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Sample records for cysticercosis involving central

  1. Cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosa, A.; Dawood, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease in the world affecting the central nervous system. The article discusses the pathogenesis of cysticercosis as well as the pathological types of cysticercosis such as subcutaneous nodules, lingual nodules and orbital nodules. Cerebral cysticercosis is discussed in greater depth together with its clinical features. Attention is also given to the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis and diagnostic aids such as computerized tomography that can be used

  2. Cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosa, A.; Dawood, A.A. (Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Pediatrics and Child Health)

    1983-12-01

    Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease in the world affecting the central nervous system. The article discusses the pathogenesis of cysticercosis as well as the pathological types of cysticercosis such as subcutaneous nodules, lingual nodules and orbital nodules. Cerebral cysticercosis is discussed in greater depth together with its clinical features. Attention is also given to the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis and diagnostic aids such as computerized tomography that can be used.

  3. Seroepidemiologic survey of cysticercosis-taeniasis in four central highland districts of Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Lidwina; Ang, Agnes; Handali, Sukwan; Tsang, Victor C W

    2009-03-01

    Cysticercosis and taeniasis are known to be present in Papua, Indonesia. Several small studies have found a high prevalence of cysticercosis (23.5-56.9%) in the central highlands of Papua. A seroepidemiologic survey was carried out in four districts (Jayawijaya, Paniai, Pegunungan Bintang, and Puncak Jaya) of Papua. Anti-cysticercosis and anti-taeniasis antibodies were measured in 2,931 people using recombinant T24 and recombinant ES33 as a measure of cysticercosis and taeniasis exposures, respectively. Prevalence of cysticercosis-taeniasis is high in the Jayawijaya and Paniai districts (20.8% and 29.2% for cysticercosis and 7% and 9.6% for taeniasis, respectively) and lowest in the other two districts (Pegunungan Bintang and Puncak Jaya) (2% and 2% for cysticercosis and 1.7% and 10.7% for taeniasis, respectively). Our data show that the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis are unchanged from that reported nearly 35 years ago at the beginning of cysticercosis-taeniasis epidemics in Papua, Indonesia.

  4. Mapping occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and areas at risk of porcine cysticercosis in Central America and the Caribbean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Sithole, Fortune; Wang, Ziqi; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to map the occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis at national level within Central America and the Caribbean basin, and to map the distribution of porcine cysticercosis at first-level administrative subdivision level (department level) and the porcine population at risk. This zoonotic parasite is believed to be widely endemic across most of Latin America. However, there is little information readily available for Central America and the Caribbean basin. Taenia solium has been ranked the most important foodborne parasitic hazard globally and within endemic areas is a common cause of preventable epilepsy. We conducted a structured literature search in PubMed, supplemented and crossed-referenced with relevant academic databases, grey literature, and active searches in identified literature, to identify all records of T. solium presence in Central America and the Caribbean basin between 1986 and April 2017. To retrieve grey literature, government entities, researchers and relevant institutions across the region were contacted in an attempt to cover all countries and territories. Identified records containing data on porcine cysticercosis were geo-referenced to identify department level distribution and compared to modelled distributions of pigs reared under extensive production systems. We identified 51 records of T. solium at the national level, covering 13 countries and an additional three countries were included based on World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reports, giving a total of 16 countries out of 41 with evidence of the parasite's presence. Screening records for porcine cysticercosis data at the departmental level confirmed porcine cysticercosis presence in 11 departments across six countries (Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Venezuela). When comparing these results to areas where pigs were kept in extensive production systems and areas where no information on porcine cysticercosis exists, it is apparent

  5. Seroprevalence and awareness of porcine cysticercosis across different pig production systems in south-central Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderosoye Adenuga

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite most pigs being kept confined in pens rather than raised in free-roaming systems, porcine cysticercosis appears to be endemic in south-central Cambodia and is associated with smallholder production. Further investigation is needed to identify which Taenia species are causing infections among pigs, and how seroprevalence and zoonotic risk may vary across the country, to understand the risks to public health and assess where interventions might be needed.

  6. Lingual cysticercosis

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    A P Pichare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a disease caused by larval form of tapeworm. Cysticercus cellulose primarily develops in tissues of pigs. Infection of human tissues is unusual and affliction of the oral cavity is rare. We, herein, present a case of lingual cysticercosis without involvement of any other site. A 5-year-old male, non-vegetarian child presented with a painless, pearly white, solitary nodular swelling on posterior dorsal side of tongue since 3 months. Excision biopsy was done. Histopathology revealed cysticercous cellulose in tongue muscles.

  7. Spinal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, A.V.; Silva, S.H.F.

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cysticercosis is an extremely uncommon condition. We have examined four patients with complaints that resembled nervous root compression by disk herniation. Myelography was shown to be an efficient method to evaluate spinal involvement, that was characterized by findings of multiple filling defect images (cysts) plus signs of adhesive arachnoiditis. One cyst was found to be mobile. Because of the recent development of medical treatment, a quick and precise diagnosis is of high importance to determine the prognosis of this condition. (author)

  8. Cysticercosis of conus medullaris: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Neurocysticercosis" - involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the CNS. However, spinal involvement by neurocysticercosis is uncommon. Spinal intramedullary cysticercosis involving the conus medullaris is an uncommon clinical condition, which may mimic an intramedullary tumor and can lead to irreversible neurological deficits if untreated. Here, we report a 31-year-old male patient with cysticercosis in the conus medullaris of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined round intramedullary lesion at D12-L1 vertebral levels, which was homogeneously hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI with peripheral edema. Since the patient had progressive neurological deficits, surgery was performed to decompress the spinal cord. Histopathology examination of the removed lesion proved it to be cysticercosis. In this report, we also discuss the principles of diagnosis and treatment of intramedullary cysticercosis in combination with literature review.

  9. Cysticercosis. A modern day plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W J; Voge, M

    1985-08-01

    The authors describe the magnitude of the cysticercosis problem and describe the organism, the clinical features of the disease, the propensity of the organism for development in the central nervous system, pathologic considerations, clinical diagnosis, and treatment.

  10. Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Kungu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.

  11. Cerebral cysticercosis: a review of 42 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, M.A.; Costa, G.

    1992-01-01

    Forty-two cases of cysticercosis involving the central nervous system using computed tomography are reviewed. The types of involvement were classified according to an evolutionary phase of the larva and its tomographic appearance. Four main types were identified: Type I - seven patients - cysts of several sizes with discrete or no enhancement which correspond to young cysticerci; Type II - nine patients - cystic lesions with ring enhancement with dense walls representing the initial regressive phase of the parasite associated to an adjacent oedema; Type III - three patients - calcifications, mainly intraparenchymatous, presenting enhancement in the periphery without associated oedema; Type IV - two patients - calcifications with no oedema nor enhancement, signifying a residual lesion produced by the parasite. Multiple lesions were present in 26 cases and about 50% of all patients suffered combined forms of neuro cysticercosis. (author)

  12. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  13. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  14. Uncommon presentation of neuro- cysticercosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncommon presentation of neuro- cysticercosis. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The clinical presentation of NCC in children includes generalised and partial seizures with or without features of raised intracranial pressure.

  15. Seroprevalence of human cysticercosis in Jataí, Goiás state, Brazil

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    Kaliny Xavier da Guarda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Taenia solium cysticercosis affects millions of people worldwide and is considered a public health problem, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is complex and involves the analysis of epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging, and immunological host data. Neurocysticercosis is endemic in Brazil, and is related to the cause of death mainly in the Southeast, South, and Central-West regions. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis in inhabitants of the city of Jataí, Goiás, in the Central-West region of Brazil from April to August 2012. A total of 529 serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting IgG antibodies against T. solium larvae, and Western blotting was used for confirming the diagnosis through the recognition of at least two specific peptides from their serum antibodies. The 351/529 (66.3% reactive samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting confirmed the diagnosis in 73 samples that recognized at least two of the following peptides specific IgG antibodies for cysticercosis: 18, 24, 28–32, 39–42, 47–52, 64–68, and 70 kDa. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis was 13.8% (95% CI 5.9–21.7, demonstrating that the studied area is endemic to this disease. Keywords: Cysticercosis, Taenia solium, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Brazil

  16. Cysticercosis of masseter

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    B Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a cestodic paratise. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The most commonly infested body organs include subcutaneous tissues, brain and skeletal muscles. It is interesting to note that oral lesion of cysticercosis is a rare event. Here we report an isolated lesion of cysticercosis in the masseter muscle.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  18. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.

  19. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  2. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and

  3. Cysticercosis of the eye in south India - A case series

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    Kaliaperumal S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of patients with ocular cysticercosis in southern India. Methods: This study included 10 patients who were diagnosed to have ocular or adnexal cysticercosis over a period of one year in Pondicherry, India. The clinical presentation, results of investigation and treatment outcome of the cases were analysed retrospectively. Results: Age of these patients ranged from 12 to 55 years. Four presented with loss of vision, two with a swelling in the eyelid, one with proptosis, one with diplopia and two with conjunctival involvement. ELISA for cysticercus antibodies in serum was positive in all cases. Albendazole and prednisolone were given for the treatment of these cases. Two patients responded well to treatment and were completely cured of the disease. There was partial improvement in 6 cases. Surgery in the form of excision was performed in two cases following a course of medical therapy. There was no significant change in visual acuity in eyes with intraocular cysticercosis following treatment. Conclusion: Ultrasonography B scan and ELISA for anticysticercal antibodies help to establish the diagnosis of ocular cysticercosis. A combination of oral albendazole and corticosteroids is found to be effective in confirmed cases. Intraocular cysticercosis is associated with a poor prognosis for vision.

  4. Human cysticercosis and Indian scenario: a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Porcine cysticercosis is a successful experimental model for T. solium cysticercosis, ..... cysticercus antibodies in slum, rural and urban populations in and around .... World Health Organization 1983 Guidelines for Surveillance. Prevention and ...

  5. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  6. A case of cerebral cysticercosis detected by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomosugi, Tetsuzo; Gondo, Masazumi; Kanamaru, Reizo; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Mihara, Tadahiro

    1983-01-01

    Cysticercosis is well known as a parasitic infection that commonly affects the central nervous system. A 60-year-old man, who once lived in the mainland of China in the 1940s, was admitted to the hospital complaining of the right motor weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examinations revealed the right hemiparesis with increase of deep tendon reflexes and motor dysphasia. The skull x-ray films showed no abnormal finding, but many small fusiform calcifications were found in the x-ray films of soft tissues of the limbs. Brain CT demonstrated several small rounded and calcified high density areas and cystic low density areas in the parenchyma with a marked dilatation of the ventricular system. And a large cystic mass of the left fronto-parietal region compressed the body of the left lateral ventricle. After infusion of contrast medium, a small ring-enhanced density area in the frontal region was revealed. By a craniotomy, the large cyst, which had a bluish transparent wall, was totally extirpated. The nature of the cystic content was similar to that of the cerebro-spinal fluid. On histological examination of the cyst wall any scolex was not found, but papillary folds and typical three layers of cysticercosis were observed. The immunological testing for cysticercosis was positive on the serum of the patient. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of human cysticercosis. Wider applications of CT in clinical practice could discover more cases of cysticercosis in the recent situation of world wide communication of population. This report will be the first one of cysticercosis which mainly discussed about the findings of CT in the Japanese literature. (author)

  7. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

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    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  8. Screening, diagnosis and management of human cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis: technical recommendations by the COHEMI project study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Bonati, Maurizio; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Albonico, Marco; Requena-Méndez, Ana; Bisoffi, Zeno; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Hector H; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the central nervous system's localised form of cysticercosis, is considered to be the leading cause of epilepsy in the developing world. In Europe, the disease is mainly imported and affects both immigrants and travellers. However, autochthonous cases of cysticercosis in low-endemic countries could also originate from Taenia solium carriers (migrants or travellers) who acquired taeniasis overseas. Management of cysticercosis is a challenge for European healthcare providers as they are often hardly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. This study provides a summary of recommendations concerning screening, diagnosis and management of cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe drawn up by nine experts in migrant health and imported diseases with experience in cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases.

  10. Pulmonary and pleural cysticercosis: a case report; Cisticercose pulmonar pleural: relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, Marco Antonio; Toni, Xisto A. de; Meira, Lisiane A.; Goncalves, Nelson L.; Oliveira, Godofredo G. [Hospital Santa Isabel, Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Toni, Guilherme de [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1995-07-01

    The authors report a case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the lungs, pleura, brain and subcutaneous tissues. Plain chest X-rays and chest computed tomography showed multiple round ill defined nodular lesions scattered through the lungs and pleural surface, identified as cystic lesions by ultrasound. Calcified cysticerci were visualized in the subcutaneous tissues of the arms and thorax at the plain chest X-rays. Biopsy of subcutaneous nodes was performed, which results revealed cysticercosis. Brain CT demonstrated multiple calcified intraparenchymatous lesions, associated with cystic lesions, compatible with cysticercosis. Due to the rarity of the lung involvement by cysticercosis, an open lung biopsy was performed with partial resection of the lingula and two cystic lesions, which anatomo-pathological results revealed pleural and pulmonary cysticercosis. The pleural and pulmonary involvement is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease, usually due to heavy infestation of Taenia solium larvae. As a far as we know, we did not see clear illustration of proved lung and pleural cysticercosis fully documented in the world literature. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Coexistence of salivary gland cysticercosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Dipti; Khurana, Nita; Setia, Namrata

    2007-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the pork tapeworm larval stage, Cysticercus cellulosae. The majority of the cases present in ocular, cerebral, and subcutaneous locations. We report the presence of cysticercosis inside the submandibular gland in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the inferior alveolar ramus of the mandible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report documenting cysticercosis inside a salivary gland. A 65-year-old male presented with complaints of an ulcerative lesion on the inferior alveolar ramus present for 2 months. Histological examination revealed a keratinizing well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the alveolar margin and mandible. The histopathological examination of the submandibular gland revealed cysticercosis. This case emphasizes the importance of adequate sampling of all the tissues obtained for associated infectious disorders, more so in immunosuppressed patients, which will help the clinician to manage the case appropriately.

  12. Role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of intramuscular cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Orthopedics, Chandigarh (India); Friarage Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Northallerton (United Kingdom); Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Akkina, Narendranadh; Hampannavar, Aravind; Tahasildar, Naveen [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Orthopedics, Chandigarh (India); Limaye, Rajiv [Friarage Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Northallerton (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    Nonspecific clinical presentations often lead to misdiagnosis of focal cysticercal myositis. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis. Six patients with persistent post-traumatic isolated muscular swelling were treated with analgesic and antibiotics, but the swelling did not subside. Radiographs showed soft tissue swelling with no bony abnormalities. Laboratory markers were inconclusive. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed typical features of intramuscular cysticercosis. Clinical, radiological, and fundoscopic evaluation of brain and eyes could not isolate any cysticercosis focus in these organs. Patients were treated with 3 weeks albendazole therapy. The identifying sonographic features of intramuscular cysticercosis, as evident from this case series, included an intramuscular elliptical or oval anechoic lesion with echogenic intralesional focus likely to be scolex. Magnetic resonance images showed orientation of the cyst along the direction of muscle fibers with T2W hyperintense signal and post-contrast perilesional enhancement. All patients responded to medical treatment. Cysticercosis may manifest as isolated muscular swelling without neurological or ocular involvement. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical condition to avoid misdiagnosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are good diagnostic aids to establish soft tissue cysticercosis. (orig.)

  13. Role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of intramuscular cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Akkina, Narendranadh; Hampannavar, Aravind; Tahasildar, Naveen; Limaye, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Nonspecific clinical presentations often lead to misdiagnosis of focal cysticercal myositis. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis. Six patients with persistent post-traumatic isolated muscular swelling were treated with analgesic and antibiotics, but the swelling did not subside. Radiographs showed soft tissue swelling with no bony abnormalities. Laboratory markers were inconclusive. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed typical features of intramuscular cysticercosis. Clinical, radiological, and fundoscopic evaluation of brain and eyes could not isolate any cysticercosis focus in these organs. Patients were treated with 3 weeks albendazole therapy. The identifying sonographic features of intramuscular cysticercosis, as evident from this case series, included an intramuscular elliptical or oval anechoic lesion with echogenic intralesional focus likely to be scolex. Magnetic resonance images showed orientation of the cyst along the direction of muscle fibers with T2W hyperintense signal and post-contrast perilesional enhancement. All patients responded to medical treatment. Cysticercosis may manifest as isolated muscular swelling without neurological or ocular involvement. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical condition to avoid misdiagnosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are good diagnostic aids to establish soft tissue cysticercosis. (orig.)

