechanism was obtained in certain cancer cell lines including human COLO 320 and HeLa. The mechanism could significantly perturb the genome and influence cancer cell phenotypes.

  7. Occurrence, pathology, and ultrastructure of iridovirus and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses in daphnids from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Bílý, Tomáš; Nebesářová, Jana; Federici, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, Jul 19 (2016), s. 35-38 ISSN 0022-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015062; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : iridovirus * cytoplasmic polhedrosis virus * Crustacean * Daphnid * geographical occurrence * Czech Republic * AF microscopy * electron tomography Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2016

  8. Cytoplasmic pH and the regulation of the dictyostelium cell cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, R.J.; Durston, A.J.; Moolenaar, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cytoplasmic pH (pHl) was monitored during the cell cycle of synchronous populations of Dictyostelium discoideum by means of a pH “null point” method. There is a cycle of pHl that closely corresponds to the DNA replication cycle, with a minimum of pH 7.20 in interphase and a peak of pH 7.45 during S

  9. High ASMA+ Fibroblasts and Low Cytoplasmic HMGB1+ Breast Cancer Cells Predict Poor Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornsupak, Kamolporn; Jamjuntra, Pranisa; Warnnissorn, Malee; O-Charoenrat, Pornchai; Sa-Nguanraksa, Doonyapat; Thuwajit, Peti; Eccles, Suzanne A; Thuwajit, Chanitra

    2017-10-01

    The influence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been recognized in several cancers, although their roles in breast cancer are unclear. The present study aimed to determine the levels and prognostic significance of α-smooth muscle actin-positive (ASMA + ) CAFs, plus HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in cancer cells. A total of 127 breast samples, including 96 malignant and 31 benign, were examined for ASMA, HMGB1, and RAGE by immunohistochemistry. The χ 2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to test the association of each protein with clinicopathologic parameters. The Kaplan-Meier method or log-rank test and Cox regression were used for survival analysis. ASMA + fibroblast infiltration was significantly increased in the tumor stroma compared with that in benign breast tissue. The levels of cytoplasmic HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly greater in the breast cancer tissue than in the benign breast tissues. High ASMA expression correlated significantly with large tumor size, clinical stage III-IV, and angiolymphatic and perinodal invasion. In contrast, increased cytoplasmic HMGB1 correlated significantly with small tumor size, pT stage, early clinical stage, luminal subtype (but not triple-negative subtype), and estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression. The levels of ASMA (hazard ratio, 14.162; P = .010) and tumor cytoplasmic HMGB1 (hazard ratio, 0.221; P = .005) could serve as independent prognostic markers for metastatic relapse in breast cancer patients. The ASMA-high/HMGB1-low profile provided the most reliable prediction of metastatic relapse. We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the potential clinical implications of the combined assessment of ASMA + fibroblasts and cytoplasmic HMGB1 in breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain sequences required for rescue of a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, M.A.; Chong, L.; Rose, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have used transient expression of the wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G protein) from cloned cDNA to rescue a temperature-sensitive G protein mutant of VSV in cells at the nonpermissive temperature. Using cDNAs encoding G proteins with deletions in the normal 29-amino-acid cytoplasmic domain, they determined that the presence of either the membrane-proximal 9 amino acids or the membrane-distal 12 amino acids was sufficient for rescue of the temperature-sensitive mutant. G proteins with cytoplasmic domains derived from other cellular or viral G proteins did not rescue the mutant, nor did G proteins with one or three amino acids of the normal cytoplasmic domain. Rescue correlated directly with the ability of the G proteins to be incorporated into virus particles. This was shown by analysis of radiolabeled particles separated on sucrose gradients as well as by electron microscopy of rescued virus after immunogold labeling. Quantitation of surface expression showed that all of the mutated G proteins were expressed less efficiently on the cell surface than was wild-type G protein. However, they were able to correct for differences in rescue efficiency resulting from differences in the level of surface expression by reducing wild-type G protein expression to levels equivalent to those observed for the mutated G proteins. The results provide evidence that at least a portion of the cytoplasmic domain is required for efficient assembly of the VSV G protein into virions during virus budding

  11. Replacement of the cytoplasmic domain alters sorting of a viral glycoprotein in polarized cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Puddington, L; Woodgett, C; Rose, J K

    1987-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is transported to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, whereas the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA protein) of influenza virus is transported to the apical plasma membrane. To determine if the cytoplasmic domain of VSV G protein might be important in directing G protein to the basolateral membrane, we derived polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines expressing G protein or G protein with i...

  12. Plant cytoplasmic GAPDH: redox post-translational modifications and moonlighting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko eZaffagnini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis and shown, particularly in animal cells, to play additional roles in several unrelated non-metabolic processes such as control of gene expression and apoptosis. This functional versatility is regulated, in part at least, by redox post-translational modifications that alter GAPDH catalytic activity and influence the subcellular localization of the enzyme. In spite of the well established moonlighting (multifunctional properties of animal GAPDH, little is known about non-metabolic roles of GAPDH in plants. Plant cells contain several GAPDH isoforms with different catalytic and regulatory properties, located both in the cytoplasm and in plastids, and participating in glycolysis and the Calvin-Benson cycle. A general feature of all GAPDH proteins is the presence of an acidic catalytic cysteine in the active site that is overly sensitive to oxidative modifications, including glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation. In Arabidopsis, oxidatively-modified cytoplasmic GAPDH has been successfully used as a tool to investigate the role of reduced glutathione, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins in the control of different types of redox post-translational modifications. Oxidative modifications inhibit GAPDH activity, but might enable additional functions in plant cells. Mounting evidence support the concept that plant cytoplasmic GAPDH may fulfill alternative, non-metabolic functions that are triggered by redox post-translational modifications of the protein under stress conditions. The aim of this review is to detail the molecular mechanisms underlying the redox regulation of plant cytoplasmic GAPDH in the light of its crystal structure, and to provide a brief inventory of the well known redox-dependent multi-facetted properties of animal GAPDH, together with the emerging roles of oxidatively-modified GAPDH in stress signaling pathways in plants.

  13. Reprogramming of round spermatids by the germinal vesicle cytoplasm in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Kong

    Full Text Available The birthrate following round spermatid injection (ROSI remains low in current and evidence suggests that factors in the germinal vesicle (GV cytoplasm and certain substances in the GV such as the nucleolus might be responsible for genomic reprogramming and embryonic development. However, little is known whether the reprogramming factors in GV oocyte cytoplasm and/or nucleolus in GV are beneficial to the reprogramming of round spermatids and development of ROSI embryos. Here, round spermatids were treated with GV cytolysates and injected this round spermatid alone or co-injected with GV oocyte nucleolus into mature metaphase II oocytes. Subsequent embryonic development was assessed morphologically and by Oct4 expression in blastocysts. There was no significant difference between experimental groups at the zygote to four-cell development stages. Blastocysts derived from oocytes which were injected with cytolysate treated-round spermatid alone or co-injected with nucleoli injection yielded 63.6% and 70.3% high quality embryos, respectively; comparable to blastocysts derived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, but higher than these oocytes which were co-injected with lysis buffer-treated round spermatids and nucleoli or injected with the lysis buffer-treated round spermatids alone. Furthermore, the proportion of live offspring resulting from oocytes which were co-injected with cytolysate treated-round spermatids and nucleoli or injected with cytolysate treated-round spermatids alone was higher than those were injected with lysis buffer treated-round spermaids, but comparable with the ICSI group. Our results demonstrate that factors from the GV cytoplasm improve round spermatid reprogramming, and while injection of the extra nucleolus does not obviously improve reprogramming its potential contribution, although which cannot be definitively excluded. Thus, some reprogramming factors are evidently present in GV oocyte cytoplasm and could

  14. Cytoplasmic BRMS1 expression in malignant melanoma is associated with increased disease-free survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slipicevic Ana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/aims Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1 blocks metastasis in melanoma xenografts; however, its usefulness as a biomarker in human melanomas has not been widely studied. The goal was to measure BRMS1 expression in benign nevi, primary and metastatic melanomas and evaluate its impact on disease progression and prognosis. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue from 155 primary melanomas, 69 metastases and 15 nevi was examined for BRMS1 expression using immunohistochemistry. siRNA mediated BRMS1 down-regulation was used to study impact on invasion and migration in melanoma cell lines. Results A significantly higher percentage of nevi (87%, compared to primary melanomas (20% and metastases (48%, expressed BRMS1 in the nucelus (p Waf1/Cip1 (p = 0.009. Cytoplasmic score index was inversely associated with nuclear p-Akt (p = 0.013 and positively associated with cytoplasmic p-ERK1/2 expression (p = 0.033. Nuclear BRMS1 expression in ≥ 10% of primary melanoma cells was associated with thicker tumors (p = 0.016 and decreased relapse-free period (p = 0.043. Nuclear BRMS1 was associated with expression of fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7; p = 0.011, a marker of invasion in melanomas. In line with this, repression of BRMS1 expression reduced the ability of melanoma cells to migrate and invade in vitro. Conclusion Our data suggest that BRMS1 is localized in cytoplasm and nucleus of melanocytic cells and that cellular localization determines its in vivo effect. We hypothesize that cytoplasmic BRMS1 restricts melanoma progression while nuclear BRMS1 possibly promotes melanoma cell invasion. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/19

  15. Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-10-03

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species.

  16. Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Arai, Naoko; Tanaka, Keiji, E-mail: tanaka-kj@igakuken.or.jp; Saeki, Yasushi, E-mail: saeki-ys@igakuken.or.jp

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •We succeeded to control the proteasome localization by the anchor-away technique. •Nuclear proteasome-depleted cells showed a lethal phenotype. •Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in dividing cells. -- Abstract: The 26S proteasome is an essential protease complex responsible for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotic cells. In rapidly proliferating yeast cells, proteasomes are mainly localized in the nucleus, but the biological significance of the proteasome localization is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the proteasome localization and the functions by the anchor-away technique, a ligand-dependent sequestration of a target protein into specific compartment(s). Anchoring of the proteasome to the plasma membrane or the ribosome resulted in conditional depletion of the nuclear proteasomes, whereas anchoring to histone resulted in the proteasome sequestration into the nucleus. We observed that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in all the proteasome-targeted cells, suggesting that both the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes have proteolytic functions and that the ubiquitinated proteins are produced and degraded in each compartment. Consistent with previous studies, the nuclear proteasome-depleted cells exhibited a lethal phenotype. In contrast, the nuclear sequestration of the proteasome resulted only in a mild growth defect, suggesting that the cytoplasmic proteasomes are not basically indispensable for cell growth in rapidly growing yeast cells.

  17. Proteins contribute insignificantly to the intrinsic buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Szczesny, Pawel; Ruszczyńska, Katarzyna; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Paczek, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We predicted buffering capacity of yeast proteome from protein abundance data. ► We measured total buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm. ► We showed that proteins contribute insignificantly to buffering capacity. -- Abstract: Intracellular pH is maintained by a combination of the passive buffering of cytoplasmic dissociable compounds and several active systems. Over the years, a large portion of and possibly most of the cell’s intrinsic (i.e., passive non-bicarbonate) buffering effect was attributed to proteins, both in higher organisms and in yeast. This attribution was not surprising, given that the concentration of proteins with multiple protonable/deprotonable groups in the cell exceeds the concentration of free protons by a few orders of magnitude. Using data from both high-throughput experiments and in vitro laboratory experiments, we tested this concept. We assessed the buffering capacity of the yeast proteome using protein abundance data and compared it to our own titration of yeast cytoplasm. We showed that the protein contribution is less than 1% of the total intracellular buffering capacity. As confirmed with NMR measurements, inorganic phosphates play a crucial role in the process. These findings also shed a new light on the role of proteomes in maintaining intracellular pH. The contribution of proteins to the intrinsic buffering capacity is negligible, and proteins might act only as a recipient of signals for changes in pH.

  18. Development of Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Source from Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hua SHEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop and characterize a novel cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS source which was identified from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon by crossing Dongxiang wild rice as female with Zhongzao 35, an indica inbred variety, as male and continuous backcrossing with Zhongzao 35. Observation under optical microscope manifested that this novel CMS belonged to typical abortion type with less pollen compared with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA. Sequential planting showed that this novel CMS has complete and stable male sterility. Testcross experiment showed that all the 24 tested materials including maintainer and restorer lines of CMS-WA and Honglian type cytoplasm (CMS-HL and other indica inbred varieties are the maintainers with complete maintaining ability, suggesting that this novel CMS has fertility restoration totally different from CMS-WA and CMS-HL and belongs to a novel type of CMS. So far, we only discovered a unique fertility restoration source for this novel CMS. Inheritance analysis showed that the fertility restoration of this CMS was governed by three pairs of independent dominant genes. Prospect for application of this novel CMS system in hybrid rice breeding was also discussed.

  19. Activation gating kinetics of GIRK channels are mediated by cytoplasmic residues adjacent to transmembrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadja, Rona; Reuveny, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK/Kir3.x) are involved in neurotransmission-mediated reduction of excitability. The gating mechanism following G protein activation of these channels likely proceeds from movement of inner transmembrane helices to allow K(+) ions movement through the pore of the channel. There is limited understanding of how the binding of G-protein betagamma subunits to cytoplasmic regions of the channel transduces the signal to the transmembrane regions. In this study, we examined the molecular basis that governs the activation kinetics of these channels, using a chimeric approach. We identified two regions as being important in determining the kinetics of activation. One region is the bottom of the outer transmembrane helix (TM1) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent (the slide helix); and the second region is the bottom of the inner transmembrane helix (TM2) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent. Interestingly, both of these regions are sufficient in mediating the kinetics of fast activation gating. This result suggests that there is a cooperative movement of either one of these domains to allow fast and efficient activation gating of GIRK channels.

  20. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nora F.; Jasirwan, Chyntia; Kanemoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Aika; Wang, Bochao; Hata, Yuuki; Nagamata, Satoshi; Kawabata, Akiko; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.

  1. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Nora F. [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Jasirwan, Chyntia [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia (Indonesia); Kanemoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Aika; Wang, Bochao; Hata, Yuuki [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Nagamata, Satoshi [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Kawabata, Akiko [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Tang, Huamin [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Mori, Yasuko, E-mail: ymori@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.

  2. Isotachophoresis for fractionation and recovery of cytoplasmic RNA and nucleus from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kentaro; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Santiago, Juan G

    2015-07-01

    There is a substantial need for simultaneous analyses of RNA and DNA from individual single cells. Such analysis provides unique evidence of cell-to-cell differences and the correlation between gene expression and genomic mutation in highly heterogeneous cell populations. We present a novel microfluidic system that leverages isotachophoresis to fractionate and isolate cytoplasmic RNA and genomic DNA (gDNA) from single cells. The system uniquely enables independent, sequence-specific analyses of these critical markers. Our system uses a microfluidic chip with a simple geometry and four end-channel electrodes, and completes the entire process in RNA output reservoirs, each containing high quality and purity aliquots with no measurable cross-contamination of cytoplasmic RNA versus gDNA. We demonstrate our system with simultaneous, sequence-specific quantitation using off-chip RT-qPCR and qPCR for simultaneous cytoplasmic RNA and gDNA analyses, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. An Extremely Halophilic Proteobacterium Combines a Highly Acidic Proteome with a Low Cytoplasmic Potassium Content*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W.; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K+. This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K+ content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K+ ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K+-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface. PMID:23144460

  4. Cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 associated with cell cycle withdrawal of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumrejkanchanakij, Piyamas; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Masa-Aki

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of D-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity is critical for neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. We recently showed that cyclin D1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm and that its nuclear localization induces apoptosis in postmitotic primary neurons. Here, we further investigated the role of the subcellular localization of cyclin D1 in cell cycle withdrawal during the differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. We show that cyclin D1 became predominantly cytoplasmic after differentiation. Targeting cyclin D1 expression to the nucleus induced phosphorylation of Rb and cdk2 kinase activity. Furthermore, cyclin D1 nuclear localization promoted differentiated N1E-115 cells to reenter the cell cycle, a process that was inhibited by p16 INK4a , a specific inhibitor of D-type cyclin activity. These results indicate that cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 plays a role in neuronal cell cycle withdrawal, and suggests that the abrogation of machinery involved in monitoring aberrant nuclear cyclin D1 activity contributes to neuronal tumorigenesis

  5. PERMANGANATE FIXATION OF THE GOLGI COMPLEX AND OTHER CYTOPLASMIC STRUCTURES OF MAMMALIAN TESTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.; Zebrun, William

    1960-01-01

    Observations on the fine structure of KMnO4-fixed testes of small mammals (guinea pig, rat, and mouse) reveal certain morphological differences between the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells which have not been demonstrated in the same tissue fixed with OsO4. Aggregates of minute circular profiles, much smaller than the spherical Golgi vesicles, are described in close association with the Golgi complex of developing spermatids. Groups of dense flattened vesicles, individually surrounded by a membrane of different dimensions than that which bounds most of the other cell organelles, appear dispersed within the cytoplasm of some spermatogenic cells. Flattened vesicles of greater density than those belonging to the Golgi complex are reported confined to the inner Golgi zone of developing guinea pig spermatids between the Golgi cisternae and the head cap. The profiles of endoplasmic reticulum within spermatocytes appear shorter, wider, and more tortuous than those of Sertoli cells. Minute cytoplasmic particles approximately 300 A in diameter and of high electron opacity appear randomly disposed in some Sertoli cells. Groups of irregular-shaped ovoid bodies within the developing spermatids are described as resembling portions of cytoplasm from closely adjacent spermatids. Interpretation is presented regarding the fine structure of KMnO4-fixed testes in view of what has already been reported for mammalian testes fixed in OsO4. PMID:13771855

  6. ROS-activated ATM-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic substrates identified by large scale phosphoproteomics screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoi......ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle...... checkpoints, initiating DNA repair and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach...... to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and A-T (ataxia-telangiectasia) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites...

  7. Involvement of hGLD-2 in cytoplasmic polyadenylation of human p53 mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Norrild, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a post-transcriptional mechanism regulating mRNA stability and translation. The human p53 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) contains two regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) just upstream of the poly(A) hexanucleotide. Evaluation of the p53 CPE......-like elements was performed by luciferase reporter assays, qPCR, and poly(A) assays. Herein, we report the down regulation of a luciferase reporter fused to the p53 3'-UTR, when human CPE-binding protein 1 (hCPEB1) is overexpressed. This inhibition is partially rescued when hCPEB1fused to hGLD-2 [a human...... cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase] is overexpressed instead. The stability of a luciferase mRNA containing the p53 3'-UTR downstream, is decreased when hCPEB1 is overexpressed as seen by qPCR. Expression of hGLD-2 restores the mRNA stability. This is due to elongation of the poly(A) tail as seen by a PCR...

  8. The DEAD box helicase RDE-12 promotes amplification of RNAi in cytoplasmic foci in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Vallandingham, Jim; Shiu, Philip; Li, Hua; Hunter, Craig P; Mak, Ho Yi

    2014-04-14

    RNAi is a potent mechanism for downregulating gene expression. Conserved RNAi pathway components are found in animals, plants, fungi, and other eukaryotes. In C. elegans, the RNAi response is greatly amplified by the synthesis of abundant secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Exogenous double-stranded RNA is processed by Dicer and RDE-1/Argonaute into primary siRNA that guides target mRNA recognition. The RDE-10/RDE-11 complex and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RRF-1 then engage the target mRNA for secondary siRNA synthesis. However, the molecular link between primary siRNA production and secondary siRNA synthesis remains largely unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the subcellular sites for target mRNA recognition and degradation coincide with sites where siRNA synthesis and amplification occur. In the C. elegans germline, cytoplasmic P granules at the nuclear pores and perinuclear Mutator foci contribute to target mRNA surveillance and siRNA amplification, respectively. We report that RDE-12, a conserved phenylalanine-glycine (FG) domain-containing DEAD box helicase, localizes in P granules and cytoplasmic foci that are enriched in RSD-6 but are excluded from the Mutator foci. Our results suggest that RDE-12 promotes secondary siRNA synthesis by orchestrating the recruitment of RDE-10 and RRF-1 to primary siRNA-targeted mRNA in distinct cytoplasmic compartments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant vegetative and animal cytoplasmic actins share functional competence for spatial development with protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Roy, Eileen; Meagher, Richard B

    2012-05-01

    Actin is an essential multifunctional protein encoded by two distinct ancient classes of genes in animals (cytoplasmic and muscle) and plants (vegetative and reproductive). The prevailing view is that each class of actin variants is functionally distinct. However, we propose that the vegetative plant and cytoplasmic animal variants have conserved functional competence for spatial development inherited from an ancestral protist actin sequence. To test this idea, we ectopically expressed animal and protist actins in Arabidopsis thaliana double vegetative actin mutants that are dramatically altered in cell and organ morphologies. We found that expression of cytoplasmic actins from humans and even a highly divergent invertebrate Ciona intestinalis qualitatively and quantitatively suppressed the root cell polarity and organ defects of act8 act7 mutants and moderately suppressed the root-hairless phenotype of act2 act8 mutants. By contrast, human muscle actins were unable to support prominently any aspect of plant development. Furthermore, actins from three protists representing Choanozoa, Archamoeba, and green algae efficiently suppressed all the phenotypes of both the plant mutants. Remarkably, these data imply that actin's competence to carry out a complex suite of processes essential for multicellular development was already fully developed in single-celled protists and evolved nonprogressively from protists to plants and animals.

  10. The absence of A-to-I editing in the anticodon of plant cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG demands a relaxation of the wobble decoding rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Carolin A; Leisinger, Anne-Katrin; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A; Igloi, Gabor L

    2012-10-01

    It is a prevalent concept that, in line with the Wobble Hypothesis, those tRNAs having an adenosine in the first position of the anticodon become modified to an inosine at this position. Sequencing the cDNA derived from the gene coding for cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG from several higher plants as well as mass spectrometric analysis of the isoacceptor has revealed that for this kingdom an unmodified A in the wobble position of the anticodon is the rule rather than the exception. In vitro translation shows that in the plant system the absence of inosine in the wobble position of tRNA (Arg) does not prevent decoding. This isoacceptor belongs to the class of tRNA that is imported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria of higher plants. Previous studies on the mitochondrial tRNA pool have demonstrated the existence of tRNA (Arg) ICG in this organelle. In moss the mitochondrial encoded distinct tRNA (Arg) ACG isoacceptor possesses the I34 modification. The implication is that for mitochondrial protein biosynthesis A-to-I editing is necessary and occurs by a mitochondrion-specific deaminase after import of the unmodified nuclear encoded tRNA (Arg) ACG.

  11. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed samples of Yuetai A, a Honglian (HL type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Lingshui, Hainan Province during 2004–2006. The seed impurity of Yuetai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rf after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability. All of the ten maintainer lines, five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants, directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating ‘iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations’. Furthermore, high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination. After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A, the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  12. Regulation of H+ Extrusion and Cytoplasmic pH in Maize Root Tips Acclimated to a Low-Oxygen Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J. H.; Roberts, JKM.

    1996-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that H+ extrusion contributes to cytoplasmic pH regulation and tolerance of anoxia in maize (Zea mays) root tips. We studied root tips of whole seedlings that were acclimated to a low-oxygen environment by pretreatment in 3% (v/v) O2. Acclimated root tips characteristically regulate cytoplasmic pH near neutrality and survive prolonged anoxia, whereas nonacclimated tips undergo severe cytoplasmic acidosis and die much more quickly. We show that the plasma membrane H+-ATPase can operate under anoxia and that net H+ extrusion increases when cytoplasmic pH falls. However, at an external pH near 6.0, H+ extrusion contributes little to cytoplasmic pH regulation. At more acidic external pH values, net H+ flux into root tips increases dramatically, leading to a decrease in cytoplasmic pH and reduced tolerance of anoxia. We present evidence that, under these conditions, H+ pumps are activated to partly offset acidosis due to H+ influx and, thereby, contribute to cytoplasmic pH regulation and tolerance of anoxia. The regulation of H+ extrusion under anoxia is discussed with respect to the acclimation response and mechanisms of intracellular pH regulation in aerobic plant cells.

  13. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  14. Region of Nipah virus C protein responsible for shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Ryo; Yoneda, Misako, E-mail: yone@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Uchida, Shotaro; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-10-15

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans, with high mortality. NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) is essential for its pathogenicity, but its functions are unclear. In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21–24 and 110–139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. We also determined that amino acids 60–75 and 72–75 were important for nuclear localization of NiV-C. Furthermore, NiV-C mutants that had lost their capacity for nuclear localization inhibited the interferon (IFN) response more strongly than complete NiV-C. These results indicate that the IFN-antagonist activity of NiV-C occurs in the cytoplasm. -- Highlights: •Nipah virus (NiV) infection resulted in high mortality, but effective treatment has not been established. •Several reports revealed that NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) was essential for NiV pathogenicity, however, whole of NiV-C function is still unknown. •Although nonstructural C proteins of other Paramyxoviruses are expressed in similar mechanism and exert similar activity, subcellular localization and cellular targets are different. In this study, we evaluated the subcellular localization of NiV-C. •To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that NiV-C shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also clarified that NiV-C has nuclear export signal and nuclear localization signal using NiV-C deleted, alanine substitution mutants and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused proteins. •And we also showed that interferon (IFN) antagonist activity of NiV-C related to its subcellular localization. Our results indicate that NiV-C exert IFN antagonist activity in the cytoplasm.

  15. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo-cytoplasmic

  16. Cell nuclei and cytoplasm joint segmentation using the sliding band filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelhas, Pedro; Marcuzzo, Monica; Mendonça, Ana Maria; Campilho, Aurélio

    2010-08-01

    Microscopy cell image analysis is a fundamental tool for biological research. In particular, multivariate fluorescence microscopy is used to observe different aspects of cells in cultures. It is still common practice to perform analysis tasks by visual inspection of individual cells which is time consuming, exhausting and prone to induce subjective bias. This makes automatic cell image analysis essential for large scale, objective studies of cell cultures. Traditionally the task of automatic cell analysis is approached through the use of image segmentation methods for extraction of cells' locations and shapes. Image segmentation, although fundamental, is neither an easy task in computer vision nor is it robust to image quality changes. This makes image segmentation for cell detection semi-automated requiring frequent tuning of parameters. We introduce a new approach for cell detection and shape estimation in multivariate images based on the sliding band filter (SBF). This filter's design makes it adequate to detect overall convex shapes and as such it performs well for cell detection. Furthermore, the parameters involved are intuitive as they are directly related to the expected cell size. Using the SBF filter we detect cells' nucleus and cytoplasm location and shapes. Based on the assumption that each cell has the same approximate shape center in both nuclei and cytoplasm fluorescence channels, we guide cytoplasm shape estimation by the nuclear detections improving performance and reducing errors. Then we validate cell detection by gathering evidence from nuclei and cytoplasm channels. Additionally, we include overlap correction and shape regularization steps which further improve the estimated cell shapes. The approach is evaluated using two datasets with different types of data: a 20 images benchmark set of simulated cell culture images, containing 1000 simulated cells; a 16 images Drosophila melanogaster Kc167 dataset containing 1255 cells, stained for DNA and

  17. Nucleocapsid Protein from Fig Mosaic Virus Forms Cytoplasmic Agglomerates That Are Hauled by Endoplasmic Reticulum Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. IMPORTANCE Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly

  18. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm) from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid female

  19. Susceptibility to virus-cell fusion at the plasma membrane is reduced through expression of HIV gp41 cytoplasmic domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowsky, Katharina; Luksza, Julia; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2008-01-01

    The cytoplasmic tail of the HIV transmembrane protein plays an important role in viral infection. In this study we analyzed the role of retroviral cytoplasmic tails in modulating the cytoskeleton and interfering with virus-cell fusion. HeLaP4 cells expressing different HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs showed reduced acetylated tubulin levels whereas the cytoplasmic tail of MLV did not alter microtubule stability indicating a unique function for the lentiviral cytoplasmic tail. The effect on tubulin is mediated through the membrane proximal region of the HIV cytoplasmic tail and was independent of membrane localization. Site-directed mutagenesis identified three motifs in the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail required to effect the reduction in acetylated tubulin. Both the YxxΦ domain and amino acids 21 to 45 of the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail need to be present to change the level of acetylated tubulin in transfected cells. T-cells stably expressing one HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail derived construct showed also a reduction in acetylated tubulin thus confirming the importance of this effect not only for HeLaP4 and 293T cells. Challenge experiments using transiently transfected HeLaP4 cells and T cells stably expressing an HIV cytoplasmic tail construct revealed both reduced virus-cell fusion and replication of HIV-1 NL4.3 compared to control cells. In the virus-cell fusion assay only virions pseudotyped with either HIV or MLV envelopes showed reduced fusion efficiency, whereas VSV-G pseudotyped virions where not affected by the expression of HIV derived cytoplasmic tail constructs, indicating that fusion at the plasma but not endosomal membrane is affected. Overexpression of human histone-deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and constitutively active RhoA resulted in a reduction of acetylated tubulin and reduced virus-cell fusion as significant as that observed following expression of HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs. Inhibition of HDAC6 showed a strong increase in acetylated tubulin and increase of

  20. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  1. Plasma exchange and glucocorticoid dosing in the treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis (PEXIVAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Michael; Merkel, Peter A; Peh, Chen Au

    2013-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) are small vessel vasculitides collectively referred to as anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). AAV is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality due to uncontrolled disease...

  2. Dehydration-induced redistribution of amphiphilic molecules between cytoplasm and lipids is associated with desiccation tolerance in seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, J.; Leprince, O.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study establishes a relationship between desiccation tolerance and the transfer of amphiphilic molecules from the cytoplasm into lipids during drying, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of amphiphilic spin probes introduced into imbibed radicles of pea (Pisum sativum) and

  3. Labelling of human resting lymphocytes by continuous infusion of (/sup 3/H)thymidine. 1. Characterization of cytoplasmic label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, P; Trepel, F; Maisel, K H; Past, W; Reisert, I; Begemann, H; Pilgrim, C [Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    After continuous /sup 3/H-TdR infusion in vivo or incubation with /sup 3/H-TdR in vitro human blood lymphocytes were examined by light-microscopic and electron-microscopic autoradiography. Using relatively long autoradiographic exposure times (50-300 days) not only nuclear but also cytoplasmic labelling was visualized, the cytoplasmic label being present in up to 96% of the cells. The cytoplasmic label was predominantly associated with the mitochondria and was removed from the cells nearly completely by treatment with DNase but not with RNase or cold perchloric acid. It is concluded that this cytoplasmic label mainly represents /sup 3/H-TdR incorporated into mitochondrial DNA which is continuously renewed in an average turnover time of 14 days or less. This value is compatible with a turnover time of 11 days for mitochondrial DNA in mammalian cells reported in the literature.

  4. Inhibition of host protein synthesis by Sindbis virus: correlation with viral RNA replication and release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miguel A; García-Moreno, Manuel; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Infection of mammalian cells by Sindbis virus (SINV) profoundly blocks cellular mRNA translation. Experimental evidence points to viral non-structural proteins (nsPs), in particular nsP2, as the mediator of this inhibition. However, individual expression of nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 or nsP1-4 does not block cellular protein synthesis in BHK cells. Trans-complementation of a defective SINV replicon lacking most of the coding region for nsPs by the co-expression of nsP1-4 propitiates viral RNA replication at low levels, and inhibition of cellular translation is not observed. Exit of nuclear proteins including T-cell intracellular antigen and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is clearly detected in SINV-infected cells, but not upon the expression of nsPs, even when the defective replicon was complemented. Analysis of a SINV variant with a point mutation in nsP2, exhibiting defects in the shut-off of host protein synthesis, indicates that both viral RNA replication and the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm are greatly inhibited. Furthermore, nucleoside analogues that inhibit cellular and viral RNA synthesis impede the blockade of host mRNA translation, in addition to the release of nuclear proteins. Prevention of the shut-off of host mRNA translation by nucleoside analogues is not due to the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, as this prevention is also observed in PKR(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not phosphorylate eIF2α after SINV infection. Collectively, our observations are consistent with the concept that for the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis to occur, viral RNA replication must take place at control levels, leading to the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  6. Characterization of phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain of the 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosorius, O; Mieskes, G; Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    The human 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR 300) is phosphorylated in vivo at serine residues of its cytoplasmic domain. Two-dimensional separation can resolve tryptic phosphopeptides into four major species. To identify the kinases involved in MPR 300 phosphorylation and the phosphorylat......The human 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR 300) is phosphorylated in vivo at serine residues of its cytoplasmic domain. Two-dimensional separation can resolve tryptic phosphopeptides into four major species. To identify the kinases involved in MPR 300 phosphorylation...... and the phosphorylation sites the entire coding sequence of the cytoplasmic tail was expressed in Escherichia coli. The isolated cytoplasmic domain was used as a substrate for four purified serine/threonine kinases [casein kinase II (CK II), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin kinase]. All...... kinases phosphorylate the cytoplasmic tail exclusively on serine residues. Inhibition studies using synthetic peptides, partial sequencing of isolated tryptic phosphopeptides and co-migration with tryptic phosphopeptides from MPR 300 labelled in vivo showed that (i) PKA phosphorylates the cytoplasmic MPR...

  7. Chimeric Proton-Pumping Rhodopsins Containing the Cytoplasmic Loop of Bovine Rhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kazuho; Inoue, Keiichi; Shichida, Yoshinori; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit stimuli to intracellular signaling systems. Rhodopsin (Rh), which is a prototypical GPCR, possesses an 11-cis retinal. Photoisomerization of 11-cis to all-trans leads to structural changes in the protein of cytoplasmic loops, activating G-protein. Microbial rhodopsins are similar heptahelical membrane proteins that function as bacterial sensors, light-driven ion-pumps, or light-gated channels. They possess an all-trans retinal, and photoisomerization to 13-cis triggers structural changes in protein. Despite these similarities, there is no sequence homology between visual and microbial rhodopsins, and microbial rhodopsins do not activate G-proteins. In this study, new chimeric proton-pumping rhodopsins, proteorhodopsin (PR) and Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) were designed by replacing cytoplasmic loops with bovine Rh loops. Although G-protein was not activated by the PR chimeras, all 12 GR chimeras activated G-protein. The GR chimera containing the second cytoplasmic loop of bovine Rh did not activate G-protein. However, the chimera with a second and third double-loop further enhanced G-protein activation. Introduction of an E132Q mutation slowed the photocycle 30-fold and enhanced activation. The highest catalytic activity of the GR chimera was still 3,200 times lower than bovine Rh but only 64 times lower than amphioxus Go-rhodopsin. This GR chimera showed a strong absorption change of the amide-I band on a light-minus-dark difference FTIR spectrum which could represent a larger helical opening, important for G-protein activation. The light-dependent catalytic activity of this GR chimera makes it a potential optogenetic tool for enzymatic activation by light. PMID:24621599

  8. Transcriptome analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and restoration in CMS-D8 cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Xu, Jiannong; Zhang, Jinfa

    2013-10-01

    A global view of differential expression of genes in CMS-D8 of cotton was presented in this study which will facilitate the understanding of cytoplasmic male sterility in cotton. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait in higher plants which is incapable of producing functional pollen. However, the male fertility can be restored by one or more nuclear-encoded restorer genes. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis of CMS and restoration in cotton is currently lacking. In this study, Affymetrix GeneChips© Cotton Genome Array containing 24,132 transcripts was used to compare differentially expressed (DE) genes of flower buds at the meiosis stage between CMS and its restorer cotton plants conditioned by the D8 cytoplasm. A total of 458 (1.9 %) of DE genes including 127 up-regulated and 331 down-regulated ones were identified in the CMS-D8 line. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 10 DE genes selected from seven functional categories. The most frequent DE gene group was found to encode putative proteins involved in cell wall expansion, such as pectinesterase, pectate lyase, pectin methylesterase, glyoxal oxidase, polygalacturonase, indole-3-acetic acid-amino synthetase, and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase. Genes in cytoskeleton category including actin, which plays a key role in cell wall expansion, cell elongation and cell division, were also highly differentially expressed between the fertile and CMS plants. This work represents the first study in utilizing microarray to identify CMS-related genes by comparing overall DE genes between fertile and CMS plants in cotton. The results provide evidence that many CMS-associated genes are mainly involved in cell wall expansion. Further analysis will be required to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of male sterility which will facilitate the development of new hybrid cultivars in cotton.