  14. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  15. Two cases of intracerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Kitaro; Inui, Shoji; Hiramatsu, Ken-ichiro; Okuchi, Kazuo; Minami, Shigenori; Araki, Kouji.

    1986-01-01

    We report 2 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis. One was followed up by CT with preservative treatment, and the other, treated surgically. Case 1: A 60-year-old man who had lived in Korea until the age of 12 and who had often eaten raw pork. He had been diagnosed as having cysticercosis after the excision of facial and somatic nodules. On January 17, 1980, he visited our clinic first with a complaint of generalized convulsions. CT revealed multiple low-density areas. For the subsequent 4 years, the patient was followed-up by CT. Meanwhile, the cyst became large and was calcified; in addition, brain atrophy progressed, and a new lesion of the cyst appeared. Case 2: A 50-year-old man who had also lived in Korea and who had also eaten raw pork often. He had been diagnosed as having ''cestodiasis'' in a gastro-intestinal hospital 7 or 8 years before. He visited our clinic because of sensory aphasia which developed on January 15, 1980. CT disclosed multiple low-density areas and a calcification of the left cerebellar hemisphere. Ring enhancement was also found on enhanced CT. The patient was then surgically treated. The excised specimen contained a three-layer structure characteristic of cysticercosis. The immunoelectrophoresis of the cyst fluid gave a positive result for the disease. Postoperatively, the symptoms improved. Intracerebral cysticercosis is a very rare disease in Japan. Its incidence, however, is likely to increase on account of the development of transportation. For this reason, and because of the necessity to differentiate it from a brain tumor or abscess on CT, it seems that this disease is of concern. (author)

  16. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 .... with a high power 90 mm circular coil, capable of generating. 2 T maximum field ..... advanced glycation end products, oxidative damage and microvascular ...

  17. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    -only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....

  18. Challenges for control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroso, Thomas; Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis has been reported from several provinces of Indonesia: Papua (=former Irian Jaya), Bali, North Sumatra, East Nusa Tenggara, South East Sulawesi, Lampung, North Sulawesi, Jakarta, West Kalimantan, and East Java. The highest level of endemicity of taeniasis/cysticercosis has been found in Papua. Recent surveys in Jayawijaya District of Papua in 2000 and 2001 showed that 5 of 58 local people (8.6%) harbored the adult tapeworm, Taenia solium, whereas 44 of 96 people (45.8%), 50 of 71 pigs (70.4%), and 7 of 64 local dogs (10.9%) were seropositive for T. solium cysticercosis. Current surveys in Bali and Samosir District, North Sumatra during 2002-2005 revealed that Taenia saginata taeniasis has increased in incidence whereas T. solium cysticercosis is now rather rare compared to one-two decades ago in Bali. Taenia asiatica taeniasis is still common in Samosir District. Data from other provinces of Indonesia are very limited or unavailable. Control of these diseases is not a priority in the health or veterinary services, neither at central or local government levels. However, limited efforts toward control of the diseases have been implemented such as training of health personnel, community education on disease prevention, and provision of anthelminthics. A working group for control of the disease in Indonesia and an international collaboration have been established among Ministry of Health, Indonesia; University of Indonesia; and Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan since 1996. Future goals include implementation of active case finding (active surveillance) and treatment of tapeworm carriers, sustainable public health education, establishment of a system to check the quality of beef/pork and determine the distribution of infected animals and strengthening of laboratory capacity. Efforts to motivate provinces and districts should be implemented in developing the strategic plan to control of the disease. Given the considerable differences in

  19. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atin; Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Choudhary, Anita; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Gulati, Sheffali [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2010-02-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

  20. Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which was diagnosed with the help of high resolution ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed conservatively using oral antiparasitic medication. Here, in this case report, we are emphasizing the importance of imaging modalities in diagnosing space infection and cysticercosis.

  1. Muscular cysticercosis: Case report and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simoes; Fiorio, Ulysses Ferreira; Clemente, Marcel Andreazza, E-mail: neideolmo@yahoo.com.br [Clinica Mult Imagem, Santos, SP (Brazil); Bastos, Eder Amaral [Universidade Metropolitana de Santos (UNIMES), Santos, SP (Brazil); Mendes, Gustavo Gomes [AC Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a worm of the Cestoda class. The most prevalent form affects the nervous system. This case report is from a 78-year old female patient evaluated at Clinica Mult Imagem, in the city of Santos, Brazil, who presented a form of the disease that differed from the classic neurocysticercosis, in this case muscular cysticercosis. This and other forms of manifestation justify further studies to ensure adequate recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this parasitic disease. (author)

  2. The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahalkar, M.D.; Shetty, D.D.; Kelkar, A.B.; Kelkar, A.A.; Kinare, A.S.; Ambardekar, S.T

    2000-09-01

    Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

  3. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Mwape, Evans Kabemba

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with significant economic and public health impacts. Control measures can be broadly grouped into community health education, improvements in hygiene and sanitary conditions, proper meat handling at household and community...... or transmission. A feasible strategy to combat T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis would include a combination of approaches focussing on both human (health education and treatment) and animal host (management, treatment and vaccination), which can vary for different communities and different geographical locations...

  4. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  5. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers

  6. Development and evaluation of porcine cysticercosis QuickELISA in Triturus EIA analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Silva-Ibanez, Maria; Kovalenko, Victor A; Levin, Andrew E; Gonzalez, Armando E; Roberts, Jacquelin M; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Hancock, Kathy; Tsang, Victor C W

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three diagnostic antigens (recombinant GP50, recombinant T24H, and synthetic Ts18var1) for cysticercosis and found that all three performed well in detecting cysticercosis in humans and pigs in several assay formats. These antigens were adapted to a new antibody detection format (QuickELISA). With one single incubation step which involves all reactants except the enzyme substrate, the QuickELISA is particularly suited for automation. We formatted the QuickELISA for the Triturus EIA analyzer for testing large numbers of samples. We found that in QuickELISA formats rGP50 and rT24H have better sensitivity and specificity than sTs18var1 for detecting porcine cysticercosis.

  7. MR Imaging in intramedullary cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, H.; Patwardhan, V.; Patankar, T.; Prasad, S. [Dept. of Radiology, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai (India); Shah, J.; Patkar, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Dr. Balabhai Nanavati Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai (India); Castillo, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of North Carolina (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Although intramedullary spinal cord cysticercosis (IMC) is uncommon, its presence is being increasingly recognised by magnetic resonance imaging. We studied six patients from an endemic region and present the MRI features and clinical correlation of IMC. Six patients who presented with para- or quadriplegia were studied by contrast enhanced spinal MRI. Prompted by the spinal lesions, all patients underwent brain MRI. Clinical data and laboratory studies were reviewed in all patients. Definite diagnosis was established in the form of response to drug therapy (n=4) and histopathology (n=2). Follow-up MRI studies of spine and brain were obtained in four patients 2 months after they started medical treatment, regardless of surgery. Five patients showed fusiform and focal enlargement of the spinal cord (cervical 2, thoracic 3). Well-defined cysts with a slightly hyperintense mural nodule were identified in five patients in T1-weighted images (T1WI). All cysts were hyperintense on T2WI and merged with the surrounding oedema. Oedema extended one to three vertebral levels above or below the cyst. Post-contrast T1WI showed well-defined, ring enhancing lesions with smooth walls in all patients. Symptoms in all patients correlated with the level of the lesions. Brain studies demonstrated lesions in just two patients. Histopathological confirmation was obtained in two patients. Follow-up spinal MRI was normal in two patients, following 2 months of treatment while residual and smaller lesions were seen in two patients. Two patients were asymptomatic and denied follow-up MRI. MRI of spinal cysticercosis were typical of and similar to those seen in cerebral lesions in our patients and corresponded to the level of symptoms. All cysts were surrounded by oedema. Two of four patients showed residual lesions after 2 months of therapy and 33% of patients showed concomitant intracranial lesions. (orig.)

  8. MR Imaging in intramedullary cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, H.; Patwardhan, V.; Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Shah, J.; Patkar, D.; Castillo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Although intramedullary spinal cord cysticercosis (IMC) is uncommon, its presence is being increasingly recognised by magnetic resonance imaging. We studied six patients from an endemic region and present the MRI features and clinical correlation of IMC. Six patients who presented with para- or quadriplegia were studied by contrast enhanced spinal MRI. Prompted by the spinal lesions, all patients underwent brain MRI. Clinical data and laboratory studies were reviewed in all patients. Definite diagnosis was established in the form of response to drug therapy (n=4) and histopathology (n=2). Follow-up MRI studies of spine and brain were obtained in four patients 2 months after they started medical treatment, regardless of surgery. Five patients showed fusiform and focal enlargement of the spinal cord (cervical 2, thoracic 3). Well-defined cysts with a slightly hyperintense mural nodule were identified in five patients in T1-weighted images (T1WI). All cysts were hyperintense on T2WI and merged with the surrounding oedema. Oedema extended one to three vertebral levels above or below the cyst. Post-contrast T1WI showed well-defined, ring enhancing lesions with smooth walls in all patients. Symptoms in all patients correlated with the level of the lesions. Brain studies demonstrated lesions in just two patients. Histopathological confirmation was obtained in two patients. Follow-up spinal MRI was normal in two patients, following 2 months of treatment while residual and smaller lesions were seen in two patients. Two patients were asymptomatic and denied follow-up MRI. MRI of spinal cysticercosis were typical of and similar to those seen in cerebral lesions in our patients and corresponded to the level of symptoms. All cysts were surrounded by oedema. Two of four patients showed residual lesions after 2 months of therapy and 33% of patients showed concomitant intracranial lesions. (orig.)

  9. Central localization of plasticity involved in appetitive conditioning in Lymnaea

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Volko A.; Styles, Benjamin J.; Ireland, Julie S.; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    Learning to associate a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) results in changes in the processing of CS information. Here, we address directly the question whether chemical appetitive conditioning of Lymnaea feeding behavior involves changes in the peripheral and/or central processing of the CS by using extracellular recording techniques to monitor neuronal activity at two stages of the sensory processing pathway. Our data show that appetitive conditioning does not affect signific...

  10. Cerebellar cysticercosis caused by larval Taenia crassiceps tapeworm in immunocompetent woman, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela; Holzmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing.

  11. Central Banks' Involvement in Encouraging Economic Education and Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin APOSTOAIE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, economic education plays a vital role in the future health of world economy and enables citizens to efficiently participate in the society in which they live. The economic literacy of citizens is not only the problem of state authorities, but it is also a common challenge and responsibility for many public institutions and non-profit organizations. Key players among these institutions are central banks that invest significant resources in educating the public to achieve economic efficiency, a good conduct of monetary policy and welfare. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the involvement of more-and-more central banks in fostering economic education and literacy, not before clarifying some key concepts and highlighting the importance of the subject in our society.

  12. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  13. Central Lesions With Selective Semicircular Canal Involvement Mimicking Bilateral Vestibulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP, which is due to peripheral lesions, may selectively involve certain semicircular canal (SCC. Recent eye movement recordings with search coil and video head impulse test (HIT have provided insight in central lesions that can cause bilateral and selective SCC deficit mimicking BVP. Since neurological signs or ocular motor deficits maybe subtle or absent, it is critical to recognize central lesions correctly since there is prognostic and treatment implication. Acute floccular lesions cause bilateral horizontal SCC (HC impairment while leaving vertical SCC function unaffected. Vestibular nuclear lesions affect bilateral HC and posterior SCC (PC function, but anterior SCC (AC function is spared. When both eyes are recorded, medial longitudinal fasciculus lesions cause horizontal dysconjugacy in HC function and catch-up saccades, as well as selective deficiency of PC over AC function. Combined peripheral and central lesions may be difficult to distinguish from BVP. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery stroke causes two types of deficits: 1. ipsilateral pan-SCC deficits and contralateral HC deficit and 2. bilateral HC deficit with vertical SCC sparing. Metabolic disorders such as Wernicke encephalopathy characteristically involve HC but not AC or PC function. Gaucher disease causes uniform loss of all SCC function but with minimal horizontal catch-up saccades. Genetic cerebellar ataxias and cerebellar-ataxia neuropathy vestibular areflexia syndrome typically do not spare AC function. While video HIT does not replace the gold-standard, search coil HIT, clinicians are now able to rapidly and accurately identify specific pattern of SCC deficits, which can aid differentiation of central lesions from BVP.

  14. Involvement of Astrocytes in Mediating the Central Effects of Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frago, Laura M.; Chowen, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Although astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned about their molecular and functional features. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones and metabolic factors, including the appetite-promoting hormone ghrelin. The metabolic effects of ghrelin are largely opposite to those of leptin, as it stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure. Ghrelin is also involved in glucose-sensing and glucose homeostasis. The widespread expression of the ghrelin receptor in the central nervous system suggests that this hormone is not only involved in metabolism, but also in other essential functions in the brain. In fact, ghrelin has been shown to promote cell survival and neuroprotection, with some studies exploring the use of ghrelin as a therapeutic agent against metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we highlight the possible role of glial cells as mediators of ghrelin’s actions within the brain. PMID:28257088

  15. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  16. Muscular cysticercosis: Case report and imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simões Olmo

    Full Text Available Summary Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a worm of the Cestoda class. The most prevalent form affects the nervous system. This case report is from a 78-year-old female patient evaluated at Clínica Mult Imagem, in the city of Santos, Brazil, who presented a form of the disease that differed from the classic neurocysticercosis, in this case muscular cysticercosis. This and other forms of manifestation justify further studies to ensure adequate recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this parasitic disease.

  17. Hypertensive Encephalopathy: Isolated Pons Involvement Mimicking Central Pontine Myelinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamanagatti, S.; Subramanian, S. [India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2006-09-15

    MRI of the brain was performed, and it demonstrated an isolated high signal on the T2 weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences that involved only the central pons with sparing the periphery. There was no restricted diffusion on diffusion weighted imaging. The differential diagnosis included posterior reversible syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis; however, the blood sodium on admission was normal. The pathogenesis of HE is that the auto-regulatory mechanisms that control the cerebral blood flow are exceeded, resulting in hyper-perfusion. The consequent over-distension of the cerebral vessels, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier and ultimately, the extravasation of fluid into the interstitium all cause vasogenic edema. In most cases, the changes of hypertensive encephalopathy represent reversible vasogenic edema, which can be seen on T2-weighted images, and restricted diffusion is not seen on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Hypertensive encephalopathy that manifests as a reversible increased signal isolated to the pons on T2-weighted images is extremely uncommon. The differential diagnosis for such pontine T2 hyperintensity includes pontine glioma, ischemic and radiation changes (generally irreversible conditions), as well as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and rhomb-encephalitis. In CPM electrolyte imbalances provide a clue for the diagnosis, where as for glioma, there will be an expansion and mass effect. In conclusion, clinical recognition of brainstem HE may be difficult. The features of a lack of correlation between the severity of the radiological abnormality and the clinical status, combined with the rapid resolution following antihypertensive treatment, should suggest the diagnosis. It is important for the radiologist to be familiar with the imaging abnormalities of this life

  18. Hypertensive Encephalopathy: Isolated Pons Involvement Mimicking Central Pontine Myelinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamanagatti, S.; Subramanian, S.