  9. Accessory factors of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors required for antiviral innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eOshiumi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and thus cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  10. Cell cycle-dependent microtubule-based dynamic transport of cytoplasmic dynein in mammalian cells.

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    Takuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic dynein complex is a large multi-subunit microtubule (MT-associated molecular motor involved in various cellular functions including organelle positioning, vesicle transport and cell division. However, regulatory mechanism of the cell-cycle dependent distribution of dynein has not fully been understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report live-cell imaging of cytoplasmic dynein in HeLa cells, by expressing multifunctional green fluorescent protein (mfGFP-tagged 74-kDa intermediate chain (IC74. IC74-mfGFP was successfully incorporated into functional dynein complex. In interphase, dynein moved bi-directionally along with MTs, which might carry cargos such as transport vesicles. A substantial fraction of dynein moved toward cell periphery together with EB1, a member of MT plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs, suggesting +TIPs-mediated transport of dynein. In late-interphase and prophase, dynein was localized at the centrosomes and the radial MT array. In prometaphase and metaphase, dynein was localized at spindle MTs where it frequently moved from spindle poles toward chromosomes or cell cortex. +TIPs may be involved in the transport of spindle dyneins. Possible kinetochore and cortical dyneins were also observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cytoplasmic dynein is transported to the site of action in preparation for the following cellular events, primarily by the MT-based transport. The MT-based transport may have greater advantage than simple diffusion of soluble dynein in rapid and efficient transport of the limited concentration of the protein.

  11. Tau-mediated nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic accumulation of SFPQ in Alzheimer's and Pick's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazi D Ke

    Full Text Available Tau dysfunction characterizes neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Here, we performed an unbiased SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression of differentially expressed mRNAs in the amygdala of transgenic pR5 mice that express human tau carrying the P301L mutation previously identified in familial cases of FTLD. SAGE identified 29 deregulated transcripts including Sfpq that encodes a nuclear factor implicated in the splicing and regulation of gene expression. To assess the relevance for human disease we analyzed brains from AD, Pick's disease (PiD, a form of FTLD, and control cases. Strikingly, in AD and PiD, both dementias with a tau pathology, affected brain areas showed a virtually complete nuclear depletion of SFPQ in both neurons and astrocytes, along with cytoplasmic accumulation. Accordingly, neurons harboring either AD tangles or Pick bodies were also depleted of SFPQ. Immunoblot analysis of human entorhinal cortex samples revealed reduced SFPQ levels with advanced Braak stages suggesting that the SFPQ pathology may progress together with the tau pathology in AD. To determine a causal role for tau, we stably expressed both wild-type and P301L human tau in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, an established cell culture model of tau pathology. The cells were differentiated by two independent methods, mitomycin C-mediated cell cycle arrest or neuronal differentiation with retinoic acid. Confocal microscopy revealed that SFPQ was confined to nuclei in non-transfected wild-type cells, whereas in wild-type and P301L tau over-expressing cells, irrespective of the differentiation method, it formed aggregates in the cytoplasm, suggesting that pathogenic tau drives SFPQ pathology in post-mitotic cells. Our findings add SFPQ to a growing list of transcription factors with an altered nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution under neurodegenerative conditions.

  12. Imaging Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Dynamics in Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kosuke; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Miki; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Bouvet, Michael; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    Colon cancer frequently results in metastasis to the liver, where it becomes the main cause of death. However, the cell cycle in primary tumors and metastases is poorly understood. We developed a mouse model of liver metastasis using the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm (HCT-116-GFP-RFP). HCT-116 GFP-RFP cells were injected into the spleen of nu/nu nude mice. HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells subsequently formed primary tumors in the spleen, as well as metastatic colonies in the liver and retroperitoneum by 28 days after cell transplantation. Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, it was possible to clearly image mitosis of the dual-colored colon cancer cells in the primary tumor as well as liver and other metastases. Multi-nucleate cancer cells, in addition to mono-nucleate cancer cells and their mitosis, were observed in the primary tumor and metastasis. Multi-nucleate HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells were also observed after culture of the primary and metastatic tumors. A similar ratio of mono-nucleate, multi-nucleate, and mitotic cells grew from the primary and metastatic tumors in culture, suggesting similarity of the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of primary and metastatic cancer cells, further emphasizing the stochastic nature of metastasis. Our results demonstrate a similar heterogeneity of nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics within primary tumors and metastases, which may be an important factor in the stochastic nature of metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Secretion of Bacterial Lipoproteins: Through the Cytoplasmic Membrane, the Periplasm and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zückert, Wolfram R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are peripherally anchored membrane proteins that play a variety of roles in bacterial physiology and virulence in monoderm (single membrane-enveloped, e.g., grampositive) and diderm (double membrane-enveloped, e.g., gram-negative) bacteria. After export of prolipoproteins through the cytoplasmic membrane, which occurs predominantly but not exclusively via the general secretory or Sec pathway, the proteins are lipid-modified at the cytoplasmic membrane in a multistep process that involves sequential modification of a cysteine residue and cleavage of the signal peptide by the signal II peptidase Lsp. In both monoderms and diderms, signal peptide processing is preceded by acylation with a diacylglycerol through preprolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (Lgt). In diderms but also some monoderms, lipoproteins are further modified with a third acyl chain through lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). Fully modified lipoproteins that are destined to be anchored in the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) are selected, transported and inserted by the Lol (lipoprotein outer membrane localization) pathway machinery, which consists of the inner-membrane (IM) ABC transporterlike LolCDE complex, the periplasmic LolA chaperone and the OM LolB lipoprotein receptor. Retention of lipoproteins in the cytoplasmic membrane results from Lol avoidance signals that were originally described as the “+2 rule”. Surface localization of lipoproteins in diderms is rare in most bacteria, with the exception of several spirochetal species. Type 2 (T2SS) and type 5 (T5SS) secretion systems are involved in secretion of specific surface lipoproteins of γ-proteobacteria. In the model spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, surface lipoprotein secretion does not follow established sorting rules, but remains dependent on N-terminal peptide sequences. Secretion through the outer membrane requires maintenance of lipoproteins in a translocation-competent unfolded conformation

  14. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Sami F.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Ferrer-Villada, Tania; López-Izquierdo, Angelica; Pandit, Sandeep; Calvo, Conrado J.; Grzeda, Krzysztof R.; Berenfeld, Omer; Sánchez Chapula, José A.; Jalife, José

    2010-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias can be perpetuated by up-regulation of inward rectifier potassium channels. Thus, it may be beneficial to block inward rectifier channels under conditions in which their function becomes arrhythmogenic (e.g., inherited gain-of-function mutation channelopathies, ischemia, and chronic and vagally mediated atrial fibrillation). We hypothesize that the antimalarial quinoline chloroquine exerts potent antiarrhythmic effects by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (IK1), Kir3.1 (IKACh), or Kir6.2 (IKATP) and reducing inward rectifier potassium currents. In isolated hearts of three different mammalian species, intracoronary chloroquine perfusion reduced fibrillatory frequency (atrial or ventricular), and effectively terminated the arrhythmia with resumption of sinus rhythm. In patch-clamp experiments chloroquine blocked IK1, IKACh, and IKATP. Comparative molecular modeling and ligand docking of chloroquine in the intracellular domains of Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir6.2 suggested that chloroquine blocks or reduces potassium flow by interacting with negatively charged amino acids facing the ion permeation vestibule of the channel in question. These results open a novel path toward discovering antiarrhythmic pharmacophores that target specific residues of the cytoplasmic domain of inward rectifier potassium channels.—Noujaim, S. F., Stuckey, J. A., Ponce-Balbuena, D., Ferrer-Villada, T., López-Izquierdo, A., Pandit, S., Calvo, C. J., Grzeda, K. R., Berenfeld, O., Sánchez Chapula, J. A., Jalife, J. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets. PMID:20585026

  15. Cytoplasmic PELP1 and ERRgamma protect human mammary epithelial cells from Tam-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Brian J; Regan Anderson, Tarah M; Welch, Siya Lem; Nicely, Julie; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Ostrander, Julie H

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is the only FDA-approved chemoprevention agent for pre-menopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer. While Tam reduces a woman's risk of developing estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms associated with risk reduction are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that cytoplasmic proline, glutamic acid and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) promotes Tam resistance in breast cancer cell lines. Herein, we tested for PELP1 localization in breast epithelial cells from women at high risk for developing breast cancer and found that PELP1 was localized to the cytoplasm in 36% of samples. In vitro, immortalized HMECs expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) mutant of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto) were resistant to Tam-induced death. Furthermore, PELP1-cyto signaling through estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) promoted cell survival in the presence of Tam. Overexpression of ERRγ in immortalized HMECs protected cells from Tam-induced death, while knockdown of ERRγ sensitized PELP1-cyto expressing HMECs to Tam. Moreover, Tam-induced HMEC cell death was independent of apoptosis and involved accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II. Expression of PELP1-cyto and ERRγ reduced Tam-induced LC3-II accumulation, and knockdown of ERRγ increased LC3-II levels in response to Tam. Additionally, PELP1-cyto expression led to the upregulation of MMP-3 and MAOB, known PELP1 and ERRγ target genes, respectively. Our data indicate that cytoplasmic PELP1 induces signaling pathways that converge on ERRγ to promote cell survival in the presence of Tam. These data suggest that PELP1 localization and/or ERRγ activation could be developed as tissue biomarkers for Tam responsiveness.

  16. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla

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    Li Meng-Hua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR belong to the large superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. Both of them have been identified as candidate genes affecting key quantitative traits, like growth and reproduction in livestock. We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR. Results We sequenced PRLR gene exon 10, coding for the major part of the cytoplasmic domain, from cattle, American bison, European bison, yak, sheep, pig and wild boar individuals. We found different patterns of variation in the two receptors within and between ruminants and pigs. Pigs and bison species have no variation within GHR exon 10, but show high haplotype diversity for the PRLR exon 10. In cattle, PRLR shows lower diversity than GHR. The Bovinae PRLR haplotype network fits better the known phylogenetic relationships between the species than that of the GHR, where differences within cattle breeds are larger than between the different species in the subfamily. By comparison with the wild boar haplotypes, a high number of subsequent nonsynonymous substitutions seem to have accumulated in the pig PRLR exon 10 after domestication. Conclusion Both genes affect a multitude of traits that have been targets of selection after domestication. The genes seem to have responded differently to different selection pressures imposed by human artificial selection. The results suggest possible effects of selective sweeps in GHR before domestication in the pig lineage or species divergence in the Bison lineage. The PRLR results may be explained by strong directional selection in pigs or functional switching.

  17. A novel mitochondrial orf147 causes cytoplasmic male sterility in pigeonpea by modulating aberrant anther dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Gupta, Ranadheer; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Reddy, Bommineni Pradeep; Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Sameerkumar, C V; Saxena, Rachit Kumar; Sharma, Kiran K

    2018-05-01

    A novel open reading frame (ORF) identified and cloned from the A4 cytoplasm of Cajanus cajanifolius induced partial to complete male sterility when introduced into Arabidopsis and tobacco. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) is the only legume known to have commercial hybrid seed technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We identified a novel ORF (orf147) from the A4 cytoplasm of C. cajanifolius that was created via rearrangements in the CMS line and co-transcribes with the known and unknown sequences. The bi/poly-cistronic transcripts cause gain-of-function variants in the mitochondrial genome of CMS pigeonpea lines having distinct processing mechanisms and transcription start sites. In presence of orf147, significant repression of Escherichia coli growth indicated its toxicity to the host cells and induced partial to complete male sterility in transgenic progenies of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum where phenotype co-segregated with the transgene. The male sterile plants showed aberrant floral development and reduced lignin content in the anthers. Gene expression studies in male sterile pigeonpea, Arabidopsis and tobacco plants confirmed down-regulation of several anther biogenesis genes and key genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, indicative of regulation of retrograde signaling. Besides providing evidence for the involvement of orf147 in pigeonpea CMS, this study provides valuable insights into its function. Cytotoxicity and aberrant programmed cell death induced by orf147 could be important for mechanism underlying male sterility that offers opportunities for possible translation for these findings for exploiting hybrid vigor in other recalcitrant crops as well.

  18. Cytoplasmic pH dynamics in maize pulvinal cells induced by gravity vector changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, E.; Collings, D. A.; Rink, J. C.; Allen, N. S.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pH(c)) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291-1298). The question arises whether pH(c) has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pH(c) in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pH(c) changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pH(c) changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pH(c) has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism.

  19. Marker-assisted identification of restorer gene(s) in iso-cytoplasmic restorer lines of WA cytoplasm in rice and assessment of their fertility restoration potential across environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhowmick, Prolay Kumar; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Malik, Manoj; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Seth, R; Nagarajan, M; Krishnan, S Gopala; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Iso-cytoplasmic restorers possess the same male sterile cytoplasm as the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, thereby minimizing the potential cyto-nuclear conflict in the hybrids. Restoration of fertility of the wild abortive CMS is governed by two major genes namely, Rf3 and Rf4 . Therefore, assessing the allelic status of these restorer genes in the iso-cytoplasmic restorers using molecular markers will not only help in estimating the efficiency of these genes either alone or in combination, in fertility restoration in the hybrids in different environments, but will also be useful in determining the efficacy of these markers. In the present study, the efficiency of molecular markers in identifying genotypes carrying restorer allele of the gene(s) Rf3 and Rf4, restoring male fertility of WA cytoplasm in rice was assessed in a set of 100 iso-cytoplasmic rice restorers using gene linked as well as candidate gene based markers. In order to validate the efficacy of markers in identifying the restorers, a sub-set of selected 25 iso-cytoplasmic rice restorers were crossed with four different cytoplasmic male sterile lines namely, IR 79156A, IR 58025A, Pusa 6A and RTN 12A, and the pollen and spikelet fertility of the F 1 s were evaluated at three different locations. Marker analysis showed that Rf4 was the predominant fertility restorer gene in the iso-cytoplasmic restorers and Rf3 had a synergistic effect on fertility restoration. The efficiency of gene based markers, DRCG-RF4-14 and DRRM-RF3-10 for Rf4 (87%) and Rf3 (84%) genes was higher than respective gene-linked SSR markers RM6100 (80%) and RM3873 (82%). It is concluded that the gene based markers can be effectively used in identifying fertility restorer lines obviating the need for making crosses and evaluating the F 1 s. Though gene based markers are more efficient, there is a need to identify functional polymorphisms which can provide 100% efficiency. Three iso-cytoplasmic restorers namely, PRR 300, PRR 363

  20. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects on fatty acid components in soybean (Glycine max Merill.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Hailong; LI Wenxia; LI Wenbin

    2007-01-01

    The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components,and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties.Embryo,cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype×environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents,F1 and F2,of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin,China.The interaction effects of palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects,while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content.Among all kinds of genetic main effects,the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acids,while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids.Among all kinds of interaction effects,the embryo interaction effects were the largest for fatty acids.The sum of additive and additive× environment effects were larger than that of dominance and dominance×environment effects for the linolenic acid content,but not for other quality traits.The general heritabilities were the main parts of heritabilities for palmitic and oleic acid contents,but the interaction was more important for stearic,linoleic,and linolenic acid contents.For the general heritability,maternal and cytoplasm heritabilities were the main components for palmitic,oleic,and linolenic acid contents.It was shown for the interaction heritabilities that the embryo interaction heritabilities were more important for oleic and linolenic acid contents,while the maternal interaction heritabilities were more important for linoleic acid content.Among selection response components,the maternal and cytoplasm general responses and/or interaction responses were more important for palmitic

  1. Prospective study of radioimmunoassay for antibodies against neutrophil cytoplasm in diagnosis of systemic vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, C.O.S.; Winearls, C.G.; Jones, S.; Marshall, P.D.; Lockwood, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyarteritis are complicated by the lack of specific diagnostic tests. The diagnostic performance of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, which detects the autoantibodies against neutrophil cytoplasm present in these disorders, was assessed in a prospective study of patients with suspected vasculitis and/or rapidly progressive nephritis. The assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 96% when carried out in combination with a specific inhibition stage and indirect immunofluorescence staining of alcohol-fixed normal neutrophils. (author)

  2. Theodor and Marcella Boveri: chromosomes and cytoplasm in heredity and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satzinger, Helga

    2008-03-01

    The chromosome theory of heredity, developed in 1902-1904, became one of the foundation stones of twentieth-century genetics. It is usually referred to as the Sutton-Boveri theory after Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri. However, the contributions of Theodor Boveri and his co-worker, Marcella O'Grady Boveri (also his wife), to the understanding of heredity and development go beyond the localization of the Mendelian hereditary factors onto the chromosomes. They investigated the interaction of cytoplasm and chromosomes, and demonstrated its relevance in heredity and development.

  3. Central Diabetes Insipidus in Refractory Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Keiji; Morishita, Michiko; Watanabe, Haruki; Sada, Ken-Ei; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Eri; Narazaki, Mariko; Tatebe, Noriko; Watanabe, Katsue; Kawabata, Tomoko; Wada, Jun

    2017-11-01

    We herein describe two cases of refractory antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) complicated with diabetes insipidus (DI) possibly related to hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP). One patient had microscopic polyangiitis and HP, which were refractory to cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and mizoribine. Remission was finally achieved with the use of etanercept, but DI occurred 5 years later. The other patient had granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which that was refractory to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, MMF, and rituximab. DI subsequently developed, but was successfully treated with etanercept. Dura mater hypertrophy was macroscopically observed in the latter case.

  4. Rapid and Sustained Nuclear-Cytoplasmic ERK Oscillations Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Chrisler, William B.; Resat, Haluk; Bollinger, Nikki; Opresko, Lee K.; Wiley, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mathematical modeling has predicted that ERK activity should oscillate in response to cell stimulation, but this has never been observed. To explore this inconsistency, we expressed an ERK1-GFP fusion protein in mammary epithelial cells. Following EGF stimulation, we observed rapid and continuous ERK oscillations between the nucleus and cytoplasm with a periodicity of approximately 15 minutes. These oscillations were remarkably persistent (>45 cycles), displayed an asymmetric waveform, and were highly dependent on cell density, essentially disappearing at confluency. We conclude that the ERK pathway is an intrinsic oscillator. Although the functional implications of the observed oscillations are uncertain, this property can be used to continuously monitor ERK activity in single cells.

  5. Implications of Antiphospholipid and Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibodies in the Context of Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leifer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA positivity has been documented in some patients with postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN and is associated with more severe disease, antiphospholipid antibodies (APA are not known to be a common occurrence. We describe a child with severe acute kidney injury who was noted to have prolonged positivity of both ANCA and APA; a renal biopsy showed noncrescentic immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis with subepithelial deposits compatible with PIGN. He recovered without maintenance immunosuppressive therapy and at last follow-up had normal renal function. We discuss the cooccurrence and implications of ANCA and APA in children with PIGN.

  6. Effect of thapsigargin on cytoplasmic Ca2+ and proliferation of human lymphocytes in relation to AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, O; Foder, B; Thastrup, Ole

    1988-01-01

    The tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin, induced a dose-dependent increase of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([ Ca2+]i) in human lymphocytes from a resting level between 100 and 150 nM up to about 1 microM. Half-maximum response was found at about 1 nM of thapsigargin, full...... of the lymphocytes, which was much higher than that caused by the PHA treatment, even in AIDS lymphocytes. Moreover, the thapsigargin/PMA treatment stimulated the expression of the IL-2 receptors on both normal and AIDS lymphocytes, similar to the effect of PHA. It is concluded that thapsigargin exerts its effects...

  7. Isolation of cell nuclei using inert macromolecules to mimic the crowded cytoplasm.

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    Ronald Hancock

    Full Text Available Cell nuclei are commonly isolated and studied in media which include millimolar concentrations of cations, which conserve the nuclear volume by screening the negative charges on chromatin and maintaining its compaction. However, two factors question if these ionic conditions correctly reproduce the environment of nuclei in vivo: the small-scale motion and conformation of chromatin in vivo are not reproduced in isolated nuclei, and experiments and theory suggest that small ions in the cytoplasm are not free in the soluble phase but are predominantly bound to macromolecules. We studied the possible role in maintaining the structure and functions of nuclei in vivo of a further but frequently overlooked property of the cytoplasm, the crowding or osmotic effects caused by diffusible macromolecules whose concentration, measured in several studies, is in the range of 130 mg/ml. Nuclei which conserved their volume in the cell and their ultrastructure seen by electron microscopy were released from K562 cells in media containing the inert polymer 70 kDa Ficoll (50% w/v or 70 kDa dextran (35% w/v to replace the diffusible cytoplasmic molecules which were dispersed on cell lysis with digitonin, with 100 microM K-Hepes buffer as the only source of ions. Immunofluorescence labelling and experiments using cells expressing GFP-fusion proteins showed that internal compartments (nucleoli, PML and coiled bodies, foci of RNA polymerase II were conserved in these nuclei, and nascent RNA transcripts could be elongated. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that crowding by diffusible cytoplasmic macromolecules is a crucial but overlooked factor which supports the nucleus in vivo by equilibrating the opposing osmotic pressure cause by the high concentration of macromolecules in the nucleus, and suggest that crowded media provide more physiological conditions to study nuclear structure and functions. They may also help to resolve the long-standing paradox

  8. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analyses of Sterile/Fertile Anthers from a Thermo-Sensitive Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Wheat with Aegilops kotschyi Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoming Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A “two-line hybrid system” was developed, previously based on thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility in Aegilops kotschyi (K-TCMS, which can be used in wheat breeding. The K-TCMS line exhibits complete male sterility and it can be used to produce hybrid wheat seeds during the normal wheat-growing season; it propagates via self-pollination at high temperatures. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteome and bioinformatics analyses of the TCMS line KTM3315A were conducted under different fertility conditions to understand the mechanisms of fertility conversion in the pollen development stages. In total, 4639 proteins were identified, the differentially abundant proteins that increased/decreased in plants with differences in fertility were mainly involved with energy metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, translation, folding, and degradation. Compared with the sterile condition, many of the proteins that related to energy and phenylpropanoid metabolism increased during the anther development stage. Thus, we suggest that energy and phenylpropanoid metabolism pathways are important for fertility conversion in K-TCMS wheat. These findings provide valuable insights into the proteins involved with anther and pollen development, thereby, helping to further understand the mechanism of TCMS in wheat.

  9. Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Re-Examination of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterility-Associated Gene in Boro-Taichung-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear genome substitutions between subspecies can lead to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) through incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Boro-Taichung (BT)-type CMS rice was obtained by substituting the nuclear genome of Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar Chinsurah Boro II with that of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica cultivar Taichung 65. In BT-type CMS rice, the mitochondrial gene orf79 is associated with male sterility. A complete sequence of the Boro-type mitochondrial genome responsible for BT-type CMS has not been determined to date. Here, we used pyrosequencing to construct the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. The contiguous sequences were assembled into five circular DNA molecules, four of which could be connected into a single circle. The two resulting subgenomic circles were unable to form a reliable master circle, as recombination between them was scarcely detected. We also found an unequal abundance of DNA molecules for the two loci of atp6. These results indicate the presence of multi-partite DNA molecules in the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. Expression patterns were investigated for Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, which were not found in the mitochondria from the standard japonica cultivar Nipponbare. Restorer of fertility 1 (RF1)-dependent RNA processing has been observed in orf79-containing RNA but was not detected in other Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, supporting the conclusion that orf79 is a unique CMS-associated gene in Boro-type mitochondria.

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  11. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullmets, Josef; Torvaldson, Elin; Lindqvist, Julia; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Taimen, Pekka; Meinander, Annika; Eriksson, John E

    2017-12-01

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (cIFs) are found in all eumetazoans, except arthropods. To investigate the compatibility of cIFs in arthropods, we expressed human vimentin (hVim), a cIF with filament-forming capacity in vertebrate cells and tissues, transgenically in Drosophila Transgenic hVim could be recovered from whole-fly lysates by using a standard procedure for intermediate filament (IF) extraction. When this procedure was used to test for the possible presence of IF-like proteins in flies, only lamins and tropomyosin were observed in IF-enriched extracts, thereby providing biochemical reinforcement to the paradigm that arthropods lack cIFs. In Drosophila , transgenic hVim was unable to form filament networks in S2 cells and mesenchymal tissues; however, cage-like vimentin structures could be observed around the nuclei in internal epithelia, which suggests that Drosophila retains selective competence for filament formation. Taken together, our results imply that although the filament network formation competence is partially lost in Drosophila , a rudimentary filament network formation ability remains in epithelial cells. As a result of the observed selective competence for cIF assembly in Drosophila , we hypothesize that internal epithelial cIFs were the last cIFs to disappear from arthropods.-Gullmets, J., Torvaldson, E., Lindqvist, J., Imanishi, S. Y., Taimen, P., Meinander, A., Eriksson, J. E. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin. © FASEB.

  12. Positive Selection Driving Cytoplasmic Genome Evolution of the Medicinally Important Ginseng Plant Genus Panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ming-Rui; Liu, Bao; Wen, Jun; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Panax L. (the ginseng genus) is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species. Our results show that heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution rate is abundant in both of the two cytoplasmic genomes, with the mitochondrial genome possessing more variants at the total level but the chloroplast showing higher sequence polymorphisms at the genic regions. Genome-wide scanning of positive selection identified five and 12 genes from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Functional analyses further revealed that these selected genes play important roles in plant development, cellular metabolism and adaptation. We therefore conclude that positive selection might be one of the potential evolutionary forces that shaped nucleotide variation pattern of these Panax species. In particular, the mitochondrial genes evolved under stronger selective pressure compared to the chloroplast genes.

  13. Association of nad7a Gene with Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been exploited in the commercial pigeonpea [ (L. Millsp.] hybrid breeding system; however, the molecular mechanism behind this system is unknown. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in A CMS system derived from (Haines Maesen, 34 mitochondrial genes were analyzed for expression profiling and structural variation analysis between CMS line (ICRISAT Pigeonpea A line, ICPA 2039 and its cognate maintainer (ICPB 2039. Expression profiling of 34 mitochondrial genes revealed nine genes with significant fold differential gene expression at ≤ 0.01, including one gene, , with 1366-fold higher expression in CMS line as compared with the maintainer. Structural variation analysis of these mitochondrial genes identified length variation between ICPA 2039 and ICPB 2039 for (subunit of gene. Sanger sequencing of and genes in the CMS and the maintainer lines identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in upstream region of and a deletion of 10 bp in in the CMS line. Protein structure evaluation showed conformational changes in predicted protein structures for between ICPA 2039 and ICPB 2039 lines. All above analyses indicate association of gene with the CMS for A cytoplasm in pigeonpea. Additionally, one polymerase chain reaction (PCR based Indel marker ( has been developed and validated for testing genetic purity of A derived CMS lines to strengthen the commercial hybrid breeding program in pigeonpea.

  14. Cytoplasmic inheritance of parent-offspring cell structure in the clonal diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokawa, Yuka; Shimada, Masakazu

    2016-11-16

    In cytoplasmic inheritance, structural states of a parent cell could be transmitted to offspring cells via two mechanisms. The first is referred to as the hangover of parent structure, where the structure itself remains and faithfully transmits within offspring cells; the second is structural inheritance, wherein the parent structure functions as a template for development of new offspring structure. We estimated to what extent the parent structure affects the development of offspring structure by structural inheritance, using a clone of the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana The cell has two siliceous valves (a cell wall part at both cell poles): one is inherited from the parent and the other is newly formed. We estimated cytoplasmic heritability by comparing valve traits (central fultoportulae (CTFP), striae, central area, and cell diameter) of parent and new offspring valves, using single-cell isolation and valve labelling. Parent-offspring valve trait regressions showed that all traits, except CTFP, were significantly correlated. We formulated a quantitative genetic model considering the diatom inheritance system and revealed short-term rapid evolution compared with other inheritance systems. Diatom structural inheritance will have evolved to enable clonal populations to rapidly acquire and maintain suitable structures for temporal changes in environments and life-cycle stages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Potential role for MATER in cytoplasmic lattice formation in murine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boram Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mater and Padi6 are maternal effect genes that are first expressed during oocyte growth and are required for embryonic development beyond the two-cell stage in the mouse. We have recently found that PADI6 localizes to, and is required for the formation of, abundant fibrillar Triton X-100 (Triton insoluble structures termed the oocyte cytoplasmic lattices (CPLs. Given their similar expression profiles and mutant mouse phenotypes, we have been testing the hypothesis that MATER also plays a role in CPL formation and/or function.Herein, we show that PADI6 and MATER co-localize throughout the oocyte cytoplasm following Triton extraction, suggesting that MATER co-localizes with PADI6 at the CPLs. Additionally, the solubility of PADI6 was dramatically increased in Mater(tm/tm oocytes following Triton extraction, suggesting that MATER is involved in CPL nucleation. This prediction is supported by transmission electron microscopic analysis of Mater(+/+ and Mater(tm/tm germinal vesicle stage oocytes which illustrated that volume fraction of CPLs was reduced by 90% in Mater(tm/tm oocytes compared to Mater(+/+ oocytes.Taken together, these results suggest that, similar to PADI6, MATER is also required for CPL formation. Given that PADI6 and MATER are essential for female fertility, these results not only strengthen the hypothesis that the lattices play a critical role in mediating events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition but also increase our understanding of the molecular nature of the CPLs.

  16. Human cytoplasmic copper chaperones Atox1 and CCS exchange copper ions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Svenja; Kahra, Dana; Kovermann, Michael; Dingeldein, Artur P G; Niemiec, Moritz S; Ådén, Jörgen; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2015-06-01

    After Ctr1-mediated copper ion (Cu) entry into the human cytoplasm, chaperones Atox1 and CCS deliver Cu to P1B-type ATPases and to superoxide dismutase, respectively, via direct protein-protein interactions. Although the two Cu chaperones are presumed to work along independent pathways, we here assessed cross-reactivity between Atox1 and the first domain of CCS (CCS1) using biochemical and biophysical methods in vitro. By NMR we show that CCS1 is monomeric although it elutes differently from Atox1 in size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This property allows separation of Atox1 and CCS1 by SEC and, combined with the 254/280 nm ratio as an indicator of Cu loading, we demonstrate that Cu can be transferred from one protein to the other. Cu exchange also occurs with full-length CCS and, as expected, the interaction involves the metal binding sites since mutation of Cu-binding cysteine in Atox1 eliminates Cu transfer from CCS1. Cross-reactivity between CCS and Atox1 may aid in regulation of Cu distribution in the cytoplasm.

  17. An early cytoplasmic step of peptidoglycan synthesis is associated to MreB in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueff, Anne-Stéphanie; Chastanet, Arnaud; Domínguez-Escobar, Julia; Yao, Zhizhong; Yates, James; Prejean, Maria-Victoria; Delumeau, Olivier; Noirot, Philippe; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Filipe, Sergio R; Carballido-López, Rut

    2014-01-01

    MreB proteins play a major role during morphogenesis of rod-shaped bacteria by organizing biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall. However, the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. In Bacillus subtilis, membrane-associated MreB polymers have been shown to be associated to elongation-specific complexes containing transmembrane morphogenetic factors and extracellular cell wall assembly proteins. We have now found that an early intracellular step of cell wall synthesis is also associated to MreB. We show that the previously uncharacterized protein YkuR (renamed DapI) is required for synthesis of meso-diaminopimelate (m-DAP), an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan precursor, and that it physically interacts with MreB. Highly inclined laminated optical sheet microscopy revealed that YkuR forms uniformly distributed foci that exhibit fast motion in the cytoplasm, and are not detected in cells lacking MreB. We propose a model in which soluble MreB organizes intracellular steps of peptidoglycan synthesis in the cytoplasm to feed the membrane-associated cell wall synthesizing machineries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. MreB and MurG as scaffolds for the cytoplasmic steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favini-Stabile, Sandy; Contreras-Martel, Carlos; Thielens, Nicole; Dessen, Andréa

    2013-12-01

    Peptidoglycan is a major determinant of cell shape in bacteria, and its biosynthesis involves the concerted action of cytoplasmic, membrane-associated and periplasmic enzymes. Within the cytoplasm, Mur enzymes catalyse the first steps leading to peptidoglycan precursor biosynthesis, and have been suggested as being part of a multicomponent complex that could also involve the transglycosylase MurG and the cytoskeletal protein MreB. In order to initialize the characterization of a potential Mur interaction network, we purified MurD, MurE, MurF, MurG and MreB from Thermotoga maritima and characterized their interactions using membrane blotting and surface plasmon resonance. MurD, MurE and MurF all recognize MurG and MreB, but not each other, while the two latter proteins interact. In addition, we solved the crystal structures of MurD, MurE and MurF, which indicate that their C-termini display high conformational flexibilities. The differences in Mur conformations could be important parameters for the stability of an intracytoplasmic murein biosynthesis complex. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The RanGTP pathway: from nucleo-cytoplasmic transport to spindle assembly and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso eCavazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small GTPase Ran regulates the interaction of transport receptors with a number of cellular cargo proteins. The high affinity binding of the GTP-bound form of Ran to import receptors promotes cargo release, whereas its binding to export receptors stabilizes their interaction with the cargo. This basic mechanism linked to the asymmetric distribution of the two nucleotide-bound forms of Ran between the nucleus and the cytoplasm generates a switch like mechanism controlling nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Since 1999, we have known that after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD Ran and the above transport receptors also provide a local control over the activity of factors driving spindle assembly and regulating other aspects of cell division. The identification and functional characterization of RanGTP mitotic targets is providing novel insights into mechanisms essential for cell division. Here we review our current knowledge on the RanGTP system and its regulation and we focus on the recent advances made through the characterization of its mitotic targets. We then briefly review the novel functions of the pathway that were recently described. Altogether, the RanGTP system has moonlighting functions exerting a spatial control over protein interactions that drive specific functions depending on the cellular context.

  20. Cytoplasmic vitamin A binding proteins in chick embryo dermis and epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, R.E.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Excess vitamin A has striking morphologic and developmental effects on chick embryo skin. While cytoplasmic retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) was known to be abundant in chick embryo skin, neither quantitative values nor the distribution between dermis and epidermis have been established. The authors determined CRABP levels in collagenase-separated dermis and epidermis from 8-day-old embryos using specific binding of all-trans-[11- 3 H]retinoic acid in cytosols prepared from gram quantities of these tissues. The level of CRABP in dermis was twice the level in epidermis whether calculated on the basis of wet weight, cytosol protein, or DNA. When averaged over many preparations, 3 times as much dermis as epidermis was recovered from a single piece of skin. Therefore, the dermis contained 85% of the extremely high CRABP levels found in collagenase-treated skin, while epidermis contributed only 15%. Cytoplasmic retinol binding protein (CRBP) was also detected in chick embryo skin, but the binding was low and the levels in epidermis and dermis were not significantly different. The amount of CRABP in chick embryo skin (1600 pmol/g wet weight or 100 pmol/mg cytosol protein) is the highest level reported in any tissue and suggests an important role for vitamin A in the normal development and maturation of skin

  1. Behavioral and other phenotypes in a cytoplasmic Dynein light intermediate chain 1 mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth T; Haas, Matilda A; Line, Samantha; Shepherd, Hazel L; Alqatari, Mona; Stewart, Sammy; Rishal, Ida; Philpott, Amelia; Kalmar, Bernadett; Kuta, Anna; Groves, Michael; Parkinson, Nicholas; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Brandner, Sebastian; Bannerman, David; Greensmith, Linda; Hafezparast, Majid; Koltzenburg, Martin; Deacon, Robert; Fainzilber, Mike; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2011-04-06

    The cytoplasmic dynein complex is fundamentally important to all eukaryotic cells for transporting a variety of essential cargoes along microtubules within the cell. This complex also plays more specialized roles in neurons. The complex consists of 11 types of protein that interact with each other and with external adaptors, regulators and cargoes. Despite the importance of the cytoplasmic dynein complex, we know comparatively little of the roles of each component protein, and in mammals few mutants exist that allow us to explore the effects of defects in dynein-controlled processes in the context of the whole organism. Here we have taken a genotype-driven approach in mouse (Mus musculus) to analyze the role of one subunit, the dynein light intermediate chain 1 (Dync1li1). We find that, surprisingly, an N235Y point mutation in this protein results in altered neuronal development, as shown from in vivo studies in the developing cortex, and analyses of electrophysiological function. Moreover, mutant mice display increased anxiety, thus linking dynein functions to a behavioral phenotype in mammals for the first time. These results demonstrate the important role that dynein-controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system.

  2. Short Arginine Motifs Drive Protein Stickiness in the Escherichia coli Cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Ciara; Crowley, Peter B

    2017-09-19

    Although essential to numerous biotech applications, knowledge of molecular recognition by arginine-rich motifs in live cells remains limited. 1 H, 15 N HSQC and 19 F NMR spectroscopies were used to investigate the effects of C-terminal -GR n (n = 1-5) motifs on GB1 interactions in Escherichia coli cells and cell extracts. While the "biologically inert" GB1 yields high-quality in-cell spectra, the -GR n fusions with n = 4 or 5 were undetectable. This result suggests that a tetra-arginine motif is sufficient to drive interactions between a test protein and macromolecules in the E. coli cytoplasm. The inclusion of a 12 residue flexible linker between GB1 and the -GR 5 motif did not improve detection of the "inert" domain. In contrast, all of the constructs were detectable in cell lysates and extracts, suggesting that the arginine-mediated complexes were weak. Together these data reveal the significance of weak interactions between short arginine-rich motifs and the E. coli cytoplasm and demonstrate the potential of such motifs to modify protein interactions in living cells. These interactions must be considered in the design of (in vivo) nanoscale assemblies that rely on arginine-rich sequences.

  3. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells emerges naturally by microfilament self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-08-27

    Many cells exhibit large-scale active circulation of their entire fluid contents, a process termed cytoplasmic streaming. This phenomenon is particularly prevalent in plant cells, often presenting strikingly regimented flow patterns. The driving mechanism in such cells is known: myosin-coated organelles entrain cytoplasm as they process along actin filament bundles fixed at the periphery. Still unknown, however, is the developmental process that constructs the well-ordered actin configurations required for coherent cell-scale flow. Previous experimental works on streaming regeneration in cells of Characean algae, whose longitudinal flow is perhaps the most regimented of all, hint at an autonomous process of microfilament self-organization driving the formation of streaming patterns during morphogenesis. Working from first principles, we propose a robust model of streaming emergence that combines motor dynamics with both microscopic and macroscopic hydrodynamics to explain how several independent processes, each ineffectual on its own, can reinforce to ultimately develop the patterns of streaming observed in the Characeae and other streaming species.

  4. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S; Palacios, Isabel M; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-09-18

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA.

  5. Formation, function, and exhaustion of notochordal cytoplasmic vacuoles within intervertebral disc: current understanding and speculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkemani, Arjun; Xie, Zhi-Yang; Shi, Rui; Wei, Ji-Nan; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Notochord nucleus pulposus cells are characteristic of containing abundant and giant cytoplasmic vacuoles. This review explores the embryonic formation, biological function, and postnatal exhaustion of notochord vacuoles, aiming to characterize the signal network transforming the vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells into the vacuole-less chondrocytic cells. Embryonically, the cytoplasmic vacuoles within vertebrate notochord originate from an evolutionarily conserved vacuolation process during neurulation, which may continue to provide mechanical and signal support in constructing a mammalian intervertebral disc. For full vacuolation, a vacuolating specification from dorsal organizer cells, synchronized convergent extension, well-structured notochord sheath, and sufficient post-Golgi trafficking in notochord cells are required. Postnatally, age-related and species-specific exhaustion of vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells could be potentiated by Fas- and Fas ligand-induced apoptosis, intolerance to mechanical stress and nutrient deficiency, vacuole-mediated proliferation check, and gradual de-vacuolation within the avascular and compression-loaded intervertebral disc. These results suggest that the notochord vacuoles are active and versatile organelles for both embryonic notochord and postnatal nucleus pulposus, and may provide novel information on intervertebral disc degeneration to guide cell-based regeneration. PMID:28915712

  6. Structural changes in human cytomegalovirus cytoplasmic assembly sites in the absence of UL97 kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzeh, Maysa; Honigman, Alik; Taraboulos, Albert; Rouvinski, Alexander; Wolf, Dana G.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 kinase deletion mutant (ΔUL97) indicated a multi-step role for this kinase in early and late phases of the viral life cycle, namely, in DNA replication, capsid maturation and nuclear egress. Here, we addressed its possible involvement in cytoplasmic steps of HCMV assembly. Using the ΔUL97 and the UL97 kinase inhibitor NGIC-I, we demonstrate that the absence of UL97 kinase activity results in a modified subcellular distribution of the viral structural protein assembly sites, from compact structures impacting upon the nucleus to diffuse perinuclear structures punctuated by large vacuoles. Infection by either wild type or ΔUL97 viruses induced a profound reorganization of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-positive Golgi-related structures. Importantly, the viral-induced Golgi remodeling along with the reorganization of the nuclear architecture was substantially altered in the absence of UL97 kinase activity. These findings suggest that UL97 kinase activity might contribute to organization of the viral cytoplasmic assembly sites

  7. Gas6 downregulation impaired cytoplasmic maturation and pronuclear formation independent to the MPF activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeoung-Hwa Kim

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6 is more highly expressed in germinal vesicle (GV oocytes than in metaphase II (MII oocytes using annealing control primer (ACP-PCR technology. The current study was undertaken to investigate the role of Gas6 in oocyte maturation and fertilization using RNA interference (RNAi. Interestingly, despite the specific and marked decrease in Gas6 mRNA and protein expression in GVs after Gas6 RNAi, nuclear maturation including spindle structures and chromosome segregation was not affected. The only discernible effect induced by Gas6 RNAi was a change in maturation promoting factor (MPF activity. After parthenogenetic activation, Gas6 RNAi-treated oocytes at the MII stage had not developed further and arrested at MII (90.0%. After stimulation with Sr(2+, Gas6-silenced MII oocytes had markedly reduced Ca(2+ oscillation and exhibited no exocytosis of cortical granules. In these oocytes, sperm penetration occurred during fertilization but not pronucleus (PN formation. By roscovitine and colcemid treatment, we found that the Gas6 knockdown affected cytoplasmic maturation directly, independent to the changed MPF activity. These results strongly suggest that 1 the Gas6 signaling itself is important to the cytoplasmic maturation, but not nuclear maturation, and 2 the decreased Gas6 expression and decreased MPF activity separately or mutually influence sperm head decondensation and PN formation.

  8. Uptake and degradation of cytoplasmic RNA by lysosomes in the perfused rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydrick, S.J.; Lardeux, B.; Mortimore, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The release of [ 14 C]cytidine has been shown previously to be a valid marker for RNA degradation in rat hepatocytes. The breakdown of RNA measured with this marker in perfused livers prelabeled in vivo with [6- 14 C]orotic acid was found to be regulated acutely by perfusate amino acids over a wide range, from 0.29 to 3.48%/h. This regulation paralleled that of lysosomal proteolysis. Chloroquine inhibited RNA degradation 60-70%. In subsequent cell fractionation studies labelled cytidine was released; the distribution of this release paralleled that of a lysosomal marker enzyme. The release plateaued after two hours, defining a distinct lysosomal pool of RNA. The lysosomal location of the RNA pool was confirmed in experiments where a 22% increase in the apparent pool size was obtained by lowering the homogenate pH from 7.0 to 5.5. The pool size correlated linearly with the rate of RNA degradation measured during perfusion, giving a turnover constant in reasonable agreement with values reported for autophagy. These results indicate that cytoplasmic RNA degradation occurs primarily in the lysosome and is regulated under these conditions by the amino acid control of lysosomal sequestration of cytoplasm

  9. A single Danio rerio hars gene encodes both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L Waldron

    Full Text Available Histidyl tRNA Synthetase (HARS is a member of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS family of enzymes. This family of 20 enzymes is responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their cognate tRNA molecules, a critical step in protein synthesis. However, recent work highlighting a growing number of associations between ARS genes and diverse human diseases raises the possibility of new and unexpected functions in this ancient enzyme family. For example, mutations in HARS have been linked to two different neurological disorders, Usher Syndrome Type IIIB and Charcot Marie Tooth peripheral neuropathy. These connections raise the possibility of previously undiscovered roles for HARS in metazoan development, with alterations in these functions leading to complex diseases. In an attempt to establish Danio rerio as a model for studying HARS functions in human disease, we characterized the Danio rerio hars gene and compared it to that of human HARS. Using a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and cellular approaches, we found that while the human genome encodes separate genes for cytoplasmic and mitochondrial HARS protein, the Danio rerio genome encodes a single hars gene which undergoes alternative splicing to produce the respective cytoplasmic and mitochondrial versions of Hars. Nevertheless, while the HARS genes of humans and Danio differ significantly at the genomic level, we found that they are still highly conserved at the amino acid level, underscoring the potential utility of Danio rerio as a model organism for investigating HARS function and its link to human diseases in vivo.

  10. Modulation of integrin-linked kinase nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling by ILKAP and CRM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Vespa, Alisa; Mason, David; Irvine, Timothy S; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2008-07-15

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) plays key roles in a variety of cell functions, including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. Within the cell, ILK localizes to multiple sites, including the cytoplasm, focal adhesion complexes that mediate cell adhesion to extracellular substrates, as well as cell-cell junctions in epidermal keratinocytes. Central to understanding ILK function is the elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate its subcellular localization. We now demonstrate that ILK is imported into the nucleus through sequences in its N-terminus, via active transport mechanisms that involve nuclear pore complexes. In addition, nuclear ILK can be rapidly exported into the cytoplasm through a CRM1-dependent pathway, and its export is enhanced by the type 2C protein phosphatase ILKAP. Nuclear localization of ILK in epidermal keratinocytes is associated with increased DNA synthesis, which is sensitive to inhibition by ILKAP. Our studies demonstrate the importance for keratinocyte proliferation of ILK regulation through changes in its subcellular localization, and establish ILKAP and CRM1 as pivotal modulators of ILK subcellular distribution and activity in these cells.

  11. No influence of Indy on lifespan in Drosophila after correction for genetic and cytoplasmic background effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne M Toivonen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether alterations in mitochondrial metabolism affect longevity in Drosophila melanogaster, we studied lifespan in various single gene mutants, using inbred and outbred genetic backgrounds. As positive controls we included the two most intensively studied mutants of Indy, which encodes a Drosophila Krebs cycle intermediate transporter. It has been reported that flies heterozygous for these Indy mutations, which lie outside the coding region, show almost a doubling of lifespan. We report that only one of the two mutants lowers mRNA levels, implying that the lifespan extension observed is not attributable to the Indy mutations themselves. Moreover, neither Indy mutation extended lifespan in female flies in any genetic background tested. In the original genetic background, only the Indy mutation associated with altered RNA expression extended lifespan in male flies. However, this effect was abolished by backcrossing into standard outbred genetic backgrounds, and was associated with an unidentified locus on the X chromosome. The original Indy line with long-lived males is infected by the cytoplasmic symbiont Wolbachia, and the longevity of Indy males disappeared after tetracycline clearance of this endosymbiont. These findings underscore the critical importance of standardisation of genetic background and of cytoplasm in genetic studies of lifespan, and show that the lifespan extension previously claimed for Indy mutants was entirely attributable to confounding variation from these two sources. In addition, we saw no effects on lifespan of expression knockdown of the Indy orthologues nac-2 and nac-3 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  12. An improved microphotometry system for measurement of cytochrome P-450 in hepatocyte cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, J; Kanamura, S

    1991-05-01

    To measure cytochrome P-450 (P-450) content in hepatocyte cytoplasm, we developed a dual monochromator-equipped microphotometry system (KWSP-1). Simultaneous measurements of absorbance at 450 and 490 nm with narrow band width (0.5 nm) and small spot size (2 microns) were accomplished by this system. Corresponding fields in serial sections could be easily and rapidly identified under the Nomarski imaging mode of KWSP-1. Photometric accuracy and repeatability of wavelength setting of KWSP-1 were also satisfactory for measurement of P-450. With this system, it is thus possible to measure the extinction of P-450 from many small measuring areas and to precisely determine P-450 content in the cytoplasm of rat hepatocytes. A microphotometric method was developed using cuvette slides and two serial 10-microns thick sections (mapping method). The intracellular distribution of P-450 in individual hepatocytes could be visualized by the mapping method with KWSP-1. However, this method was not applicable to tissue sections containing hemoglobin larger than 4 microM.

  13. Cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in breast cancer: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Nakahara, Masaaki; Kodama, Rieko; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Lymph nodes constitute the first site of metastasis for most malignancies, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a major criterion for evaluating patient prognosis. The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been shown to play an important role in lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also contribute to induction of metastatic ability in human cancers. CXCR4 expression was analyzed in primary human breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up. The relationship between nitrotyrosine levels (a biomarker for peroxynitrate formation from NO in vivo) and lymph node status, CXCR4 immunoreactivity, and other established clinico-pathological parameters, as well as prognosis, was analyzed. Nitrite/nitrate levels and CXCR4 expressions were assessed in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 staining was predominantly cytoplasmic; this was observed in 50%(56/113) of the tumors. Cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with nitrotyrosine levels and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression emerged as a significant independent predictor for overall and disease-free survival. Cytoplasmic expression of functional CXCR4 in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells was increased by treatment with the NO donor DETA NONOate. This increase was abolished by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS. Our data showed a role for NO in stimulating cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in vitro. Formation of the biomarker nitrotyrosine was also correlated with CXCR4 expression and lymph node metastasis in vivo. In addition, cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression may serve as a significant prognostic factor for long-term survival in breast cancer

  14. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  15. In vivo evidence of TonB shuttling between the cytoplasmic and outer membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ray A; Letain, Tracy E; Postle, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are able to convert potential energy inherent in the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane into active nutrient transport across the outer membrane. The transduction of energy is mediated by TonB protein. Previous studies suggest a model in which TonB makes sequential and cyclic contact with proteins in each membrane, a process called shuttling. A key feature of shuttling is that the amino-terminal signal anchor must quit its association with the cytoplasmic membrane, and TonB becomes associated solely with the outer membrane. However, the initial studies did not exclude the possibility that TonB was artifactually pulled from the cytoplasmic membrane by the fractionation process. To resolve this ambiguity, we devised a method to test whether the extreme TonB amino-terminus, located in the cytoplasm, ever became accessible to the cys-specific, cytoplasmic membrane-impermeant molecule, Oregon Green(R) 488 maleimide (OGM) in vivo. A full-length TonB and a truncated TonB were modified to carry a sole cysteine at position 3. Both full-length TonB and truncated TonB (consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds) achieved identical conformations in the cytoplasmic membrane, as determined by their abilities to cross-link to the cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB and their abilities to respond conformationally to the presence or absence of proton motive force. Full-length TonB could be amino-terminally labelled in vivo, suggesting that it was periplasmically exposed. In contrast, truncated TonB, which did not associate with the outer membrane, was not specifically labelled in vivo. The truncated TonB also acted as a control for leakage of OGM across the cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the extent of labelling for full-length TonB correlated roughly with the proportion of TonB found at the outer membrane. These findings suggest that TonB does indeed disengage from the cytoplasmic membrane during energy transduction and shuttle to the outer membrane.

  16. Characterization of Elements Regulating the Nuclear-to-Cytoplasmic Translocation of ICP0 in Late Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Ha, Binh L; Zheng, Yi; Gu, Haidong

    2018-01-15

    Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an immediate early protein containing a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. It targets several host factors for proteasomal degradation and subsequently activates viral expression. ICP0 has a nuclear localization sequence and functions in the nucleus early during infection. However, later in infection, ICP0 is found solely in the cytoplasm. The molecular mechanism and biological function of the ICP0 nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation are not well understood. In this study, we sought to characterize elements important for this translocation. We found that (i) in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HEL) cells, ICP0 C-terminal residues 741 to 775 were necessary but not sufficient for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation; (ii) the loss of ICP0 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which led to defective viral replication in nonpermissive cells, also caused mutant ICP0 to be retained in the nucleus of HEL cells; (iii) in permissive U2OS cells, however, ICP0 lacking E3 ligase activity was translocated to the cytoplasm at a pace faster than that of wild-type ICP0, suggesting that nuclear retention of ICP0 occurs in an ICP0 E3 ligase-dependent manner; and (iv) the ICP0 C terminus and late viral proteins cooperate in order to overcome nuclear retention and stimulate ICP0 cytoplasmic translocation. Taken together, less ICP0 nuclear retention may contribute to the permissiveness of U2OS cells to HSV-1 in the absence of functional ICP0. IMPORTANCE A distinct characteristic for eukaryotes is the compartmentalization of cell metabolic pathways, which allows greater efficiency and specificity of cellular functions. ICP0 of HSV-1 is a multifunctional viral protein that travels through different compartments as infection progresses. Its main regulatory functions are carried out in the nucleus, but it is translocated to the cytoplasm late during HSV-1 infection. To understand the biological significance of cytoplasmic ICP0 in

  17. The application of protein markers in conversion of maize inbred lines to the cytoplasmic male sterility basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven maize inbred lines of different origin and maturity group were used in the trial set up according to the split-plot randomized complete block design in five environments. Each inbred was observed in five variants: original inbred (N; cytoplasmic male sterile C-type (CMS-C; restorer for CMS-C (RfC; cytoplasmic male sterile S-type (CMS-S and restorer for CMS-S (RfS. The objective was to compare grain yield of original inbreds and their CMS and Rf variants and to apply Isoelectric focusing (IEF to determine whether the conversion of original inbreds to their CMS and Rf counterparts have been done completely. Protein markers have shown that conversion of almost all inbreds was done good and completely. Only original inbreds ZPL2 and ZPL5 did not concur on banding patterns with their RfC variants. The type of cytoplasm had a very significant impact on grain yield. Namely, CMS-C counterparts significantly out yielded their CMS-S versions, while the inbreds with C and S cytoplasm over yielded inbreds with N cytoplasm, as well as their RfC and RfS versions.

  18. Cytoplasmic expression of survivin is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with salivary gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Weinell, Antje; Ponert, Tobias; Hardt, Aline; Hahn, Moritz; Preuss, Simon F; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    2010-11-01

    The expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin has been shown to be a significant prognostic indicator in various human cancers. The aim was to assess its expression and prognostic value in salivary gland adenocarcinoma and muco-epidermoid carcinoma. Survivin expression was analysed in 48 patients with parotid gland cancer (21 muco-epidermoid, 27 adenocarcinomas) by means of immunohistochemistry. The experimental findings were correlated with clinicopathological and survival parameters. A high cytoplasmic expression of survivin was found in 30% of the examined tumours without any significant correlation with the patients' clinicopathological characteristics (P > 0.05). Within all patients, the estimated overall survival rate of muco-epidermoid carcinomas was significantly better than that of adenocarcinomas (P = 0.013). A high cytoplasmic survivin expression significantly indicated a poor 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to patients with a low cytoplasmic survivin expression in the whole group (P = 0.001) and in adenocarcinomas (P = 0.004). In a multivariate analysis, a high cytoplasmic survivin expression was the only independent prognostic indicator for a significantly poorer 5-year disease-free survival rate (P = 0.001). The correlation between cytoplasmic survivin expression and survival in salivary gland malignancies might make this an effective tool in patient follow-up, prognosis and targeted therapy in future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  19. Cytoplasmic isoforms of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA recruit and antagonize the innate immune DNA sensor cGAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guigen; Chan, Baca; Samarina, Naira; Abere, Bizunesh; Weidner-Glunde, Magdalena; Buch, Anna; Pich, Andreas; Brinkmann, Melanie M; Schulz, Thomas F

    2016-02-23

    The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is mainly localized and functions in the nucleus of latently infected cells, playing a pivotal role in the replication and maintenance of latent viral episomal DNA. In addition, N-terminally truncated cytoplasmic isoforms of LANA, resulting from internal translation initiation, have been reported, but their function is unknown. Using coimmunoprecipitation and MS, we found the cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), an innate immune DNA sensor, to be a cellular interaction partner of cytoplasmic LANA isoforms. By directly binding to cGAS, LANA, and particularly, a cytoplasmic isoform, inhibit the cGAS-STING-dependent phosphorylation of TBK1 and IRF3 and thereby antagonize the cGAS-mediated restriction of KSHV lytic replication. We hypothesize that cytoplasmic forms of LANA, whose expression increases during lytic replication, inhibit cGAS to promote the reactivation of the KSHV from latency. This observation points to a novel function of the cytoplasmic isoforms of LANA during lytic replication and extends the function of LANA from its role during latency to the lytic replication cycle.

  20. Glucocorticoid control of rat growth hormone gene expression: Effect on cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleic acid production and degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, B.J.; Gardner, D.G.; Baxter, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on the production and degradation of rat GH (rGH) cytoplasmic mRNA was studied in cultured rat pituitary tumor (GC) cells. The incorporation of [3H]uridine into both rGH cytoplasmic mRNA and the pyrimidine nucleotide precursor pool was determined in hormone-treated and control cells. From these measurements glucocorticoid effects on absolute production rates of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA were determined and compared to effects on rGH mRNA accumulation. Rat GH mRNA half-life was then calculated based on a first-order decay model. Rat GH mRNA half-life was also directly assayed by: (1) pulse-chase studies and (2) measuring the kinetics of decay of rGH mRNA in cells after transfer from serum-containing to hormone-deficient media. From these independent analyses rGH mRNA half-life estimates ranged from 28-55 h in different experiments. Within individual experiments there was little variability of rGH mRNA decay rates; glucocorticoids were found not to alter the stability of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA. Glucocorticoid induction of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation was accounted for solely on the basis of increased mRNA production

  1. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo, E-mail: sjsj@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  2. Balanced nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 are required for a complete plant innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An important layer of plant innate immunity to host-adapted pathogens is conferred by intracellular nucleotide-binding/oligomerization domain-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors recognizing specific microbial effectors. Signaling from activated receptors of the TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor-NB-LRR class converges on the nucleo-cytoplasmic immune regulator EDS1 (Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1. In this report we show that a receptor-stimulated increase in accumulation of nuclear EDS1 precedes or coincides with the EDS1-dependent induction and repression of defense-related genes. EDS1 is capable of nuclear transport receptor-mediated shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus. By enhancing EDS1 export from inside nuclei (through attachment of an additional nuclear export sequence (NES or conditionally releasing EDS1 to the nucleus (by fusion to a glucocorticoid receptor (GR in transgenic Arabidopsis we establish that the EDS1 nuclear pool is essential for resistance to biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens and for transcriptional reprogramming. Evidence points to post-transcriptional processes regulating receptor-triggered accumulation of EDS1 in nuclei. Changes in nuclear EDS1 levels become equilibrated with the cytoplasmic EDS1 pool and cytoplasmic EDS1 is needed for complete resistance and restriction of host cell death at infection sites. We propose that coordinated nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 enable the plant to mount an appropriately balanced immune response to pathogen attack.

  3. An ABC transporter B family protein, ABCB19, is required for cytoplasmic streaming and gravitropism of the inflorescence stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Keishi; Ueda, Haruko; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1) Currently, however, there are no reports of molecular components for cytoplasmic streaming other than the actin-myosin-cytoskeleton and ER-related proteins. In the present study, we found that elongated cells of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit vigorous cytoplasmic streaming. Statistical analysis showed that the maximal velocity of plastid movements is 7.26 µm/s, which is much faster than the previously reported velocities of organelles. Surprisingly, the maximal velocity of streaming in the inflorescence stem cells was significantly reduced to 1.11 µm/s in an Arabidopsis mutant, abcb19-101, which lacks ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUBFAMILY B19 (ABCB19) that mediates the polar transport of the phytohormone auxin together with PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Polar auxin transport establishes the auxin concentration gradient essential for plant development and tropisms. Deficiency of ABCB19 activity eventually caused enhanced gravitropic responses of the inflorescence stems and abnormally flexed inflorescence stems. These results suggest that ABCB19-mediated auxin transport plays a role not only in tropism regulation, but also in cytoplasmic streaming.

  4. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells

  5. Mapping of ESE-1 subdomains required to initiate mammary epithelial cell transformation via a cytoplasmic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tentler John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ETS family transcription factor ESE-1 is often overexpressed in human breast cancer. ESE-1 initiates transformation of MCF-12A cells via a non-transcriptional, cytoplasmic process that is mediated by a unique 40-amino acid serine and aspartic acid rich (SAR subdomain, whereas, ESE-1's nuclear transcriptional property is required to maintain the transformed phenotype of MCF7, ZR-75-1 and T47D breast cancer cells. Results To map the minimal functional nuclear localization (NLS and nuclear export (NES signals, we fused in-frame putative NLS and NES motifs between GFP and the SAR domain. Using these GFP constructs as reporters of subcellular localization, we mapped a single NLS to six basic amino acids (242HGKRRR247 in the AT-hook and two CRM1-dependent NES motifs, one to the pointed domain (NES1: 102LCNCALEELRL112 and another to the DNA binding domain (DBD, (NES2: 275LWEFIRDILI284. Moreover, analysis of a putative NLS located in the DBD (316GQKKKNSN323 by a similar GFP-SAR reporter or by internal deletion of the DBD, revealed this sequence to lack NLS activity. To assess the role of NES2 in regulating ESE-1 subcellular localization and subsequent transformation potency, we site-specifically mutagenized NES2, within full-length GFP-ESE-1 and GFP-NES2-SAR reporter constructs. These studies show that site-specific mutation of NES2 completely abrogates ESE-1 transforming activity. Furthermore, we show that exclusive cytoplasmic targeting of the SAR domain is sufficient to initiate transformation, and we report that an intact SAR domain is required, since block mutagenesis reveals that an intact SAR domain is necessary to maintain its full transforming potency. Finally, using a monoclonal antibody targeting the SAR domain, we demonstrate that the SAR domain contains a region accessible for protein - protein interactions. Conclusions These data highlight that ESE-1 contains NLS and NES signals that play a critical role in

  6. Proteomic analysis reveals strong mitochondrial involvement in cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinju; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Qing; Sun, Limin; Wang, Hongyu; Wang, Yutong; Kao, Lina; Li, Yanan; Qiu, Tuoyu; Yang, Wencai; Shen, Huolin

    2017-09-25

    Although cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used for developing pepper hybrids, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-throughput proteomics method called label-free to compare protein abundance across a pepper CMS line (A-line) and its isogenic maintainer line (B-line). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006104. Approximately 324 differentially abundant protein species were identified and quantified; among which, 47 were up-accumulated and 140 were down-accumulated in the A-line; additionally, 75 and 62 protein species were specifically accumulated in the A-line and B-line, respectively. Protein species involved in pollen exine formation, pyruvate metabolic processes, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and oxidative stress response were observed to be differentially accumulated between A-line and B-line, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of pepper pollen abortion. Based on our data, we proposed a potential regulatory network for pepper CMS that unifies these processes. Artificial emasculation is a major obstacle in pepper hybrid breeding for its high labor cost and poor seed purity. While the use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid system is seriously frustrated because a long time is needed to cultivate male sterility line and its isogenic restore line. Transgenic technology is an effective and rapid method to obtain male sterility lines and its widely application has very important significance in speeding up breeding process in pepper. Although numerous studies have been conducted to select the genes related to male sterility, the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper remains unknown. In this study, we used the high-throughput proteomic method called "label-free", coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to perform a novel comparison of expression profiles in a CMS pepper line

  7. Secretion of bacterial lipoproteins: through the cytoplasmic membrane, the periplasm and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zückert, Wolfram R

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are peripherally anchored membrane proteins that play a variety of roles in bacterial physiology and virulence in monoderm (single membrane-enveloped, e.g., gram-positive) and diderm (double membrane-enveloped, e.g., gram-negative) bacteria. After export of prolipoproteins through the cytoplasmic membrane, which occurs predominantly but not exclusively via the general secretory or Sec pathway, the proteins are lipid-modified at the cytoplasmic membrane in a multistep process that involves sequential modification of a cysteine residue and cleavage of the signal peptide by the signal II peptidase Lsp. In both monoderms and diderms, signal peptide processing is preceded by acylation with a diacylglycerol through preprolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (Lgt). In diderms but also some monoderms, lipoproteins are further modified with a third acyl chain through lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). Fully modified lipoproteins that are destined to be anchored in the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) are selected, transported and inserted by the Lol (lipoprotein outer membrane localization) pathway machinery, which consists of the inner-membrane (IM) ABC transporter-like LolCDE complex, the periplasmic LolA chaperone and the OM LolB lipoprotein receptor. Retention of lipoproteins in the cytoplasmic membrane results from Lol avoidance signals that were originally described as the "+2 rule". Surface localization of lipoproteins in diderms is rare in most bacteria, with the exception of several spirochetal species. Type 2 (T2SS) and type 5 (T5SS) secretion systems are involved in secretion of specific surface lipoproteins of γ-proteobacteria. In the model spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, surface lipoprotein secretion does not follow established sorting rules, but remains dependent on N-terminal peptide sequences. Secretion through the outer membrane requires maintenance of lipoproteins in a translocation-competent unfolded conformation

  8. A role for complexes of survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein with gemins and profilin in neurite-like cytoplasmic extensions of cultured nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Aarti; Lambrechts, Anja; Le thi Hao; Le, Thanh T.; Sewry, Caroline A.; Ampe, Christophe; Burghes, Arthur H.M.; Morris, Glenn E.

    2005-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of SMN (survival of motor neurons protein) and consequent loss of motor neurons. SMN is involved in snRNP transport and nuclear RNA splicing, but axonal transport of SMN has also been shown to occur in motor neurons. SMN also binds to the small actin-binding protein, profilin. We now show that SMN and profilin II co-localise in the cytoplasm of differentiating rat PC12 cells and in neurite-like extensions, especially at their growth cones. Many components of known SMN complexes were also found in these extensions, including gemin2 (SIP-1), gemin6, gemin7 and unrip (unr-interacting protein). Coilin p80 and Sm core protein immunoreactivity, however, were seen only in the nucleus. SMN is known to associate with β-actin mRNA and specific hnRNPs in axons and in neurite extensions of cultured nerve cells, and SMN also stimulates neurite outgrowth in cultures. Our results are therefore consistent with SMN complexes, rather than SMN alone, being involved in the transport of actin mRNPs along the axon as in the transport of snRNPs into the nucleus by similar SMN complexes. Antisense knockdown of profilin I and II isoforms inhibited neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and caused accumulation of SMN and its associated proteins in cytoplasmic aggregates. BIAcore studies demonstrated a high affinity interaction of SMN with profilin IIa, the isoform present in developing neurons. Pathogenic missense mutations in SMN, or deletion of exons 5 and 7, prevented this interaction. The interaction is functional in that SMN can modulate actin polymerisation in vitro by reducing the inhibitory effect of profilin IIa. This suggests that reduced SMN in SMA might cause axonal pathfinding defects by disturbing the normal regulation of microfilament growth by profilins

  9. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  10. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Xiaofang

    2009-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  11. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, DONG

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel approach to measure the absolute cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was established. The parameters associated with the probe fluo-3 AM were optimized to accurately determine fluorescence intensity from the Ca2+-bound probe. Using three optimized parameters (final concentration of 6 mM probe, incubation time of 135 min, loading probe before plasma treatment), the maximum fluorescence intensity (F max = 527.8 a.u.) and the minimum fluorescence intensity (F min = 63.8 a.u.) were obtained in a saturated Ca2+ solution or a solution of lacking Ca2+. Correspondingly, the maximum [Ca2+]cyt induced by cold plasma was 1232.5 nM. Therefore, the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was successfully applied to measure the absolute [Ca2+]cyt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated by cold plasma at atmospheric air pressure.