    2006-01-01

    MRI of the brain was performed, and it demonstrated an isolated high signal on the T2 weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences that involved only the central pons with sparing the periphery. There was no restricted diffusion on diffusion weighted imaging. The differential diagnosis included posterior reversible syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis; however, the blood sodium on admission was normal. The pathogenesis of HE is that the auto-regulatory mechanisms that control the cerebral blood flow are exceeded, resulting in hyper-perfusion. The consequent over-distension of the cerebral vessels, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier and ultimately, the extravasation of fluid into the interstitium all cause vasogenic edema. In most cases, the changes of hypertensive encephalopathy represent reversible vasogenic edema, which can be seen on T2-weighted images, and restricted diffusion is not seen on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Hypertensive encephalopathy that manifests as a reversible increased signal isolated to the pons on T2-weighted images is extremely uncommon. The differential diagnosis for such pontine T2 hyperintensity includes pontine glioma, ischemic and radiation changes (generally irreversible conditions), as well as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and rhomb-encephalitis. In CPM electrolyte imbalances provide a clue for the diagnosis, where as for glioma, there will be an expansion and mass effect. In conclusion, clinical recognition of brainstem HE may be difficult. The features of a lack of correlation between the severity of the radiological abnormality and the clinical status, combined with the rapid resolution following antihypertensive treatment, should suggest the diagnosis. It is important for the radiologist to be familiar with the imaging abnormalities of this life

  19. [Central Nervous Involvement in Patients with Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common muscular dystrophy in the Japanese population, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the fukutin (FKTN) gene. The main features of FCMD are a combination of infantile-onset hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, eye abnormalities and central nervous system involvement with mental retardation and seizures associated with cortical migration defects. The FKTN gene product is thought to be necessary for maintaining migrating neurons in an immature state during migration, and for supporting migration via α-dystroglycan in the central nervous system. Typical magnetic resonance imaging findings in FCMD patients are cobblestone lissencephaly and cerebellar cystic lesions. White matter abnormalities with hyperintensity on T(2)-weighted images are seen especially in younger patients and those with severe phenotypes. Most FCMD patients are mentally retarded and the level is moderate to severe, with IQs ranging from 30 to 50. In our recent study, 62% of patients developed seizures. Among them, 71% had only febrile seizures, 6% had afebrile seizures from the onset, and 22% developed afebrile seizures following febrile seizures. Most patients had seizures that were controllable with just 1 type of antiepileptic drug, but 18% had intractable seizures that must be treated with 3 medications.

  20. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of experimentally (n =30) and naturally ... sensitive than meat inspection in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, detecting .... The second group of 15 calves was ... ined for the presence of C. bovis. .... variable and pour ' ..... appropriate intermediate host is dependent on:- the state.

  1. Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikagul, Jitra; Dekumyoy, Paron; Anantaphruti, Malinee T

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis is one of the major food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand. During the years 1957-1997, the prevalence was low in most parts of the country. Recent (2000-2005) country prevalence was lower than 1%. A high prevalence (5.9%) was found among 1450 villagers from 30 villages in the North, and among 1233 stool samples from 19 provinces in the Northeast (2.8%). Taenia saginata was the dominant species. Cysticercosis in Thailand is somewhat under-reported/recorded. During the period 1965-2005, diagnosis was based on techniques other than serodiagnosis, giving a total of cysticercosis cases of less than 500. However, an immunoblot technique using delipidized cyst antigen showed 314 positive cases out of 754 samples tested in 2000-2005. Reports of neurocysticercosis appeared more often than cutaneous cysticercosis. A total of 24 cases of echinococcosis, mostly hydatid cysts (only 2 cases of alveolar cysts), were recorded during 1936-2005. These records included 3 cases of foreigners seeking surgery in hospitals in Bangkok. Most Thai patients were migrant workers from the Middle East, and only a few cases were indigenous. The prevalence of cysticercosis and echinococcosis is increasing resulting from sensitive modern diagnostic tests. Taeniasis will persist in Thailand as the consumption of raw/half-cooked meat dishes is still a normal practice for Thai people.

  2. Sequential Expression of the Neuropeptides Substance P and Somatostatin in Granulomas Associated with Murine Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Prema; White, A. Clinton; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Thornby, John; David, Elliott; Weinstock, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system caused by Taenia solium, is a leading cause of seizures. Seizures associated with neurocysticercosis are caused mainly by the host inflammatory responses to dying parasites in the brain parenchyma. We previously demonstrated sequential expression of Th1 cytokines in early-stage granulomas, followed by expression of Th2 cytokines in later-stage granulomas in murine cysticercosis. However, the mechanism leading to thi...

  3. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  4. Mitochondrial DNA diagnosis for taeniasis and cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello Otake; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans on the basis of mitochondrial DNA analysis was reviewed. Development and application of three different methods, including restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, base excision sequence scanning thymine-base analysis and multiplex PCR, were described. Moreover, molecular diagnosis of cysticerci found in specimens submitted for histopathology and the molecular detection of taeniasis using copro-DNA were discussed.

  5. Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, Toni; Sudewi, A A Raka; Swastika, I Kadek; Sutisna, Putu; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Yulfi, Hemma; Darlan, Dewi Masyithah; Kapti, I Nengah; Samaan, Gina; Sato, Marcello Otake; Okamoto, Munehiro; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2011-07-01

    Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are found in humans in Bali, Indonesia. During a field survey of 660 people in Bali from 2002-2009 of taeniasis/cysticercosis cases using mitochondrial DNA confirmation of the species, we detected 80 cases of T. saginata taeniasis, 2 dual T. saginata/T. solium infections with T. solium metacestodes in the brain and 12 neurocysticercosis (NCC) cases at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. Although the prevalence of NCC in Bali is low, sporadic cases are still present. There is no Taenia asiatica in Bali. We summarize here the field survey findings of taeniasis, including 1 dual infection with taeniasis and cysticercosis in 2007, and the reason why there are no T. asiatica cases and we describe 3 NCC cases admitted to Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali in 2004. Diagnosis was based on anamnesis, clinical examination, including CT Scan, histopathological, serological and mitochondrial DNA examinations. In order to prevent unexpected symptomatic NCC after treatment with praziquantel, we recommend introducing a rapid test to confirm taeniasis carriers and cysticercosis cases as a tool for real time diagnosis.

  6. Cysticercosis in cattle and its public health implications in Mekelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    animals highlights the public health significance of this infection. Key words: Cysticercosis, Cysticercus bovis, occurrence, taeniasis, Taenia saginata,. Introduction. Bovine cysticercosis is the infection of the cattle caused by Cysticercus bovis and consumption of the raw or undercooked meat results in human taeniasis. Also ...

  7. Healthy pigs for healthy people. A cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Saarnak, C., M. V. Johansen, H. Mejer, C. Trevisan, and U. C. Braae Porcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis...

  8. The Vicious Worm - a cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    Porcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis implicates significant economic losses, both in pig production...

  9. Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman

  10. Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman

  11. Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laranjo-González, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    and the UK. Human cysticercosis cases were reported in all western European countries except for Iceland, with the highest number originating from Portugal and Spain. Most human cysticercosis cases were suspected to have acquired the infection outside western Europe. Cases of T. solium in pigs were found...

  12. Cerebral cysticercosis. A case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuch, P.S.; Saffer, D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Neurology)

    1984-02-11

    Two cases of histologically proven cerebral cysticercosis are presented. In both cases subcutaneous tissue nodules, a rare feature, were present. Several disease patterns are apparent - meningeal, parenchymatous and ventricular, spinal cord lesions and mixed patterns. Epilepsy is by far the major presenting symptom of cysticercosis, which in turn plays a significant role in the causation of adult-onset epilepsy in Blacks. Despite its drawbacks, the haemag-glutination inhibition test remains the most satisfactory serological method at present available for the diagnosis of cysticercosis; it is positive in up to 85% of cases of proven cysticercosis. With the advent of computed tomography many cases of unsuspected cysticercosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) are being discovered.

  13. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok; Ju, Kyung Bin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI.

  14. CENTRAL AMYGDALOID INVOLVEMENT IN NEUROENDOCRINE CORRELATES OF CONDITIONED STRESS RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in comparison with sham lesions on neuroendocrine responses during conditioned emotional stress in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA, made either before or after the

  15. Cysticercosis/taeniasis in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2004-01-01

    Three taeniid tapeworms infect humans in Asia and the Pacific: Taenia solim, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica. Although there is continuing debate about the definition of a new species, phylogenetic analyses of these parasites have provided multiple lines of evidence that T. asiatica is an independent species and the sister species of T. saginata. Here we review briefly the morphology, pathology, molecular biology, distribution and control options of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and comment on the potential role which dogs may play in the transmission of T. solium. Special attention is focused on Indonesia: taeniasis caused by T. asiatica in North Sumatra, taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium and taeniasis of T. saginata in Bali, and taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). Issues relating to the spread of taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by T. solium in Papua New Guinea are highlighted, since serological evidence suggests that cysticercosis occurs among the local residents. The use of modern techniques for detection of taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in humans, pigs and dogs, with the possible adoption of new control measures will provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and lead to improved control of zoonotic and simultaneously meat-borne disease transmission.

  16. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, I; Rivera, J T; Garcia, H H

    2016-03-01

    Taenia solium infections (taeniasis/cysticercosis) are a major scourge to most developing countries. Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human nervous system by the cystic larvae of this parasite, has a protean array of clinical manifestations varying from entirely asymptomatic infections to aggressive, lethal courses. The diversity of clinical manifestations reflects a series of contributing factors which include the number, size and location of the invading parasites, and particularly the inflammatory response of the host. This manuscript reviews the different presentations of T. solium infections in the human host with a focus on the mechanisms or processes responsible for their clinical expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Conservative restoration of a traumatically involved central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Joyce

    2012-04-01

    The use of a direct composite material known for excellent polishability, polish retention, and wear resistance is described in this case of a fractured central incisor restoration. The method used enabled the clinician to conserve tooth structure and maintain full control of the outcome while creating an esthetically imperceptible, reliable, and durable restoration for a young male patient. Emphasized in this case are the techniques of layering, contouring, and polishing of a nanocomposite used to maximize esthetics and meet patient expectations. To further ensure imperceptibility, the author recommends first facilitating color shade selection for both body and dentin-especially in two-shade or multiple-shade restorations-by placing the composite in its planned area of the restoration and curing it in its proper thickness to allow a preview and recipe map.

  19. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: The best way forward for sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Mwape, K E; Trevisan, C; Braae, U C; Magnussen, P; Thys, S; Bulaya, C; Phiri, I K; Sikasunge, C S; Makungu, C; Afonso, S; Nicolau, Q; Johansen, M V

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with significant economic and public health impacts. Control measures can be broadly grouped into community health education, improvements in hygiene and sanitary conditions, proper meat handling at household and community level, improved standards of meat inspection, pig management, treatment of individual patients and possibly human populations, and treatment and/or vaccination of porcine populations. This manuscript looks critically into currently existing control options and provides suggestions on which (combination of) tools would be most effective in the control of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Field data and disease transmission simulations suggest that implementation of a single intervention control strategy will not lead to a satisfactory reduction of disease morbidity or transmission. A feasible strategy to combat T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis would include a combination of approaches focussing on both human (health education and treatment) and animal host (management, treatment and vaccination), which can vary for different communities and different geographical locations. Selection of the specific strategy depends on cost-effectiveness analyses based on solid field data, currently unavailable, though urgently needed; as well as on health priorities and resources of the country. A One Health approach involving medical, veterinary, environmental and social sectors is essential for T. solium to be controlled and eventually eliminated. Finally the success of any intervention is largely dependent on the level of societal and political acceptance, commitment and engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of cysticercosis in swine slaughtered under inspection at the city of Imperatriz from 2000 to 2010, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carvalho Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intake of meat, beef and pork, contaminated with Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, respectively, is responsible for taeniasis, whose man is the only definitive host. Cysticercosis, an infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium is a parasitic disease that often affects the central nervous system. The objective was to verify the occurrence of cysticercosis in swine slaughtered from 2000 to 2010, the Imperatriz Municipal Abattoir, where animals are originated from areas of Southwest and southern Maranhão, supervised by the Municipal Inspection Service (MIS. We collected the files relating to reports of condemed carcass during these years and through the analysis of these data. Statistics was done for the period. The result of this work shows a satisfactory reduction in condemed rates for cysticercosis in the Imperatriz Municipal Slaughterhouse. These data demonstrate that contamination by larvae of swine cysticercosis was low, and also showed that for the last two years it was no case notification although there may be conditions for the perpetuation of the complex life cycle of taeniasis / cysticercosis.

  1. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estanol, B.; Kleriga, E.; Loyo, M.; Mateos, H.; Lombardo, L.; Gordon, F.; Saguchi, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cerebral cysticercosis are a highly heterogeneous group. The mechanisms of hydrocephalus in these patients are multiple. Intraventricular cysts may be found in the 3rd and 4th ventricles, the sylvian aqueduct, and the foramen of Monro. Intraventricular cysts can be suspected when the 3rd and 4th ventricles or aqueduct remain enlarged despite shunting. Intraventricular contrast medium demonstrates the presence of the parasites. The intraventricular cysts should be removed surgically. Hydrocephalus due to cisternal cysticercosis can be diagnosed by isotope cisternography. These patients should receive shunts, but the long term prognosis is probably poor. Guidelines for the management of hydrocephalus due to cysticercosis are suggested

  2. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanol, B.; Kleriga, E.; Loyo, M.; Mateos, H.; Lombardo, L.; Gordon, F.; Saguchi, A.F.

    1983-08-01

    Patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cerebral cysticercosis are a highly heterogeneous group. The mechanisms of hydrocephalus in these patients are multiple. Intraventricular cysts may be found in the 3rd and 4th ventricles, the sylvian aqueduct, and the foramen of Monro. Intraventricular cysts can be suspected when the 3rd and 4th ventricles or aqueduct remain enlarged despite shunting. Intraventricular contrast medium demonstrates the presence of the parasites. The intraventricular cysts should be removed surgically. Hydrocephalus due to cisternal cysticercosis can be diagnosed by isotope cisternography. These patients should receive shunts, but the long term prognosis is probably poor. Guidelines for the management of hydrocephalus due to cysticercosis are suggested.

  3. [Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus - diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka, Magdalena

    Nervous system involvement in lupus belongs to its severe complications and significantly impacts its prognosis. Neuropsychiatric lupus includes 19 disease manifestations concerning both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper presents clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in lupus. It reviews its epidemiology, risk factors and principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  4. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty......Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...

  5. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Katou, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Chiba, Jun

    1982-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant. (J.P.N.)

  6. Epidemiology of taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Peruvian village. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, F; Garcia, H H; Gilman, R H; Gonzales, A E; Castro, M; Tsang, V C; Pilcher, J B; Vasquez, L E; Lescano, M; Carcamo, C

    1992-04-15

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru.

  7. Molecular and serological survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Saguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Sato, Megumi; Sato, Marcello O; Sako, Yasuhito; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

    2010-09-01

    A community-based field survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis was performed in two villages in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, central Thailand, where 3 Taenia species, T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica, are sympatrically occurring. Four (0.6%) out of 667 stool samples were egg-positive for Taenia sp. by Kato-Katz technique. Three out of those four persons and other three persons who were Taenia egg-negative but having a recent (1 year) history of expelling proglottids in the stool.

  8. Generalized Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Rütten, Maja; Deplazes, Peter; Grimm, Felix

    2014-01-17

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite that uses carnivores as definitive hosts and rodents and rabbits as main intermediate hosts, but other animal species and humans may also get infected. One adult male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) from an animal shelter in Switzerland presented widespread subcutaneous fluctuant swellings extended over the forehead, nose, face and thoracic regions with a progressive growth over 3 months. The thoracic swelling was surgically resected, and it consisted of numerous 3-4mm small transparent vesicles, mainly confined to the subcutaneous tissue, which were morphologically identified as cysticerci of T. crassiceps. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis of fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. After 1.5 months, due to enlargement of the swollen areas and deterioration of the general health condition, the chinchilla was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. Thousands of small cysticerci were observed widespread in the subcutis, involving underlying musculature of the whole body, in the thoracic cavity, larynx, pharynx and in the retropharyngeal region. Additionally, three larger metacestodes were detected in the liver and morphologically and molecularly identified as Taenia taeniaeformis strobilocerci. The present case represents an indicator of the environmental contamination with Taenia eggs, highlighting the risk of infection for susceptible animals and humans. Besides the clinical relevance for pets, T. crassiceps is a zoonotic parasite and can be also cause of severe cysticercosis in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  10. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

  11. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. PROCEDURE: To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744...... leukemia and patients without such characteristics (0.50 vs. 0.61; P = 0.2). CONCLUSION: CNS involvement at diagnosis is associated with adverse prognostic features but does not indicate a less chemosensitive leukemia....

  12. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-01-17

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  13. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagida Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  14. Prevalence of human cysticercosis and taeniasis in rural Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, S H; Motghare, D D; Ferreira, A M; Kulkarni, M S; Vaz, F S

    2008-06-01

    A cross sectional study among 450 individuals selected by strafified random sampling was carried out in rural Goa to find out the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis, as well as to study the role of various factors associated with this diseases. The study participants were administered a pre-tested structured questionnaire and subsequently blood and stool samples were examined. SPSS software was used to analyze the data statistically. The sero-prevalence of cysterosis was 22.4%, which increased with age. Prevalence of taeniasis was 9.7% by stool examination. Individuals with taeniasis were thrice more likely to have cysticercosis; however no association between sero-positivity for cysterosis and pork consumption as well as religion could be established. The study confirmed a high sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Goa underscoring the need to general awareness about good cooking habits and sanitation.

  15. Taeniasis/cysticercosis trend worldwide and rationale for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montresor, Antonio; Palmer, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly worldwide in recent years. Small-scale pig husbandry has become a popular source of income in rural and resource-poor communities in most of developing countries. A parallel increase of human Taenia carrier and human cysticercosis is expected but detailed data are not available. However, Taenia solium is considered responsible for over 10% of acute case admission to the neurological ward of countries where it is endemic. The control strategy that seems at the moment more promising is a combination of the different tools available and includes the identification of areas at high risk and the presumptive treatment of the suspected cases and their families. This active finding and treatment of probable tapeworm carriers should be accompanied by health education and control swine cysticercosis. WHO invites all endemic countries to recognize the importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis control and to collect epidemiological data and to adopt policies and strategies for its control.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors of human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence in a highly endemic area of epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Dschanou, Armel Romeo; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the larvae of Taenia solium is a serious and emerging threat to public health in the endemic areas as well as in the non-endemic areas. Neurocysticercosis, an affection of the central nervous system is a leading cause of epilepsy in endemic areas. This study was carried out to investigate human cysticercosis, taeniasis and risk factors, and also their association with epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon where epilepsy is highly prevalent. Out of 384 people investigated, 12 (3.1%) exhibited antibody response against low molecular weight antigens of T. solium by ELISA. Immunoblot revealed that six persons (1.6%) were seropositive with the same antigens. Among 61 epileptic patients, only one was seropositive by immunoblot and the study did not find any statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in seropositivity to T. solium between epileptic persons (1/61, 1.6%) and non-epileptic group (5/323, 1.5%). In addition, cysticercosis was associated with households eating pork meat from pigs slaughtered at home, but not with other factors. The risk factors including pig farming, the consumption of pork meat, vegetables, and non-drinkable water were attenuated by the relatively good hygiene and pig husbandry practices of the population. No egg of Taenia was found in stool by microscopic examination. All data obtained in this study suggested that cysticercosis might not be the principal causative agent of epilepsy in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of brain CT on 120 patients of human cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; To, R.; Ri, T.; Ra, S.; Inomata, Taiten; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Tomoo.

    1990-01-01

    A study on brain CT was made in 120 patients of human cysticercosis, which is a rare disease in Japan and clinical symptoms and laboratory data for the diagnosis were also discussed. From the point of therapeutic view, we proposed a new differentiation on brain CT of human cysticercosis, which is divided into two groups according to the alve or dead parasite. Furthermore, we proposed a new type named multiple large and small cysts type on brain CT. The idea of diagnostic standard was made integrating brain CT image, clinical symptoms and labolatory data. (author)

  19. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  20. Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Miranda Silva Dias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. Results: Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. Conclusion: Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable. Keywords: Central nervous system, Multiple myeloma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Prognosis

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da; Lemos, Sandro Pedroso; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto

    2003-01-01

    37-year-old man presented with low back pain for the last 6 months followed by sensation of numbness in the lower limbs that evolved with paraparesis, urinary retention and impotence. Subsequently, he lost control over the bowel function. Neurological examination revealed increased muscle tone along with grade zero power in both lower limbs. Knee and ankle jerks were exaggerated. Nine months prior to admission, a type II diabetes mellitus was diagnosed and he has been taking insulin ever since. MRI revealed multiple cystic lesions in the cauda equina opposite the L1-S1 vertebral bodies with no involvement of the spinal cord (Figure A: sagittal section T1-weighted image after contrast with cystic lesions on the left side - yellow arrow -, and T2-weighted image on the right - red arrows pointing cystic lesions). The cysts were hypointense on T1-weighted images (Figure B: horizontal section - yellow arrows) and hyperintense in T2-weighted images (Figure A - red arrows). Computerized tomography of the brain showed moderate ventricle dilatation (Figure C) with no intra or extra axial lesions. He was submitted to laminectomy and the cysts were surgically removed. An intense inflammatory process (arachnoiditis) involving the nerve roots of the cauda equina was reported. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of racemous cysticercosis. He improved quickly after surgery. Three months later, at the outpatient clinic, he walked with support, resumed sphincter control of the bladder and bowel and had no more pain. Ten months later he returned to hospital walking with crutches, with hypoesthesia and paraesthesia on the left leg and urinary incontinence. He refused treatment with albendazole and steroids. (author)

  2. Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Luiza Miranda Silva; Higashi, Fabiana; Peres, Ana Lúcia M; Cury, Pricilla; Crusoé, Edvan de Queiroz; Hungria, Vânia Tietsche de Moraes

    The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors in The Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arss Secka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During a stratified cross-sectional survey, 1705 pigs were sampled from 279 randomly selected households, 63 randomly selected communities and villages, from four study areas in The Gambia and Senegal during the period October 2007 to January 2008. Porcine cysticercosis prevalence detected by tongue inspection at animal level per study area ranged from 0.1% to 1.0%. Using an antigen-detection ELISA the seroprevalence of cysticercosis at both community/village and animal levels for the four selected study areas is: Western region 80.0% (95%CI: 52.4%–93.6% and 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4%–6.5%, Bignona 86.7% (95%CI: 59.8%–96.6% and 8.9% (95%CI: 5.0%–15.5%, Kolda 82.4% (95%CI: 46.8%–96.1% and 13.2% (95%CI: 10.8%–16.0%, and Ziguinchor 81.3% (95%CI: 43.5%–96.1% and 6.4% (95%CI: 4.0%–10.1%, respectively. No risk factors for cysticercosis were found significant in this study. This study proved that porcine cysticercosis is endemic and distributed widely in the study areas though its incidence might be suppressed by the generalised use of toilets and latrines in the study areas.

  4. Abdominal Cysticercosis in a Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, Christopher James; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Conboy, Gary; Gelens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.

  5. The Asian Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Fuentes, Màrius

    2000-01-01

    In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stage in humans or not. The arguments proposed by those authors who consider it unlikely that the Asian Taenia causes human cysticercosis are: (a) its molecular similarities with T. saginata; (b) the absence of cases of human cysticercosis in populations where the Asian adult is highly prevalent; and (c) the unsupporting results derived from an experimental infestation study. These three arguments are debated, although bearing in mind that at present there is still no clear scientific data to support that human cysticercosis can be caused by the Asian Taenia. PMID:10743352

  6. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal

    Understanding the factors contributing to the transmission of Taenia solium in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for control. This study aimed to elucidate factors concerning the transmission of porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys...

  7. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.

    2016-01-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  8. Prevalence and morphometric studies on porcine cysticercosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Bourn D, Wint W, Blench R &Woolley E (1994). Nigerian Livestock Resources Survey, World. Animal Review, 78(1):49-58. Cox FEG (2002). History of human parasitology. Clinical Microbiology. Review. 15(4): 595-. 612. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CA &Gilman RH. (2003). Cysticercosis working group in Peru. Taenia.

  9. Prevalence of cysticercosis in Estonian pigs and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorbek-Kilin, Elisabeth; Åhlberg, Tuuli; Tummeleht, Lea

    2018-01-01

    Taenia solium has been ranked as the most important foodborne parasite and Taenia saginata as the most commonly found human Taenia tapeworm worldwide. The last official reports of taeniosis from Estonia were in 2003 for T. solium and 2012 for T. saginata. By law, all animal cases of cysticercosis...

  10. Assessment of risk factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by Taenia solium is a neglected parasite causing great economic losses to pig farmers and public health risks in endemic countries. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, risk factors for PC transmission and pig welfare in Nyasa District. To establish the prevalence of PC, ...

  11. Language Deficits in a Bilingual Child with Cerebral Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)

  12. Taeniasis and Cysticercosis as A Zoonotic Parasitic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasis is a parasitic disease caused by tapeworms from the genus Taenia, and infection with the larvae form of Taenia is called Cysticercosis. Some species of Taenia are zoonotic, and humans serve as the definitive host, the intermediate host or both. Humans are the definitive hosts for Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica, however, humans also act as an intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica. Animals, such as pigs, are the intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle are the intermediate host for T. saginata. Humans can be infected by taeniasis when they eat beef or pork that contains larvae (cysticercus. While, cysticercosis is transmitted via food or water contaminated with the eggs of Taenia spp. The transmission may also occur by autoinfection due to lack of hygiene. The diagnosis of taeniasis based on finding the eggs or proglotid in the human feces. For diagnosing cysticercosis in live animals can be done by tongue palpation to find the presence of cysts or nodules. Serological test may also help for diagnosing cysticercosis in humans or animals. Adult tapeworms in the intestine can be killed by anthelmintic and prevention of taeniasis can be conducted by avoiding raw or undercooked pork (T. solium and T. asiatica and beef (T. saginata. Besides that, to prevent the infection of T. solium, T. saginata or T. asiatica, pigs or cattle should not be exposed to human feces.

  13. Advances in diagnosis and spatial analysis of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed.

  14. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Human Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Nakao, Minoru; Wandra, Toni

    2003-12-06

    Human Taeniasis caused by the pork, Taenia solium, or beef, T saginata, tapeworm arises after eating pork or beef contaminated with metacestodes, the larval stage of these parasites. Taeniasis with T solium can lead to neurocysticercosis and threaten others by accidental ingestion of eggs released from asymptomatic Taeniasis patients. The 2003 World Health Assembly declared that T solium is of worldwide public-health importance, and that it is an eradicable parasitic disease worldwide. Adult taeniid tapeworms expelled from people in almost all Asian countries appeared to be T saginata (the so-called Asian Taenia), even though they ate pork. The organism is now named T asiatica, and has been found in Taiwan, Korea, China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. But it has been difficult to differentiate T saginata from beef and Asian Taenia from pork. Marshall Lightowlers and colleagues (Int J Parasitol 2003; 33: 1207-17) recently demonstrated that recombinant oncosphere vaccines against several taeniid cestodes, including T ovis, T saginata, T solium, and Echinococcus granulosus, are highly effective. Protection was almost 100%, in the laboratory and in the field. These researchers found several common features, including a predicted secretory signal sequence, and one or two copies of a fibronectin type III domain, each encoded by separate exons within the associated gene. WHERE NEXT? Molecular and immunological techniques, including vaccine research and development of animal models for differentiation of taeniid species in humans, have greatly advanced over the past decade. The clinical importance of infections by these taeniids, including T asiatica, in humans, and the potential for cysticercosis attributable to T asiatica in humans, needs further study.

  16. Central motor and sensory pathway involvement in an X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, T; Panas, M; Kokotis, P; Karadima, G; Kararizou, E; Karandreas, N

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the subclinical involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in an X-linked Charcot-Marie-Toth (CMTX) family. Seven subjects, all members of one family with a C.462T > G connexin 32 (Cx32) mutation were investigated by Blink reflex, Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). There were five clinically symptomatic for CMT neuropathy (four male and one female) and two asymptomatic (female) subjects. Subclinical CNS involvement was observed in all, symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. This is the largest CMTX neuropathy family investigated for CNS involvement. Electrophysiological involvement of the CNS in every examined member of this family was observed, raising the question of a more systematic involvement of the CNS in CMTX disease.

  17. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: from research towards implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Zbigniew; Allan, James; Sarti, Elsa

    2005-10-01

    Theoretically, considering the biology of its transmission and reservoirs, global eradication of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis is feasible. Recently much progress has been made in research on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of human taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis, although more operational research is still needed. In spite of this, global eradication of T. solium infection is still unlikely in the near future. Major obstacles to practical implementation of control measures include low levels of sanitation and health education amongst endemic populations, ineffective health services infrastructure and inadequate socioeconomic development in these areas. The continued public health impact of neurocysticercosis, especially fatalities and epilepsy, force us to identify improved options for control. In order to implement control measures in highly endemic areas the active involvement of medical services in controlling T. solium infection and more effective collaboration between medical and veterinary services is necessary. A switch is suggested from total reliance on meat inspection to active diagnosis and treatment of human taeniasis, protection of pigs against infection, promotion of health education and improved surveillance preparing chemotherapeutic and/or sanitary interventions. This could be implemented in areas where active transmission causes substantial morbidity and mortality provided there is the political will, social support, better financing and an effective organizational framework.

  18. Use of spiral CT angiography to judge central pulmonary vascular involvement from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Qunyou; Zhao Shaohong; Wang Fangze; Cai Zulong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of spiral CT angiography (SCTA) in judging central pulmonary vascular involvement from lung cancer located in the hilum and correlate the resultant images with pathologic and surgical findings. Methods: SCTA was done in 33 patients who were preoperatively diagnosed as having lung carcinoma located in the hilum. Contrast medium was injected at a rate of 3 ml/sec with a power injector. The delay time was from 20 to 25 seconds. The pitch was 1 with 3 mm-collimation. Images of central pulmonary arteries and veins were reconstructed with shaded surface display (SSD), maximum intensity projection (MIP), curved planar reformation (CPR), and multi-planar reformation (MPR). Then the relation between tumor and vessels was assessed prospectively on both 3 mm interval axial CT and SCTA images with comparison to subsequent pathologic or surgical findings. Results: (1) In showing the integrity of central pulmonary arteries and veins, images reconstructed by different ways of SCTA had different strong and weak points. (2) The grading standard in this study, with which the relation between vessels and tumor was judged, reflected the basic and common characters of central pulmonary vascular involvement by tumor located in the hilum. compared with axial CT images, SCTA was more accurate in judging the relation between central pulmonary vessels and tumor, and the correlation of SCTA imaging features with pathological patterns and surgical findings was better than that of axial CT images, P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: It was feasible to show the relation between central pulmonary vessel and lung cancer located in the hilum with SCTA. And the accuracy of judging the vascular involvement with SCTA was higher than that with axial CT

  19. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 Increased between 2005 and 2011 Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants include prescription drugs, like those used ...

  20. Psychosis in primary angiitis of the central nervous system involving bilateral thalami: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangha; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare inflammatory disease restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), with unusual clinical presentation mimicking schizophrenia. Case report. A 45-year-old male presented with alteration of consciousness and confusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a mass-like enhancing lesion involving bilateral thalami, and biopsy revealed findings compatible with PACNS. The patient was treated with corticosteroids. Psychotic symptoms crystallized over the initial 2 months after the diagnosis and persisted for over a year. Severity of his symptoms improved with gradual normalization of the radiologic findings and antipsychotic medication. Our case highlights the importance of considering PACNS as a differential diagnosis of a tumor-like mass lesion in the CNS and the significance of thalamic involvement in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms including delusions and hallucinations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Central nervous system involvement in a case of segmental nevus depigmentosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement in segmental nevus depigmentosus (SND is rare. A 7-month-old boy having convulsion and segmental hypopigmented patch in the right inguinal region. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed bilateral periventricular white matter hypoplasia with prominent subarachnoid spaces and mild dilation of ventricles with mild left cerebral hemispheric atrophy. Association of SND with seizure and white matter lesion has been rarely reported.