  12. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Sun, Xiaofang, E-mail: xiaofangsun@hotmail.com [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2009-04-24

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  13. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    ,980-base-pair open reading frame revealed 94% homology with a 75-kilodalton protein from C. trachomatis serovar D and 57% homology with the DnaK proteins of E. coli and of Bacillus megaterium, while amino acid homology with human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) was 42%. The promoter region was identified......The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...... by computer search and by primer extension of mRNA synthesized in recombinant E. coli. The promoter region which differed from the putative promoter region in serovar D was shown to be a mixed promoter type in which the -10 region showed a regular TATA box configuration while the -35 region showed high...

  14. Acute respiratory failure as primary manifestation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Sourla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The systemic vasculitides are multifocal diseases characterized by the presence of blood vessel inflammation in multiple organ systems. Their clinical presentation is variable extending from self-limited illness to critical complications including diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. Alveolar hemorrhage is a lifethreatening manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis that can rapidly progress into acute respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We present the case of a 74-year-old patient admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with severe hypoxic respiratory failure and diffuse alveolar infiltrates in chest imaging that was later diagnosed as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis. The report highlights the importance of differentiate between alveolar hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome of other etiology because alveolar hemorrhage is reversible with prompt initiation of treatment.

  15. Recent advances in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Lazarus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is an uncommon inflammatory disease of small to medium-sized vessels that frequently presents with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and renal failure though it can affect any organ system. If untreated, the vast majority of patients will die within a year. Current treatments improve prognosis but affected patients remain at a substantially higher risk of death and adverse outcomes. We review the classification of the disease, our understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology, and propose future directions for research. We also evaluate the evidence supporting established treatment regimens and the progress of clinical trials for newer treatments to inform the design of future studies.

  16. Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the cytoplasmic tail of MUC16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gipson, Ilene K; Mandel, Ulla; Menon, Balaraj

    2017-01-01

    of the biological relevance of the C-terminal domain of MUC16 has been limited by lack of availability of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the native CT. Here, we report the development of a novel monoclonal antibody to the CT region of the molecule that recognizes native MUC16 and its enzymatically released CT...... for the disease and it is considered a promising target for immunotherapeutic intervention. Immunodetection of the mucin has to date been through antibodies that recognize its exceptionally large ectodomain. Similar to other membrane anchored mucins, MUC16 has a short cytoplasmic tail (CT), but studies...... region. The antibody is useful for immunoprecipitation of the released CT domain as demonstrated with the OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell line and can be used for detailed cytolocalization in cells as well as in frozen sections of ocular surface and uterine epithelium....

  17. Analysis of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for antibodies to cytoplasmic antigen fractions of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, H.; Bromback, J.

    1981-01-01

    An indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in individual polystyrene microtiter cups has been adapted for measurement of antibody to various cytoplasmic and carbohydrate antigen fractions of Candida albicans. The assay was optimized for sensitivity, precision and linearization of serum dilution curves. The optimized procedure allows computerized measurement of anti-Candida antibodies and can be used for measurement of antibody over a wide concentration range. The procedure obviates variation due to changes in day-to-day counts as a result of isotope decay and end-point antibody dilutions. The assay has been used to demonstrate a Poisson-like distribution of antibody levels in the sera of persons showing no symptoms of candidiasis. The minimum antibody level detectable by the assay is about two orders of magnitude lower than the lowest level found in human serum and 4 orders of magnitude lower than the most sensitive test used hitherto, the hemagglutination test. (Auth.)

  18. Ultraviolet mutagenesis studies of [psi], a cytoplasmic determinant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, M.F.; Cox, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    uv mutagenesis was used to probe the molecular nature of [psi], a nonmitochondrial cytoplasmic determinant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in the control of nonsense suppression. The uv-induced mutation from [psi + ] to [psi - ] showed characteristics of forward nuclear gene mutation in terms of frequency, induction kinetics, occurrence of whole and sectored mutant clones and the effect of the stage in the growth cycle on mutation frequency. The involvement of pyrimidine dimers in the premutational lesion giving the [psi - ] mutation was demonstrated by photoreactivation. uv-induced damage to the [psi] genetic determinant was shown to be repaired by nuclear-coded repair enzymes that are responsible for the repair of nuclear DNA damage. uv-induced damage to mitochondrial DNA appeared to be, at least partly, under the control of different repair processes. The evidence obtained suggests that the [psi] determinant is DNA

  19. Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of Protein Aggregates in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Egan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. One such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. Here, using the molecular disaggregase Hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Filamentous fungi, such as A. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and economic importance and also serve as model systems for studying highly polarized eukaryotic cells. We find that microtubules promote the formation of Hsp104-positive aggregates, which coalesce into discrete subcellular structures in a process dependent on the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Finally, we find that impaired clearance of these inclusions negatively impacts retrograde trafficking of endosomes, a conventional dynein cargo, indicating that microtubule-based transport can be overwhelmed by chronic cellular stress.

  20. Role of the beta1-integrin cytoplasmic tail in mediating invasin-promoted internalization of Yersinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Anna; Armulik, Annika; Brakebusch, Cord

    2002-01-01

    Invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis binds to beta1-integrins on host cells and triggers internalization of the bacterium. To elucidate the mechanism behind the beta1-integrin-mediated internalization of Yersinia, a beta1-integrin-deficient cell line, GD25, transfected with wild-type beta1A, beta......1B or different mutants of the beta1A subunit was used. Both beta1A and beta1B bound to invasin-expressing bacteria, but only beta1A was able to mediate internalization of the bacteria. The cytoplasmic region of beta1A, differing from beta1B, contains two NPXY motifs surrounding a double threonine...... noted that cells affected in bacterial internalization exhibited reduced spreading capability when seeded onto invasin, suggesting a correlation between the internalization of invasin-expressing bacteria and invasin-induced spreading. Likewise, integrins defective in forming peripheral focal complex...

  1. Observation of a cytoplasmic inclusion in peripheral blood of a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neriishi, Shotaro; Ohgushi, Yasutaka; Sadamori, Naoki.

    1978-01-01

    Whether cytoplasmic inclusion (CI) is useful as an index for the effects of atomic bomb radiation was discussed. Subjects of this study were 16 healthy people with chromosomal aberration due to atomic bomb radiation (8 males and 8 females) (Group 1) and 31 people with a history of malignant tumors (10 males and 21 females) (Group 2) who were living in Nagasaki City. For the purpose of observing chromosome and CI, blood was collected together in the period from 1970 to 1972. In Group 1, a total number of cells obseved was 14,513 and no Cl was found in them. In Group 2, a total number of cells observed was 31,289, and CI was found in 2 of them. CI which is a reaction of a living body in an acute stage following accidental irradiation seemed to have already disappeared. Therefore, usefulness of CI as an indicator for the effect of atomic bomb radiation was denied. (Ueda, J.)

  2. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gatenby

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal cell function requires timely and accurate transmission of information from receptors on the cell membrane (CM to the nucleus. Movement of messenger proteins in the cytoplasm is thought to be dependent on random walk. However, Brownian motion will disperse messenger proteins throughout the cytosol resulting in slow and highly variable transit times. We propose that a critical component of information transfer is an intracellular electric field generated by distribution of charge on the nuclear membrane (NM. While the latter has been demonstrated experimentally for decades, the role of the consequent electric field has been assumed to be minimal due to a Debye length of about 1 nanometer that results from screening by intracellular Cl- and K+. We propose inclusion of these inorganic ions in the Debye-Huckel equation is incorrect because nuclear pores allow transit through the membrane at a rate far faster than the time to thermodynamic equilibrium. In our model, only the charged, mobile messenger proteins contribute to the Debye length.Using this revised model and published data, we estimate the NM possesses a Debye-Huckel length of a few microns and find this is consistent with recent measurement using intracellular nano-voltmeters. We demonstrate the field will accelerate isolated messenger proteins toward the nucleus through Coulomb interactions with negative charges added by phosphorylation. We calculate transit times as short as 0.01 sec. When large numbers of phosphorylated messenger proteins are generated by increasing concentrations of extracellular ligands, we demonstrate they generate a self-screening environment that regionally attenuates the cytoplasmic field, slowing movement but permitting greater cross talk among pathways. Preliminary experimental results with phosphorylated RAF are consistent with model predictions.This work demonstrates that previously unrecognized Coulomb interactions between phosphorylated messenger

  3. Aspartate tightens the anchoring of staphylococcal lipoproteins to the cytoplasmic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nimerta; Götz, Friedrich; Nguyen, Minh-Thu

    2017-12-01

    In gram-negative bacteria, the ABC transporter LolCDE complex translocates outer membrane-specific lipoproteins (Lpp) from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. Lpp possessing aspartate (Asp) at position +2 are not translocated because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal. In gram-positive bacteria, lacking an outer membrane and the Lol system, Lpp are only anchored at the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. However, the release of Lpp particularly in pathogenic or commensal species is crucial for immune modulation. Here, we provide evidence that in Staphylococcus aureus Asp at position +2 plays a role in withholding Lpp to the cytoplasmic membrane. Screening of published exoproteomic data of S. aureus revealed that Lpp mainly with Gly or Ser at position +2 were found in exoproteome, but there was no Lpp with Asp+2. The occurrence of Lpp with Asp+2 is infrequent in gram-positive bacteria. In S. aureus USA300 only seven of the 67 Lpp possess Asp+2; among them five Lpp represented Lpl lipoproteins involved in host cell invasion. Our study demonstrated that replacing the Asp+2 present in Lpl8 with a Ser enhances its release into the supernatant. However, there is no different release of Asp+2 and Ser+2 in mprF mutant that lacks the positive charge of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (Lys-PG). Moreover, substitution of Ser+2 by Asp in SitC (MntC) did not lead to a decreased release indicating that in staphylococci positions +3 and +4 might also be important for a tighter anchoring of Lpp. Here, we show that Asp in position +2 and adjacent amino acids contribute in tightening the anchoring of Lpp by interaction of the negative charged Asp with the positive charged Lys-PG. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Production of bovine hand-made cloned embryos by zygote-oocyte cytoplasmic hemi-complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzalira, Joana Claudia; Ohlweiler, Lain Uriel; da Costa Gerger, Renato Pereira; Casali, Renata; Vieira, Fabiano Koerich; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Rodrigues, José Luiz; Mezzalira, Alceu; Bertolini, Marcelo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cytoplast type and activation process on development of cloned embryos. Bovine oocytes (MII) or zygotes at the one-cell stage (IVF) were manually bisected and segregated in MII or IVF hemi-cytoplasts or hemi-karyoplasts. Adult skin cells from a bovine female were used as nucleus donors (SC). Experimental groups were composed of IVF embryos; parthenogenetic embryos; hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos; and reconstructed HMC embryos using IVF hemi-cytoplast + MII hemi-cytoplast + SC (G-I); IVF hemi-cytoplast + IVF hemi-cytoplast + SC (G-II); MII hemi-cytoplast + IVF hemi-karyoplast (G-III); and IVF hemi-cytoplast + IVF hemi-karyoplast (G-IV). Embryos from G-I to G-IV were allocated to subgroups as sperm-activated (SA) or were further chemically activated (SA + CA). Embryos from all groups and subgroups were in vitro cultured in the WOW system. Blastocyst development in subgroup G-I SA (28.2%) was similar to IVF (27.0%) and HMC (31.4%) controls, perhaps due to a to a more suitable activation process and/or better complementation of cytoplasmic reprogramming factors, with the other groups and subgroups having lower levels of development. No blastocyst development was observed when using IVF hemi-karyoplasts (G-III and G-IV), possibly due to the manipulation process during a sensitive biological period. In summary, the presence of cytoplasmic factors from MII hemi-oocytes and the sperm activation process from hemi-zygotes appear to be necessary for adequate in vitro development, as only the zygote-oocyte hemi-complementation was as efficient as controls for the generation of bovine cloned blastocysts.

  5. Identification and characterization of vp7 gene in Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Min; Liang, Zi; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2017-09-05

    The genome of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) contains 10 double stranded RNA segments (S1-S10). The segment 7 (S7) encodes 50kDa protein which is considered as a structural protein. The expression pattern and function of p50 in the virus life cycle are still unclear. In this study, the viral structural protein 7 (VP7) polyclonal antibody was prepared with immunized mouse to explore the presence of small VP7 gene-encoded proteins in Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus. The expression pattern of vp7 gene was investigated by its overexpression in BmN cells. In addition to VP7, supplementary band was identified with western blotting technique. The virion, BmCPV infected cells and midguts were also examined using western blotting technique. 4, 2 and 5 bands were detected in the corresponding samples, respectively. The replication of BmCPV genome in the cultured cells and midgut of silkworm was decreased by reducing the expression level of vp7 gene using RNA interference. In immunoprecipitation experiments, using a polyclonal antiserum directed against the VP7, one additional shorter band in BmCPV infected midguts was detected, and then the band was analyzed with mass spectrum (MS), the MS results showed thatone candidate interacted protein (VP7 voltage-dependent anion-selective channel-like isoform, VDAC) was identified from silkworm. We concluded that the novel viral product was generated with a leaky scanning mechanism and the VDAC may be an interacted protein with VP7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Loss of γ-cytoplasmic actin triggers myofibroblast transition of human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Li, Chao; Naydenov, Nayden G; Kuemmerle, John F; Dugina, Vera; Chaponnier, Christine; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2014-10-15

    Transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells and myofibroblasts plays an important role in tumor progression and tissue fibrosis. Such epithelial plasticity is accompanied by dramatic reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton, although mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal effects on epithelial transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we observed that selective siRNA-mediated knockdown of γ-cytoplasmic actin (γ-CYA), but not β-cytoplasmic actin, induced epithelial-to-myofibroblast transition (EMyT) of different epithelial cells. The EMyT manifested by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and other contractile proteins, along with inhibition of genes responsible for cell proliferation. Induction of EMyT in γ-CYA-depleted cells depended on activation of serum response factor and its cofactors, myocardial-related transcriptional factors A and B. Loss of γ-CYA stimulated formin-mediated actin polymerization and activation of Rho GTPase, which appear to be essential for EMyT induction. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated, unique role of γ-CYA in regulating epithelial phenotype and suppression of EMyT that may be essential for cell differentiation and tissue fibrosis. © 2014 Lechuga, Baranwal, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Phase-Separated Liposomes Enhance the Efficiency of Macromolecular Delivery to the Cellular Cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Zachary I; Kenyon, Laura E; Ashby, Grant; Nagib, Fatema; Mendicino, Morgan; Zhao, Chi; Gadok, Avinash K; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2017-10-01

    From viruses to organelles, fusion of biological membranes is used by diverse biological systems to deliver macromolecules across membrane barriers. Membrane fusion is also a potentially efficient mechanism for the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics to the cellular cytoplasm. However, a key shortcoming of existing fusogenic liposomal systems is that they are inefficient, requiring a high concentration of fusion-promoting lipids in order to cross cellular membrane barriers. Toward addressing this limitation, our experiments explore the extent to which membrane fusion can be amplified by using the process of lipid membrane phase separation to concentrate fusion-promoting lipids within distinct regions of the membrane surface. We used confocal fluorescence microscopy to investigate the integration of fusion-promoting lipids into a ternary lipid membrane system that separated into liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered membrane phases. Additionally, we quantified the impact of membrane phase separation on the efficiency with which liposomes transferred lipids and encapsulated macromolecules to cells, using a combination of confocal fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Here we report that concentrating fusion-promoting lipids within phase-separated lipid domains on the surfaces of liposomes significantly increases the efficiency of liposome fusion with model membranes and cells. In particular, membrane phase separation enhanced the delivery of lipids and model macromolecules to the cytoplasm of tumor cells by at least 4-fold in comparison to homogenous liposomes. Our findings demonstrate that phase separation can enhance membrane fusion by locally concentrating fusion-promoting lipids on the surface of liposomes. This work represents the first application of lipid membrane phase separation in the design of biomaterials-based delivery systems. Additionally, these results lay the ground work for developing fusogenic liposomes that are triggered by physical and

  8. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis with renal involvement: Analysis of 89 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Yerovi, Estefanía; Delgado-Yagu E, María; Galeano, Cristina; Pampa-Saico, Saúl; Tenorio, Maria Teresa; Liaño, Fernando

    2017-01-06

    The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis with renal involvement are associated with high morbi-mortality. In this study we analyse if the prognosis of these diseases have improved in recent years, and which factors influence the outcomes. Retrospective single-centre observational study, which included all patients diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis with renal involvement in the last 25 years. Demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters of prognostic interest were recorded. The differences between four chronological periods were analysed, along with the determinants of a poor outcome (death or end-stage renal disease). Eighty-nine patients were included (mean age 64±15 years). Sixty-four patients (72%) had microscopic polyangiitis and 25 (28%) granulomatosis with polyangiitis. During the study period, 37 (42%) patients died. Through Cox regression analysis, the best determinants of mortality were the initial glomerular filtration rate (HR 0.911; P=.003), Charlson comorbidity index (HR 1.513; P<.0001) and tobacco smoking (HR 1.816; P=.003). 35% developed end-stage renal disease, and the best determinants (by competing-risk regression) were: initial glomerular filtration rate (sub-hazard ratio [SHR]: 0.791; P<.0001), proteinuria (SHR: 1.313; P<.0001), and smoking status (SHR: 1.848; P=.023). No differences were found in patients' mortality or renal survival between the different study periods. Prognosis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies vasculitis with renal involvement treated with conventional immunosuppressive therapy remains unsatisfactory, and continues to have increased long-term complications and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  10. Frequent Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Localization of β-Catenin without Exon 3 Mutations in Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, David L.; Caca, Karel; Hu, Gang; Harrison, Frank B.; Fearon, Eric R.

    1999-01-01

    β-Catenin has a critical role in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and it also functions as a downstream signaling molecule in the wnt pathway. Mutations in the putative glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation sites near the β-catenin amino terminus have been found in some cancers and cancer cell lines. The mutations render β-catenin resistant to regulation by a complex containing the glycogen synthase kinase 3β, adenomatous polyposis coli, and axin proteins. As a result, β-catenin accumulates in the cytosol and nucleus and activates T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor transcription factors. Previously, 6 of 27 melanoma cell lines were found to have β-catenin exon 3 mutations affecting the N-terminal phosphorylation sites (Rubinfeld B, Robbins P, Elgamil M, Albert I, Porfiri E, Polakis P: Stabilization of beta-catenin by genetic defects in melanoma cell lines. Science 1997, 275:1790–1792). To assess the role of β-catenin defects in primary melanomas, we undertook immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing studies in 65 melanoma specimens. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin, a potential indicator of wnt pathway activation, was seen focally within roughly one third of the tumors, though a clonal somatic mutation in β-catenin was found in only one case (codon 45 Ser→Pro). Our findings demonstrate that β-catenin mutations are rare in primary melanoma, in contrast to the situation in melanoma cell lines. Nonetheless, activation of β-catenin, as indicated by its nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization, appears to be frequent in melanoma, and in some cases, it may reflect focal and transient activation of the wnt pathway within the tumor. PMID:10027390

  11. The effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on cytoplasmic microtubules of mouse macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianqian; Mao Zijun; Yin Zhiwei; Hu Yumin

    1989-05-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on cytoplasmic microtubules of mouse macrophages and lymphocytes were investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results indicated. (1) microtubule organization of the irradiated cells remarkably differed from that of the control since the doses over 4 Gy; (2) 144 hours after irradiation the alterations of microtubules have been shown to be basically r epaired ; (3) the cytoplasmic microtubules and centrioles disappeared under transmission electron microscope, the membranes irradiated and microvilli showed changes under scanning electron microscope too. From these observations and those of other workers who studied the radiation effect on extracted microtubule proteins in vitro, the authors support that 60 Co γ-ray irradiation can inhabits cytoplasmic microtubule assembling

  12. Cytoplasm localization of aminopeptidase M1 and its functional activity in root hair cells and BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Ran; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2012-12-01

    Aminopeptidase M1 (APM1) was the first M1 metallopeptidase family member identified in Arabidopsis, isolated by its affinity for the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A loss-of-function mutation showed various developmental defects in cell division and auxin transport. APM1 was shown to be localized in endomembrane structures, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. These previous results suggested that APM1 has diverse functional roles in different cell and tissue types. Here we report that APM1 localized to the cytoplasm, and its over-expression in the root hair cell caused longer root hair phenotypes. Treatment of aminopeptidase inhibitors caused internalization of auxin efflux PIN-FORMED proteins in root hair cells and suppressed short root hair phenotype of PIN3 overexpression line (PIN3ox). APM1 also localized to the cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells, its over-expression had little effect on auxin transport in these cells.

  13. Analysis of genetic effects of nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on quantitative traits: genetic model for diploid plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lide; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Jun

    2007-06-01

    A genetic model was proposed for simultaneously analyzing genetic effects of nuclear, cytoplasm, and nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction (NCI) as well as their genotype by environment (GE) interaction for quantitative traits of diploid plants. In the model, the NCI effects were further partitioned into additive and dominance nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction components. Mixed linear model approaches were used for statistical analysis. On the basis of diallel cross designs, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the genetic model was robust for estimating variance components under several situations without specific effects. Random genetic effects were predicted by an adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP) method. Data on four quantitative traits (boll number, lint percentage, fiber length, and micronaire) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were analyzed as a worked example to show the effectiveness of the model.

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  15. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  16. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  17. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  20. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  3. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  4. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  5. Cytoplasmic HIV-1 RNA is mainly transported by diffusion in the presence or absence of Gag protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jianbo; Grunwald, David; Sardo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    . In this report, we visualized HIV-1 RNA and monitored its movement in the cytoplasm by using single-molecule tracking. We observed that most of the HIV-1 RNA molecules move in a nondirectional, random-walk manner, which does not require an intact cytoskeletal structure, and that the mean-squared distance...... traveled by the RNA increases linearly with time, indicative of diffusive movement. We also observed that a single HIV-1 RNA molecule can move at various speeds when traveling through the cytoplasm, indicating that its movement is strongly affected by the immediate environment. To examine the effect of Gag...

  6. Presence of albumin mRNA precursors in nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver lacking cytoplasmic albumin mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Esumi, H; Takahashi, Y; Sekiya, T; Sato, S; Nagase, S; Sugimura, T

    1982-01-01

    Analbuminemic rats, which lack serum albumin, were previously found to have no albumin mRNA in the cytoplasm of the liver. In the present study, the existence of nuclear albumin mRNA precursors in the liver of analbuminemic rats was examined by RNA X cDNA hybridization kinetics. Albumin mRNA precursors were present in the nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver at almost normal levels, despite the absence of albumin mRNA from the cytoplasm. Nuclear RNA of analbuminemic rat liver was subjected to el...

  7. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars.

  8. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  9. Functional role of the cytoplasmic tail domain of the major envelope fusion protein of group II baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Pan, M.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    F proteins from baculovirus nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) group II members are the major budded virus (BV) viral envelope fusion proteins. They undergo furin-like proteolysis processing in order to be functional. F proteins from different baculovirus species have a long cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD),

  10. Cytoplasmic and Genomic Effects on Meiotic Pairing in Brassica Hybrids and Allotetraploids from Pair Crosses of Three Cultivated Diploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and “fixed heterosis” in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  11. Application of molecular markers in sugarcane germplasm innovation and breeding: new germplasm with cytoplasm from Saccharum spontaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    All current sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum hybrids spp.) are interspeci'c hybrids of S. of'cinarum, S. robustum and S. spontaneum that bear the same cytoplasm of S. of'cinarum. Until the end of 20th century, S. spontaneum was exclusively used as male parents to confer such traits as vigor, ratoonabi...

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation revealed cytoplasmic tail is dispensable for IZUMO1 function and male fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Samantha A M; Miyata, Haruhiko; Satouh, Yuhkoh

    2016-01-01

    manipulation system of CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon, producing mice with truncated IZUMO1. Mice without the cytoplasmic tail of IZUMO1 showed normal fertility but decreased the amount of protein, indicating that whilst this region is important for the expression...

  13. The nectin-1α transmembrane domain, but not the cytoplasmic tail, influences cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Ravi P.; Dunn, Jennifer E.; Geraghty, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Nectin-1 is a receptor for herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and a cellular adhesion molecule. To study domains of nectin-1α involved in cell fusion, we measured the ability of nectin-1α/nectin-2α chimeras, nectin-1α/CD4 chimeras, and transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail mutants of nectin-1α to promote cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that only chimeras and mutants containing the entire V-like domain and a link to the plasma membrane conferred cell-fusion activity. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of nectin-1 were not required for any viral receptor or cell adhesion function tested. Cellular cytoplasmic factors that bind to the nectin-1α cytoplasmic tail, therefore, did not influence virus entry or cell fusion. Interestingly, the efficiency of cell fusion was reduced when membrane-spanning domains of nectin-1α and gD were replaced by glycosylphosphatidylinositol tethers, indicating that transmembrane domains may play a modulatory role in the gD/nectin-1α interaction in fusion

  14. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, A C; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, P A; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O3 are known to be involved in the current

  15. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, AC; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, PA; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O-3 are known to be involved in the current

  16. High Prevalence of Autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 in Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kain, Renate; Tadema, Henko; McKinney, Eoin F.; Benharkou, Alexandra; Brandes, Ricarda; Peschel, Andrea; Hubert, Virginie; Feenstra, Tjerk; Sengoelge, Guerkan; Stegeman, Coen; Heeringa, Peter; Lyons, Paul A.; Smith, Kenneth G. C.; Kallenberg, Cees; Rees, Andrew J.

    The involvement of autoantibodies to human lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (hLAMP-2) in anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis is controversial because of the absence of confirmatory data subsequent to the initial reports of their high prevalence in this disease. We

  17. Urinary CD4+ Effector Memory T Cells Reflect Renal Disease Activity in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Stegeman, Coen A.

    Objective. Numbers of circulating CD4+ effector memory T cells are proportionally increased in patients with proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) whose disease is in remission and are decreased during active disease, which presumably reflects their migration

  18. Higher cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression in familial than in sporadic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauke, M.L.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Budczies, J.; Bult, P.; Prinzler, J.; Radke, C.; van Krieken, J.H.; Dietel, M.; Denkert, C.; Muller, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) is a key element of the single-base excision pathway for repair of DNA single-strand breaks. To compare the cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) expression between familial (BRCA1, BRCA2, or non BRCA1/2) and sporadic breast cancer, we investigated 39 sporadic

  19. Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Delivery of Lactoferrin in Glioma using Chitosan Nanoparticles: Cellular Location Dependent-Action of Lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2018-05-23

    Lactoferrin (Lf) exerts anti-cancer effects on glioma, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Despite possessing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), Lf was found to allocate only in the cytoplasm of glioma 261. Lf was therefore loaded into nuclear and cytoplasmic targeted nanoparticles (NPs) to determine whether nuclear delivery of Lf would enhance its anti-cancer effect. Upon treatment with 300 and 800 µg/mL Lf loaded chitosan NPs, nuclear targeted Lf-NPs showed 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in cell viability, whereas cytoplasmic targeted Lf-NPs at 300 µg/mL decreased cell viability by 0.8 folds in comparison to free Lf and controls. Results suggest that the cytotoxicity of Lf on glioma is attributable to its cytoplasmic allocation. Nuclear delivery of Lf induced cell proliferation rather than cytotoxicity, indicating that the mode of action of Lf in glioma is cell location dependent. This calls for caution about the general use of Lf as an anti-cancer protein. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Structural Basis for Redox Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Chloroplastic Triosephosphate Isomerases from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita López-Castillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants triosephosphate isomerase (TPI interconverts glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP during glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the Calvin-Benson cycle. The nuclear genome of land plants encodes two tpi genes, one gene product is located in the cytoplasm and the other is imported into the chloroplast. Herein we report the crystal structures of the TPIs from the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTPIs and address their enzymatic modulation by redox agents. Cytoplasmic TPI (cTPI and chloroplast TPI (pdTPI share more than 60% amino acid identity and assemble as (β-α8 dimers with high structural homology. cTPI and pdTPI harbor two and one accessible thiol groups per monomer respectively. cTPI and pdTPI present a cysteine at an equivalent structural position (C13 and C15 respectively and cTPI also contains a specific solvent accessible cysteine at residue 218 (cTPI-C218. Site directed mutagenesis of residues pdTPI-C15, cTPI-C13 and cTPI-C218 to serine substantially decreases enzymatic activity, indicating that the structural integrity of these cysteines is necessary for catalysis. AtTPIs exhibit differential responses to oxidative agents, cTPI is susceptible to oxidative agents such as diamide and H2O2, whereas pdTPI is resistant to inhibition. Incubation of AtTPIs with the sulfhydryl conjugating reagents methylmethane thiosulfonate (MMTS and glutathione inhibits enzymatic activity. However, the concentration necessary to inhibit pdTPI is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the concentration needed to inhibit cTPI. Western-blot analysis indicates that residues cTPI-C13, cTPI-C218, and pdTPI-C15 conjugate with glutathione. In summary, our data indicate that AtTPIs could be redox regulated by the derivatization of specific AtTPI cysteines (cTPI-C13 and pdTPI-C15 and cTPI-C218. Since AtTPIs have evolved by gene duplication, the higher resistance of pdTPI to redox agents may be an adaptive consequence to

  1. Cytoplasmic free Ca2+ is essential for multiple steps in malaria parasite egress from infected erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushakova Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Egress of Plasmodium falciparum, from erythrocytes at the end of its asexual cycle and subsequent parasite invasion into new host cells, is responsible for parasite dissemination in the human body. The egress pathway is emerging as a coordinated multistep programme that extends in time for tens of minutes, ending with rapid parasite extrusion from erythrocytes. While the Ca2+ regulation of the invasion of P. falciparum in erythrocytes is well established, the role of Ca2+ in parasite egress is poorly understood. This study analysed the involvement of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ in infected erythrocytes during the multistep egress programme of malaria parasites. Methods Live-cell fluorescence microscopy was used to image parasite egress from infected erythrocytes, assessing the effect of drugs modulating Ca2+ homeostasis on the egress programme. Results A steady increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ is found to precede parasite egress. This increase is independent of extracellular Ca2+ for at least the last two hours of the cycle, but is dependent upon Ca2+ release from internal stores. Intracellular BAPTA chelation of Ca2+ within the last 45 minutes of the cycle inhibits egress prior to parasitophorous vacuole swelling and erythrocyte membrane poration, two characteristic morphological transformations preceding parasite egress. Inhibitors of the parasite endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-ATPase accelerate parasite egress, indicating that Ca2+ stores within the ER are sufficient in supporting egress. Markedly accelerated egress of apparently viable parasites was achieved in mature schizonts using Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Ionophore treatment overcomes the BAPTA-induced block of parasite egress, confirming that free Ca2+ is essential in egress initiation. Ionophore treatment of immature schizonts had an adverse effect inducing parasitophorous vacuole swelling and killing the parasites within the host cell. Conclusions The parasite egress

  2. Localized redox relays as a privileged mode of cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travasso, Rui D M; Sampaio Dos Aidos, Fernando; Bayani, Anahita; Abranches, Pedro; Salvador, Armindo

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a key signaling agent. Its best characterized signaling actions in mammalian cells involve the early oxidation of thiols in cytoplasmic phosphatases, kinases and transcription factors. However, these redox targets are orders of magnitude less H 2 O 2 -reactive and abundant than cytoplasmic peroxiredoxins. How can they be oxidized in a signaling time frame? Here we investigate this question using computational reaction-diffusion models of H 2 O 2 signaling. The results show that at H 2 O 2 supply rates commensurate with mitogenic signaling a H 2 O 2 concentration gradient with a length scale of a few tenths of μm is established. Even near the supply sites H 2 O 2 concentrations are far too low to oxidize typical targets in an early mitogenic signaling time frame. Furthermore, any inhibition of the peroxiredoxin or increase in H 2 O 2 supply able to drastically increase the local H 2 O 2 concentration would collapse the concentration gradient and/or cause an extensive oxidation of the peroxiredoxins I and II, inconsistent with experimental observations. In turn, the local concentrations of peroxiredoxin sulfenate and disulfide forms exceed those of H 2 O 2 by several orders of magnitude. Redox targets reacting with these forms at rate constants much lower than that for, say, thioredoxin could be oxidized within seconds. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the concentrations of these peroxiredoxin forms allows them to reach targets within 1 μm from the H 2 O 2 sites while maintaining signaling localized. The recruitment of peroxiredoxins to specific sites such as caveolae can dramatically increase the local concentrations of the sulfenic and disulfide forms, thus further helping these species to outcompete H 2 O 2 for the oxidation of redox targets. Altogether, these results suggest that H 2 O 2 signaling is mediated by localized redox relays whereby peroxiredoxins are oxidized to sulfenate and disulfide forms at H 2 O 2 supply

  3. The components of the unique Zur regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans mediate cytoplasmic zinc handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2017-08-14

    Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family. It is important to understand, therefore, how this zinc-resistant bacterium copes when it is exposed to low zinc concentrations. Members of the Zur regulon in C. metallidurans were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of a Δ zur mutant and its parent strain. The consensus sequence of the Zur-binding box was derived for the zupTp promoter-regulatory region using a truncation assay. The motif was used to predict possible Zur-boxes upstream of Zur regulon members. Binding of Zur to these boxes was confirmed. Two Zur-boxes upstream of the cobW 1 gene, encoding a putative zinc chaperone, proved to be required for complete repression of cobW 1 and its downstream genes in cells cultivated in mineral salts medium. A Zur box upstream of each of zur-cobW 2 , cobW 3 and zupT permitted low-expression level of these genes plus their up-regulation under zinc starvation conditions. This demonstrates a compartmentalization of zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans with the periplasm being responsible for removal of surplus zinc and cytoplasmic components for management of zinc as an essential co-factor, with both compartments connected by ZupT. Importance Elucidating zinc homeostasis is necessary to understand both host-pathogen interactions and performance of free-living bacteria in their natural environment. Escherichia coli acquires zinc under low zinc concentrations by the Zur-controlled ZnuABC importer of the ABC superfamily, and this was also the paradigm for other

  4. Cytoplasmic localization of alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Sameer; Rakha, Emad A; Alshareeda, Alaa; Mohibi, Shakur; Zhao, Xiangshan; Katafiasz, Bryan J; Wang, Jun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; Bele, Aditya; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew R; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2013-02-01

    Transcriptional activation by estrogen receptor (ER) is a key step to breast oncogenesis. Given previous findings that ADA3 is a critical component of HAT complexes that regulate ER function and evidence that overexpression of other ER coactivators such as SRC-3 is associated with clinical outcomes in breast cancer, the current study was designed to assess the potential significance of ADA3 expression/localization in human breast cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed ADA3 expression in breast cancer tissue specimens and assessed the correlation of ADA3 staining with cancer progression and patient outcome. Tissue microarrays prepared from large series of breast cancer patients with long-term follow-ups were stained with anti-ADA3 monoclonal antibody using immunohistochemistry. Samples were analyzed for ADA3 expression followed by correlation with various clinicopathological parameters and patients' outcomes. We report that breast cancer specimens show predominant nuclear, cytoplasmic, or mixed nuclear + cytoplasmic ADA3 staining patterns. Predominant nuclear ADA3 staining correlated with ER+ status. While predominant cytoplasmic ADA3 staining negatively correlated with ER+ status, but positively correlated with ErbB2, EGFR, and Ki67. Furthermore, a positive correlation of cytoplasmic ADA3 was observed with higher histological grade, mitotic counts, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and positive vascular invasion. Patients with nuclear ADA3 and ER positivity have better breast cancer specific survival and distant metastasis free survival. Significantly, cytoplasmic expression of ADA3 showed a strong positive association with reduced BCSS and DMFS in ErbB2+/EGFR+ patients. Although in multivariate analyses ADA3 expression was not an independent marker of survival, predominant nuclear ADA3 staining in breast cancer tissues correlates with ER+ expression and together serves as a marker of good prognosis, whereas predominant cytoplasmic ADA3 expression correlates with

  5. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  7. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  8. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  9. Comparison of disease activity measures for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, PA; Cuthbertson, DD; Hellmich, B; Hoffman, GS; Jayne, DRW; Kallenberg, CGM; Krischer, JP; Luqmani, R; Mahr, AD; Matteson, EL; Specks, U; Stone, JH

    2011-01-01

    Aim Currently, several different instruments are used to measure disease activity and extent in clinical trials of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, leading to division among investigative groups and difficulty comparing study results. An exercise comparing six different vasculitis instruments was performed. Methods A total of 10 experienced vasculitis investigators from 5 countries scored 20 cases in the literature of Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis using 6 disease assessment tools: the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), The BVAS for Wegener granulomatosis (BVAS/WG), BVAS 2003, a Physician Global Assessment (PGA), the Disease Extent Index (DEI) and the Five Factor Score (FFS). Five cases were rescored by all raters. Results Reliability of the measures was extremely high (intraclass correlations for the six measures all=0.98). Within each instrument, there were no significant differences or outliers among the scores from the 10 investigators. Test/retest reliability was high for each measure: range=0.77 to 0.95. The scores of the five acute activity measures correlated extremely well with one another. Conclusions Currently available tools for measuring disease extent and activity in ANCA-associated vasculitis are highly correlated and reliable. These results provide investigators with confidence to compare different clinical trial data and helps form common ground as international research groups develop new, improved and universally accepted vasculitis disease assessment instruments. PMID:18664546

  10. Cytoplasmic Nucleation and Atypical Branching Nucleation Generate Endoplasmic Microtubules in Physcomitrella patens[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Yuki; Kimura, Akatsuki; Tani, Tomomi; Goshima, Gohta

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying microtubule (MT) generation in plants has been primarily studied using the cortical MT array, in which fixed-angled branching nucleation and katanin-dependent MT severing predominate. However, little is known about MT generation in the endoplasm. Here, we explored the mechanism of endoplasmic MT generation in protonemal cells of Physcomitrella patens. We developed an assay that utilizes flow cell and oblique illumination fluorescence microscopy, which allowed visualization and quantification of individual MT dynamics. MT severing was infrequently observed, and disruption of katanin did not severely affect MT generation. Branching nucleation was observed, but it showed markedly variable branch angles and was occasionally accompanied by the transport of nucleated MTs. Cytoplasmic nucleation at seemingly random locations was most frequently observed and predominated when depolymerized MTs were regrown. The MT nucleator γ-tubulin was detected at the majority of the nucleation sites, at which a single MT was generated in random directions. When γ-tubulin was knocked down, MT generation was significantly delayed in the regrowth assay. However, nucleation occurred at a normal frequency in steady state, suggesting the presence of a γ-tubulin-independent backup mechanism. Thus, endoplasmic MTs in this cell type are generated in a less ordered manner, showing a broader spectrum of nucleation mechanisms in plants. PMID:25616870

  11. Exploring nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses in Tara Oceans microbial metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingamp, Pascal; Grimsley, Nigel; Acinas, Silvia G; Clerissi, Camille; Subirana, Lucie; Poulain, Julie; Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Villar, Emilie; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Faust, Karoline; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Hervé; Desdevises, Yves; Bork, Peer; Raes, Jeroen; de Vargas, Colomban; Karsenti, Eric; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Pesant, Stéphane; Wincker, Patrick; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of their unicellular hosts or by causing diseases in animals. To better characterize the diversity, abundance and biogeography of marine NCLDVs, we analyzed 17 metagenomes derived from microbial samples (0.2-1.6 μm size range) collected during the Tara Oceans Expedition. The sample set includes ecosystems under-represented in previous studies, such as the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and Indian Ocean lagoons. By combining computationally derived relative abundance and direct prokaryote cell counts, the abundance of NCLDVs was found to be in the order of 10(4)-10(5) genomes ml(-1) for the samples from the photic zone and 10(2)-10(3) genomes ml(-1) for the OMZ. The Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae dominated the NCLDV populations in the metagenomes, although most of the reads classified in these families showed large divergence from known viral genomes. Our taxon co-occurrence analysis revealed a potential association between viruses of the Megaviridae family and eukaryotes related to oomycetes. In support of this predicted association, we identified six cases of lateral gene transfer between Megaviridae and oomycetes. Our results suggest that marine NCLDVs probably outnumber eukaryotic organisms in the photic layer (per given water mass) and that metagenomic sequence analyses promise to shed new light on the biodiversity of marine viruses and their interactions with potential hosts.

  12. Modification of mitochondrial function, cytoplasmic lipid content and cryosensitivity of bovine embryos by resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahito; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Hara, Tomotaka; Noguchi, Tatsuo; Hayashi, Takeshi; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2017-10-18

    Resveratrol is a potent activator of NAD-dependent deacetyltransferase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and affects lipid metabolism and ATP generation in somatic cells. In the present study, the effects of supplementing culture medium with resveratrol on lipid metabolism, ATP generation, and cryosensitivity of bovine in vitro produced embryos were investigated. Bovine early cleaved-stage embryos were cultured in medium containing 0 or 0.5 µM resveratrol for 1 or 5 days. Resveratrol treatment for both 1 day and 5 days increased the expression levels of SIRT1 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) in the embryos. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment was effective to increase ATP generation and reduce lipid content of the embryos. The effects of resveratrol treatment were diminished by the SIRT1 inhibitor "EX527", and the reduced lipid content was reversed by treatment with etomoxir (a potent inhibitor of beta-oxidation). Blastocysts developed after resveratrol treatment showed low levels reactive oxygen species and increased cryotolerance. These results demonstrate that resveratrol improves in vitro development of bovine embryos, while reducing cytoplasmic lipid content through activation of beta-oxidation, thereby effective for production of bovine blastocysts with enhanced cryotolerance.

  13. The Genetic Variability of Floral and Agronomic Characteristics of Newly-Bred Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat El-Namaky

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility enabled commercialization of heterosis in rice but low seed set remains a constraint on hybrid dissemination. We evaluated 216 F6 maintainer lines for agronomic and floral characteristics in augmented design and selected 15 maintainer lines, which were testcrossed with IR58025A. Five backcrosses were conducted to transfer cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS to select maintainer lines. Newly-bred BC5:6 CMS lines were evaluated for outcrossing rates and agronomic characteristics. There were highly significant differences among 216 F6 maintainer lines for characteristics whose genotypic variance was higher than environmental variance. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was almost the same as the genotypic coefficient of variation, indicating that most phenotypic variation was due to genetics. There were highly significant differences among CMS lines for number of days to 50% flowering and maturity; stigma exertion; panicle exertion, length and weight; spikelet fertility; tillers per plant; plant height; grains per panicle; grain yield per plant; and 1000-grain weight, but not for pollen and panicle sterility during dry and wet seasons. Three CMS lines (CMS3, CMS12, and CMS14, exhibited high outcrossing rates (56.17%, 51.42% and 48.44%, respectively, which had a highly significant, positive correlation with stigma exertion (0.97, spikelet opening angle (0.82, and panicle exertion (0.95.

  14. SH2 and SH3 domains: elements that control interactions of cytoplasmic signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C A; Anderson, D; Moran, M F; Ellis, C; Pawson, T

    1991-05-03

    Src homology (SH) regions 2 and 3 are noncatalytic domains that are conserved among a series of cytoplasmic signaling proteins regulated by receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, including phospholipase C-gamma, Ras GTPase (guanosine triphosphatase)-activating protein, and Src-like tyrosine kinases. The SH2 domains of these signaling proteins bind tyrosine phosphorylated polypeptides, implicated in normal signaling and cellular transformation. Tyrosine phosphorylation acts as a switch to induce the binding of SH2 domains, thereby mediating the formation of heteromeric protein complexes at or near the plasma membrane. The formation of these complexes is likely to control the activation of signal transduction pathways by tyrosine kinases. The SH3 domain is a distinct motif that, together with SH2, may modulate interactions with the cytoskeleton and membrane. Some signaling and transforming proteins contain SH2 and SH3 domains unattached to any known catalytic element. These noncatalytic proteins may serve as adaptors to link tyrosine kinases to specific target proteins. These observations suggest that SH2 and SH3 domains participate in the control of intracellular responses to growth factor stimulation.

  15. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Testing in a Large Cohort of Unselected Greek Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsiveriotis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To retrospectively evaluate ANCA testing in a cohort of unselected Greek in- and outpatients. Methods. In 10803 consecutive serum samples, ANCA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and ELISA. ELISA in inpatients was performed only on IIF positive sera. Results. Low prevalence (6.0% of IIF positive samples was observed. Among these samples, 63.5% presented perinuclear (p-ANCA, 9.3% cytoplasmic (c-ANCA and 27.2% atypical (x-ANCA pattern. 16.1% of p-ANCA were antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO positive, whereas 68.3% of c-ANCA were antiproteinase-3 (anti-PR3 positive. Only 17 IIF negative outpatients' samples were ELISA positive. ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV, connective tissue disorders and gastrointestinal disorders represented 20.5%, 23.9%, and 21.2% of positive results, respectively. AAV patients exhibited higher rates of MPO/PR3 specificity compared to non-AAV (93.8% versus 8%. Conclusions. This first paper on Greek patients supports that screening for ANCA by IIF and confirming positive results by ELISA minimize laboratory charges without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy.

  16. A role for the juxtamembrane cytoplasm in the molecular dynamics of focal adhesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haguy Wolfenson

    Full Text Available Focal adhesions (FAs are specialized membrane-associated multi-protein complexes that link the cell to the extracellular matrix and play crucial roles in cell-matrix sensing. Considerable information is available on the complex molecular composition of these sites, yet the regulation of FA dynamics is largely unknown. Based on a combination of FRAP studies in live cells, with in silico simulations and mathematical modeling, we show that the FA plaque proteins paxillin and vinculin exist in four dynamic states: an immobile FA-bound fraction, an FA-associated fraction undergoing exchange, a juxtamembrane fraction experiencing attenuated diffusion, and a fast-diffusing cytoplasmic pool. The juxtamembrane region surrounding FAs displays a gradient of FA plaque proteins with respect to both concentration and dynamics. Based on these findings, we propose a new model for the regulation of FA dynamics in which this juxtamembrane domain acts as an intermediary layer, enabling an efficient regulation of FA formation and reorganization.

  17. Architecture and permeability of post-cytokinesis plasmodesmata lacking cytoplasmic sleeves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, William J; Grison, Magali S; Trépout, Sylvain; Gaston, Amélia; Fouché, Mathieu; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Oparka, Karl; Tilsner, Jens; Brocard, Lysiane; Bayer, Emmanuelle M

    2017-06-12

    Plasmodesmata are remarkable cellular machines responsible for the controlled exchange of proteins, small RNAs and signalling molecules between cells. They are lined by the plasma membrane (PM), contain a strand of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the space between these two membranes is thought to control plasmodesmata permeability. Here, we have reconstructed plasmodesmata three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure with an unprecedented level of 3D information using electron tomography. We show that within plasmodesmata, ER-PM contact sites undergo substantial remodelling events during cell differentiation. Instead of being open pores, post-cytokinesis plasmodesmata present such intimate ER-PM contact along the entire length of the pores that no intermembrane gap is visible. Later on, during cell expansion, the plasmodesmata pore widens and the two membranes separate, leaving a cytosolic sleeve spanned by tethers whose presence correlates with the appearance of the intermembrane gap. Surprisingly, the post-cytokinesis plasmodesmata allow diffusion of macromolecules despite the apparent lack of an open cytoplasmic sleeve, forcing the reassessment of the mechanisms that control plant cell-cell communication.

  18. Circumvention of nuclear factor kappaB-induced chemoresistance by cytoplasmic-targeted anthracyclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Jennifer D; Panta, Ganesh R; Cavin, Lakita G; Barrett, Christina M; Turner, Eddie J; Sweatman, Trevor W; Israel, Mervyn; Lothstein, Leonard; Arsura, Marcello

    2004-04-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in inducible chemoresistance against anthracyclines. In an effort to improve the cytotoxicity of anthracyclines while reducing their cardiotoxic effects, we have developed a novel class of extranuclear-localizing 14-O-acylanthracyclines that bind to the phorbol ester/diacylglycerol-binding C1b domain of conventional and novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, thereby promoting an apoptotic response. Because PKCs have been shown to be involved in NF-kappaB activation, in this report, we determined the mechanism of NF-kappaB activation by N-benzyladriamycin-14-valerate (AD 198) and N-benzyladriamycin-14-pivalate (AD 445), two novel 14-O-acylanthracylines. We show that the induction of NF-kappaB activity in response to drug treatment relies on the activation of PKC-delta and NF-kappaB-activating kinase (NAK), independent of ataxia telengectasia mutated and p53 activities. In turn, NAK activates the IKK complex through phosphorylation of the IKK-2 subunit. We find that neither NF-kappaB activation nor ectopic expression of Bcl-X(L) confers protection from AD 198-induced cell killing. Overall, our data indicate that activation of novel PKC isoforms by cytoplasmic-targeted 14-O-acylanthracyclines promotes an apoptotic response independent of DNA damage, which is unimpeded by inducible activation of NF-kappaB.

  19. Cell density-dependent nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of NORPEG (RAI14) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, R. Krishnan; Chen, Shanyi; Samuel, William; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Duncan, Todd; Tsai, Jen-Yue; Fariss, Robert N.; Carper, Deborah; Jaworski, Cynthia; Wiggert, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    NORPEG (RAI14), a developmentally regulated gene induced by retinoic acid, encodes a 980 amino acid (aa) residue protein containing six ankyrin repeats and a long coiled-coil domain [Kutty et al., J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001), pp. 2831-2840]. We have expressed aa residues 1-287 of NORPEG and used the recombinant protein to produce an anti-NORPEG polyclonal antibody. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that the subcellular localization of NORPEG in retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells varies with cell density, with predominantly nuclear localization in nonconfluent cells, but a cytoplasmic localization, reminiscent of cytoskeleton, in confluent cultures. Interestingly, an evolutionarily conserved putative monopartite nuclear localization signal (P 27 KKRKAP 276 ) was identified by analyzing the sequences of NORPEG and its orthologs. GFP-NORPEG (2-287 aa), a fusion protein containing this signal, was indeed localized to nuclei when expressed in ARPE-19 or COS-7 cells. Deletion and mutation analysis indicated that the identified nuclear localization sequence is indispensable for nuclear targeting

  20. Wolbachia age-sex-specific density in Aedes albopictus: a host evolutionary response to cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tortosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria have invaded many arthropod species by inducing Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI. These symbionts represent fascinating objects of study for evolutionary biologists, but also powerful potential biocontrol agents. Here, we assess the density dynamics of Wolbachia infections in males and females of the mosquito Aedes albopitcus, an important vector of human pathogens, and interpret the results within an evolutionary framework.Wolbachia densities were measured in natural populations and in age controlled mosquitoes using quantitative PCR. We show that the density dynamics of the wAlbA Wolbachia strain infecting Aedes albopictus drastically differ between males and females, with a very rapid decay of infection in males only.Theory predicts that Wolbachia and its hosts should cooperate to improve the transmission of infection to offspring, because only infected eggs are protected from the effects of CI. However, incompatible matings effectively lower the fertility of infected males, so that selection acting on the host genome should tend to reduce the expression of CI in males, for example, by reducing infection density in males before sexual maturation. The rapid decay of one Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus males, but not in females, is consistent with this prediction. We suggest that the commonly observed reduction in CI intensity with male age reflects a similar evolutionary process. Our results also highlight the importance of monitoring infection density dynamics in both males and females to assess the efficiency of Wolbachia-based control strategies.

  1. Misfolded Gβ is recruited to cytoplasmic dynein by Nudel for efficient clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihan Wan; Zhenye Yang; Jing Guo; Qiangge Zhang; Liyong Zeng; Wei Song; Yue Xiao; Xueliang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The Gβγ heterodimer is an important signal transducer.Gβ,however,is prone to misfolding due to its requirement for Gγ and chaperones for proper folding.How cells dispose of misfolded Gβ (mfGβ) is not clear.Here,we showed that mfGβ was able to be polyubiquitinated and subsequently degraded by the proteasome.It was sequestered in aggresomes after the inhibition of the proteasome activity with MG132.Sustained activation of Gβγ signaling further elevated cellular levels of the ubiquitinated Gβ.Moreover,Nudel,a regulator of cytoplasmic dynein,the microtubule minus end-directed motor,directly interacted with both the unubiquitinated and ubiquitinated mfGβ.Increasing the levels of both mfGβ and Nudel promoted the association of Gβ with both Nudel and dynein,resulting in robust aggresome formation in a dynein-dependent manner.Depletion of Nudel by RNAi reduced the dynein-associated mfGβ,impaired the MG132-induced aggresome formation,and markedly prolonged the half-life of nascent Gβ.Therefore,cytosolic mfGβ is recruited to dynein by Nudel and transported to the centrosome for rapid sequestration and degradation.Such a process not only eliminates mfGβ efficiently for the control of protein quality,but may also help to terminate the Gβγ signaling.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin gene and its variant forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Datta, Uma; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Ghosh, Ananta K.

    2005-01-01

    The segments 10 (S10) of the 11 double stranded RNA genomes from Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) encoding a novel polyhedrin polypeptide was converted to cDNA, cloned, and sequenced. Three cDNA clones consisting of 1502 (AmCPV10-1), 1120 (AmCPV10-2), and 1415 (AmCPV10-3) nucleotides encoding polyhedrin of 254, 339, and 319 amino acids with molecular masses of 29, 39, and 37 kDa, respectively, were obtained, and verified by Northern analysis. These clones showed 70-94% sequence identity among them but none with any sequences in databases. The expression of AmCPV10-1 cDNA encoded polyhedrin in Sf-9 cells was detected by immunoblot analysis and formation of polyhedra by electron microscopy, as observed in AmCPV-infected gut cells, but no expression of AmCPV10-2 or AmCPV10-3 cDNA was detected, indicating that during AmCPV replication, along with functional S10 RNA, some defective variant forms of S10 RNAs are packaged in virion particles

  3. Pathogenetic and Clinical Aspects of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody-Associated Vasculitides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lamprecht

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA targeting proteinase 3 (PR3 and myeloperoxidase expressed by innate immune cells (neutrophils and monocytes are salient diagnostic and pathogenic features of small vessel vasculitis, comprising granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic GPA. Genetic studies suggest that ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV constitute separate diseases, which share common immunological and pathological features, but are otherwise heterogeneous. The successful therapeutic use of anti-CD20 antibodies emphasizes the prominent role of ANCA and possibly other autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of AAV. However, to elucidate causal effects in AAV, a better understanding of the complex interplay leading to the emergence of B lymphocytes that produce pathogenic ANCA remains a challenge. Different scenarios seem possible; e.g., the break of tolerance induced by a shift from non-pathogenic toward pathogenic autoantigen epitopes in inflamed tissue. This review gives a brief overview on current knowledge about genetic and epigenetic factors, barrier dysfunction and chronic non-resolving inflammation, necro-inflammatory auto-amplification of cellular death and inflammation, altered autoantigen presentation, alternative complement pathway activation, alterations within peripheral and inflamed tissue-residing T- and B-cell populations, ectopic lymphoid tissue neoformation, the characterization of PR3-specific T-cells, properties of ANCA, links between autoimmune disease and infection-triggered pathology, and animal models in AAV.

  4. Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Cytoplasmic Proteins in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurobrucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to LPS (800 to 6,400) were found in the CSF of these patients, these antibodies were not detected in CSF samples from two patients who had systemic brucellosis without neurological involvement. The latter, however, had serum IgG and IgM to both LPS and CP. No reactivity to these antigens was found in CSF samples from 14 and 20 patients suffering from nonbrucellar meningitis and noninfectious diseases, respectively. These findings suggest that, in addition to its usefulness in the serological diagnosis of human systemic brucellosis, the ELISA with CP antigen can be used for the specific diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis. PMID:10473531

  5. Molecular Characterization of Bombyx mori Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus Genome Segment 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiko; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Winkler, Stefan; Kotani, Kumiko; Yagi, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Kae; Miyajima, Shigetoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Mori, Hajime

    2001-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome segment 4 (S4) of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) was determined. The 3,259-nucleotide sequence contains a single long open reading frame which spans nucleotides 14 to 3187 and which is predicted to encode a protein with a molecular mass of about 130 kDa. Western blot analysis showed that S4 encodes BmCPV protein VP3, which is one of the outer components of the BmCPV virion. Sequence analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of BmCPV VP3 revealed possible sequence homology with proteins from rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) S2, Nilaparvata lugens reovirus S4, and Fiji disease fijivirus S4. This may suggest that plant reoviruses originated from insect viruses and that RRSV emerged more recently than other plant reoviruses. A chimeric protein consisting of BmCPV VP3 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed and expressed with BmCPV polyhedrin using a baculovirus expression vector. The VP3-GFP chimera was incorporated into BmCPV polyhedra and released under alkaline conditions. The results indicate that specific interactions occur between BmCPV polyhedrin and VP3 which might facilitate BmCPV virion occlusion into the polyhedra. PMID:11134312

  6. Azathioprine Intolerance in Japanese Patients with Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Michiko; Watanabe, Haruki; Yan, Minglu; Zeggar, Sonia; Hiramatsu, Sumie; Ohashi, Keiji; Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Eri; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Takano Narazaki, Mariko; Toyota Tatebe, Noriko; Sunahori Watanabe, Katsue; Kawabata, Tomoko; Sada, Ken-Ei; Wada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety of azathioprine (AZA) in Japanese patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Methods We retrospectively enrolled 67 consecutive AAV patients who had initiated AZA treatment from January 2006 to August 2014 at Okayama University Hospital. We evaluated the development of severe adverse events (AEs), AZA discontinuation due to total AEs (severe AEs included) within 1 year, and AZA-associated risk factors. Results The patients' median age was 70 years old. Forty-nine women and 18 men participated at the initiation of the study. Fifty-eight (87%) patients experienced AEs, and 36 experienced severe AEs (21 hepatic and 11 cytopenic severe AEs). Thirty-one (46%) patients discontinued treatment because of AEs. Abnormal hepatic laboratory test results at the treatment initiation were more frequent in patients with hepatic severe AEs and were associated with treatment discontinuation. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts at the treatment initiation were lower in the patients who discontinued treatment because of cytopenic AEs than in those who continued treatment. Only two patients experienced flare-ups during treatment. Conclusion The AE-associated AZA discontinuation rate in Japanese AAV patients was relatively high. AZA use warrants caution in patients with abnormal hepatic laboratory test results or low leukocyte or neutrophil counts. PMID:28674351

  7. G2E3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with DNA damage responsive localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William S.; Banerjee, Sami; Crawford, David F.

    2007-01-01

    G2E3 was originally described as a G2/M-specific gene with DNA damage responsive expression. The presence of a conserved HECT domain within the carboxy-terminus of the protein indicated that it likely functions as a ubiquitin ligase or E3. Although HECT domains are known to function in this capacity for many proteins, we demonstrate that a portion of the HECT domain from G2E3 plays an important role in the dynamic subcellular localization of the protein. We have shown that G2E3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with nuclear export mediated by a novel nuclear export domain that functions independently of CRM1. In full-length G2E3, a separate region of the HECT domain suppresses the function of the NES. Additionally, G2E3 contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in its amino terminus. Localization of G2E3 to the nucleolus is a dynamic process, and the protein delocalizes from the nucleolus rapidly after DNA damage. Cell cycle phase-specific expression and highly regulated subcellular localization of G2E3 suggest a possible role in cell cycle regulation and the cellular response to DNA damage

  8. A cytoplasmic serine protein kinase binds and may regulate the Fanconi anemia protein FANCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, H; Adachi, D; Oda, T; Garcia-Higuera, I; Tetteh, N; D'Andrea, A D; Futaki, M; Asano, S; Yamashita, T

    2001-12-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease with congenital anomalies, bone marrow failure, and susceptibility to leukemia. Patient cells show chromosome instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. At least 8 complementation groups (A-G) have been identified and 6 FA genes (for subtypes A, C, D2, E, F, and G) have been cloned. Increasing evidence indicates that a protein complex assembly of multiple FA proteins, including FANCA and FANCG, plays a crucial role in the FA pathway. Previously, it was reported that FANCA was phosphorylated in lymphoblasts from normal controls, whereas the phosphorylation was defective in those derived from patients with FA of multiple complementation groups. The present study examined phosphorylation of FANCA ectopically expressed in FANCA(-) cells. Several patient-derived mutations abrogated in vivo phosphorylation of FANCA in this system, suggesting that FANCA phosphorylation is associated with its function. In vitro phosphorylation studies indicated that a physiologic protein kinase for FANCA (FANCA-PK) forms a complex with the substrate. Furthermore, at least a part of FANCA-PK as well as phosphorylated FANCA were included in the FANCA/FANCG complex. Thus, FANCA-PK appears to be another component of the FA protein complex and may regulate function of FANCA. FANCA-PK was characterized as a cytoplasmic serine kinase sensitive to wortmannin. Identification of the protein kinase is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms that control the FA pathway.

  9. Measuring cell viscoelastic properties using a force-spectrometer: influence of protein-cytoplasm interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Duperray, Alain; Leyrat, Anne; Verdier, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Cell adhesive and rheological properties play a very important role in cell transmigration through the endothelial barrier, in particular in the case of inflammation (leukocytes) or cancer metastasis (cancer cells). In order to characterize cell viscoelastic properties, we have designed a force spectrometer (AFM) which can stretch cells thereby allowing measurement of their rheological properties. This custom-made force spectrometer allows two different visualizations, one lateral and one from below. It allows investigation of the effects of rheology involved during cell stretching. To test the ability of our system to characterize such viscoelastic properties, ICAM-1 transfected CHO cells were analyzed. Two forms of ICAM-1 were tested; wild type ICAM-1, which can interact with the cytoskeleton, and a mutant form which lacks the cytoplasmic domain, and is unable to associate with the cytoskeleton. Stretching experiments carried out on these cells show the formation of long filaments. Using a previous model of filament elongation, we could determine the viscoelastic properties of a single cell. As expected, different viscoelastic components were found between the wild type and the mutant, which reveal that the presence of interactions between ICAM-1 and the cytoskeleton increases the stiffness of the cell.

  10. Seborrheic inclusion cyst of the skin positive for cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and HPV antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Seborrheic inclusion cyst (SIC) is a very rare variant of epidermal cyst of the skin. SIC shows seborrheic keratosis (SK)-like lesion in epidermal cyst. SIC is extremely rare; only 6 case reports have been published in the English literature. However, no immunohistochemical study of SIC has been reported. A 41-year-old Japanese man noticed a subcutaneous tumor in the neck. Physical examination showed slightly mobile tumor in the subcutaneous tissue, and total excision was performed. Grossly, the tumor (1 x 1 x 0.8 cm) was cyst containing atheromatous keratin. Microscopically, the lesion is a cyst containing keratins. About one half of the cyst showed features of epidermal cyst consisting of mature squamous epithelium with granular layers. The other one half showed SK-like epidermal proliferation. The SK-like area showed basaloid cell proliferation with pseudohorn cysts. No significant atypia was noted. Many eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noted in the SK-like area. Immunohistochemically, the SK-like area was positive for pancytokeratin AE1/3, pancytokeratin CAM5.2, p63, and Ki-67 (labeling=8%) and HPV, but negative for p53. The pathological diagnosis was SIC.

  11. Functional organization of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincheval, Vincent; Lelek, Mickael; Gault, Elyanne; Bouillier, Camille; Sitterlin, Delphine; Blouquit-Laye, Sabine; Galloux, Marie; Zimmer, Christophe; Eleouet, Jean-François; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne

    2017-09-15

    Infection of cells by respiratory syncytial virus induces the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) where all the components of the viral RNA polymerase complex are concentrated. However, the exact organization and function of these IBs remain unclear. In this study, we use conventional and super-resolution imaging to dissect the internal structure of IBs. We observe that newly synthetized viral mRNA and the viral transcription anti-terminator M2-1 concentrate in IB sub-compartments, which we term "IB-associated granules" (IBAGs). In contrast, viral genomic RNA, the nucleoprotein, the L polymerase and its cofactor P are excluded from IBAGs. Live imaging reveals that IBAGs are highly dynamic structures. Our data show that IBs are the main site of viral RNA synthesis. They further suggest that shortly after synthesis in IBs, viral mRNAs and M2-1 transiently concentrate in IBAGs before reaching the cytosol and suggest a novel post-transcriptional function for M2-1.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) sheltering viral RNA synthesis. Here, Rincheval et al. identify highly dynamic IB-associated granules (IBAGs) that accumulate newly synthetized viral mRNA and the viral M2-1 protein but exclude viral genomic RNA and RNA polymerase complexes.

  12. Solution Structure and Membrane Interaction of the Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 gp41 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R Elliot; Samal, Alexandra B; Vlach, Jiri; Saad, Jamil S

    2017-11-07

    The cytoplasmic tail of gp41 (gp41CT) remains the last HIV-1 domain with an unknown structure. It plays important roles in HIV-1 replication such as mediating envelope (Env) intracellular trafficking and incorporation into assembling virions, mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here, we present the solution structure of gp41CT in a micellar environment and characterize its interaction with the membrane. We show that the N-terminal 45 residues are unstructured and not associated with the membrane. However, the C-terminal 105 residues form three membrane-bound amphipathic α helices with distinctive structural features such as variable degree of membrane penetration, hydrophobic and basic surfaces, clusters of aromatic residues, and a network of cation-π interactions. This work fills a major gap by providing the structure of the last segment of HIV-1 Env, which will provide insights into the mechanisms of Gag-mediated Env incorporation as well as the overall Env mobility and conformation on the virion surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retromer associates with the cytoplasmic amino-terminus of polycystin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Frances C; Gallon, Matthew; Luo, Chong; Danson, Chris M; Zhou, Jing; Cullen, Peter J

    2018-05-03

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic human disease, with around 12.5 million people affected worldwide. ADPKD results from mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 , which encode the atypical G-protein coupled receptor polycystin-1 (PC1) and the transient receptor potential channel polycystin-2 (PC2) respectively. Although altered intracellular trafficking of PC1 and PC2 appear as an underlying feature of ADPKD, the mechanisms which govern vesicular transport of the polycystins through the biosynthetic and endosomal membrane networks remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we describe an interaction between PC2 and retromer, a master controller for the sorting of integral membrane proteins through the endo-lysosomal network. We show that association of PC2 with retromer occurs via a region in the PC2 cytoplasmic amino-terminal domain, independently of the retromer-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and scar homologue (WASH) complex. Based on observations that retromer preferentially interacts with a trafficking population of PC2, and that ciliary levels of PC1 are reduced upon mutation of key residues required for retromer-association in PC2, our data is consistent with the identification of PC2 as a retromer cargo protein. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Tubular lysosome morphology and distribution within macrophages depend on the integrity of cytoplasmic microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.; Bushnell, A.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Pinocytosis of the fluorescent dye lucifer yellow labels elongated, membrane-bound tubular organelles in several cell types, including cultured human monocytes, thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the macrophage-like cell line J774.2. These tubular structures can be identified as lysosomes by acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunofluorescence localization of cathepsin L. The abundance of tubular lysosomes is markedly increased by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. When labeled by pinocytosis of microperoxidase and examined by electron microscopic histochemistry, the tubular lysosomes have an outside diameter of ≅ 75 nm and a length of several micrometers; they radiate from the cell's centrosphere in alignment with cytoplasmic microtubules and intermediate filaments. Incubation of phorbol myristate acetate-treated macrophages at 4 0 C or in medium containing 5 μM colchicine or nocodazole at 37 0 C leads to disassembly of microtubules and fragmentation of the tubular lysosomes. Return of the cultures to 37 0 C or removal of nocodazole from the medium leads to reassembly of microtubules and the reappearance of tubular lysosomes within 10-20 min. The authors conclude that microtubules are essential for the maintenance of tubular lysosome morphology and that, in macrophages, a significant proportion of the lysosomal compartment is contained within these tubular structures

  15. Phosphorylation of the dimeric cytoplasmic domain of the phytosulfokine receptor, PSKR1

    KAUST Repository

    Muleya, V.; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, J. I.; Thomas, Ludivine; Mok, Y.-F.; Griffin, M. D. W.; Manallack, D. T.; Kwezi, L.; Lilley, K. S.; Gehring, Christoph A; Irving, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are plant peptide hormones that co-regulate plant growth, differentiation and defense responses. PSKs signal through a plasma membrane localized leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (phytosulfokine receptor 1, PSKR1) that also contains a functional cytosolic guanylate cyclase with its cyclase catalytic center embedded within the kinase domain. To functionally characterize this novel type of overlapping dual catalytic function, we investigated the phosphorylation of PSKR1 in vitro Tandem mass spectrometry of the cytoplasmic domain of PSKR1 (PSKR1cd) revealed at least 11 phosphorylation sites (8 serines, 2 threonines and 1 tyrosine) within the PSKR1cd. Phosphomimetic mutations of three serine residues (Ser686, Ser696 and Ser698) in tandem at the juxta-membrane position resulted in enhanced kinase activity in the on-mutant that was suppressed in the off-mutant, but both mutations reduced guanylate cyclase activity. Both the on and off phosphomimetic mutations of the phosphotyrosine (Tyr888) residue in the activation loop suppressed kinase activity, while neither mutation affected guanylate cyclase activity. Size exclusion and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis of the PSKR1cd suggest that it is reversibly dimeric in solution, which was further confirmed by biflourescence complementation. Taken together, these data suggest that in this novel type of receptor domain architecture, specific phosphorylation and dimerization are possibly essential mechanisms for ligand-mediated catalysis and signaling.

  16. Phosphorylation of the dimeric cytoplasmic domain of the phytosulfokine receptor, PSKR1

    KAUST Repository

    Muleya, V.