  2. Strategies for the elimination of taeniasis/cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Héctor H; González, Armando E; Del Brutto, Oscar H; Tsang, Victor C W; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Romero, Jaime; Gilman, Robert H

    2007-11-15

    Advances in the field of neurocysticercosis continue to shape our understanding of the disease and our efforts to control it. Several attempts have been made to eradicate the disease with active interventions such as changing domestic pig-raising practices, mass chemotherapy of porcine cysticercosis and taeniasis, selective detection and treatment of taeniasis, and community health education. Moreover, ongoing progress in the diagnosis of taeniasis and the development of a porcine vaccine against cysticercosis in Australia, Mexico and Peru has yielded at least one effective vaccine that is currently available. Thus far, however, attempted interventions have only been successful in temporarily disrupting transmission of the disease. Controlled data on the efficacy and acceptability of the different interventions is urgently needed to provide a base-line schematic for intervention which could later be tailored to each particular endemic scenario.

  3. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A.; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and ...

  4. Treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis with praziquantel and albendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbar Hamid

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent methods, doses and results of medical treatment on taeniasis/cysticercosis, a zoo-notic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are discussed. In cases of cysticercosis T. solium, especially neurocysticercosis the optimal length and dose of albendazole is a course of 8 days with doses of 15 mg/kg/day divided in two times added by 50 mg/day of prednisone in the morning. The drug is effective in almost any location of the parasites for 80-90% of macroscopic cysts seen by imaging studies. For taeniasis a single dose of praziquantel, 10-15 mg/kg achieves cure rates of more than 90%. Side effects such as nausea, headache and abdominal pain are mild.  Evaluation of drug treatment is done by clinical, radiological and serological evaluation. In Papua (=Irian Jaya nine cases with suspected neurocysticercosis, serologically positive, were treated with 1200 mg single dose albendazole for 15 days. Prednisonetablets, three times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days were added. After one year 6 cases were still serologic positive. At the same time praziquantel, 1200 mg, single dose was given to ten cases during 15 days and prednisone tablets, 3 times daily one tablet, 5 mg during 7 days. After one year 5 sero-positive cases were still found. Albendazole and praziquantel are both effective drugs for taeniasis and cysticercosis, with minor side effects. In addition symptomatic treatment should be given if necessary. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:253-7Keywords: albendazol, praziquantel, cysticercosis, taeniasis

  5. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs.

  7. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khumbatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia  solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM, another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM’s contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM−/− mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM−/− mice compared to WT mice (P<0.05. This reduction in parasite burden in SOM−/− mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P<0.05, which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-γ and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1β (P<0.05 for both compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-γ and IL-1β.

  8. Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

  9. Treatment Sequencing in a Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patient with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Mousinho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL with neurologic involvement is a rare condition and should require a careful follow-up. Although no standard protocol exists for this condition, intrathecal chemotherapy, combined with systemic chemoimmunotherapy, has been used previously. This case describes the treatment of a patient with CLL and symptomatic compromise of the central nervous system. Our results suggest that a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and ibrutinib, administered sequentially over a 2-year period, led to a near-complete resolution of the cerebral spinal fluid neoplastic infiltration. Importantly, this response has been maintained with ibrutinib monotherapy for more than 12 months.

  10. Central nervous system involvement in primary Sjogren`s syndrome manifesting as multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yao; Zhao, Teng; Zhou, Chun-Kui

    2014-04-01

    Central nervous system symptoms in patients with primary Sjogren`s syndrome are rare. They can present as extraglandular manifestations and require a differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis. Due to a variety of presentations, Sjogren`s syndrome with neurologic involvement may be difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2010, but who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren`s syndrome 2 years later after showing signs of atypical neurologic manifestations. Therefore, primary Sjogren`s syndrome should be suspected in patients who present with atypical clinical and radiologic neurologic manifestations.

  11. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials...

  12. Solitary cysticercosis of the biceps brachii in a vegetarian: a rare and unusual pseudotumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital Affiliated with Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 506 Sixth Street, Brooklyn, NY 11215 (United States); Klein, Michael J. [Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, 1 Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Hermann, George [Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, 1 Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    We report a 40-year-old man with cysticercosis presenting as a solitary tumor in the biceps brachii muscle. Physical examination revealed an intramuscular mass and magnetic resonance imaging suggested a cyst. The histologic diagnosis was a cysticercus. Such solitary presentation of muscular cysticercosis is extremely rare with only a handful of sporadic reports in the literature. (orig.)

  13. Solitary cysticercosis of the biceps brachii in a vegetarian: a rare and unusual pseudotumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Klein, Michael J.; Hermann, George; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    We report a 40-year-old man with cysticercosis presenting as a solitary tumor in the biceps brachii muscle. Physical examination revealed an intramuscular mass and magnetic resonance imaging suggested a cyst. The histologic diagnosis was a cysticercus. Such solitary presentation of muscular cysticercosis is extremely rare with only a handful of sporadic reports in the literature. (orig.)

  14. [Knowledge and practices concerning taeniasis-cysticercosis in Colombian pig-breeders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Restrepo, Berta N; Palacio, Luis G

    2009-01-01

    Describing knowledge and practices regarding taeniasis-cysticercosis and cysticercosis prevalence in the village of Andagoya, Colombia. The study design was qualitative and quantitative. The study population consisted of pig breeders and their families, local groups and pigs. Study participants had partial knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex. They considered taeniasis to be an illness resulting from faecal transmission and not caused by becoming infected with cysticercosis after consuming pork. Pig breeding is not carried out in confined conditions and, although breeders know the right measures for controlling some parasitic illnesses, these practices are not observed. There was 8.7% presence of T. solium antibodies in pig breeders and their relatives and 20.9% in the pigs. An educational programme aimed at raising the population's awareness of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex cycle should be developed; this will facilitate control measures being applied.

  15. Central nervous system involvement in patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia: review and a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Canesi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few well-documented cases of central nervous system involvement in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and/or HCV infection have been reported. We can distinguish between acute or subacute diffuse and focal lesions (transient ischemic attack-like syndromes and cerebrovascular accidents. Methods: A search of two electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE was conducted from the year of their inception (1966 for Medline and 1988 for EMBASE to September 2000. The search strategy employed entailed combining these terms: Cryoglobulinemia, Central Nervous System, Hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis. Cryoglobulinemia and Central Nervous System were also used as free test words. We analysed articles with case reports and the most frequent articles on the references list. Pathogenesis: The main pathophysiologic mechanism of cerebral involvement is ischemia (or rarely hemorrhage due to diffuse or segmental vasculitis of the small cerebral vessels. In these cases a brain MRI usually shows single or multiple increased T2 signals. Furthermore an occasional occlusive vasculopathy without vasculitis was documented histologically. In these patients ischemia could be started or enhanced by the engorgement of the microvasculature by clumps of red cells and by aggregates of cryoglobulins. In the same patients vasculitis and hemoreological abnormalities can affect the clinical picture of the cerebral involvement in mixed cryoglobulinemia. Finally, the detection of HCV in the lesions induces a hypothesis that, in some cases, CNS involvement could be directly related to chronic HCV infection, even in the absence of cryoglobulin production. Case report: We describe a 63 year-old woman with acute severe encephalopathy. Laboratory evaluation revealed a high positive test result for rheumatoid factor (3390 U/ml and hypocomplementemia (C4 less than 1.67 mg/dl. Protein immunofixation electrophoresis demonstrated 5% monoclonal proteins (IgM/k and IgG/k, 3

  16. Central nervous system involvement in adult patients with invasive infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanguren, B; Esteban, L; Guillán, M; de Felipe, A; Alonso Cánovas, A; Navas, E; Quereda, C; Corral, I

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is frequently an asymptomatic coloniser and a cause of neonatal and puerperal sepsis. Infections in nonpregnant adults are uncommon. The frequency of neurological complications caused by invasive infection with this microorganism in adults remains unknown. Here, we study the frequency and characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in adults with invasive S. agalactiae infection. Review of all adults with invasive S. agalactiae infection between 2003 and 2011 in a tertiary hospital. S. agalactiae was isolated from blood, CSF or synovial fluid in 75 patients. Among them, 7 (9,3%) displayed neurological involvement: 5 men and 2 nonpregnant women, aged between 20 and 62 years. Diagnoses were spinal epidural abscess due to spondylodiscitis with spinal cord compression; acute bacterial meningitis; ischemic stroke as presentation of bacterial endocarditis (2 patients each); and meningoventriculitis after neurosurgery and ventricular shunting. One patient with endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae and S. aureus died in the acute phase, and another died 3 months later from metastatic cancer. The other patients recovered without sequelae. All patients had systemic predisposing factors for infection and 5 (71,4%) had experienced disruption of the mucocutaneous barrier as a possible origin of the infection. CNS involvement is not uncommon in adult patients with invasive infection caused by S. agalactiae. Isolating S. agalactiae, especially in cases of meningitis, should lead doctors to search for predisposing systemic disease and causes of mucocutaneous barrier disruption. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  18. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in housemaids working in affluent neighborhoods in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisa, Branko N; Menacho, Luis A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Bustos, Javier A; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Gonzalez, Armando E; García, Hector H

    2005-09-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is endemic in most developing countries, where it is an important cause of epileptic seizures and other neurologic symptoms. In industrialized countries, cysticercosis results from travel or immigration of tapeworm carriers from endemic areas. In both endemic and nonendemic countries, housemaids commonly immigrate from cysticercosis-endemic areas and can transmit the infection if they carry the adult tapeworm. Between July 2001 and July 2002, 1,178 housemaids (961 of them work in the top five most affluent districts of Lima, a metropolis of 8 million inhabitants considered nonendemic for cysticercosis) were evaluated for serum antibodies to Taenia solium and stool microscopy for taeniasis and cysticercosis. The serosurvey revealed a prevalence of cysticercosis-specific antibodies of 14.6% (95% CI: 12.6-16.6%), and stool microscopy detected 12 T. solium tapeworm carriers, for a prevalence of taeniasis of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.6-1.8%). A nonrandom sample of 26 seropositive housemaids was examined by brain CT and 50% of them had brain lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis, mainly calcifications. From the families who used a tapeworm-carrier housemaid, cysticercosis antibodies were detected in 6 (23%) of 26 persons who agreed to participate. One seropositive member of the employer families was symptomatic for seizures and had brain calcifications. The prevalence of tapeworm infections in this housemaid group is similar to levels in endemic areas, constituting a source of neurocysticercosis infection.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotot, P.M.; Sansonetti, P.J.; Levillain, R.; Cabanis, E.A.; Lavayssiere, R.; Sandoz-Tronca, C.

    1988-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy [fr

  20. Analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involving the central nervous system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Hara, Masako; Nakajima, Shinji and others

    1989-04-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) commonly occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). But definitive diagnosis remains difficult even with computed tomography (CT). In this study, we used the recently developed technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for CNS lupus and compared it with CT scans. CT was performed with a General Electric 8800 CT/T scanner. MRI was performed using a Mitsubishi Electric MMI-150 S. Ten patients with CNS lupus were divided into 3 groups. Group I included 4 cases with neurological manifestations alone. All lesions seen on CT were also detected by MRI, with greater clarity and extent. Furthermore, MRI depicted several microinfarcts in white matter without symptoms. Group II included 5 cases with psychiatric features alone. MRI detected a thalamic microinfarct in only one case while CT showed no abnormality in all cases. Group III included 1 case with both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. MRI demonstrated a small infarct of midbrain corresponding with neurological symptoms, more clearly than CT. Therefore MRI demonstrates the degree of brain involvement in SLE more accurately than CT. (author).

  1. Analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involving the central nervous system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Hara, Masako; Nakajima, Shinji

    1989-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) commonly occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). But definitive diagnosis remains difficult even with computed tomography (CT). In this study, we used the recently developed technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for CNS lupus and compared it with CT scans. CT was performed with a General Electric 8800 CT/T scanner. MRI was performed using a Mitsubishi Electric MMI-150 S. Ten patients with CNS lupus were divided into 3 groups. Group I included 4 cases with neurological manifestations alone. All lesions seen on CT were also detected by MRI, with greater clarity and extent. Furthermore, MRI depicted several microinfarcts in white matter without symptoms. Group II included 5 cases with psychiatric features alone. MRI detected a thalamic microinfarct in only one case while CT showed no abnormality in all cases. Group III included 1 case with both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. MRI demonstrated a small infarct of midbrain corresponding with neurological symptoms, more clearly than CT. Therefore MRI demonstrates the degree of brain involvement in SLE more accurately than CT. (author)

  2. Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Swasono, Meutia F; Murni, Sri; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Reports showed that an important parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica is found endemic in several areas of Indonesia including Papua, Bali and North Sumatra. At present it is known that the highest prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia, caused by T. solium is among the indigenous communities in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). In the early 1970s, 8-9% of stool samples from the Enarotali hospital, Paniai District (Irian Jaya) were found positive with Taenia eggs. The samples were from members of the Ekari (Kapauku) ethnic group. Stool samples from the Moni ethnic group, living east of surrounding lakes, were egg negative. Cysticerci of T. solium were discovered in pigs. During the years 1973-1976 cases of burns increased and were ultimately found to be primarily associated with epileptic seizures induced by neurocysticercosis cases. Among 257 cases of burns, 88 cases (62.8%) were suffering from epileptic seizures before or during hospitalization. In the year 1981 T. solium seropositive persons were mostly (16%) found in the endemic Obano village. In 1997 the parasite was discovered in Jayawijaya District, which is located approximately 250 km east of Paniai District. During 1991-1995, a local health center in Assologaima, Jayawijaya District reported 1120 new cases with burns and a further 293 new cases of epileptic seizures among 15,939 inhabitants. The histopathologic appearance and mitochondrial DNA analysis found the cysts to be similar to those of T. solium from other regions of the world. Sensitive and specific serological diagnostic methods were used and improved. Cysticerci were detected in dogs, as well as in pigs. A coproantigen test for detection of adult tapeworms in patients was carried out. Medical treatment with praziquantel for taeniasis and albendazole for cysticercosis (with prednisone and sodium phenytoin treatment in cases with neurocysticercosis) was undertaken. Lifestyle, religion, and

  3. Prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Pruence Nickele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage (Cysticercus bovis of Taenia saginata. This study aimed to identify prevention and control measures for bovine cysticercosis indicated by experts in the fields of public and animal health. The study was conducted through three rounds of the Delphi method and had the participation of 44 experts from 13 Brazilian states in 30 educational institutions, research institutions, and sanitary inspection services. The first round comprised an open question, the answers to which formed the basis for structuring the second and third questionnaire. To reach a consensus in the second and third rounds, experts were asked to express their agreement or disagreement of each proposition on the questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed at the end of each round. Twenty-three specialists (52.27% participated in all three rounds. The first round resulted in 28 proposals categorized into six areas: health education, methods of diagnosis and treatment, sanitation measures, epidemiological studies, legislation and sanitary supervision, and intersectorality. In the second round, the experts reached a consensus on 16 propositions (57.14%. This percentage increased by 3.54% during the third round. At the end of the third round, the experts had reached a consensus on 17 of the 28 initial propositions (60.71%. The highest percentage of agreement (29.4% was observed in the category of health education. This study allowed us to identify 17 recommendations pertaining to the prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis. These measures are not mutually exclusive, and require an integrated approach to the establishment of intervention actions at various points in the life cycle of the parasite.

  4. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of the control of clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Qian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yixin; Hong, Qingbiao

    2012-11-01

    Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of infection, 15-20 million people are infected, and 1.5-2 million show symptoms or complications. In China, it is relatively heavily transmitted in Zhujiang River Delta, including Hong Kong and Macao, and Northeast China, where many Korean people live. The transmission is related to the unhealthy habits of residents who like to have raw fish or half-raw fish. The infection of Clonorchis sinensis could result in serious liver and biliary system damages, and chronic cases may induce liver and bile duct cancers. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is distributed around the world except the areas where the residents have a taboo against pork for religious reasons. Recent years, the urban inhabitants infected with T. solium/Cysticercus are increasing in China. T. solium results in intestinal diseases, and cysticercosis is a very serious disease, especially nervous system cysticercosis. Its symptoms include headache, epilepsy, sudden death, etc. Health education and health promotion, environmental reconstruction, and chemotherapy are the main control measures for these diseases. Through several decades of efforts in China, the achievements of control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are great. For example, in one of the main clonorchiasis-endemic provinces, Shandong Province, clonorchiasis has been controlled. In 31 T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis-endemic counties of Henan Province, through a 6-year control program, the decline rates of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis were 90.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. This paper reviews the researches on the control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China past decades so as to provide references for other countries

  6. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, C; Pietsch-Escueta, S; Tsang, V; Corral-Leyva, G; Ng, L; Medina, M T; Astudillo, S; Padilla, N; Leyva, P; Martinez, L; Noh, J; Levine, M; del Villasenor, R; Sorvillo, F

    2005-02-01

    Taenia solium Cysticercosis is a leading cause of epilepsy and neurological disability in the developing world. It is caused by ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm, T. solium Taeniasis. The prevalence of either T. solium Cysticercosis or T. solium Taeniasis in the United States in populations at risk is poorly understood. The primary objectives of this study are to perform the first study of the sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in an at-risk community in the USA, specifically rural Southern California; identify T. solium Taeniasis positive individuals, and treat positive individuals for the tapeworm T. solium Taeniasis. Community based sero-prevalence study of antibodies to T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in 449 subjects living in a federally funded, predominantly Hispanic residential community; and in two migrant farm worker camps in rural Ventura County, California, USA. For this study, fingerstick blood samples were obtained. Serum immunoblots for both T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis were performed. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis was 1.8% and the sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis by serum immunoblot was 1.1%. Taenia solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis antibodies were not detected in children. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis was highest in the migrant farm worker community. Handwashing frequency was correlated with T. solium Taeniasis sero-positivity. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in this population, as detected by serum immunoblot, approximates the prevalence in some endemic areas of Latin America. Importantly, most patients likely had prior exposure, not active infection. This study establishes for the first time, the relative sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in at-risk populations in the United States.

  7. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: Future developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham Iii, Arve Lee

    2006-01-01

    due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated...... with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial...

  8. Central nervous system involvement in adults with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guilan; Wang, Yini; Liu, Xiaojing; Han, Yanfei; Wang, Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by proliferation and diffuse infiltration multiple organs with histiocytes, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological manifestations of HLH have been recognized in different studies with children, but they remain relatively ill-defined in adults with HLH. From March 2008 to October 2014, 289 adult patients with HLH were admitted to our center. Clinical, radiological, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) data of the patients with CNS involvement were reviewed, and a retrospective study in our single-center was carried out. CNS involvement was observed in 29 patients (10%) either in their diagnosis process or during disease course. CNS symptoms included disturbance of consciousness, cranial nerve palsies, seizures, headache, limb paralysis, irritability, meningism, and memory loss. CSF analysis was conducted in 17 patients (59%). Among them, 11 patients (65%) were reported as having abnormal CSF. Neuroradiological studies were performed in 25 patients (86%). Among the 13 cases that underwent CT scan, one patient hemorrhaged. Single or multiple hypodense foci were detected in the other 2 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were found in 15 patients, including focal lesions in cortical and adjacent subcortical regions with or without variable nodular or ring contrast-enhancement, multiple lesions in white matter, diffuse white matter signal changes, and meningeal enhancement. Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brainstem lesions were also observed. CNS involvement could also be found in adult patients with HLH, but not as frequent as it was in children. The clinical manifestations could be diversified. By carrying out rigorous CNS examinations, an early diagnosis could be made and it was of the utmost importance for the prevention of further lesions.

  9. Paracoccidioidomicose sistêmica com envolvimento do sistema nervoso central Systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Luiz Wiener Pureza Duarte

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente portador de paracoccidioidomicose sistêmica, com comprometimento oral e ganglionar regional e posterior envolvimento pulmonar. O paciente, tratado com drogas específicas(anfotericina B, itraconazol, sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim e acompanhado durante seis anos, foi ao óbito com extenso comprometimento do sistema nervoso centralA clinical case of a patient bearing systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with regional ganglionic and oral exposure and later pulmonary envolvement is presented. The patient was treated with especific drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and followed throughout a 6-year period and eventually died showing an extensive envolvement of the central nervous system.

  10. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis.

  11. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic

  12. Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

  13. An Investigation into the Involvement of California Central Valley High School Students with Disabilities in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryle Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of California Central Valley high school students with disabilities in the Individual Education Plan (IEP) process. Specifically, this study investigated the involvement of students with disabilities in the development of the IEP and IEP meetings. In addition, this study explored the…

  14. Central nervous system granulomastous phlebitis with limited extracranial involvement of the heart and lungs: An autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Jernej; Zorman, Jerneja Videčnik; Matičič, Mojca; Vrabec, Matej; Alibegović, Armin; Popović, Mara

    2016-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare condition, usually with an insidious onset. There is a wide variety of histological types (granulomatous, lymphocytic or necrotizing vasculitis) and types of vessel involved (arteries, veins or both). Most cases are idiopathic. We describe a first case of idiopathic granulomatous central nervous system phlebitis with additional limited involvement of the heart and lung, exclusively affecting small and medium sized veins in a 22-year-old woman, presenting as a sub acute headache. The reasons for this peculiar limitation of inflammation to the veins and the involvement of the heart and lungs are unknown. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  15. Central nervous system involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, Noriaki; Hirano, Hiroko; Kato, Kohki; Sashi, Ryuji; Hashimoto, Manabu; Watarai, Jiro; Watanabe, Arata

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively evaluate CT and MR findings of central nervous system (CNS) involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. Over a 12-year period, sixty-five patients with leukemia and fifteen patients with systemic lymphoma underwent cerebral CT and/or MR imaging. Nine patients were diagnosed as CNS involvement of leukemia and lymphoma. The CT and MR abnormalities in these patients were correlated with the findings of histology, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and/or treatment. The age of the patients ranged from 0 to 15 years old. They consisted of 6 boys and 3 girls. The CT examinations were performed before and after contrast administration. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T unit, and T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo or fast spin-echo sequences. Tumor masses were present in seven with leukemia, and in two with malignant lymphoma. On the CT scan, tumor masses were hyperdense with contrast enhancement. On the MR images, their signals were variable. In all of nine patients, tumor masses were contiguous with a meningeal surface. Postcontrast T1-weighted images were valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. Tumoral hemorrhage was found in two patients. In a patient with tumor at the superior sagittal sinus, venous infarct was observed. CNS leukemic and lymphomatous masses are almost hyperdense on the CT and they are characteristically contiguous with a meningeal surface. MR imaging was valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. (K.H.)

  16. Systemic high-dose methotrexate plus ifosfamide is highly effective for central nervous system (CNS) involvement of lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Patients with malignant central nervous system (CNS) involvement of lymphoma have a poor prognosis with intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation. In this paper, we report the results we obtained in such patients by intravenous chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate and ifosfamide (HDMTX/IFO). The study involved a review of all patients who received HDMTX/IFO for CNS involvement of malignant lymphoma at our hospital. Therapy consisted of 4 g/m2 of MTX (4 h infu...

  17. DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Allan, James C.; Sato, Marcello Otake; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Mamuti, Wulamu; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their causative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yielded evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American/African and Asian genotypes of Taenia solium with molecular sizes of 827, 269, 720, and 984 bp, respectively. In the PCR-based detection of tapeworm carriers using fecal samples, the diagnostic markers were detected from 7 of 14 and 4 of 9 T. solium carriers from Guatemala and Indonesia, respectively. Test sensitivity may have been reduced by the length of time (up to 12 years) that samples were stored and/or small sample volumes (ca. 30 to 50 mg). However, the diagnostic markers were detected by nested PCR in five worm carriers from Guatemalan cases that were found to be negative by multiplex PCR. It was noteworthy that a 720 bp-diagnostic marker was detected from a T. solium carrier who was egg-free, implying that it is possible to detect worm carriers and treat before mature gravid proglottids are discharged. In contrast to T. solium carriers, 827-bp markers were detected by multiplex PCR in all T. saginata carriers. The application of the multiplex PCR would be useful not only for surveillance of taeniasis and cysticercosis control but also for the molecular epidemiological survey of these cestode infections. PMID:14766815

  18. Treatment of initial parenchymal central nervous system involvement in systemic aggressive B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Marcel; Jansen, Anne; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Enting, Roelien H; Bromberg, Jacoline E C; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

    2017-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) at diagnosis (sysCNS) is rare. We investigated the outcome of 21 patients with sysCNS, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, treated with high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) and R-CHOP. The median number of cycles of HD-MTX and R-CHOP was 4 (range 1-8) and 6 (range 0-8), respectively. Consolidative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was given to 33% (7/21) patients. With a median follow-up of 44 months the 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 45% (95%CI 34-56%) and 49% (95%CI 38-60%), respectively. Over 90% of patients had an unfavorable international prognostic index score, reflected by treatment-related mortality of 19% (4/21) and relapse-related mortality of 28% (6/21). The outcome of these patients was, however, unexpectedly good when compared to secondary CNS relapses. Prospective studies are needed to define the optimal treatment for patients with sysCNS, but its rarity might be challenging.

  19. Bilateral primary adrenal lymphoma with central nervous system involvement: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Heizer, Marcia; Nahime, Carolina Benvegnu; Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas dos

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the main findings of primary adrenal lymphoma on abdominal and brain computed tomography (CT) scans and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and report a rare case of a 72-year-old male patient with deterioration in mental status progressing from recent memory loss to disorientation and ultimately dementia in a period of two months. The patient was investigated using imaging methods including brain (without intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media), chest and abdomen (pre and post intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media) CT scans and brain MRI (pre and post intravenous administration of gadolinium). Brain CT scan showed slightly hyperdense nodules adjacent to the lateral ventricles. No gross abnormalities were seen on the chest CT scan. CT of the abdomen showed solid nodules on both adrenals. Brain MRI showed diffuse nodular enhancement of the ependyma of the fourth ventricle, third ventricle, frontal and temporal horns, atria and body of the lateral ventricles. Definitive diagnosis was made by immunohistochemical study of the biopsed adrenal. After a comprehensive review of the literature the authors concluded that CT and MRI are essential methods for the detection and accurate evaluation of primary adrenal lymphomas, particularly when there is involvement of the central nervous system. MRI is more sensitive in the detection of extracerebral lesions in the epidural and subdural spaces, especially after intravenous administration of gadolinium. (author)

  20. IgG4-Related Disease Presenting as Recurrent Mastoiditis With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April L. Barnado MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented with right ear fullness and otorrhea. She was initially diagnosed with mastoiditis that was not responsive to multiple courses of antibiotics and steroids. She was then diagnosed with refractory inflammatory pseudotumor, and subsequent treatments included several mastoidectomies, further steroids, and radiation therapy. The patient went on to develop mastoiditis on the contralateral side as well as central nervous system involvement with headaches and right-sided facial paresthesias. Reexamination of the mastoid tissue revealed a significantly increased number of IgG4-positive cells, suggesting a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. The patient improved clinically and radiographically with rituximab and was able to taper off azathioprine and prednisone. IgG4-related disease should be considered in patients with otologic symptoms and be on the differential diagnosis in patients with inflammatory pseudotumor. Staining for IgG and IgG4 is essential to ensure a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Male involvement in reproductive health among scheduled tribe: experience from Khairwars of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kalyan B; Singh, Neeru; Chatterjee Saha, Uma; Roy, Jyotirmoy

    2007-01-01

    Indian tribal men's lack of participation in reproductive health not only damages their own health, but also contributes to the reproductive ill health of their female partners and children. In India the involvement of men in such matters is a new concept. There is a paucity of data particularly on Scheduled tribesmen's knowledge and the extent of their participation in reproductive health. This inhibits planning. The present study aims to understand the involvement of Scheduled tribesmen in reproductive health and the barriers to their involvement by generating a database from the Khairwar tribe of Central India. A door-to-door survey on knowledge, attitude and practice relating to aspects of reproductive health was conducted by canvassing a pre-designed interview schedule among 15-40 year old, currently married Khairwar males in the Sidhi district of Madhya Pradesh, India. As far as reproductive morbidity is concerned, only 17% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and most had no proper knowledge of its transmission. Although 74% of the respondents had heard about reproductive tract infections, the majority of them were unaware of the mechanism of transmission and seriousness of the problem. The duel role of condoms, both as a method of family planning and a protective measure against sexually transmitted infections, was also unknown to them. Approximately 59% of the males were aware of family planning but only 13% were using any method (mostly female sterilization) at the time of survey. Their view on the ideal number of children (3.56) exceeded the actual number of children born and living. High infant and child mortality influenced their preference for higher fertility. Very few among them (29%) had knowledge of antenatal care. They expressed faulty knowledge, myths and unhelpful attitudes towards sexual health matters. The study revealed the male Scheduled tribe population's lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding male sexual health issues, the

  2. Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S de Aluja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p menor que 0.01 and a no significant decrease in seroprevalence from 17.7 to 13.3% were observed. Conclusions. The reduction of the prevalence of taeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program’s effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventionsto achieve eradication.

  3. [Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S; Suárez-Marín, Raúl; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Morales-Soto, Julio; Martínez-Maya, José Juan; Villalobos, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (ptaeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program's effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventions to achieve eradication.

  4. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and cli...

  5. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the

  6. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher F L; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-06-12

    This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear. A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence. The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively. With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

  7. Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles Highlight Early Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in Central Nervous System Inflammation

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    Jason M. Millward

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier. Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles reveal CNS (central nervous system lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.

  8. Study of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianqing; Liu Lianxiang; Wu Jie; Wu Jing; Zhang Renshu; Wu Yujin

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI. Materials and methods: Nine patients with intraventricular cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle were studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery in all cases. All of these patients were examined systematically before the operation and studied with CSF cinema MRI in mid sagittal section and finger-gated scan technique. Results: (1) The path of CSF flow was directly displayed. All cysticercosis presented as a filling defect, and a cyst with a smooth wall. (2) The ventricular compliance was normal in cysticercosis. (3) The cysticercosis in active stage was free in the fourth ventricle and could be rolled over, its shape might change slightly within a cardiac cycle. In the degenerative stage, its wall could adhere to the ependyma and obstruct the CSF flow. Conclusion: CSF cinema MRI can demonstrate the degree of obstruction and pattern of CSF flow in cysticercosis of the fourth ventricle, thereby providing useful information for proper management

  9. The effect of central nervous system involvement and irradiation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskinen, Mervi; Oskarsson, Trausti; Levinsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system irradiation (CNS-RT) has played a central role in the cure of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but due to the risk of long-term toxicity, it is now considered a less-favorable method of CNS-directed therapy. PROCEDURES: Retrospectively, we estimated the effect...

  10. Identification of loci controlling restriction of parasite growth in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.

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    Ruben Ramirez-Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human neurocysticercosis (NC caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6 are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain, confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD = 4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1. Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5

  11. Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-González, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD = 4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio C. Acevedo-Nieto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic zoonosis that affects human and pigs raised free-range in developing countries. The epidemiology of the taeniosis cysticercosis complex in Brazil is poorly understood especially when it comes to field research. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in rural communities located in the east of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil. From 371 farms in the county of Tumiritinga/MG, 101 farms from 14 communities were randomly sampled. Blood samples from pigs were collected, and epidemiological questionnaires were carried out. The serum samples obtained were analyzed through immunodiagnosis techniques, including ELISA and Western Blot, both for the detection of antibodies. The data obtained by different surveys were analyzed using EpiInfo 3.5.1 software to determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated with cysticercosis. The prevalence of farms with porcine cysticercosis was 9.9% (10/101 and antibody-based seropositive was 5.3% (13/247. The results indicate that cysticercosis occurs in high level in the rural area never studied before. These results suggest the presence of tapeworm carriers contributing to the occurrence and maintenance of this zoonotic life cycle in the county. Regarding risk factors, the most significant determinants for porcine cysticercosis in the field were free-range pig management (OR: 17.4, p: 0.0001, the method of disposal of human faeces in the environmental (OR: 7.6; p 0.012, and the size of the farm. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed only in areas represented by Agrarian Reform Settlements. From the results, it is possible to recommend as a means of control and prevention the destination of human faeces in appropriate sanitary landfills and the production of pigs in an enclosed area. Additionally, improving education in the communities sampled will indirectly affect the spreading of

  13. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  14. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Hernández-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis.