    2016-08-04

    Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are plant peptide hormones that co-regulate plant growth, differentiation and defense responses. PSKs signal through a plasma membrane localized leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (phytosulfokine receptor 1, PSKR1) that also contains a functional cytosolic guanylate cyclase with its cyclase catalytic center embedded within the kinase domain. To functionally characterize this novel type of overlapping dual catalytic function, we investigated the phosphorylation of PSKR1 in vitro Tandem mass spectrometry of the cytoplasmic domain of PSKR1 (PSKR1cd) revealed at least 11 phosphorylation sites (8 serines, 2 threonines and 1 tyrosine) within the PSKR1cd. Phosphomimetic mutations of three serine residues (Ser686, Ser696 and Ser698) in tandem at the juxta-membrane position resulted in enhanced kinase activity in the on-mutant that was suppressed in the off-mutant, but both mutations reduced guanylate cyclase activity. Both the on and off phosphomimetic mutations of the phosphotyrosine (Tyr888) residue in the activation loop suppressed kinase activity, while neither mutation affected guanylate cyclase activity. Size exclusion and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis of the PSKR1cd suggest that it is reversibly dimeric in solution, which was further confirmed by biflourescence complementation. Taken together, these data suggest that in this novel type of receptor domain architecture, specific phosphorylation and dimerization are possibly essential mechanisms for ligand-mediated catalysis and signaling.

  17. Somatic cell cloning in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): effects of interspecies cytoplasmic recipients and activation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J; Chaisalee, B; White, K L; Pavasuthipaisit, K

    2001-01-01

    Successful nuclear transfer (NT) of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species to enucleated bovine oocytes provides a universal cytoplast for NT in endangered or extinct species. Buffalo fetal fibroblasts were isolated from a day 40 fetus and were synchronized in presumptive G(0) by serum deprivation. Buffalo and bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro and enucleated at 22 h. In the first experiment, we compared the ability of buffalo and bovine oocyte cytoplasm to support in vitro development of NT embryos produced by buffalo fetal fibroblasts as donor nuclei. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the NT embryos derived from buffalo and bovine oocytes, in fusion (74% versus 71%) and cleavage (77% versus 75%) rates, respectively. No significant differences were also observed in blastocyst development (39% versus 33%) and the mean cell numbers of day 7 cloned blastocysts (88.5 +/- 25.7 versus 51.7 +/- 5.4). In the second experiment, we evaluated the effects of activation with calcium ionophore A23187 on development of NT embryos after electrical fusion. A significantly higher (p cloned buffalo blastocysts similar to those transferred into buffalo oocytes. Calcium ionophore used in conjunction with 6-DMAP effectively induces NT embryo development.

  18. Molecular determinants of tetramerization in the KcsA cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnesky, Guy; Hirschhorn, Orel; Shaked, Hadassa; Chen, Jingfei; Yao, Lishan; Chill, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD) of KcsA, a bacterial homotetrameric potassium channel, is an amphiphilic domain that forms a helical bundle with four-fold symmetry mediated by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Previously we have established that a CTD-derived 34-residue peptide associates into a tetramer in a pH-dependent manner (Kamnesky et al., JMB 2012;418:237-247). Here we further investigate the molecular determinants of tetramer formation in the CTD by characterizing the kinetics of monomer-tetramer equilibrium for 10 alanine mutants using NMR, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) and molecular dynamics simulation. NMR and SE concur in finding single-residue contributions to tetramer stability to be in the 0.5 to 3.5 kcal/mol range. Hydrophobic interactions between residues lining the tetramer core generally contributed more to formation of tetramer than electrostatic interactions between residues R147, D149 and E152. In particular, alanine replacement of residue R147, a key contributor to inter-subunit salt bridges, resulted in only a minor effect on tetramer dissociation. Mutations outside of the inter-subunit interface also influenced tetramer stability by affecting the tetramerization on-rate, possibly by changing the inherent helical propensity of the peptide. These findings are interpreted in the context of established paradigms of protein-protein interactions and protein folding, and lay the groundwork for further studies of the CTD in full-length KcsA channels. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  19. BAG3 induces the sequestration of proteasomal clients into cytoplasmic puncta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Melania; Boncoraglio, Alessandra; Vinet, Jonathan; Morelli, Federica F; Brunsting, Jeanette F; Poletti, Angelo; Krom, Sabine; Reits, Eric; Kampinga, Harm H; Carra, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome system as their major protein degradation pathways. Upon proteasomal impairment, cells switch to autophagy to ensure proper clearance of clients (the proteasome-to-autophagy switch). The HSPA8 and HSPA1A cochaperone BAG3 has been suggested to be involved in this switch. However, at present it is still unknown whether and to what extent BAG3 can indeed reroute proteasomal clients to the autophagosomal pathway. Here, we show that BAG3 induces the sequestration of ubiquitinated clients into cytoplasmic puncta colabeled with canonical autophagy linkers and markers. Following proteasome inhibition, BAG3 upregulation significantly contributes to the compensatory activation of autophagy and to the degradation of the (poly)ubiquitinated proteins. BAG3 binding to the ubiquitinated clients occurs through the BAG domain, in competition with BAG1, another BAG family member, that normally directs ubiquitinated clients to the proteasome. Therefore, we propose that following proteasome impairment, increasing the BAG3/BAG1 ratio ensures the “BAG-instructed proteasomal to autophagosomal switch and sorting” (BIPASS). PMID:25046115

  20. Development of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility, its inheritance, and potential use in hybrid pigeonpea breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kul B; Ravikoti, V Kumar; Dalvi, Vijay A; Pandey, Lalji B; Gaddikeri, Guruprasad

    2010-01-01

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a unique food legume because of its partial (20-30%) outcrossing nature, which provides an opportunity to breed commercial hybrids. To achieve this, it is essential to have a stable male-sterility system. This paper reports the selection of a cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility (CMS) system derived from an interspecific cross between a wild relative of pigeonpea (Cajanus sericeus Benth. ex. Bak.) and a cultivar. This male-sterility source was used to breed agronomically superior CMS lines in early (ICPA 2068), medium (ICPA 2032), and late (ICPA 2030) maturity durations. Twenty-three fertility restorers and 30 male-sterility maintainers were selected to develop genetically diverse hybrid combinations. Histological studies revealed that vacuolation of growing tetrads and persistence of tetrad wall were primary causes of the manifestation of male sterility. Genetic studies showed that 2 dominant genes, of which one had inhibitory gene action, controlled fertility restoration in the hybrids. The experimental hybrids such as TK 030003 and TK 030009 in early, ICPH 2307 and TK 030625 in medium, and TK 030861 and TK 030851 in late maturity groups exhibited 30-88% standard heterosis in multilocation trials.

  1. Systematic characterization of the specificity of the SH2 domains of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Tan, Pauline H; Li, Shawn S C; Pei, Dehua

    2013-04-09

    Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (CTK) generally contain a Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain, whose role in the CTK family is not fully understood. Here we report the determination of the specificity of 25 CTK SH2 domains by screening one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) peptide libraries. Based on the peptide sequences selected by the SH2 domains, we built Support Vector Machine (SVM) models for the prediction of binding ligands for the SH2 domains. These models yielded support for the progressive phosphorylation model for CTKs in which the overlapping specificity of the CTK SH2 and kinase domains has been proposed to facilitate targeting of the CTK substrates with at least two potential phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites. We curated 93 CTK substrates with at least two pTyr sites catalyzed by the same CTK, and showed that 71% of these substrates had at least two pTyr sites predicted to bind a common CTK SH2 domain. More importantly, we found 34 instances where there was at least one pTyr site predicted to be recognized by the SH2 domain of the same CTK, suggesting that the SH2 and kinase domains of the CTKs may cooperate to achieve progressive phosphorylation of a protein substrate. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From protein structures to clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stable cavitation induces increased cytoplasmic calcium in L929 fibroblasts exposed to 1-MHz pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Higashiyama, Satoru; Yoshida, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    An increase in cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+) increase) is a second messenger that is often observed under ultrasound irradiation. We hypothesize that cavitation is a physical mechanism that underlies the increase in Ca(2+) in these experiments. To control the presence of cavitation, the wave type was controlled in a sonication chamber. One wave type largely contained a traveling wave (wave type A) while the other wave type largely contained a standing wave (wave type B). Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of a sound field produced by the wave types ascertained that stable cavitation was present only under wave type A ultrasound irradiation. Under the two controlled wave types, the increase in Ca(2+) in L929 fibroblasts was observed with fluorescence imaging. Under wave type A ultrasound irradiation, an increase in Ca(2+) was observed; however, no increase in Ca(2+) was observed under wave type B ultrasound irradiation. We conclude that stable cavitation is involved in the increase of Ca(2+) in cells subjected to pulsed ultrasound. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification and characterization of protease Re, a cytoplasmic endoprotease in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Chung, C.H.; Goldberg, A.L.

    1988-02-01

    Protease Re, a new cytoplasmic endoprotease in Escherichia coli, was purified to homogeneity by conventional procedures, using (/sup 3/H) casein as the substrate. The enzyme consists of a single polypeptide of 82,000 molecular weight. It is maximally active between pH 7 and 8.5 and is independent of ATP. It has a pI of 6.8 and a K/sub m/ of 10.8 ..mu..M for casein. Since diisopropyl fluorophosphate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited this enzyme, it appears to be a serine protease. Protease Re was sensitive to inhibition by L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethylchloromethylketone but not to that by 1-chloro-3-tosylamido-7-aminoheptanone, thiol-blocking reagents, chelating agents, or various peptide aldehydes. Re also degraded (/sup 125/I) globin, (/sup 125/I) glucagon, and /sup 125/I-labeled denatured bovine serum albumin to acid-soluble products (generally oligopeptides of > 1500 daltons), but it showed no activity against serum albumin, growth hormone, insulin, or a variety of fluorometric peptide substrates. It also hydrolyzed oxidatively inactivated glutamine synthetase (generated by ascorbate, oxygen, and iron) four- to fivefold more rapidly than the native protein. Protease Re appears to be identical to the proteolytic enzyme isolated by Roseman and Levine by its ability to degrade selectively oxidatively damaged glutamine synthetase in vivo. Its role in intracellular protein breakdown is uncertain.

  4. Cytoplasmic expression of a thermostable invertase from Thermotoga maritima in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Han Bin; Lim, Pei Yu; Liu, Chengcheng; Lee, Dong-Yup; Bi, Xuezhi; Wong, Fong Tian; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the secretory and cytoplasmic expression of a thermostable Thermogata maritima invertase in Lactococcus lactis. The thermostable invertase from T. maritima was cloned with and without the USP45 secretory peptide into the pNZ8148 vector for nisin-inducible expression in L. lactis. The introduction of an USP45 secretion peptide at the N-terminal of the enzyme led to a loss of protein solubility. Computational homology modeling and hydrophobicity studies indicated that the USP45 peptide exposes a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids on the protein surface resulting in lower solubility. Removal of the USP45 secretion peptide allowed a soluble and functional invertase to be expressed intracellularly in L. lactis. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography purification of the cell lysate with nickel-NTA gave a single protein band on SDS-PAGE, while E. coli-expressed invertase consistently co-purified with an additional band. The yields of the purified invertase from E. coli and L. lactis were 14.1 and 6.3 mg/l respectively. Invertase can be expressed in L. lactis and purified in a functional form. L. lactis is a suitable host for the production of food-grade invertase for use in the food and biotechnology industries.

  5. Na/K pump inactivation, subsarcolemmal Na measurements, and cytoplasmic ion turnover kinetics contradict restricted Na spaces in murine cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Fang-Min; Hilgemann, Donald W.

    2017-01-01

    The Na/K pump exports cytoplasmic Na ions while importing K ions, and its activity is thought to be affected by restricted intracellular Na diffusion in cardiac myocytes. Lu and Hilgemann find instead that the pump can enter an inactivated state and that inactivation can be relieved by cytoplasmic Na.

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergei V.; Waardenberg, Ashley J.; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W.; Graham, Mark E.; Lavin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  7. Cytoplasmic binding and disposition kinetics of diclofenac in the isolated perfused rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Kuhlmann, Olaf; Hung, Daniel Y; Roberts, Michael S

    2000-01-01

    The binding kinetics of diclofenac to hepatocellular structures were evaluated in the perfused rat liver using the multiple indicator dilution technique and a stochastic model of organ transit time density.The single-pass, in situ rat liver preparation was perfused with buffer solution (containing 2% albumin) at 30 ml min−1. Diclofenac and [14C]-sucrose (extracellular reference) were injected simultaneously as a bolus dose into the portal vein (six experiments in three rats). An analogous series of experiments was performed with [14C]-diclofenac and [3H]-sucrose.The diclofenac outflow data were analysed using three models of intracellular distribution kinetics, assuming (1) instantaneous distribution and binding (well-mixed model), (2) ‘slow' binding at specific intracellular sites after instantaneous distribution throughout the cytosol (slow binding model), and (3) ‘slowing' of cytoplasmic diffusion due to instantaneous binding (slow diffusion model).The slow binding model provided the best description of the data. The rate constants for cellular influx and sequestration were 0.126±0.026 and 0.013±0.009 s−1, respectively. The estimated ratio of cellular initial distribution volume to extracellular volume of 2.82 indicates an almost instantaneous distribution in the cellular water space, while the corresponding ratio of 5.54 estimated for the apparent tissue distribution volume suggests a relatively high hepatocellular binding. The non-instantaneous intracellular equilibration process was characterized by time constants of the binding and unbinding process of 53.8 and 49.5 s, respectively. The single-pass availability of diclofenac was 86%. The results obtained with [14C]-diclofenac and [3H]-sucrose were not statistically different. PMID:10903973

  8. Marker-Assisted Backcrossing to Develop an Elite Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Ahmadikhah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is a cornerstone of hybrid production in many crops. In three-line hybrid systems, use of CMS, maintainer, and fertility restorer lines is necessary for production of hybrid seeds. Limited resources of CMS and low variation of CMS lines cause genetic vulnerability to pathogens. Therefore, diversifying the CMS sources is indispensible for a sustainable production system of hybrid seed. In this study, we attempted for the first time to transfer CMS into maintainer line Yosen B in restricted generations using the marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC method. The resultant F hybrid of IR68897 A/Yosen B cross was backcrossed to Yosen B, and CMS plants in each backcross generation (from BCF to BCF were selected based on phenotyping test and MABC. Molecular assessment of backcross progenies was conducted using a mitochondrial CMS-specific marker and 34 polymorphic nuclear simple-sequence repeat (SSR markers in early generations (from BCF to BCF and was continued using 9 additional SSRs and 82 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers in BCF. A MABC strategy could successfully recover the recurrent parent genome (RPG in BCF generation, and decreased heterozygosity of final CMS plants. Restorability test with known wild-abortive restorer lines (viz. IR36 and IR24 showed that combination of Yosen A × IR24 could produce highly fertile F hybrid. Evaluation of some important agronomic traits of the final CMS line (BCF at field condition showed that it was comparable to the original maintainer fertile counterpart. Phenotypic and marker-assisted selections could considerably decrease the time needed for full recovery of RPG so that final CMS line could show a high similarity to original fertile counterpart.

  9. Physical change in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoproteins in cells treated with inhibitors of mRNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfuss, G.; Adam, S.A.; Choi, Y.D.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of intact cells to UV light brings about cross-linking of polyadenylated mRNA to a set of cytoplasmic proteins which are in direct contact with the mRNA in vivo. Substantial amounts of an additional protein of molecular weight 38,000 become cross-linked to the mRNA when cells are treated with inhibitors of mRNA synthesis (actinomycin D, camptothecin, and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole) or after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Cordycepin, which inhibits polyadenylation but not mRNA synthesis, has no such effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and of rRNA synthesis are also without effect on 38K cross-linking to mRNA. The onset of the effect of inhibitors of mRNA synthesis on the UV cross-linkable interaction between mRNA and 38K is rapid and reaches a maximal level in less than 60 min, and it is completely and rapidly reversible. In cells treated with actinomycin D, the amount of 38K which becomes cross-linked to mRNA is proportional to the extent of inhibition of mRNA synthesis. The association of 38K with mRNA during transcriptional arrest does not require protein synthesis because simultaneous treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine does not interfere with it. The effectors which promote the interaction of 38K with mRNA do not affect the proteins which are in contact with polyadenylated heterogeneous nuclear RNA and do not markedly affect protein synthesis in the cell. The 38K protein can be isolated with the polyribosomal polyadenylated fraction from which it was purified, and monoclonal antibodies against it were prepared

  10. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  11. Caveolin-1 single nucleotide polymorphism in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Immunosuppression is cornerstone treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV but is later complicated by infection, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Caveolin-1 is an essential structural protein for small cell membrane invaginations known as caveolae. Its functional role has been associated with these complications. For the first time, caveolin-1 (CAV1 gene variation is studied in AAV.CAV1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs4730751 was analysed in genomic DNA from 187 white patients with AAV from Birmingham, United Kingdom. The primary outcome measure was the composite endpoint of time to all-cause mortality or renal replacement therapy. Secondary endpoints included time to all-cause mortality, death from sepsis or vascular disease, cancer and renal replacement therapy. Validation of results was sought from 589 white AAV patients, from two European cohorts.The primary outcome occurred in 41.7% of Birmingham patients. In a multivariate model, non-CC genotype variation at the studied single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with increased risk from: the primary outcome measure [HR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.14-3.04; p=0.013], all-cause mortality [HR:1.83; 95% CI: 1.02-3.27; p=0.042], death from infection [HR:3.71; 95% CI: 1.28-10.77; p=0.016], death from vascular disease [HR:3.13; 95% CI: 1.07-9.10; p=0.037], and cancer [HR:5.55; 95% CI: 1.59-19.31; p=0.007]. In the validation cohort, the primary outcome rate was far lower (10.4%; no association between genotype and the studied endpoints was evident.The presence of a CC genotype in Birmingham is associated with protection from adverse outcomes of immunosuppression treated AAV. Lack of replication in the European cohort may have resulted from low clinical event rates. These findings are worthy of further study in larger cohorts.

  12. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility is associated with decreased Hira expression in male Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria that infect numerous species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia can induce several reproductive phenotypes in their insect hosts including feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. CI is the most common phenotype and occurs when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females resulting in no or very low numbers of viable offspring. However, matings between males and females infected with the same strain of Wolbachia result in viable progeny. Despite substantial scientific effort, the molecular mechanisms underlying CI are currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression studies were undertaken in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans which display differential levels of CI using quantitative RT-PCR. We show that Hira expression is correlated with the induction of CI and occurs in a sex-specific manner. Hira expression is significantly lower in males which induce strong CI when compared to males inducing no CI or Wolbachia-uninfected males. A reduction in Hira expression is also observed in 1-day-old males that induce stronger CI compared to 5-day-old males that induce weak or no CI. In addition, Hira mutated D. melanogaster males mated to uninfected females result in significantly decreased hatch rates comparing with uninfected crosses. Interestingly, wMel-infected females may rescue the hatch rates. An obvious CI phenotype with chromatin bridges are observed in the early embryo resulting from Hira mutant fertilization, which strongly mimics the defects associated with CI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest Wolbachia-induced CI in Drosophila occurs due to a reduction in Hira expression in Wolbachia-infected males leading to detrimental effects on sperm fertility resulting in embryo lethality. These results may help determine the underlying mechanism of CI and provide further insight in to the important role

  13. Cystatin E/M Suppresses Tumor Cell Growth through Cytoplasmic Retention of NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Hendrick; Venkatesan, Natarajan; Veena, Mysore S.; Ravichandran, Sandhiya; Zinabadi, Alborz; Basak, Saroj K.; Parvatiyar, Kislay; Srivastava, Meera; Liang, Li-Jung; Gjertson, David W.; Torres, Jorge Z.; Moatamed, Neda A.

    2016-01-01

    We and others have shown that the cystatin E/M gene is inactivated in primary human tumors, pointing to its role as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the molecular mechanism of tumor suppression is not yet understood. Using plasmid-directed cystatin E/M gene overexpression, a lentivirus-mediated tetracycline-inducible vector system, and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 gene-immortalized normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we demonstrated intracellular and non-cell-autonomous apoptotic growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and that growth inhibition is associated with cytoplasmic retention of NF-κB. We further demonstrated decreased phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKKβ) and IκBα in the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), confirming the role of cystatin E/M in the regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Growth suppression of nude mouse xenograft tumors carrying a tetracycline-inducible vector system was observed with the addition of doxycycline in drinking water, confirming that the cystatin E/M gene is a tumor suppressor gene. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses of cervical carcinoma in situ and primary tumors have shown a statistically significant inverse relationship between the expression of cystatin E/M and cathepsin L and a direct relationship between the loss of cystatin E/M expression and nuclear expression of NF-κB. We therefore propose that the cystatin E/M suppressor gene plays an important role in the regulation of NF-κB. PMID:27090639

  14. DNA precursor compartmentation in mammalian cells: distribution and rates of equilibration between nucleus and cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeds, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid nuclear isolation technique was adapted in order to examine the question of DNA precursor compartmentation in mammalian cells. By using this method a reproducible proportion of the cellular nucleotides remained associated with the isolated nuclei. Examination, at several different cell densities, of exponentially growing HeLa cells showed that the nuclei contained a constant but distinct proportion of each dNTP. The nuclear dATP and dTTP concentrations were equal at all densities examined even though the dTTP pool was 150% of the dATP whole-cell pool. The nuclear portion of the whole-cell pools was roughly equal to the volume occupied by the nucleus. The nuclear-cytoplasmic dNTP pool distribution did not change throughout the cell cycle of synchronized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The rates at which either radiolabeled cytidine or deoxycytidine equilibrated with the nuclear and whole-cell dCTP pools of G1 and S phase CHO cells were compared. Experiments comparing the labeling kinetics of 3 H-thymidine in G1, S phase, and exponentially growing cells revealed that the S phase dTTP pool equilibrated with exogenously added thymidine faster than the G1 phase pool. The rate of equilibration in exponentially growing cells appeared to be a combination of that seen in G1 and S phases. A linear rate of 3 H-thymidine incorporation into DNA occurred at the same rate in S phase and exponentially growing cells

  15. Ergosterol is mainly located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the yeast plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanko, Lukasz M; Sullivan, David P; Sere, Yves Y; Szomek, Maria; Lunding, Anita; Solanko, Katarzyna A; Pizovic, Azra; Stanchev, Lyubomir D; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Menon, Anant K; Wüstner, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Transbilayer lipid asymmetry is a fundamental characteristic of the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane (PM). While PM phospholipid asymmetry is well documented, the transbilayer distribution of PM sterols such as mammalian cholesterol and yeast ergosterol is not reliably known. We now report that sterols are asymmetrically distributed across the yeast PM, with the majority (~80%) located in the cytoplasmic leaflet. By exploiting the sterol-auxotrophic hem1Δ yeast strain we obtained cells in which endogenous ergosterol was quantitatively replaced with dehydroergosterol (DHE), a closely related fluorescent sterol that functionally and accurately substitutes for ergosterol in vivo. Using fluorescence spectrophotometry and microscopy we found that membrane-impermeant collisional quenchers (spin-labeled phosphatidylcholine and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid). Efficient quenching was seen only after the cells were disrupted by glass-bead lysis or repeated freeze-thaw to allow quenchers access to the cell interior. The extent of quenching was unaffected by treatments that deplete cellular ATP levels, collapse the PM electrochemical gradient or affect the actin cytoskeleton. However, alterations in PM phospholipid asymmetry in cells lacking phospholipid flippases resulted in a more symmetric transbilayer distribution of sterol. Similarly, an increase in the quenchable pool of DHE was observed when PM sphingolipid levels were reduced by treating cells with myriocin. We deduce that sterols comprise up to ~45% of all inner leaflet lipids in the PM, a result that necessitates revision of current models of the architecture of the PM lipid bilayer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies and myeloperoxidase autoantibodies in clinical expression of Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bridget; Bibby, Susan; Steele, Richard; Weatherall, Mark; Nelson, Harold; Beasley, Richard

    2013-02-01

    The clinical significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) in the phenotypic expression of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is uncertain. We sought to investigate the relationship between ANCA status and the clinical expression of CSS in a case series derived from the US Food and Drug Administration's adverse events database. All cases of CSS reported to the US Food and Drug Administration from 1997 to April 2003 were reviewed. Information about basic demographics, suspect medication use, clinical manifestations, histologic findings, ANCA staining patterns, and the presence of antibodies to myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) or proteinase 3 (anti-PR3) was recorded when available. There were 93 case reports of CSS with sufficient documentation, including ANCA status. There were 38 (40.9%) of 93 cases with positive ANCA results, of which 15 cases reported a positive ELISA, all of which were positive for anti-MPO. ANCA negativity was associated with an increased proportion of cardiac involvement (risk difference [RD], 38.2%; 95% CI, 25.3% to 51.0%), gastrointestinal involvement (RD, 25.5%; 95% CI, 13.9% to 37.0%), pulmonary infiltrates (odds ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.2), and the outcome of a life-threatening event or death (RD, 30.9%; 95% CI, 18.7% to 43.1%) when compared with anti-MPO-positive cases. ANCA negativity was associated with a decreased proportion of peripheral neuropathy (odds ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.07-0.9). These findings support the hypothesis that the presence or absence of autoantibodies influences the clinical expression and severity of CSS. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics and molecular determinants of cytoplasmic lipid droplet clustering and dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Orlicky

    Full Text Available Perilipin-1 (Plin1, a prominent cytoplasmic lipid droplet (CLD binding phosphoprotein and key physiological regulator of triglyceride storage and lipolysis in adipocytes, is thought to regulate the fragmentation and dispersion of CLD that occurs in response to β-adrenergic activation of adenylate cyclase. Here we investigate the dynamics and molecular determinants of these processes using cell lines stably expressing recombinant forms of Plin1 and/or other members of the perilipin family. Plin1 and a C-terminal CLD-binding fragment of Plin1 (Plin1CT induced formation of single dense CLD clusters near the microtubule organizing center, whereas neither an N-terminal CLD-binding fragment of Plin1, nor Plin2 or Plin3 induced clustering. Clustered CLD coated by Plin1, or Plin1CT, dispersed in response to isoproterenol, or other agents that activate adenylate cyclase, in a process inhibited by the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, and blocked by microtubule disruption. Isoproterenol-stimulated phosphorylation of CLD-associated Plin1 on serine 492 preceded their dispersion, and live cell imaging showed that cluster dispersion involved initial fragmentation of tight clusters into multiple smaller clusters, which then fragmented into well-dispersed individual CLD. siRNA knockdown of the cortical actin binding protein, moesin, induced disaggregation of tight clusters into multiple smaller clusters, and inhibited the reaggregation of dispersed CLD into tight clusters. Together these data suggest that the clustering and dispersion processes involve a complex orchestration of phosphorylation-dependent, microtubule-dependent and independent, and microfilament dependent steps.

  18. Dynamics and molecular determinants of cytoplasmic lipid droplet clustering and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicky, David J; Monks, Jenifer; Stefanski, Adrianne L; McManaman, James L

    2013-01-01

    Perilipin-1 (Plin1), a prominent cytoplasmic lipid droplet (CLD) binding phosphoprotein and key physiological regulator of triglyceride storage and lipolysis in adipocytes, is thought to regulate the fragmentation and dispersion of CLD that occurs in response to β-adrenergic activation of adenylate cyclase. Here we investigate the dynamics and molecular determinants of these processes using cell lines stably expressing recombinant forms of Plin1 and/or other members of the perilipin family. Plin1 and a C-terminal CLD-binding fragment of Plin1 (Plin1CT) induced formation of single dense CLD clusters near the microtubule organizing center, whereas neither an N-terminal CLD-binding fragment of Plin1, nor Plin2 or Plin3 induced clustering. Clustered CLD coated by Plin1, or Plin1CT, dispersed in response to isoproterenol, or other agents that activate adenylate cyclase, in a process inhibited by the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, and blocked by microtubule disruption. Isoproterenol-stimulated phosphorylation of CLD-associated Plin1 on serine 492 preceded their dispersion, and live cell imaging showed that cluster dispersion involved initial fragmentation of tight clusters into multiple smaller clusters, which then fragmented into well-dispersed individual CLD. siRNA knockdown of the cortical actin binding protein, moesin, induced disaggregation of tight clusters into multiple smaller clusters, and inhibited the reaggregation of dispersed CLD into tight clusters. Together these data suggest that the clustering and dispersion processes involve a complex orchestration of phosphorylation-dependent, microtubule-dependent and independent, and microfilament dependent steps.

  19. OMERACT Endorsement of Patient-reported Outcome Instruments in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody–associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Joanna C.; Tomasson, Gunnar; Milman, Nataliya; Ashdown, Sue; Boonen, Annelies; Casey, George C.; Cronholm, Peter F.; Cuthbertson, David; Dawson, Jill; Direskeneli, Haner; Easley, Ebony; Kermani, Tanaz A.; Farrar, John T.; Gebhart, Don; Lanier, Georgia; Luqmani, Raashid A.; Mahr, Alfred; McAlear, Carol A.; Peck, Jacqueline; Shea, Beverley; Shea, Judy A.; Sreih, Antoine G.; Tugwell, Peter S.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitides (AAV) are multiorgan diseases. Patients with AAV report impairment in their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and have different priorities regarding disease assessment compared with physicians. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group previously received endorsement for a core set of domains in AAV. Two approaches to measure patient-reported outcomes (PRO) were presented at OMERACT 2016. Methods A novel 5-step tool was used to facilitate assessment of the instruments by delegates: the OMERACT Filter 2.0 Instrument Selection Algorithm, with a red-amber-green checklist of questions, including (1) good match with domain (face and content validity), (2) feasibility, (3) do numeric scores make sense (construct validity)?, (4) overall ratings of discrimination, and (5) can individual thresholds of meaning be defined? Delegates gave an overall endorsement. Three generic Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments (fatigue, physical functioning, and pain interference) and a disease-specific PRO, the AAV-PRO (6 domains related to symptoms and HRQOL), were presented. Results OMERACT delegates endorsed the use of the PROMIS instruments for fatigue, physical functioning, and pain interference (87.6% overall endorsement) and the disease-specific AAV-PRO instrument (89.4% overall endorsement). Conclusion The OMERACT Vasculitis Working Group gained endorsement by OMERACT for use of the PROMIS and the AAV-PRO in clinical trials of vasculitis. These instruments are complementary to each other. The PROMIS and the AAV-PRO need further work to assess their utility in longitudinal settings, including their ability to discriminate between treatments of varying efficacy in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. PMID:28864650

  20. Stress and Disease Onset in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina V. Golemati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the potential contribution of stress as a trigger for disease onset in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV.Methods53 AAV and 85 rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients as well as 53 healthy controls (HC were thoroughly asked for the number and impact of stressful life events, coping strategies, and available social support 12 months prior to disease onset. Anxiety, depression, personality dimensions, insomnia, and fatigue were also determined.ResultsAAV patients reported higher scoring of the impact of stressful life events compared to the RA and HC group prior to disease onset (2.8 ± 3.1 vs 1.8 ± 2.1 vs 1.7 ± 2.3, p-values: 0.047 and 0.053, respectively. While the number of reported stressful events was found to be significantly higher in AAV vs RA patients but not HC, certain coping strategies and social support features were more commonly implemented by AAV patients compared to HC, but not RA patients. As far as personality and other psychosocial characteristics, AAV patients displayed significantly higher psychoticism traits compared to RA, with no other differences being detected between AAV patients and both RA and HC. After adjusting for potential cofounders, scoring of the impact of stressful life events >3 was independently associated with AAV development compared to both RA and HC [ORs (95% CI: 4.6 (1.6–13.4 and 4.4 (1.0–19.0, respectively].ConclusionThe perceived impact of stressful life events prior to disease onset emerged as a contributing factor for AAV development.

  1. Mitochondrial ORF79 levels determine pollen abortion in cytoplasmic male sterile rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Itabashi, Etsuko; Fujii, Shinya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important agricultural trait characterized by lack of functional pollen, and caused by ectopic and defective mitochondrial gene expression. The pollen function in CMS plants is restored by the presence of nuclear-encoded restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Previously, we cloned Rf2, which restores the fertility of Lead Rice (LD)-type CMS rice. However, neither the function of Rf2 nor the identity of the mitochondrial gene causing CMS has been determined in LD-CMS rice. Here, we show that the mitochondrial gene orf79 acts as a CMS-associated gene in LD-CMS rice, similar to its role in BT-CMS rice originating from Chinsurah Boro II, and Rf2 weakly restores fertility in BT-CMS rice. We also show that RF2 promotes degradation of atp6-orf79 RNA in a different manner from that of RF1, which is the Rf gene product in BT-CMS rice. The amount of ORF79 protein in LD-CMS rice was one-twentieth of the amount in BT-CMS rice. The difference in ORF79 protein levels probably accounts for the mild and severe pollen defects in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. In the presence of Rf2, accumulation of ORF79 was reduced to almost zero and 25% in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively, which probably accounts for the complete and weak fertility restoration abilities of Rf2 in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. These observations indicate that the amount of ORF79 influences the pollen fertility in two strains of rice in which CMS is induced by orf79. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with boro II cytoplasm is caused by a cytotoxic peptide and is restored by two related PPR motif genes via distinct modes of mRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Zou, Yanjiao; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hao; Su, Dihua; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Luo, Da; Long, Yunming; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2006-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nucleus-controlled fertility restoration are widespread plant reproductive features that provide useful tools to exploit heterosis in crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this kind of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction remains unclear. Here, we show in rice (Oryza sativa) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79, is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B-atp6) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. Expression of orf79 in CMS lines and transgenic rice plants caused gametophytic male sterility. Immunoblot analysis showed that the ORF79 protein accumulates specifically in microspores. Two fertility restorer genes, Rf1a and Rf1b, were identified at the classical locus Rf-1 as members of a multigene cluster that encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. RF1A and RF1B are both targeted to mitochondria and can restore male fertility by blocking ORF79 production via endonucleolytic cleavage (RF1A) or degradation (RF1B) of dicistronic B-atp6/orf79 mRNA. In the presence of both restorers, RF1A was epistatic over RF1B in the mRNA processing. We have also shown that RF1A plays an additional role in promoting the editing of atp6 mRNAs, independent of its cleavage function.

  3. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  4. Solution structure of a syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain and its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, D; Oh, E S; Woods, A

    1998-01-01

    Syndecan-4, a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a coreceptor with integrins in cell adhesion. It has been suggested to form a ternary signaling complex with protein kinase Calpha and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Syndecans each have a unique, central, and variable (V......) region in their cytoplasmic domains, and that of syndecan-4 is critical to its interaction with protein kinase C and PIP2. Two oligopeptides corresponding to the variable region (4V) and whole domain (4L) of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain were synthesized for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Data...... and dynamical simulated annealing calculations. The 4V peptide in the presence of PIP2 formed a compact dimer with two twisted strands packed parallel to each other and the exposed surface of the dimer consisted of highly charged and polar residues. The overall three-dimensional structure in solution exhibits...