  15. Serological screening for cysticercosis in mentally altered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzón, Fernando; Osorio, Ana M; Morales, José P; Isaza, Rodrigo; Cardona, Edgar; Moncayo, Luis C; Villota, Guido E; Zapata, Olga T; Palacio, Carlos A; Arbeláez, María P; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2002-06-01

    The parasitic infection neurocysticercosis may give rise to a variety of psychiatric manifestations that resemble, but are different from, primary psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if among individuals from a neurocysticercosis-endemic area of Colombia who apparently had a psychiatric manifestation with associated neurological finding ('cases'), some could have been infected with Taenia solium cysticerci. This case-control study was done in individuals hospitalized in two mental institutions. The control-1 individuals were those classified with primary psychiatric disease, and the control-2 group consisted of healthy, non-hospitalized individuals. A serological test for cysticercosis was positive in 5/96 (5.1%) cases, 4/153 (2.6%) psychiatric controls, and 5/246 (2%) healthy controls. The data analysis indicated a weak association between the cases and a positive serology for neurocysticercosis (odds ratio > 2; P > 0.05). The lower education level of the cases influenced this association.

  16. Epidemiology and management of cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in Europe, systematic review 1990-2011.

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    Lorenzo Zammarchi

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts.To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe.A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990-2011 was conducted.Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1% of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7% diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6% in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers. The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%, France (16.7% and Italy (8.3%. One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported.Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems.

  17. Epidemiology and management of cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in Europe, systematic review 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990-2011 was conducted. Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems.

  18. Assessing the impact of intervention strategies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using the EPICYST transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskill, Peter; Harrison, Wendy E; French, Michael D; Dixon, Matthew A; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2017-02-09

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and associated human infections, taeniasis, cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, are serious public health problems, especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set goals for having a validated strategy for control and elimination of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis by 2015 and interventions scaled-up in selected countries by 2020. Timely achievement of these internationally-endorsed targets requires that the relative benefits and effectiveness of potential interventions be explored rigorously within a quantitative framework. A deterministic, compartmental transmission model (EPICYST) was developed to capture the dynamics of the taeniasis/cysticercosis disease system in the human and pig hosts. Cysticercosis prevalence in humans, an outcome of high epidemiological and clinical importance, was explicitly modelled. A next generation matrix approach was used to derive an expression for the basic reproduction number, R 0 . A full sensitivity analysis was performed using a methodology based on Latin-hypercube sampling partial rank correlation coefficient index. EPICYST outputs indicate that chemotherapeutic intervention targeted at humans or pigs would be highly effective at reducing taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence when applied singly, with annual chemotherapy of humans and pigs resulting, respectively, in 94 and 74% of human cysticercosis cases averted. Improved sanitation, meat inspection and animal husbandry are less effective but are still able to reduce prevalence singly or in combination. The value of R 0 for taeniasis was estimated at 1.4 (95% Credible Interval: 0.5-3.6). Human- and pig-targeted drug-focussed interventions appear to be the most efficacious approach from the options currently available. The model presented is a forward step towards developing an informed control and elimination strategy for cysticercosis. Together with its validation against field data, EPICYST will be a

  19. Multiantigen Print Immunoassay for Comparison of Diagnostic Antigens for Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the best-characterized tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. The purification of the LLGP antigens has been difficult to standardize, and the polyacrylamide gel system used for the immunoblot assay is not easily transferable to other laboratories. In this study, we developed a multiantigen printing immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare the performance of multiple recombinant Taenia solium proteins with the potential for the detection of cysticercosis and taeniasis. We prepared MAPIA strips using six cysticercosis and two taeniasis diagnostic proteins and compared the performance of the proteins with sera collected from defined cysticercosis and taeniasis cases. Of the six cysticercosis antigens, rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain (sensitivity and specificity, 97% and 99.4%, respectively); the use of a combination of cysticercosis antigens did not improve the sensitivity of the test and decreased the specificity. None of the antigens could differentiate the different clinical presentations of cysticercosis. Both of the taeniasis antigens (rES33 and rES38) had the same sensitivity of 99.4% and specificities of 93.9% and 94.5%, respectively. Some cross-reactivity against rES33 and rES38 was found, especially with sera from cases infected with Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that MAPIA is a simple and effective tool that may be used to compare antibody responses to different cysticercosis and taeniasis antigens and, in this case, may be useful for the rapid detection of T. solium cases. PMID:19906893

  20. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2010-01-01

    One of the best-characterized tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. The purification of the LLGP antigens has been difficult to standardize, and the polyacrylamide gel system used for the immunoblot assay is not easily transferable to other laboratories. In this study, we developed a multiantigen printing immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare the performance of multiple recombinant Taenia solium proteins with the potential for the detection of cysticercosis and taeniasis. We prepared MAPIA strips using six cysticercosis and two taeniasis diagnostic proteins and compared the performance of the proteins with sera collected from defined cysticercosis and taeniasis cases. Of the six cysticercosis antigens, rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain (sensitivity and specificity, 97% and 99.4%, respectively); the use of a combination of cysticercosis antigens did not improve the sensitivity of the test and decreased the specificity. None of the antigens could differentiate the different clinical presentations of cysticercosis. Both of the taeniasis antigens (rES33 and rES38) had the same sensitivity of 99.4% and specificities of 93.9% and 94.5%, respectively. Some cross-reactivity against rES33 and rES38 was found, especially with sera from cases infected with Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that MAPIA is a simple and effective tool that may be used to compare antibody responses to different cysticercosis and taeniasis antigens and, in this case, may be useful for the rapid detection of T. solium cases.

  1. Novel aspects of defensins' involvement in virus-induced autoimmunity in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakos, Evangelos I; Kountouras, Jannis; Polyzos, Stergios A; Deretzi, Georgia

    2017-05-01

    Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, in this review we describe current contributions in this field and we propose novel hypotheses regarding the potential impact of defensin-related pathways on virus-driven autoimmune neurodegeneration. In this regard, we have previously proposed that abnormal expression of defensins by penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to the pathophysiology of Helicobacter pylori-related brain neurodegenerative disorders through variable modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses. We hereby propose that impaired expression of defensins by structural components of the BBB may impede glymphatic circulation and disrupt receptor signalling in pericytes that is essential for microvascular stability, thereby retaining blood-derived toxins and bystander activated T-cells in the brain and further impairing BBB integrity and hampering viral clearance. Autoreactive T-cell infiltrates in neuronaxonal lesions characteristic of chronic central nervous system diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are directed against both, myelin and non-myelin, antigens the precise nature of which remains enigmatic. Inadequate expression of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a gene expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, induces the recruitment of defensin-specific T-cells. These cells may access the brain, thereby causing a decrease in defensin expression and subsequent down-regulation of CD91/LRP1-mediated clearance of amyloid-β that

  2. Dangerous liaisons: Western involvement in the nuclear power industry of central and eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The state of the nuclear industry in central and eastern Europe is an issue of global concern. However, despite all the political talk and corporate hype since the collapse of communist regimes in the region, this study demonstrates that little has so far been done to change the situation. Moreover, the limited level of finance and support which has been offered has tended to support the expansion of nuclear power programmes in central and eastern Europe, rather than address immediately safety concerns relating to existing nuclear reactors and develop more environmentally acceptable and economically efficient energy systems. (author)

  3. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  4. Prevalencia de teniosis y seroprevalencia de cisticercosis humana en Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Perú 2008 Taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Peru 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Cordero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar la prevalencia de teniosis y la seroprevalencia de cisticercosis humana en la población del distrito de Pampa Cangallo, en la sierra central de Perú (Ayacucho; se realizó un estudio transversal en el año 2008, con 368 personas de 5 a 70 años de edad. El diagnóstico de teniosis se efectuó mediante la prueba coproparasitológica (sedimentación rápida mientras que para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis se realizó un tamizaje con la prueba de ELISA, y los casos positivos fueron confirmados por inmunoblot. Se encontró cinco casos positivos a huevos de Taenia sp, lo que representa una prevalencia de teniosis de 1,4% (IC95%: 0,2 - 2,5%, siendo los individuos entre los 20 a 49 años los que presentan la mayor proporción. Se encontró una seroprevalencia de cisticercosis de 3,3% (IC95%: 1,4 - 5,1% por 12 casos positivos, siendo más frecuente en mujeres. No se encontró asociación con ninguno de los factores estudiados. Si bien la prevalencia es baja, se confirma la existencia de la teniosis y cisticercosis en esta población, por lo que se sugiere el establecimiento de estrategias de prevención y control, con énfasis en la educación comunitaria.To estimate the taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in a rural town from the Peruvian central Andes (Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, we performed a cross sectional study in 2008, included 368 people between 5 and 70 years. Fast sedimentation technique and direct examination of stool samples were used to taeniosis diagnosis, and ELISA are used as screening test to cysticercosis, positives cases were confirmed with immunoblot. We found five positives cases to Taenia sp. eggs, which represents a 1.4% (95%CI: 0.2 - 2.5% of a taeniosis prevalence, being individuals between the 20 to 49 years those which presented high proportion. We found 3.3% (95%CI: 1.5 - 5.1% of cysticercosis prevalence for 12 positives cases, being most frequent in women. No association with evaluated

  5. Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases

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    Pooja Kala

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same.

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  7. Cysticercosis/taeniasis endemicity in Southeast Asia: Current status and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Wei; Ito, Akira; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Acosta, Luz P; Lee Willingham, Arve

    2017-01-01

    The parasitic zoonoses cysticercosis/taeniasis is among the 17 major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) identified by the WHO as a focus for research and control. It is caused by a larval stage (cysticercus) infection of Taenia solium tapeworm in both humans and pigs. Cysticercosis occurs in many resource-poor countries, especially those with warm and mild climates in the regions of Latin America (LA), Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The prevalence of human cysticercosis is marked in those areas where individuals are traditionally keen to consume raw or insufficiently cooked pork and/or where the husbandry of pigs is improper. The worldwide burden of cysticercosis is unclear and notably, large-scale control initiatives are lacking in all regions. This review focuses on the current endemic status of cysticercosis caused by T. solium infection in both humans and pigs living in 13 Southeast Asian countries. We will also emphasize epidemiological data as well as prevention and control of human neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Central nervous system involvement in the autonomic responses to psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, H.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Rutten, G.J.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and

  9. Central Nervous System Involvement of T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosed with Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Göçmen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL is a generalized malignancy of the lymphoid tissue characterized by the accumulation of monoclonal lymphocytes, usually of B cell type. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS is an extremely rare complication of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL. We describe a case of T-PLL presenting with symptomatic infiltration of the brain that was histopathologically proven by stereotactic brain biopsy. We emphasize the importance of rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment for patients presenting with CNS involvement and a history of leukemia or lymphoma.

  10. Relapsing and Progressive Tumefactive Demyelinating Form of Central Nervous System Involvement in a Patient with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hui Joong

    2013-01-01

    White matter hyper intensities (WMHI) on MRI are not rare in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). In this presentation, WMHI were developed in both middle cerebellar peduncles and temporal white matter in a patient with PSS, and regressed after medication of high dose steroid. However, new lesions were developed in the subcortices of both precentral gyri, and progressed rapidly to tumefactive hyperintensity on MRI. We report an unusual relapsing and progressive tumefactive demyelinating form of central nervous system involvement in PSS.

  11. Rare case of disseminated cysticercosis and taeniasis in a Japanese traveler after returning from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period.

  12. Evidence for the involvement of MC4 receptors in the central mechanisms of opioid antinociception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The data described in this thesis extend general knowledge of the involvement of the MC4 receptor in mechanisms of analgesia. The following aspects outlined below constitute novel information. Firstly, the MC4R localization in the DRG is demonstrated. The MC4 receptor was assumed to exist

  13. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P < 0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P = 0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (≥ 4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P < 0.001). It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Combating Taenia solium cysticercosis in Southeast Asia an opportunity for improving human health and livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A Lee; Wu, Hai-Wei; Conlan, James; Satrija, Fadjar

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the zoonotic pork tapeworm Taenia solium is emerging as a constraint for the nutritional and economic well-being of small-holder farming communities in many underdeveloped areas of Southeast Asia. It occurs mainly in impoverished regions with inadequate sanitation, poor pig management practices and lack of meat inspection and control. Neurocysticercosis, the most serious form of the disease, is considered the most common parasitic infection of the human nervous system and the most frequent preventable cause of epilepsy in the developing world. Although theoretically easy to control and declared eradicable, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis remains a neglected disease. There is a lack of information and awareness of the burden and transmission of the disease at the regional and global level, partially explained by the unavailability of good quality diagnostic tools in field-applicable formats. These factors are further compounded by a lack of validated simple and sustainable intervention packages as part of integrated helminth control programmes. To date, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis has not been eliminated from any region by a specific programme in Southeast Asia, and no national control programmes are yet in place except in parts of the People's Republic of China. The presence, distribution, public health importance and economic relevance of cysticercosis need to be better documented in Southeast Asia in order to bring it to the attention of affected communities, decision-makers and funding bodies. A number of proven cost-effective intervention tools for combating cysticercosis appear to be available but need to be field validated. The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)) serves as an important regional 'driving force' for managing research, capacity building, knowledge and stakeholder engagement essential for controlling cysticercosis in the Southeast Asian region while ensuring that

  15. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in three communities in north Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, R; Dorny, P; Nguyen, V K; Dang, T C T; Goddeeris, B; Craig, P S; Vercruysse, J

    2006-01-01

    (1) To investigate the response to a serum antigen-detecting ELISA for cysticercosis and a stool coproantigen test for taeniasis in two rural communities (mountainous and coastal areas) and one group of (peri-)urban factory workers; and (2) to examine clinical features of human cysticercosis in northern Vietnam. Villagers and factory workers and their families were informed and invited to participate in the study. Blood and faecal samples were collected from the participants and a simple questionnaire on taeniasis/cysticercosis completed. Serum was examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigen by a monoclonal-based sandwich ELISA. Ag-ELISA positive persons underwent a clinical examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Taenia eggs and for copro-antigens. Tapeworms were identified following therapeutic expulsion using morphology and PCR-RFLP. Circulating cysticercus antigens, suggesting active infection, were detected in 5.3% (16/303), 0.6% (1/175) and 0.0% (0/229) of the sampled individuals from the mountainous, coastal and urban regions, respectively. Clinical examination and CT scan of the cysticercus antigen positive persons showed that active cysticercosis did not cause severe disease in most cases. Taenia copro-antigens were found in 0.3% (1/297), 1.8% (3/166) and 0.0% (0/228) of the stool samples from the mountainous, coastal and urban communities, respectively. Three tapeworms were expelled after treatment: two Taenia solium and one Taenia saginata. This survey points to a focal distribution of taeniasis/cysticercosis and suggests that human cysticercosis is rather acquired due to close contact with a T. solium carrier and self-infection, than through infection from the environment.

  16. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali and North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, Toni; Depary, A A; Sutisna, Putu; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported that three human Taenia species are distributed in Indonesia: Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. T. asiatica is well known in North Sumatra, especially on Samosir island in Lake Toba. T. solium and T. saginata are known from Bali. T. solium is most serious public health issue in Papua (former Irian Jaya). In this report, we briefly review the present situation of these three human Taenia species mainly in Bali and North Sumatra. For community based epidemiological survey, we have adopted and applied questionnaire, microscopic observation of eggs, coproantigen tests, coproDNA tests, mitochondrial DNA analysis and morphology for isolated specimens, serology for cysticercosis and taeniasis. For detection of taeniasis cases of both T. saginata and T. asiatica, questionnaire by expert doctors is perfect to detect worm carriers. Corpoantigen test developed for detection of taeniasis of T. solium is also highly reliable to detect taeniasis carriers in the community. Epidemiological data from these two islands 2002-2005 are reviewed with backgrounds of historical culture, religions and customs.

  17. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory.