  5. Reduced RAN expression and disrupted transport between cytoplasm and nucleus; a key event in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mastroeni

    Full Text Available Transcription of DNA is essential for cell maintenance and survival; inappropriate localization of proteins that are involved in transcription would be catastrophic. In Alzheimer's disease brains, and in vitro studies, we have found qualitative and quantitative deficits in transport into the nucleus of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 and RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II, accompanied by their abnormal sequestration in the cytoplasm. RAN (RAs-related Nuclear protein knockdown, by siRNA and oligomeric Aβ42 treatment in neurons, replicate human data which indicate that transport disruption in AD may be mechanistically linked to reduced expression of RAN, a pivotal molecule in nucleocytoplasmic transport. In vitro studies also indicate a significant role for oligomeric Aβ42 in the observed phenomena. We propose a model in which reduced transcription regulators in the nucleus and their increased presence in the cytoplasm may lead to many of the cellular manifestations of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Detergent/nanodisc screening for high-resolution NMR studies of an integral membrane protein containing a cytoplasmic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Tzitzilonis

    Full Text Available Because membrane proteins need to be extracted from their natural environment and reconstituted in artificial milieus for the 3D structure determination by X-ray crystallography or NMR, the search for membrane mimetic that conserve the native structure and functional activities remains challenging. We demonstrate here a detergent/nanodisc screening study by NMR of the bacterial α-helical membrane protein YgaP containing a cytoplasmic rhodanese domain. The analysis of 2D [(15N,(1H]-TROSY spectra shows that only a careful usage of low amounts of mixed detergents did not perturb the cytoplasmic domain while solubilizing in parallel the transmembrane segments with good spectral quality. In contrast, the incorporation of YgaP into nanodiscs appeared to be straightforward and yielded a surprisingly high quality [(15N,(1H]-TROSY spectrum opening an avenue for the structural studies of a helical membrane protein in a bilayer system by solution state NMR.

  7. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens and male sterile cytoplasm of chaisma frequency in pearl millet inbreds and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.B.; Singh, R.M.; Vijay Laxmi

    1977-01-01

    Chiasma frequency was recorded in normal and treated [10, 20, 30 Kr γ-rays, 0.2% ethyl methane-sulphonate (EMS) and 10 Kr γ-rays + 0.2% EMS] populations of 7 inbreds and 3 hybrids of pearl millet. Inbreds in general showed lower chiasma frequency than hybrids. However, inbred Bi13B showed the highest chiasma frequency. The male sterile cytoplasm reduced the chaisma frequency and increased the among-plant-variability in the inbreds and, therefore, possibly in the hybrids which had male sterile cytoplasm. γ-rays were more effective than EMS in reducing chiasma frequency. In most of the genotypes 10Kr γ-rays and 0.2% EMS promoted chiasma frequency. The combination treatments showed greater effect than γ-rays and EMS applied individually. Hybrids as a group, showed lower variation for chiasma number than inbreds in response to the mutagenic treatments. (author)

  8. Ubiquitin-regulated nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix protein is important for viral budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao E Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxoviruses are known to replicate in the cytoplasm and bud from the plasma membrane. Matrix is the major structural protein in paramyxoviruses that mediates viral assembly and budding. Curiously, the matrix proteins of a few paramyxoviruses have been found in the nucleus, although the biological function associated with this nuclear localization remains obscure. We report here that the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix (NiV-M protein and associated post-translational modification play a critical role in matrix-mediated virus budding. Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic emerging paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans, and is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4 pathogen. During live NiV infection, NiV-M was first detected in the nucleus at early stages of infection before subsequent localization to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Mutations in the putative bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS and the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES found in NiV-M impaired its nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking and also abolished NiV-M budding. A highly conserved lysine residue in the NLS served dual functions: its positive charge was important for mediating nuclear import, and it was also a potential site for monoubiquitination which regulates nuclear export of the protein. Concordantly, overexpression of ubiquitin enhanced NiV-M budding whereas depletion of free ubiquitin in the cell (via proteasome inhibitors resulted in nuclear retention of NiV-M and blocked viral budding. Live Nipah virus budding was exquisitely sensitive to proteasome inhibitors: bortezomib, an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor for treating multiple myeloma, reduced viral titers with an IC(50 of 2.7 nM, which is 100-fold less than the peak plasma concentration that can be achieved in humans. This opens up the possibility of using an "off-the-shelf" therapeutic against acute NiV infection.

  9. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobstein Julie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using

  10. Poliovirus infection induces the co-localization of cellular protein SRp20 with TIA-1, a cytoplasmic stress granule protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D; Semler, Bert L

    2013-09-01

    Different types of environmental stress cause mammalian cells to form cytoplasmic foci, termed stress granules, which contain mRNPs that are translationally silenced. These foci are transient and dynamic, and contain components of the cellular translation machinery as well as certain mRNAs and RNA binding proteins. Stress granules are known to be induced by conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative stress, and a number of cellular factors have been identified that are commonly associated with these foci. More recently it was discovered that poliovirus infection also induces the formation of stress granules, although these cytoplasmic foci appear to be somewhat compositionally unique. Work described here examined the punctate pattern of SRp20 (a host cell mRNA splicing protein) localization in the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected cells, demonstrating the partial co-localization of SRp20 with the stress granule marker protein TIA-1. We determined that SRp20 does not co-localize with TIA-1, however, under conditions of oxidative stress, indicating that the close association of these two proteins during poliovirus infection is not representative of a general response to cellular stress. We confirmed that the expression of a dominant negative version of TIA-1 (TIA-1-PRD) results in the dissociation of stress granules. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of wild type TIA-1 or dominant negative TIA-1-PRD in cells during poliovirus infection does not dramatically affect viral translation. Taken together, these studies provide a new example of the unique cytoplasmic foci that form during poliovirus infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonsecreted cytoplasmic alpha-fetoprotein: a newly discovered role in intracellular signaling and regulation. An update and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizejewski, G J

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a non-secreted cytoplasmic-bound form of alpha-fetoprotein is not a new notion in AFP biological activities. Cytoplasmic AFP (CyAFP) is a long known but forgotten protein in search of a function other than a histochemical biomarker. In this report, CyAFP is presented as an "old" protein with a newly described intracellular function. In 1976, CyAFP was shown to be a product of hepatoma cells utilizing 14Cleucine incorporation and demonstrated by autoradiographic procedures. The synthesis of CyAFP without secretion was demonstrated to occur in both malignant and non-malignant cells encompassing hepatomas, ascite fluid cells, immature rodent uterus, MCF-7 breast cancers, and cytosols from human breast cancer patients. Using computer protein matching and alignments in AFP versus members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, a consecutive series of leucine zipper (heptad) repeats in AFP was previously reported, suggesting the possibility for protein-to-protein interactions. The potential for heptad heterodimerization between protein-binding partners provided the rationale for proposing that CyAFP might have the capability to form molecular hetero-complexes with cytoplasmic based transcription factors. More recent investigations have now provided experimental evidence that CyAFP is capable of colocalizing and interacting with transcription-associated factors. Such proteins can modulate intracellular signaling leading to regulation of transcription factors and initiation of growth in human cancer cells. Although circulating serum AFP is known as a growth-enhancing factor during development, cytoplasmic AFP has a lethal role in the oncogenesis, growth, and metastasis of adult liver cancer.

  12. Poliovirus infection induces the co-localization of cellular protein SRp20 with TIA-1, a cytoplasmic stress granule protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D.; Semler, Bert L.

    2013-01-01

    Different types of environmental stress cause mammalian cells to form cytoplasmic foci, termed stress granules, which contain mRNPs that are translationally silenced. These foci are transient and dynamic, and contain components of the cellular translation machinery as well as certain mRNAs and RNA binding proteins. Stress granules are known to be induced by conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative stress, and a number of cellular factors have been identified that are commonly associated with these foci. More recently it was discovered that poliovirus infection also induces the formation of stress granules, although these cytoplasmic foci appear to be somewhat compositionally unique. Work described here examined the punctate pattern of SRp20 (a host cell mRNA splicing protein) localization in the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected cells, demonstrating the partial co-localization of SRp20 with the stress granule marker protein TIA-1. We determined that SRp20 does not co-localize with TIA-1, however, under conditions of oxidative stress, indicating that the close association of these two proteins during poliovirus infection is not representative of a general response to cellular stress. We confirmed that the expression of a dominant negative version of TIA-1 (TIA-1-PRD) results in the dissociation of stress granules. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of wild type TIA-1 or dominant negative TIA-1-PRD in cells during poliovirus infection does not dramatically affect viral translation. Taken together, these studies provide a new example of the unique cytoplasmic foci that form during poliovirus infection. PMID:23830997

  13. Genetics and biology of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and its applications in forage and turf grass breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Mohamed Shofiqul; Studer Bruno; Møller Ian Max; Asp Torben

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid breeding can exploit heterosis and thus offers opportunities to maximize yield quality and resistance traits in crop species. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widely applied tool for efficient hybrid seed production. Encoded in the mitochondrial genome CMS is maternally inherited and thus it can be challenging to apply in breeding schemes of allogamous self incompatible plant species such as perennial ryegrass. Starting with a general introduction to the origin and the function of...

  14. A case of propylthiouracil-induced antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis successfully treated with radioactive iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA associated vasculitis is one of the rare complications of propylthiouracil treatment. Having a variable clinical spectrum, it may be presented with both skin limited vasculitis and life-threatening systemic vasculitis. In this study, we present a case that developed ANCA-positive vasculitis with skin and kidney involvement (hematuria and proteinuria six months after propylthiouracil treatment was initiated for toxic nodular goiter. Proteinuria recovered dramatically subsequent to radioactive iodine treatment following ceasing the drug.

  15. Viral Small-RNA Analysis of Bombyx mori Larval Midgut during Persistent and Pathogenic Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zografidis, Aris; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Kolliopoulou, Anna; Apostolou-Karampelis, Konstantinos; Head, Steven R.; Deforce, Dieter; Smagghe, Guy; Swevers, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The lepidopteran innate immune response against RNA viruses remains poorly understood, while in other insects several studies have highlighted an essential role for the exo-RNAi pathway in combating viral infection. Here, by using deep-sequencing technology for viral small-RNA (vsRNA) assessment, we provide evidence that exo-RNAi is operative in the silkworm Bombyx mori against both persistent and pathogenic infection of B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) which is characterized by...

  16. Mutagenesis-based research aimed at obtaining resistance to Helminthosporium maydis, straint T, in maize with Texas male sterile cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, A.; Vuillaume, E.; Cassini, R.; Berville, A.

    1977-01-01

    Mutagenesis was used on the French line F7T, with Texas male sterile cytoplasm, in order to obtain plants resistant to Helminthosporium maydis. The M 3 seedlings were screened for resistance either by using a fungus culture filtrate or through contamination with the fungus itself. In the first tests, carried out after the seeds had been treated with an aqueous solution of EMS, a number of families exhibiting original types of resistance to Helminthosporium maydis, strain T, were isolated. (author)

  17. Intraspecific variation in mitochondrial genome sequence, structure, and gene content in Silene vulgaris, an angiosperm with pervasive cytoplasmic male sterility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloan, D.B.; Müller, Karel; McCauley, D.; Taylor, D.R.; Štorchová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 4 (2012), s. 1228-1239 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0261; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA MŠk ME09035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) * gynodioecy * intracellular gene transfer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.736, year: 2012

  18. Effect of drought stress on male fertility restoration in A3 CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V. Kozhemyakin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in hybrid breeding requires effective male fertility-restoring lines. In sorghum, very few restoring lines that can restore fertility in A3 CMS have been reported. To identify the reasons for this deficiency, F1 and F2 hybrids of an A3 CMS line crossed with the line IS1112C, a donor of fertility-restoring (Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm, and testcrosses of fertile plants to A3 CMS lines were grown under contrasting water availability regimes in dryland and irrigated field plots. In the irrigated plots the frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses was twice that in dryland plots (P < 0.05. Fertile plants from the F2 family grown in the irrigated plots showed significantly higher restoration ability than fertile plants from the same family grown in dryland plots. F3 plants from the F2 family grown in irrigated plots yielded on average a sixfold higher frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses than F3 plants derived from dryland plots (P < 0.01. Fertility of testcross hybrids correlated negatively with air vapor pressure deficit (VPD at flowering (r = −0.96; P < 0.01 suggesting that VPD is a trigger for downregulation of Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm.

  19. Autophagy is involved in the reduction of myelinating Schwann cell cytoplasm during myelin maturation of the peripheral nerve.

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    So Young Jang

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve myelination involves dynamic changes in Schwann cell morphology and membrane structure. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy regulates organelle biogenesis and plasma membrane dynamics. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in the development and differentiation of myelinating Schwann cells during sciatic nerve myelination. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays have shown that Schwann cells remove excess cytoplasmic organelles during myelination through macroautophagy. Inhibition of autophagy via Schwann cell-specific removal of ATG7, an essential molecule for macroautophagy, using a conditional knockout strategy, resulted in abnormally enlarged abaxonal cytoplasm in myelinating Schwann cells that contained a large number of ribosomes and an atypically expanded endoplasmic reticulum. Small fiber hypermyelination and minor anomalous peripheral nerve functions are observed in this mutant. Rapamycin-induced suppression of mTOR activity during the early postnatal period enhanced not only autophagy but also developmental reduction of myelinating Schwann cells cytoplasm in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy is a regulatory mechanism of Schwann cells structural plasticity during myelination.

  20. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

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    Cecilia Zampedri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment.

  1. The adenovirus E4 11 k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Amy E.; Hearing, Patrick; Ketner, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The adenovirus E4 11 k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. 11 k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11 k's effects, although the mechanism and targets for stimulation of late mRNA accumulation is unknown. We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11 k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies) are found in 11 k-induced cytoplasmic aggresomes, sites where proteins are inactivated or destroyed. One of these p-body proteins, RNA helicase Ddx6, binds 11 k, suggesting a mechanism for relocalization. Because p-bodies are sites for mRNA degradation, their modification by 11 k may provide an explanation for the role of 11 k in viral late mRNA accumulation.

  2. Pyridoxal phosphate as a probe of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins: Application to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, B.; Martinez-Carrion, M.

    1989-01-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to specifically label the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins with the aldehyde pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP). Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AcChR) vesicles were loaded with [ 3 H]pyridoxine 5-phosphate ([ 3 H]PNP) and pyridoxine-5-phosphate oxidase, followed by intravesicular enzymatic oxidation of [ 3 H]PNP at 37 degree C in the presence of externally added cytochrome c as a scavenger of possible leaking PLP product. The four receptor subunits were labeled whether the reaction was carried out on the internal surface or separately designed to mark the external one. On the other hand, the relative pyridoxylation of the subunits differed in both cases, reflecting differences in accessible lysyl residues in each side of the membrane. Even though there are no large differences in the total lysine content among the subunits and there are two copies of the α-subunit, internal surface labeling by PLP was greatest for the highest molecular weight (δ) subunit, reinforcing the concept that the four receptor subunits are transmembranous and may protrude into the cytoplasmic face in a fashion that is proportional to their subunit molecular weight. Yet, the labeling data do not fit well to any of the models proposed for AcChR subunit folding. The method described can be used for selective labeling of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins in sealed membrane vesicles

  3. The effect of the external medium on the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Chara corallina (Characeae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Gravity induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in vertical internodal cells of Chara such that the downwardly directed stream moves faster than the upwardly directed stream. In order to determine whether the statolith theory (in which intracellular sedimenting particles are responsible for gravity sensing) or the gravitational pressure theory (in which the entire protoplast acts as the gravity sensor) best explain the gravity response in Chara internodal cells, we controlled the physical properties of the external medium, including density and osmolarity, with impermeant solutes and examined the effect on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. As the density of the external medium is increased, the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming decreases and finally disappears when the density of the external medium is equal to that of the cell (1015 kg/m3). A further increase in the density of the external medium causes a reversal of the gravity response. These results are consistent with the gravitational pressure theory of gravity sensing since the buoyancy of the protoplast is dependent on the difference between the density of the protoplast and the external medium, and are inconsistent with the statolith theory since the buoyancy of intracellular particles are unaffected by changes in the external medium.

  4. Plant Vegetative and Animal Cytoplasmic Actins Share Functional Competence for Spatial Development with Protists[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K.; McKinney, Elizabeth C.; Roy, Eileen; Meagher, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Actin is an essential multifunctional protein encoded by two distinct ancient classes of genes in animals (cytoplasmic and muscle) and plants (vegetative and reproductive). The prevailing view is that each class of actin variants is functionally distinct. However, we propose that the vegetative plant and cytoplasmic animal variants have conserved functional competence for spatial development inherited from an ancestral protist actin sequence. To test this idea, we ectopically expressed animal and protist actins in Arabidopsis thaliana double vegetative actin mutants that are dramatically altered in cell and organ morphologies. We found that expression of cytoplasmic actins from humans and even a highly divergent invertebrate Ciona intestinalis qualitatively and quantitatively suppressed the root cell polarity and organ defects of act8 act7 mutants and moderately suppressed the root-hairless phenotype of act2 act8 mutants. By contrast, human muscle actins were unable to support prominently any aspect of plant development. Furthermore, actins from three protists representing Choanozoa, Archamoeba, and green algae efficiently suppressed all the phenotypes of both the plant mutants. Remarkably, these data imply that actin’s competence to carry out a complex suite of processes essential for multicellular development was already fully developed in single-celled protists and evolved nonprogressively from protists to plants and animals. PMID:22589468

  5. Assessing Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty for transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection into bovine and ovine zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R. J.; Fernandez-Martin, R.; Canel, N. G.; Gibbons, A.; Texeira, D.; Lange, F.; Vans Landschoot, G.; Savy, V.; Briski, O.; Hiriart, M. I.; Grueso, E.; Ivics, Z.; Taboga, O.; Kues, W. A.; Ferraris, S.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected. In the case of SB, the supercoiled plasmids encoding a transposon and the SB transposase were co-injected. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were used to establish the cytoplasmic injection conditions. The in vitro cultured blastocysts were evaluated for reporter gene expression and genotyped. Subsequently, both transposon systems were injected in seasonally available ovine zygotes, employing transposons carrying the recombinant human factor IX driven by the beta-lactoglobulin promoter. The Tn5 approach did not result in transgenic lambs. In contrast, the Sleeping Beauty injection resulted in 2 lambs (29%) carrying the transgene. Both animals exhibited cellular mosaicism of the transgene. The extraembryonic tissues (placenta or umbilical cord) of three additional animals were also transgenic. These results show that transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of SB transposon components can be applied for the production of transgenic lambs of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:28301581

  6. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

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    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  7. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

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    Makoto Takahashi

    Full Text Available The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1 is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6. A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (rCTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range than with Q13 (normal-length. Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei.

  8. Cytoplasmic Location of α1A Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel C-Terminal Fragment (Cav2.1-CTF) Aggregate Is Sufficient to Cause Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Obayashi, Masato; Ishiguro, Taro; Sato, Nozomu; Niimi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kokoro; Mogushi, Kaoru; Mahmut, Yasen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takeo; Mori, Osamu; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishikawa, Kinya

    2013-01-01

    The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1) is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C)-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q) tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (r)CTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range) than with Q13 (normal-length). Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei. PMID:23505410

  9. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  10. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Alam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia, without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can

  11. Integrated analysis of transcriptome and proteome changes related to the Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in cabbage.

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    Miaomiao Xing

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata, an important vegetable crop in the Brassicaceae family, is economically important worldwide. In the process of hybrid seed production, Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (OguCMS, controlled by the mitochondrial gene orf138, has been extensively used for cabbage hybrid production with complete and stable male sterility. To identify the critical genes and pathways involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, the anther of OguCMS line R2P2CMS and the fertile line R2P2 were used for RNA-seq and iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation proteome analysis. RNA-seq analysis generated 13,037,109 to 13,066,594 SE50-clean reads, from the sterile and fertile lines, which were assembled into 36,890 unigenes. Among them, 1,323 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, consisting of 307 up- and 1016 down-regulated genes. For ITRAQ analysis, a total of 7,147 unique proteins were identified, and 833 were differentially expressed including 538 up- and 295 down-regulated proteins. These were mainly annotated to the ribosome, spliceosome and mRNA surveillance pathways. Combined transcriptomic and proteomic analyses identified 22 and 70 genes with the same and opposite expression profiles, respectively. Using KEGG analysis of DEGs, gibberellin mediated signaling pathways regulating tapetum programmed cell death and four different pathways involved in sporopollenin synthesis were identified. Secretion and translocation of the sporopollenin precursors were identified, and the key genes participating in these pathways were all significantly down-regulated in R2P2CMS. Light and transmission electron (TE microscopy revealed fat abnormal tapetum rather than vacuolization and degradation at the tetrad and microspore stages of the OguCMS line. This resulted in the failed deposition of sporopollenin on the pollen resulting in sterility. This study provides a

  12. Functional Marker Assisted Improvement of Stable Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines of Rice for Bacterial Blight Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegadeesan Ramalingam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight (BB, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae is one among the major diseases in rice, which in severe condition cause losses up to 60% in total yield. Marker assisted pyramiding of three broad spectrum BB resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 in prominent rice varieties is the most economical and effective strategy for the management of the BB disease. We report here the pyramiding of three genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 in maintainer lines (CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B of three promising wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterile lines (CO 2A, CO 23A, and CO 24A through functional markers assisted back cross breeding. IRBB60 with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes is used as a donor parent. BC2F1 and BC2F2 generations from a cross of CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B with IRBB60 were evaluated for bacterial blight and non-fertility restoration. In BC2F1, plants with all three resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 and high parent genome recovery was identified. In BC2F2, plants with all resistance genes and without fertility restorer (Rf3 and Rf4 were selected. Based on agronomic traits, BB resistance and maintenance of sterility, two plants each in CO 2B × IRBB60, CO 24B × IRBB60 and one plant in CO 23B × IRBB60 combinations were identified. The identified lines were crossed with respective male sterile lines for conversion of improved B line into CMS line through back-crossing, in addition to selfing. The plants with high recurrent genome and phenotypically similar to parental lines and sterile are being used for the hybrid rice development program. Currently, using these lines (improved CMS line, test crosses were made to develop new rice hybrids. Hybrids combinations viz., CO 23A × AD08009R and CO 24A × IET20898R were found to be stable at different locations with high yield. The R line used in this study has been introgressed with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes in a separate breeding program. These new hybrids with resistance against bacterial blight

  13. Spotlight on rituximab in the treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moog P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Philipp Moog, Klaus Thuermel Abteilung für Nephrologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany Abstract: A 54-year-old patient presented to his general practitioner because of strong muscle pain in both thighs. Inflammatory parameters (CRP 16.3 mg/dL and white blood cells (15 g/L were elevated. The patient reported a weight loss of 10 kg in 4 weeks. There was no fever or any other specific symptoms. Urine dipstick examination and computed tomography of the chest were unremarkable. Because of increasing symptoms, the patient was referred to our department. Magnetic resonance tomography showed diffuse inflammatory changes of the muscles of both thighs. Neurological examination and electrophysiology revealed axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and ground-glass opacities of both lungs had occurred. Serum creatinine increased to 229 µmol/L within a few days, with proteinuria of 3.3 g/g creatinine. Kidney biopsy showed diffuse pauci-immune proliferative glomerulonephritis. Proteinase 3-specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were markedly increased. Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score was 35. Within 2 days, serum creatinine further increased to 495 µmol/L. Plasma exchange, high-dose glucocorticosteroids, and hemodialysis were started. The patient received cyclophosphamide 1 g twice and rituximab 375 mg/m2 four times according to the RITUXVAS protocol. Despite ongoing therapy, hemodialysis could not be withdrawn and had to be continued over 3 weeks until diuresis normalized. Glucocorticosteroids were tapered to 20 mg after 2 months, and serum creatinine was 133 µmol/L. However, nephritic urinary sediment reappeared. Another dose of 1 g cyclophosphamide was given, and glucocorticosteroids were raised for another 4 weeks. After 6 months, the daily prednisolone dose was able to be tapered to 5 mg. Serum creatinine was 124 µmol/L, proteinuria further decreased to 382 mg/g creatinine, and the Birmingham

  14. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata,C. maxima,C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia--'Mexican' lime types of Tanaka's taxa), C. reticulata(for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka's taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' and 'Rough' lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon--yellow lemon types--varieties of Tanaka's taxa) or the C. maxima × C. reticulate hybrid (for C. limettioides--'Palestine sweet' lime types--and C

  15. Cytoplasmic- and extracellular-proteome analysis of Diplodia seriata: a phytopathogenic fungus involved in grapevine decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobos Rebeca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phytopathogenic fungus Diplodia seriata, whose genome remains unsequenced, produces severe infections in fruit trees (fruit blight and grapevines. In this crop is recognized as one of the most prominent pathogens involved in grapevine trunk disease (or grapevine decline. This pathology can result in the death of adult plants and therefore it produces severe economical losses all around the world. To date no genes or proteins have been characterized in D. seriata that are involved in the pathogenicity process. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with pathogenicity and to gain a better understanding of the biology of D. seriata, we initiated a proteome-level study of the fungal mycelia and secretome. Results Intracellular and secreted proteins from D. seriata collected from liquid cultures were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 550 cytoplasmic proteins were reproducibly present in 3 independent extractions, being 53 identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and tandem mass spectrometry. The secretome analysis showed 75 secreted proteins reproducibly present in 3 biological replicates, being 16 identified. Several of the proteins had been previously identified as virulence factors in other fungal strains, although their contribution to pathogenicity in D. seriata remained to be analyzed. When D. seriata was grown in a medium supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose, 3 proteins were up-regulated and 30 down-regulated. Within the up-regulated proteins, two were identified as alcohol dehydrogenase and mitochondrial peroxyrredoxin-1, suggesting that they could play a significant role in the pathogenicity process. As for the 30 down-regulated proteins, 9 were identified being several of them involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions This study is the first report on proteomics on D. seriata. The proteomic data obtained will be important to understand the pathogenicity

  16. In Vivo Imaging of Diacylglycerol at the Cytoplasmic Leaflet of Plant Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Joop E M; van Wijk, Ringo; Goedhart, Joachim; Geldner, Niko; Chory, Joanne; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Munnik, Teun

    2017-07-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is an important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and plays key roles in cell signaling, either as a second messenger itself or as a precursor of phosphatidic acid. Methods to identify distinct DAG pools have proven difficult because biochemical fractionation affects the pools, and concentrations are limiting. Here, we validate the use of a genetically encoded DAG biosensor in living plant cells. The sensor is composed of a fusion between yellow fluorescent protein and the C1a domain of protein kinase C (YFP-C1aPKC) that specifically binds DAG, and was stably expressed in suspension-cultured tobacco BY-2 cells and whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal imaging revealed that the majority of the YFP-C1aPKC fluorescence did not locate to membranes but was present in the cytosol and nucleus. Treatment with short-chain DAG or PMA (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate), a phorbol ester that binds the C1a domain of PKC, caused the recruitment of the biosensor to the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the biosensor works and that the basal DAG concentration in the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes (i.e. accessible to the biosensor) is in general too low, and confirms that the known pools in plastids, the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria are located at the luminal face of these compartments (i.e. inaccessible to the biosensor). Nevertheless, detailed further analysis of different cells and tissues discovered four novel DAG pools, namely at: (i) the trans-Golgi network; (ii) the cell plate during cytokinesis; (iii) the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells in the transition zone, and (iv) the apex of growing root hairs. The results provide new insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of DAG in plants and offer a new tool to monitor this in vivo. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Interferometric measurements of dry mass content in nuclei and cytoplasm in the life cycle of antheridial filaments cells of Chara vulgaris L. in their successive developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kuran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric measurements of the nucleus and cytoplasm dry mass during interphase in the successive stages of development of antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris demonstrated that the dry mass and surface area of cell nuclei double in size in each of the successive generations of the filaments, whereas neither the surface nor the dry mass of the cytoplasm increase in such proportion in the same period. In the successive stages of development of the antheridial filaments the dry mass and surface area of the nuclei and cytoplasm gradually diminish.

  18. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  19. Effect of external pH on the cytoplasmic and vacuolar pHs in Mung bean root-tip cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torimitsu, Keiichi; Yazaki, Yoshiaki; Nagasuka, Kinuyo; Ohta, Eiji; Sakata, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the external pH on the intracellular pH in mung bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) root-tip cells was investigated with the 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method. The 31 P NMR spectra showed three peaks caused by cytoplasmic G-6-P, cytoplasmic Psub(i) and vacuolar Psub(i). The cytoplasmic and vacuolar pHs could be determined by comparing the Psub(i) chemical shifts with the titration curve. When the external pH was changed over a range from pH 3 to 10, the cytoplasmic pH showed smaller changes than the vacuolar pH, suggesting that the former is regulated more strictly than the latter. The H + -ATPase inhibitor, DCCD, caused the breakdown of the mechanism that regulates the intracellular pH. H + -ATPase appears to have an important part in the regulation of the intracellular pH. (author)

  20. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

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    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  1. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  2. Cytoplasmic assembly of snRNP particles from stored proteins and newly transcribed snRNA's in L929 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauterer, R.A.; Feeney, R.J.; Zieve, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Newly synthesized snRNAs appear transiently in the cytoplasm where they assemble into ribonucleoprotein particles, the snRNP particles, before returning permanently to the interphase nucleus. In this report, bona fide cytoplasmic fractions, prepared by cell enucleation, are used for a quantitative analysis of snRNP assembly in growing mouse fibroblasts. The half-lives and abundances of the snRNP precursors in the cytoplasm and the rates of snRNP assembly are calculated in L929 cells. With the exception of U6, the major snRNAs are stable RNA species; U1 is almost totally stable while U2 has a half-life of about two cell cycles. In contrast, the majority of newly synthesized U6 decays with a half-life of about 15 h. The relative abundances of the newly synthesized snRNA species U1, U2, U3, U4 and U6 in the cytoplasm are determined by Northern hybridization using cloned probes and are approximately 2% of their nuclear abundance. The half-lives of the two major snRNA precursors in the cytoplasm (U1 and U2) are approximately 20 min as determined by labeling to steady state. The relative abundance of the snRNP B protein in the cytoplasm is determined by Western blotting with the Sm class of autoantibodies and is approximately 25% of the nuclear abundance. Kinetic studies, using the Sm antiserum to immunoprecipitate the methionine-labeled snRNP proteins, suggest that the B protein has a half-life of 90 to 120 min in the cytoplasm. These data are discussed and suggest that there is a large pool of more stable snRNP proteins in the cytoplasm available for assembly with the less abundant but more rapidly turning-over snRNAs

  3. Induction of cytoplasmic rods and rings structures by inhibition of the CTP and GTP synthetic pathway in mammalian cells.

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    Wendy C Carcamo

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic filamentous rods and rings (RR structures were identified using human autoantibodies as probes. In the present study, the formation of these conserved structures in mammalian cells and functions linked to these structures were examined.Distinct cytoplasmic rods (∼3-10 µm in length and rings (∼2-5 µm in diameter in HEp-2 cells were initially observed in immunofluorescence using human autoantibodies. Co-localization studies revealed that, although RR had filament-like features, they were not enriched in actin, tubulin, or vimentin, and not associated with centrosomes or other known cytoplasmic structures. Further independent studies revealed that two key enzymes in the nucleotide synthetic pathway cytidine triphosphate synthase 1 (CTPS1 and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2 were highly enriched in RR. CTPS1 enzyme inhibitors 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and Acivicin as well as the IMPDH2 inhibitor Ribavirin exhibited dose-dependent induction of RR in >95% of cells in all cancer cell lines tested as well as mouse primary cells. RR formation by lower concentration of Ribavirin was enhanced in IMPDH2-knockdown HeLa cells whereas it was inhibited in GFP-IMPDH2 overexpressed HeLa cells. Interestingly, RR were detected readily in untreated mouse embryonic stem cells (>95%; upon retinoic acid differentiation, RR disassembled in these cells but reformed when treated with Acivicin.RR formation represented response to disturbances in the CTP or GTP synthetic pathways in cancer cell lines and mouse primary cells and RR are the convergence physical structures in these pathways. The availability of specific markers for these conserved structures and the ability to induce formation in vitro will allow further investigations in structure and function of RR in many biological systems in health and diseases.

  4. The SPF27 homologue Num1 connects splicing and kinesin 1-dependent cytoplasmic trafficking in Ustilago maydis.

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    Nikola Kellner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conserved NineTeen protein complex (NTC is an integral subunit of the spliceosome and required for intron removal during pre-mRNA splicing. The complex associates with the spliceosome and participates in the regulation of conformational changes of core spliceosomal components, stabilizing RNA-RNA- as well as RNA-protein interactions. In addition, the NTC is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, response to DNA damage, as well as formation and export of mRNP-particles. We have identified the Num1 protein as the homologue of SPF27, one of NTC core components, in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis. Num1 is required for polarized growth of the fungal hyphae, and, in line with the described NTC functions, the num1 mutation affects the cell cycle and cell division. The num1 deletion influences splicing in U. maydis on a global scale, as RNA-Seq analysis revealed increased intron retention rates. Surprisingly, we identified in a screen for Num1 interacting proteins not only NTC core components as Prp19 and Cef1, but several proteins with putative functions during vesicle-mediated transport processes. Among others, Num1 interacts with the motor protein Kin1 in the cytoplasm. Similar phenotypes with respect to filamentous and polar growth, vacuolar morphology, as well as the motility of early endosomes corroborate the genetic interaction between Num1 and Kin1. Our data implicate a previously unidentified connection between a component of the splicing machinery and cytoplasmic transport processes. As the num1 deletion also affects cytoplasmic mRNA transport, the protein may constitute a novel functional interconnection between the two disparate processes of splicing and trafficking.

  5. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke; Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1-2h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tapetal-Delayed Programmed Cell Death (PCD and Oxidative Stress-Induced Male Sterility of Aegilops uniaristata Cytoplasm in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihan Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays a crucial role in the utilization of hybrid vigor. Pollen development is often accompanied by oxidative metabolism responses and tapetal programmed cell death (PCD, and deficiency in these processes could lead to male sterility. Aegilops uniaristata cytoplasmic male sterility (Mu-CMS wheat is a novel male-sterile line in wheat, which possess important potential in hybrid wheat breeding. However, its CMS mechanisms remain poorly understood. In our study, U87B1-706A, with the Aegilops uniaristata cytoplasm, and the maintainer line 706B were used to explore the abortive reason. Compared with 706B, histological analysis and PCD detection of the anther demonstrated that U87B1-706A appeared as delayed tapetal PCD as well as a disorganized organelle phenotype in the early uninucleate stage. Subsequently, a shrunken microspore and disordered exine structure were exhibited in the late uninucleate stage. While the activities of antioxidase increased markedly, the nonenzymatic antioxidant contents declined obviously following overacummulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS during pollen development in U87B1-706A. Real-time quantitative PCR testified that the transcript levels of the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX genes, encoding pivotal antioxidant enzymes, were up-regulated in early pollen development. Therefore, we deduce excess ROS as a signal may be related to the increased expression levels of enzyme genes, thereby breaking the antioxidative system balance, resulting in delayed tapetal PCD initiation, which finally led to pollen abortion and male sterility in U87B1-706A. These results provide evidence to further explore the mechanisms of abortive pollen in CMS wheat.

  7. Agronomic Performance of Flue-Cured Tobacco F1 Hybrids Obtained with Different Sources of Male Sterile Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four cytoplasmic male sterile (cms F1flue-cured hybrids cv. Wiaelica × cv. Virginia Golta (VG, the male fertile analogue and the parental varieties were tested at two locations in Poland in a replicated field trial. The cms sources in the hybrids wereN. suaveolens,N. amplexicaulis,N. bigeloviiand aN. tabacumcms mutant. Under the slight to moderate pressure from black root rot present at the trial sites the hybrids showed a moderate tolerance of the disease characteristic of VG as opposed to medium strong susceptibility of Wislica. Apart from the effect of black root rot tolerance the vegetative vigor of the hybrids (plant height, leaf size, earliness was affected by cytoplasm source. The F1hybrid withN. suaveolens cytoplasm flowered approximately three days later than the remaining hybrids. Of the cms hybrids tested cmsN. bigelovii produced the tallest plants with largest mid-position leaves. Yields of cured leaves were largely influenced by black root rot and were generally higher in VG and in the hybrids than in Wislica. Leaf yields and curability were generally little affected by cms source under low pressure from black root rot. At the site with a relatively high level of black root rot infestation the yields of cmsN. suaveolens were slightly lower but the percentage of light grades slightly higher compared to those of other cms hybrids. CmsN. suaveolens was the best hybrid in terms of money returns at the low black root rot field but it was the poorest hybrid performer under high pressure from the disease. Contents of nitrogen, sugars, nicotine and ash was little affected by source of cms. There was an increased incidence of potato virus Y (PVY and white spots in cmsN. suaveolens and, to a lesser extent, in cmsN. bigelovii as compared to the remaining disease-free entries.

  8. Histone titration against the genome sets the DNA-to-cytoplasm threshold for the Xenopus midblastula transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Amanda A.; Jukam, David; Straight, Aaron F.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    During early development, animal embryos depend on maternally deposited RNA until zygotic genes become transcriptionally active. Before this maternal-to-zygotic transition, many species execute rapid and synchronous cell divisions without growth phases or cell cycle checkpoints. The coordinated onset of transcription, cell cycle lengthening, and cell cycle checkpoints comprise the midblastula transition (MBT). A long-standing model in the frog, Xenopus laevis, posits that MBT timing is controlled by a maternally loaded inhibitory factor that is titrated against the exponentially increasing amount of DNA. To identify MBT regulators, we developed an assay using Xenopus egg extract that recapitulates the activation of transcription only above the DNA-to-cytoplasm ratio found in embryos at the MBT. We used this system to biochemically purify factors responsible for inhibiting transcription below the threshold DNA-to-cytoplasm ratio. This unbiased approach identified histones H3 and H4 as concentration-dependent inhibitory factors. Addition or depletion of H3/H4 from the extract quantitatively shifted the amount of DNA required for transcriptional activation in vitro. Moreover, reduction of H3 protein in embryos induced premature transcriptional activation and cell cycle lengthening, and the addition of H3/H4 shortened post-MBT cell cycles. Our observations support a model for MBT regulation by DNA-based titration and suggest that depletion of free histones regulates the MBT. More broadly, our work shows how a constant concentration DNA binding molecule can effectively measure the amount of cytoplasm per genome to coordinate division, growth, and development. PMID:25713373

  9. Disruption of reducing pathways is not essential for efficient disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatahet Feras

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of native disulfide bonds is a complex and essential post-translational modification for many proteins. The large scale production of these proteins can be difficult and depends on targeting the protein to a compartment in which disulfide bond formation naturally occurs, usually the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes or the periplasm of prokaryotes. It is currently thought to be impossible to produce large amounts of disulfide bond containing protein in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli due to the presence of multiple pathways for their reduction. Results Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and FAD-dependent catalyst of disulfide bond formation found in the inter membrane space of mitochondria, allows the efficient formation of native disulfide bonds in heterologously expressed proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli even without the disruption of genes involved in disulfide bond reduction, for example trxB and/or gor. Indeed yields of active disulfide bonded proteins were higher in BL21 (DE3 pLysSRARE, an E. coli strain with the reducing pathways intact, than in the commercial Δgor ΔtrxB strain rosetta-gami upon co-expression of Erv1p. Conclusions Our results refute the current paradigm in the field that disruption of at least one of the reducing pathways is essential for the efficient production of disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli and open up new possibilities for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory.

  10. Tolerance induction to cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase by hepatic AAV gene transfer: implications for antigen presentation and immunotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley T Martino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic gene transfer, in particular using adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors, has been shown to induce immune tolerance to several protein antigens. This approach has been exploited in animal models of inherited protein deficiency for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. Adequate levels of transgene expression in hepatocytes induce a suppressive T cell response, thereby promoting immune tolerance. This study addresses the question of whether AAV gene transfer can induce tolerance to a cytoplasmic protein.AAV-2 vector-mediated hepatic gene transfer for expression of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase (beta-gal was performed in immune competent mice, followed by a secondary beta-gal gene transfer with E1/E3-deleted adenoviral Ad-LacZ vector to provoke a severe immunotoxic response. Transgene expression from the AAV-2 vector in approximately 2% of hepatocytes almost completely protected from inflammatory T cell responses against beta-gal, eliminated antibody formation, and significantly reduced adenovirus-induced hepatotoxicity. Consequently, approximately 10% of hepatocytes continued to express beta-gal 45 days after secondary Ad-LacZ gene transfer, a time point when control mice had lost all Ad-LacZ derived expression. Suppression of inflammatory T cell infiltration in the liver and liver damage was linked to specific transgene expression and was not seen for secondary gene transfer with Ad-GFP. A combination of adoptive transfer studies and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated induction of Treg that actively suppressed CD8(+ T cell responses to beta-gal and that was amplified in liver and spleen upon secondary Ad-LacZ gene transfer.These data demonstrate that tolerance induction by hepatic AAV gene transfer does not require systemic delivery of the transgene product and that expression of a cytoplasmic neo-antigen in few hepatocytes can induce Treg and provide long-term suppression of inflammatory responses and immunotoxicity.

  11. Direct Cytoplasmic Delivery and Nuclear Targeting Delivery of HPMA-MT Conjugates in a Microtubules Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaju; Zhu, Xi; Luo, Kui; Li, Lian; Tang, Manlin; Liu, Yanxi; Zhou, Zhou; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-06

    As the hearts of tumor cells, the nucleus is the ultimate target of many chemotherapeutic agents and genes. However, nuclear drug delivery is always hampered by multiple intracellular obstacles, such as low efficiency of lysosome escape and insufficient nuclear trafficking. Herein, an N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-based drug delivery system was designed, which could achieve direct cytoplasmic delivery by a nonendocytic pathway and transport into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent fashion. A special targeting peptide (MT), derived from an endogenic parathyroid hormone-related protein, was conjugated to the polymer backbone, which could accumulate into the nucleus a by microtubule-mediated pathway. The in vitro studies found that low temperature and NaN3 could not influence the cell internalization of the conjugates. Besides, no obvious overlay of the conjugates with lysosome demonstrated that the polymer conjugates could enter the tumor cell cytoplasm by a nonendocytic pathway, thus avoiding the drug degradation in the lysosome. Furthermore, after suppression of the microtubule dynamics with microtubule stabilizing docetaxel (DTX) and destabilizing nocodazole (Noc), the nuclear accumulation of polymeric conjugates was significantly inhibited. Living cells fluorescence recovery after photobleaching study found that the nuclear import rate of conjugates was 2-fold faster compared with the DTX and Noc treated groups. These results demonstrated that the conjugates transported into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent way. Therefore, in addition to direct cytoplasmic delivery, our peptide conjugated polymeric platform could simultaneously mediate nuclear drug accumulation, which may open a new path for further intracellular genes/peptides delivery.

  12. Lactoferricin B causes depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and fusion of negatively charged liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvatne, H; Haukland, H H; Olsvik, O; Vorland, L H

    2001-03-09

    Antimicrobial peptides have been extensively studied in order to elucidate their mode of action. Most of these peptides have been shown to exert a bactericidal effect on the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Lactoferricin is an antimicrobial peptide with a net positive charge and an amphipatic structure. In this study we examine the effect of bovine lactoferricin (lactoferricin B; Lfcin B) on bacterial membranes. We show that Lfcin B neither lyses bacteria, nor causes a major leakage from liposomes. Lfcin B depolarizes the membrane of susceptible bacteria, and induces fusion of negatively charged liposomes. Hence, Lfcin B may have additional targets responsible for the antibacterial effect.

  13. Plant Rho-type (Rop) GTPase-dependent activation of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjgotov, Dulguun; Jurca, Manuela E; Fodor-Dunai, Csilla; Szucs, Attila; Otvös, Krisztina; Klement, Eva; Bíró, Judit; Fehér, Attila

    2009-04-02

    Plants have evolved distinct mechanisms to link Rho-type (Rop) GTPases to downstream signaling pathways as compared to other eukaryotes. Here, experimental data are provided that members of the Medicago, as well as Arabidopsis, receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase family (RLCK Class VI) were strongly and specifically activated by GTP-bound Rop GTPases in vitro. Deletion analysis indicated that the residues implicated in the interaction might be distributed on various parts of the kinases. Using a chimaeric Rop GTPase protein, the importance of the Rho-insert region in kinase activation could also be verified. These data strengthen the possibility that RLCKs may serve as Rop GTPase effectors in planta.

  14. Cytoplasmic Copper Detoxification in Salmonella Can Contribute to SodC Metalation but Is Dispensable during Systemic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Luke A; Slauch, James M

    2017-12-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII. CopA and GolT, both inner membrane ATPases that pump copper from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, are a source of copper for CueP. Using in vitro SOD assays, we found that SodCI can also utilize CueP to acquire copper. However, both SodCI and SodCII have a significant fraction of activity independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We utilized a series of mouse competition assays to address the in vivo role of CueP-mediated SodC activation. A copA golT cueP triple mutant was equally as competitive as the wild type, suggesting that sufficient SodCI is active to defend against phagocytic superoxide independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We also confirmed that a strain containing a modified SodCII, which is capable of complementing a sodCI deletion, was fully virulent in a copA golT cueP background competed against the wild type. These competitions also address the potential impact of cytoplasmic copper toxicity within the phagosome. Our data suggest that Salmonella does not encounter inhibitory concentrations of copper during systemic infection. IMPORTANCE Salmonella is a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. In severe cases, Salmonella can cause life-threatening systemic infections, particularly in very young children, the elderly, or people who are immunocompromised. To cause disease, Salmonella must survive the hostile environment inside host

  15. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of YqjH from Escherichia coli: a putative cytoplasmic ferri-siderophore reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Vicki A; Armour, Maria; Mitchell, Sue A; Cartron, Michaël; Andrews, Simon C; Watson, Kimberly A

    2008-09-01

    YqjH is a cytoplasmic FAD-containing protein from Escherichia coli; based on homology to ViuB of Vibrio cholerae, it potentially acts as a ferri-siderophore reductase. This work describes its overexpression, purification, crystallization and structure solution at 3.0 A resolution. YqjH shares high sequence similarity with a number of known siderophore-interacting proteins and its structure was solved by molecular replacement using the siderophore-interacting protein from Shewanella putrefaciens as the search model. The YqjH structure resembles those of other members of the NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase superfamily.

  16. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexhepaj, Elton; Jirstrom, Karin; O'Connor, Darran P; O'Brien, Sallyann L; Landberg, Goran; Duffy, Michael J; Brennan, Donal J; Gallagher, William M

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have validated survivin CNR as a marker of good prognosis in

  17. Identification of cisplatin-binding sites on the large cytoplasmic loop of the Na+/K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šeflová, Jaroslava; Čechová, Petra; Štenclová, Tereza; Šebela, Marek; Kubala, Martin

    2018-12-01

    Cisplatin is the most widely used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of various types of cancer; however, its administration brings also numerous side effects. It was demonstrated that cisplatin can inhibit the Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA), which can explain a large part of the adverse effects. In this study, we have identified five cysteinyl residues (C452, C456, C457, C577, and C656) as the cisplatin binding sites on the cytoplasmic loop connecting transmembrane helices 4 and 5 (C45), using site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry experiments. The identified residues are known to be susceptible to glutathionylation indicating their involvement in a common regulatory mechanism.

  18. Mutation breeding for downy mildew resistance in pearl millet. Nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in disease-resistant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, B.R.; Thakur, S.R.; Prakash, N.; Mehta, S.L.; Bhakta, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Under the need to rescue hybrid pearl millet cultivation in India from devastating damage by downy mildew, a mutation induction project was started in 1971 to make the commonly used male sterile parent Tift 23A resistant to the disease. Simultaneously sources of resistance from West Africa were used in crossbreeding by which climatic adaptation and male sterility had to be transferred. A number of mildew-resistant hybrids were developed, both from induced mutation and introduction. The resistant male sterile lines were further examined as to their common features and differences from susceptible lines. A strong evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction was obtained by biochemical and ultrastructural investigations. (author)

  19. CanVasc recommendations for the management of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides - Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Lucy; Twilt, Marinka; Famorca, Leilani; Bakowsky, Volodko; Barra, Lillian; Benseler, Susan; Cabral, David A; Carette, Simon; Cox, Gerald P; Dhindsa, Navjot; Dipchand, Christine; Fifi-Mah, Aurore; Goulet, Michele; Khalidi, Nader; Khraishi, Majed M; Liang, Patrick; Milman, Nataliya; Pineau, Christian A; Reich, Heather; Samadi, Nooshin; Shojania, Kam; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Towheed, Tanveer E; Trudeau, Judith; Walsh, Michael; Yacyshyn, Elaine; Pagnoux, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Vasculitis research network (CanVasc) is composed of physicians from different medical specialties, including rheumatology and nephrology and researchers with expertise in vasculitis. One of its aims was to develop recommendations for the diagnosis and management of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides in Canada. This executive summary features the 19 recommendations and 17 statements addressing general AAV diagnosis and management, developed by CanVasc group based on a synthesis of existing international guidelines, other published supporting evidence and expert consensus considering the Canadian healthcare context.

  20. CanVasc Recommendations for the Management of Antineutrophil Cytoplasm Antibody (ANCA-Associated Vasculitides – Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy McGeoch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Vasculitis research network (CanVasc is composed of physicians from different medical specialties, including rheumatology and nephrology and researchers with expertise in vasculitis. One of its aims was to develop recommendations for the diagnosis and management of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitides in Canada. This executive summary features the 19 recommendations and 17 statements addressing general AAV diagnosis and management, developed by CanVasc group based on a synthesis of existing international guidelines, other published supporting evidence and expert consensus considering the Canadian healthcare context.

  1. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rexhepaj, Elton

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Methods Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Results Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Conclusion Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have

  2. The effects of duration of glucocorticoid therapy on relapse rate in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis: A meta-analysis

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    Walsh, Michael; Merkel, Peter A.; Mahr, Alfred; Jayne, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective Disease relapses are common for patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis (AAV). The role of low-dose glucocorticoids (GC) in relapse prevention is controversial. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine if GC target doses influence relapses of AAV. Methods Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for observational studies and randomized controlled trials of treatment of AAV that included a predefined GC treatment plan. The association of GC target dose with the proportion of relapses in studies was assessed using meta-regression and multi-level generalized linear modeling. Results Thirteen studies (983 patients) were identified for inclusion. There were no studies directly comparing GC regimens. We classified 288 patients as having a non-zero GC target dose by study end and 695 patients as having a zero GC target dose by study end. The pooled proportion of patients with a relapse was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25 to 47%). GC regimen was the most significant variable explaining the variability between the proportions of patients with relapses. The proportion of patients with a relapse was 14% (95% CI 10 to 19%) in non-zero GC target dose and 43% (95% CI 33 to 52%) in zero GC target dose studies. Differences other than GC regimens exist between studies that complicate the comparability of trials and isolation of the variability in relapses due to GC target alone. Conclusions Studies with longer courses of GC in AAV are associated with fewer relapses. These results have implications for study design and outcome assessment in clinical trials of AAV. PMID:20235186

  3. p38 MAPK and JNK antagonistically control senescence and cytoplasmic p16INK4A expression in doxorubicin-treated endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Paolo Spallarossa

    Full Text Available Patients treated with low-dose anthracyclines often show late onset cardiotoxicity. Recent studies suggest that this form of cardiotoxicity is the result of a progenitor cell disease. In this study we demonstrate that Cord Blood Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs exposed to low, sub-apoptotic doses of doxorubicin show a senescence phenotype characterized by increased SA-b-gal activity, decreased TRF2 and chromosomal abnormalities, enlarged cell shape, and disarrangement of F-actin stress fibers accompanied by impaired migratory ability. P16( INK4A localizes in the cytoplasm of doxorubicin-induced senescent EPCs and not in the nucleus as is the case in EPCs rendered senescent by different stimuli. This localization together with the presence of an arrest in G2, and not at the G1 phase boundary, which is what usually occurs in response to the cell cycle regulatory activity of p16(INK4A, suggests that doxorubicin-induced p16( INK4A does not regulate the cell cycle, even though its increase is closely associated with senescence. The effects of doxorubicin are the result of the activation of MAPKs p38 and JNK which act antagonistically. JNK attenuates the senescence, p16( INK4A expression and cytoskeleton remodeling that are induced by activated p38. We also found that conditioned medium from doxorubicin-induced senescent cardiomyocytes does not attract untreated EPCs, unlike conditioned medium from apoptotic cardiomyocytes which has a strong chemoattractant capacity. In conclusion, this study provides a better understanding of the senescence of doxorubicin-treated EPCs, which may be helpful in preventing and treating late onset cardiotoxicity.

  4. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility of Rice with Boro II Cytoplasm Is Caused by a Cytotoxic Peptide and Is Restored by Two Related PPR Motif Genes via Distinct Modes of mRNA Silencing[W

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    Wang, Zhonghua; Zou, Yanjiao; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hao; Su, Dihua; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Luo, Da; Long, Yunming; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nucleus-controlled fertility restoration are widespread plant reproductive features that provide useful tools to exploit heterosis in crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this kind of cytoplasmic–nuclear interaction remains unclear. Here, we show in rice (Oryza sativa) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79, is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B-atp6) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. Expression of orf79 in CMS lines and transgenic rice plants caused gametophytic male sterility. Immunoblot analysis showed that the ORF79 protein accumulates specifically in microspores. Two fertility restorer genes, Rf1a and Rf1b, were identified at the classical locus Rf-1 as members of a multigene cluster that encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. RF1A and RF1B are both targeted to mitochondria and can restore male fertility by blocking ORF79 production via endonucleolytic cleavage (RF1A) or degradation (RF1B) of dicistronic B-atp6/orf79 mRNA. In the presence of both restorers, RF1A was epistatic over RF1B in the mRNA processing. We have also shown that RF1A plays an additional role in promoting the editing of atp6 mRNAs, independent of its cleavage function. PMID:16489123

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) cytoplasmic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yuna; Zhao, Huadong; Hong, Dapeng; Yan, Liming; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of BRI1-associated kinase 1 from A. thaliana has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1) is a member of the plant receptor-like kinase (RLK) superfamily. BAK1 has been shown to initiate brassinosteroid (BR) signalling and innate immune responses in plants by forming receptor complexes with both brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) and flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2). To gain a better understanding of the structural details and the mechanism of action of the BAK1 kinase domain, recombinant BAK1 cytoplasmic domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. A 2.6 Å resolution data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal at 100 K. This crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.3, b = 75.6, c = 71.9 Å, β = 93.1°. Assuming the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å 3 Da −1

  6. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in cultured rat astrocytes induced by an organophosphorus agent requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Ichiro; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Nagao, Masataka; Iwasa, Mineo; Koyama, Hiroyoshi; Seko-Nakamura, Yoshimi; Monma-Ohtaki, Jun

    2003-01-01

    There are various toxic chemicals that cause cell death. However, in certain cases deleterious agents elicit various cellular responses prior to cell death. To determine the cellular mechanisms by which such cellular responses are induced is important, but sufficient attention has not been paid to this issue to date. In this study, we showed the characteristic effects of an organophosphorus (OP) agent, bis(pinacolyl methyl)phosphonate (BPMP), which we synthesized for the study of OP nerve agents, on cultured rat astrocytes. Morphologically, BPMP induced cytoplasmic vacuolation and stellation in the rat astrocytes. Cytoplasmic vacuolation is a cell pathological change observed, for example, in vacuolar degeneration, and stellation has been reported in astrocytic reactions against various stimuli. By pretreatment with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, stellation was inhibited, although vacuolation was not. Cell staining with a mitochondrion-selective dye indicated that the vacuolation probably occurs in the mitochondria that are swollen and vacuolatred in the center. Interestingly, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade inhibitor inhibited vacuolation and, to some extent, stellation. These results suggest that the ERK signaling cascade is important for the induction of mitochondrial vacuolation. We expect that a detailed study of these astrocytic reactions will provide us new perspectives regarding the variation and pathological significance of cell morphological changes, such as vacuolar degeneration, and also the mechanisms underlying various neurological disorders

  7. Development of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile IR24 and IR64 Using CW-CMS/Rf17 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriyama, Kinya; Kazama, Tomohiko

    2016-12-01

    A wild-abortive-type (WA) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been almost exclusively used for breeding three-line hybrid rice. Many indica cultivars are known to carry restorer genes for WA-CMS lines and cannot be used as maintainer lines. Especially elite indica cultivars IR24 and IR64 are known to be restorer lines for WA-CMS lines, and are used as male parents for hybrid seed production. If we develop CMS IR24 and CMS IR64, the combination of F1 pairs in hybrid rice breeding programs will be greatly broadened. For production of CMS lines and restorer lines of IR24 and IR64, we employed Chinese wild rice (CW)-type CMS/Restorer of fertility 17 (Rf17) system, in which fertility is restored by a single nuclear gene, Rf17. Successive backcrossing and marker-assisted selection of Rf17 succeeded to produce completely male sterile CMS lines and fully restored restorer lines of IR24 and IR64. CW-cytoplasm did not affect agronomic characteristics. Since IR64 is one of the most popular mega-varieties and used for breeding of many modern varieties, the CW-CMS line of IR64 will be useful for hybrid rice breeding.

  8. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-09-14

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes.

  9. Correlation of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and cyclin D1 overexpression during thyroid carcinogenesis around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirmanov, Serik; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Matsufuji, Reiko; Takamura, Noboru; Ishigaki, Katsu; Ito, Masahiro; Prouglo, Yuri; Yamashita, Shunichi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-06-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS), the Republic of Kazakhstan, has been contaminated by radioactive fallout. The alteration of oncogenic molecules in thyroid cancer around the SNTS was considered worthy of analysis because it presented the potential to elucidate the relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. This study aimed to analyze both beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expressions in thyroid carcinomas around the SNTS. We examined nine cases of chronic thyroiditis, eight cases of follicular adenomas, and 23 cases of papillary carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, all carcinomas displayed a strong cytosolic beta-catenin expression, while both chronic thyroiditis and follicular adenomas showed a significantly lower cytoplasmic beta-catenin (22.2% and 37.5%, respectively). No cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was evident in chronic thyroiditis. In contrast, 62.5% of follicular adenomas and 87.0% of papillary carcinoma showed cyclin D1 overexpression. Additionally, a strong correlation between cytoplasmic beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression was suggested in thyroid tumors. This study revealed a higher prevalence of both aberrant beta-catenin expression and cyclin D1 overexpression in papillary thyroid cancers around the SNTS than sporadic cases. The analysis of the alteration of the Wnt signaling-related molecules in thyroid cancer around the SNTS may be important to gain an insight into radiation-induced thyroid tumorigenesis.

  10. Stage-specific appearance of cytoplasmic microtubules around the surviving nuclei during the third prezygotic division of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Yuan, Jin-Qiang; Gao, Xin; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2012-12-01

    There are six micronuclear divisions during conjugation of Paramecium caudatum: three prezygotic and three postzygotic divisions. Four haploid nuclei are formed during the first two meiotic prezygotic divisions. Usually only one meiotic product is located in the paroral cone (PC) region at the completion of meiosis, which survives and divides mitotically to complete the third prezygotic division to yield a stationary and a migratory pronucleus. The remaining three located outside of the PC degenerate. The migratory pronuclei are then exchanged between two conjugants and fuse with the stationary pronuclei to form synkarya, which undergo three successive divisions (postzygotic divisions). However, little is known about the surviving mechanism of the PC nuclei. In the current study, stage-specific appearance of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) was indicated during the third prezygotic division by immunofluorescence labeling with anti-alpha tubulin antibodies surrounding the surviving nuclei, including the PC nuclei and the two types of prospective pronuclei. This suggested that cMTs were involved in the formation of a physical barrier, whose function may relate to sequestering and protecting the surviving nuclei from the major cytoplasm, where degeneration of extra-meiotic products occurs, another important nuclear event during the third prezygotic division.

  11. Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin α, karyopherin β, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

  12. Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Institute on Aging, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Chul, E-mail: scpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Institute on Aging, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin {alpha}, karyopherin {beta}, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

  13. Constitutively expressed Protocadherin-α regulates the coalescence and elimination of homotypic olfactory axons through its cytoplasmic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonoko eHasegawa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neuron (OSN axons coalesce into specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB according to their odorant receptor (OR expression. Several guidance molecules enhance the coalescence of homotypic OSN projections, in an OR-specific- and neural-activity-dependent manner. However, the mechanism by which homotypic OSN axons are organized into glomeruli is unsolved. We previously reported that the clustered protocadherin-α (Pcdh-α family of diverse cadherin-related molecules plays roles in the coalescence and elimination of homotypic OSN axons throughout development. Here we showed that the elimination of small ectopic homotypic glomeruli required the constitutive expression of a Pcdh-α isoform and Pcdh-α’s cytoplasmic region, but not OR specificity or neural activity. These results suggest that Pcdh-α proteins provide a cytoplasmic signal to regulate repulsive activity for homotypic OSN axons independently of OR expression and neural activity. The counterbalancing effect of Pcdh-α proteins for the axonal coalescence mechanisms mediated by other olfactory guidance molecules indicate a possible mechanism for the organization of homotypic OSN axons into glomeruli during development.

  14. Different reparability of the chromosomal and cytoplasmic deoxyribonucleic acid in Escherichia coli damaged by γ and ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petranovic, D.; Petranovic, M.; Nozinic, R.; Trgovcevic, Z.

    1978-01-01

    The relative efficiencies by which chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNAs are repaired in irradiated bacteria were assayed. Repair-proficient Escherichia coli C600 cells lysogenic for, or infected with, the thermoinducible phage lambdacI857 ind were exposed to γ or uv radiation and then tested for colony- and plaque-forming ability. The results show that the bacterial cell is about 5 times more sensitive to γ rays and about 1.5 times more sensitive to uv light, if compared to either (1) the prophage that is irradiated in the bacterial chromosome and, on heat induction, repaired in the cytoplasm or (2) the infecting phage that is irradiated and repaired in the cytoplasm. Since the bacterial DNA is about 80 times larger than the phage DNA, it is inferred that repair processes operating along the chromosomal DNA are one order of magnitude more efficient than those operating along the extrachromosomal DNA. This conclusion is reinforced by the fact that the absence of repair in the system Escherichia coli AB2480 uvrA recA-lambdacI857 ind red gives the expected ratio of 80/1 for the uv sensitivity of cells and that of intracellular phage

  15. Cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase cleaves N-glycans on a carboxypeptidase Y mutant during ERAD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Akira; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a pathway by which misfolded or improperly assembled proteins in the ER are directed to degradation. The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) is a deglycosylating enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from misfolded glycoproteins during the ERAD process. The mutant form of yeast carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) is an ERAD model substrate that has been extensively studied in yeast. While a delay in the degradation of CPY* in yeast cells lacking the cytoplasmic PNGase (Png1 in yeast) was evident, the in vivo action of PNGase on CPY* has not been detected. We constructed new ERAD substrates derived from CPY*, bearing epitope tags at both N- and C-termini and examined the degradation intermediates observed in yeast cells with compromised proteasome activity. The occurrence of the PNGase-mediated deglycosylation of intact CPY* and its degradation intermediates was evident. A major endoproteolytic reaction on CPY* appears to occur between amino acid 400 and 404. The findings reported herein clearly indicate that PNGase indeed releases N-glycans from CPY* during the ERAD process in vivo. This report implies that the PNGase-mediated deglycosylation during the ERAD process may occur more abundantly than currently envisaged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us3 Deletion Mutant is Infective Despite Impaired Capsid Translocation to the Cytoplasm

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    Peter Wild

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 capsids are assembled in the nucleus bud at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, acquiring envelope and tegument. In theory, these virions are de-enveloped by fusion of the envelope with the outer nuclear membrane and re-enveloped by Golgi membranes to become infective. Us3 enables the nucleus to cytoplasm capsid translocation. Nevertheless, Us3 is not essential for the production of infective progeny viruses. Determination of phenotype distribution by quantitative electron microscopy, and calculation per mean nuclear or cell volume revealed the following: (i The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids budding at the inner nuclear membrane was significantly higher than that of wild type HSV-1; (ii The mean number of R7041(∆US3 virions per mean cell volume was 2726, that of HSV-1 virions 1460 by 24 h post inoculation; (iii 98% of R7041(∆US3 virions were in the perinuclear space; (iv The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids in the cytoplasm, including those budding at Golgi membranes, was significantly reduced. Cell associated R7041(∆US3 yields were 2.37 × 108 and HSV-1 yields 1.57 × 108 PFU/mL by 24 h post inoculation. We thus conclude that R7041(∆US3 virions, which acquire envelope and tegument by budding at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, are infective.

  17. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic ''petite'' mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heude, M.; Chanet, R.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial proteins in the repair of UV-induced lethal and cytoplasmic genetic damages was studied in dark liquid-held exponential and stationary phase yeast cells. This was performed by using the specific inhibitors, erythromycin and chloramphenicol. It was shown that mitochondrial proteins are involved in the recovery and survival of UV-treated exponential phase cells, but not in the recovery of stationary phase cells. Mitochondrial proteins are partly implicated in the mechanisms leading to the restoration of the e + genotype in UV-irradiated dark liquid-held exponential phase cells. Here again, in stationary phase cells, mitochondrial enzymes do not seem to participate in the negative liquid-holding process for the e - induction, as shown by inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis of both mitochondrial and nuclear protein synthesis. When cells are grown in glycerol, the response after dark liquid-holding of the UV-treated cells in the different growth stages are similar to that found for glucose-grown cells. In other words, the fate of cytoplasmic genetic damage in particular is not correlated with the repressed or derepressed state of the mitochondria

  18. The Structure of the ZMYND8/Drebrin Complex Suggests a Cytoplasmic Sequestering Mechanism of ZMYND8 by Drebrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ningning; Li, Jianchao; Liu, Haiyang; Wan, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Mingjie

    2017-11-07

    Malfunctions of the actin binding protein Drebrin have been implicated in various human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairments, cancer, and digestive disorders, though with poorly understood mechanisms. The ADF-H domain of Drebrin does not contain actin binding and depolymerizing activity. Instead, it binds to a histone marker reader, ZMYND8. Here we present the high-resolution crystal structure of Drebrin ADF-H in complex with the ZMYND8 PHD-BROMO-PWWP tandem, elucidating the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific interaction of the two proteins. The structure reveals that the ZMYND8 PHD-BROMO-PWWP tandem forms a structural supramodule that is necessary for binding to Drebrin ADF-H. Drebrin ADF-H competes with modified histone for binding to ZMYND8. Binding of Drebrin can shuttle ZMYND8 from nucleus to cytoplasm in living cells. Taken together, our study uncovers a non-actin target binding mode for ADF-H domains, and suggests that Drebrin may regulate activities of epigenetic reader ZMYND8 via its cytoplasmic sequestration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of ER leak on resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ and receptor-mediated Ca2+ signalling in human macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhadi, Janice A; Fountain, Samuel J

    2017-06-03

    Mechanisms controlling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ homeostasis are important regulators of resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] cyto ) and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling. Here we investigate channels responsible for ER Ca 2+ leak in THP-1 macrophage and human primary macrophage. In the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ we employ ionomycin action at the plasma membrane to stimulate ER Ca 2+ leak. Under these conditions ionomycin elevates [Ca 2+ ] cyto revealing a Ca 2+ leak response which is abolished by thapsigargin. IP 3 receptors (Xestospongin C, 2-APB), ryanodine receptors (dantrolene), and translocon (anisomycin) inhibition facilitated ER Ca 2+ leak in model macrophage, with translocon inhibition also reducing resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . In primary macrophage, translocon inhibition blocks Ca 2+ leak but does not influence resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . We identify a role for translocon-mediated ER Ca 2+ leak in receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in both model and primary human macrophage, whereby the Ca 2+ response to ADP (P2Y receptor agonist) is augmented following anisomycin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate a role of ER Ca 2+ leak via the translocon in controlling resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in model macrophage and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in model macrophage and primary macrophage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Myc-nick: a cytoplasmic cleavage product of Myc that promotes alpha-tubulin acetylation and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Ngouenet, Celine; Eisenman, Robert N

    2010-08-06

    The Myc oncoprotein family comprises transcription factors that control multiple cellular functions and are widely involved in oncogenesis. Here we report the identification of Myc-nick, a cytoplasmic form of Myc generated by calpain-dependent proteolysis at lysine 298 of full-length Myc. Myc-nick retains conserved Myc box regions but lacks nuclear localization signals and the bHLHZ domain essential for heterodimerization with Max and DNA binding. Myc-nick induces alpha-tubulin acetylation and altered cell morphology by recruiting histone acetyltransferase GCN5 to microtubules. During muscle differentiation, while the levels of full-length Myc diminish, Myc-nick and acetylated alpha-tubulin levels are increased. Ectopic expression of Myc-nick accelerates myoblast fusion, triggers the expression of myogenic markers, and permits Myc-deficient fibroblasts to transdifferentiate in response to MyoD. We propose that the cleavage of Myc by calpain abrogates the transcriptional inhibition of differentiation by full-length Myc and generates Myc-nick, a driver of cytoplasmic reorganization and differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.