  18. An ocular cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia caused by Taenia solium Asian genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Dewiyani, Cokorda I; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhiko; Sudarmaja, Made; Sutisna, Putu; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-06-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a nine-year-old Balinese girl in Indonesia is reported. She presented with redness and pain in the left eye and showed a cysticercus in the anterior chamber in December 2010. Morphological feature of the cysticercus removed from the anterior chamber indicated that it was an immature cysticercus of Taenia species with no hooklets. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis using a piece of histopathological specimen revealed it a cysticercus of Taenia solium Asian genotype. Serology by immunoblot and ELISA highly specific to cysticercosis was negative. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cysticercosis of the nervous system. Treatment by means of specific internal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skromne-Kadlubik, G.; Celis, C.

    1981-01-01

    Five hundred patients with cysticercosis of the nervous system were evaluated by scanning that used anti-Cysticercus antibodies labeled with indium 113. The same antibodies, labeled with iodine 131, were used for radioimmunotreatment. Ninety-six percent of the patients had good or excellent results, whereas only 4% had poor results. None of the patients showed intolerance or radiotoxicity during three months of clinical and laboratory follow-up. The diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cysticercosis of the nervous system are dramatically changing, due to the development of anti-Cysticercus antibodies labeled with radionuclides

  20. [Design and implementation of field questionnaire survey system of taeniasis/cysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan-Zhang, Li; Jing-Bo, Xue; Men-Bao, Qian; Xin-Zhong, Zang; Shang, Xia; Qiang, Wang; Ying-Dan, Chen; Shi-Zhu, Li

    2018-04-17

    A taeniasis/cysticercosis information management system was designed to achieve the dynamic monitoring of the epidemic situation of taeniasis/cysticercosis and improve the intelligence level of disease information management. The system includes three layer structures (application layer, technical core layer, and data storage layer) and designs a datum transmission and remote communication system of traffic information tube in Browser/Server architecture. The system is believed to promote disease datum collection. Additionally, the system may provide the standardized data for convenience of datum analysis.

  1. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  2. Serodiagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Using Antigens from Vesicular Fluid of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Ednéia C.; Snege, Miriam; Vaz, Adelaide J.; Leser, Paulo G.

    2001-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is a severe parasitic infection of the central nervous system with universal distribution. To determine the efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot with antigens of T. crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra) compared to standard techniques (indirect immunofluorescence test [IFT] and complement fixation test [CFT]) using T. solium cysticerci (Tso) for the serodiagnosis of NC, we studied serum samples from 24 patients with NC, 30 supposedly healthy individuals, 76 blood bank donors, 45 individuals with other non-NC parasitoses, and 97 samples from individuals screened for cysticercosis serology (SC). The sensitivity observed was 100% for ELISA-Tso and ELISA-Tcra, 91.7% for the IFT, and 87.5% for the CFT. The specificity was 90% for ELISA-Tso, 96.7% for ELISA-Tcra, 50% for IFT, and 63.3% for CFT. The efficiency was highest for ELISA-Tcra, followed by ELISA-Tso, IFT, and CFT. Of the 23 samples from SC group, which were reactive to ELISA-Tso and/or ELISA-Tcra, only 3 were positive to immunblot-Tcra (specific peptides of 14- and 18-kDa) and to glycoprotein peptides purified from Tcra antigen (gp-Tcra), showing the low predictive value of ELISA for screening. None of the samples from the remaining groups showed specific reactivity in immunoblot-Tcra. These results demonstrate that ELISA-Tcra can be used as a screening method for the serodiagnosis of NC and support the need for specific tests for confirmation of the results. The immunoblot can be used as a confirmatory test both with Tcra and gp-Tcra, with the latter having an advantage in terms of visualization of the results. PMID:11687454

  3. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Floroskoufi, Paraskewi; Raftopoulou, Maria; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr) which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on bra...

  4. Similar chemokine receptor profiles in lymphomas with central nervous system involvement - possible biomarkers for patient selection for central nervous system prophylaxis, a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Siria A; Pasanen, Anna Kaisa; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Sippola, Antti; Sormunen, Raija; Soini, Ylermi; Jantunen, Esa; Koivunen, Petri; Salokorpi, Niina; Bloigu, Risto; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Kuittinen, Outi

    2016-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse occurs in around 5% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases. No biomarkers to identify high-risk patients have been discovered. We evaluated the expression of lymphocyte-guiding chemokine receptors in systemic and CNS lymphomas. Immunohistochemical staining for CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR7, CXCL12, and CXCL13 was performed on 89 tissue samples, including cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), secondary CNS lymphoma (sCNSL), and systemic DLBCL. Also, 10 reactive lymph node samples were included. Immunoelectron microscopy was performed on two PCNSLs, one sCNSL, one systemic DLBCL, and one reactive lymph node samples, and staining was performed for CXCR4, CXCR5, CXCL12, and CXCL13. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between clinical parameters, diagnostic groups, and chemokine receptor expression. Strong nuclear CXCR4 positivity correlated with systemic DLBCL, whereas strong cytoplasmic CXCR5 positivity correlated with CNS involvement (P = 0.003 and P = 0.039). Immunoelectron microscopy revealed a nuclear CXCR4 staining in reactive lymph node, compared with cytoplasmic and membranous localization seen in CNS lymphomas. We found that CNS lymphoma presented a chemokine receptor profile different from systemic disease. Our findings give new information on the CNS tropism of DLBCL and, if confirmed, may contribute to more effective targeting of CNS prophylaxis among patients with DLBCL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. The application of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, S; Ishigatsubo, Y; Katou, K; Sakamoto, H; Chiba, J [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-06-01

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant.

  6. Parenting and environmental risk : an examination of child loss and maternal involvement among Bofi foragers in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Hillary N; Silverman, Lisa S

    2015-03-01

    The majority of adaptationist models and research related to parenting strategies have focused on extrinsic or population-level risk as predictors of parenting. However, some researchers have called for greater consideration of cultural factors as well as on intracultural variation in parenting. This study uses a biocultural approach to examine intracultural variation in environmental risk and parenting among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. In particular, we examine 30 mothers' experiences of child loss as a predictor of variation in maternal involvement (proximity, holding, and affection) with their young children. Multivariate and univariate analyses indicate that child loss accounted for substantial variation in maternal behaviors and was predictive of maternal holding and the expression of physical affection. In sum, our findings indicate that intracultural variation in child loss is predictive of maternal involvement with young children and that a biocultural approach is useful in explaining this variation.

  7. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutsis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX, carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars. Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis.

  8. Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in x-linked charcot-marie-tooth disease with central nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Floroskoufi, Paraskewi; Raftopoulou, Maria; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr) which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars). Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis.

  9. Regional aspects of cerebral cysticercosis. Incidence and evaluation by computerized tomography in 1000 consecutive studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozzolino, D.A. (Instituto de Tomografia Axial Computadorizada de Londrina (Brazil))

    One thousand consecutive studies of the entire brain were performed and 122 patients with tomographic diagnosis of cysticercosis were found. The high incidence of this disease is discussed and its endemic characteristics as well. Various forms and types are described, the most frequent being the presence of calcifications; other tests performed at the time of computerized tomography are mentioned.

  10. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin...

  11. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernatus Martin Mkupasi

    Full Text Available Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  12. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific: present state of knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Nakao, Minoru; Wandra, Toni; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Several topics on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific are overviewed. In Asia and the Pacific, three human taeniid species have been recognized: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The first topic is on evolution of T. solium. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms of T. solium worldwide are discussed with emphasis of two specific genotypes: American-African and Asian. The second topic is recent major advances in sero- and molecular-diagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis in humans, pigs and dogs. The third is the present situation of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia. The forth is the present situation of T. solium cysticercosis and T. saginata taeniasis in Bali, Indonesia. The fifth is the present situation of T. asiatica taeniasis in Asia and the Pacific and in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The sixth is on the debate of the exact definition of T. asiatica. Because T. asiatica can not be differentiated from T. saginata morphologically, it is time to re-evaluate T. saginata in Asia and the Pacific. New and broad-based surveys across this region are necessary from epidemiological and public health perspectives, based on evidence.

  13. TAENIASIS AND CYSTICERCOSIS IN THE PANIAI LAKES AREA OF IRIAN JAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gunawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit taeniasis dan cysticercosis diperkirakan baru masuk ke daerah Paniai dalam tahun 1970. Kasus-kasus pertama telah ditemukan dalam tahun 1971 diantara penderita yang dirawat di RSU F.narotali. Insidensnya terus meningkat sejak waktu itu dan dalam tahun 1975 sejumlah 60-100 penderita dilaporkan setiap bulan dari poliklinik RSU Knarotali. Survey yang diadakan dalam tahun 1973 di kampung-kampung sekitar F.narotali menemukan prevalensi 8 persen taeniasis dan 4,25 persen untuk cysticercosis. Survey ulangan dalam tahun 1975 menemukan suatu prevalensi sebesar 8,2 persen untuk cysticerosis, dan 3,5 persen epilepsi. Meningkatnya jumlah penderita epilepsi di daerah ini kemungkinan besar disebabkan cysticercosis cerebral. Meningkatnya jumlah penderita luka bakar juga berhubungan dengan epilepsi akibat cysticercosis ini. Usaha-usaha untuk memberantas penyakit ini melalui penyuluhan kesehatan, pembangunan jamban keluarga dan pengawasan pemotongan babi sangat sukar dijalankan karena hambatan-hambatan di bidang sosial budaya. Penyakit ini pada babi telah menjalar ke daerah-daerah lain di pegunungan dan kenimbulkan ketegangan-ketegangan sosial. Penelitian lebih lanjut amat dibutuhkan, supaya suatu program pemberantasan yang lebih efektif dapat segera dilaksanakan untuk melindungi penduduk daerah Paniai dan daerah lainnya terhadap penyakit yang cukup berbahaya ini.

  14. A review of taeniasis and cysticercosis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James; Khounsy, Syseng; Inthavong, Phouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are important but underreported parasitic zoonoses in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Reports of human and pig cysticercosis are rather limited and based largely on anecdotal evidence. To date, no structured surveys of disease prevalence or incidence have been reported. However, one unpublished pilot survey of pig cysticercosis in a slaughterhouse in northern Laos estimated prevalence to be 1.7%, without speciation of parasite cysts. Over the past 20 years, nine surveys of intestinal helminthic infection have been conducted; the prevalence of human taeniasis ranged from 0 to 14.0%. The study designs and sample sizes varied greatly, however a high degree of spatial and age variation in taeniasis prevalence was evident. These results are however inconclusive as the species of tapeworm infecting the people was not determined. To further our knowledge of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Lao PDR, structured community-based surveys in high-risk areas are required in combination with the use of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests capable of identifying the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. This will enable the development and implementation of control measures that are both appropriate and sustainable if T. solium is shown to be a public health threat.

  15. Acute orexigenic effect of agmatine involves interaction between central α2-adrenergic and GABAergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh Gulabrao; Sharma, Omi; Aglawe, Manish Manohar; Kale, Mayur Bhimrao; Gawande, Dinesh Yugraj; Umekar, Milind Janraoji; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2017-09-01

    Agmatine and GABA have been abundantly expressed in brain nuclei involved in regulation of energy homeostasis and promoting stimulation of food intake in rodents. However, their mutual interaction, if any, in the elicitation of feeding behavior is largely remains unclear. The current study provides experimental evidence for the possible interaction of agmatine, adrenergic and GABAergic systems in stimulation of feeding in satiated rats. Satiated rats fitted with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae and were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (a) GABA A receptor agonist, muscimol, diazepam or antagonist bicuculline and flumazenil, GABA A positive modulator, allopregnanolone or negative modulator of GABA A receptor, dehydroepiandrosterone (b) In view of the high affinity of agmatine for α 2 -adrenoceptors and the close association between α 2 -adrenoceptors and GABAergic system, the effect of their modulators on feeding elicited by agmatine/GABAergic agonists were also examined. I.c.v. administration of agmatine (40-80μg/rat) induces the significant orexigenic effect in satiated rats. The orexigenic effect of agmatine was potentiated by muscimol (25ng/rat, i.c.v.); diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.); allopregnanolone (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and blocked by bicuculline (1mg/kg, i.p.) and dehydroepiandrosterone (4mg/kg,s.c.). However, it remained unaffected in presence of flumazenil (25ng/rat, i.c.v.). The orexigenic effect of agmatine and GABAergic agonists was potentiated by a α 2 -adrenoceptors agonist, clonidine (10ng/rat, i.c.v.) and blocked by its antagonist, yohimbine (5μg/rat, i.c.v.). Yohimbine also blocked the hyperphagic effect elicited by ineffective dose combination of agmatine (5μg/rat, i.c.v.) with muscimol (25ng/rat, i.c.v.) or diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) or allopregnanolone (0.5mg/kg,s.c.). The results of the present study suggest that agmatine induced α 2 -adrenoceptors activation might facilitate GABAergic activity to stimulate food intake in

  16. Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review: Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo-González, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara; Allepuz, Alberto; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Abraham, Annette; Afonso, Mariana Boaventura; Blocher, Joachim; Cardoso, Luís; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Gomes, Jacinto; Gómez-Morales, María Ángeles; Jokelainen, Pikka; Kaminski, Miriam; Krt, Brane; Magnussen, Pascal; Robertson, Lucy J; Schmidt, Veronika; Schmutzhard, Erich; Smit, G Suzanne A; Šoba, Barbara; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Starič, Jože; Troell, Karin; Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vilhena, Manuela; Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Winkler, Andrea S; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-07-21

    Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are zoonotic parasites of public health importance. Data on their occurrence in humans and animals in western Europe are incomplete and fragmented. In this study, we aimed to update the current knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites in this region. We conducted a systematic review of scientific and grey literature published from 1990 to 2015 on the epidemiology of T. saginata and T. solium in humans and animals. Additionally, data about disease occurrence were actively sought by contacting local experts in the different countries. Taeniosis cases were found in twelve out of eighteen countries in western Europe. No cases were identified in Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. For Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the UK, annual taeniosis cases were reported and the number of detected cases per year ranged between 1 and 114. Detected prevalences ranged from 0.05 to 0.27%, whereas estimated prevalences ranged from 0.02 to 0.67%. Most taeniosis cases were reported as Taenia spp. or T. saginata, although T. solium was reported in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Slovenia, Portugal and the UK. Human cysticercosis cases were reported in all western European countries except for Iceland, with the highest number originating from Portugal and Spain. Most human cysticercosis cases were suspected to have acquired the infection outside western Europe. Cases of T. solium in pigs were found in Austria and Portugal, but only the two cases from Portugal were confirmed with molecular methods. Germany, Spain and Slovenia reported porcine cysticercosis, but made no Taenia species distinction. Bovine cysticercosis was detected in all countries except for Iceland, with a prevalence based on meat inspection of 0.0002-7.82%. Detection and reporting of taeniosis in western Europe should be improved. The existence of T. solium tapeworm carriers, of suspected autochthonous cases of human cysticercosis and

  17. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar

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    Tin Aye Khaing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300. Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364. Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (OR=3.0; 95% CI=1.7–5.4, increased age (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.2–4.2, husbandry system (OR=5.1; 95% CI=2.4–11.2, feed type (OR=16.9; 95% CI=2.3–124.3, not using anthelmintics in pigs (OR=11.9; 95% CI=5.0–28.5, not using anthelmintics in owner (OR=2.5; 95% CI=1.4–4.4, no hand-washing before feeding (OR=31.5; 95% CI=4.3–230.9, and pork consumption of owner (OR=37.4; 95% CI=9.0–156.1 in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar.

  18. Survey of Obstetrician-Gynecologists in the United States About Taeniasis and Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rebecca L; Anderson, Britta; Schulkin, Jay; Cantey, Paul T; Montgomery, Susan P; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-11

    An estimated 50 million persons worldwide are infected with cysticerci, the larval forms of the Taenia solium tapeworm. Neurocysticercosis can cause seizures, epilepsy, and hydrocephalus, and fatal cases have been reported in the United States in immigrants and in travelers returning from endemic countries. Pregnant women with symptomatic neurocysticercosis present treatment challenges, whereas those with the adult tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis) can put their infants and other family members, as well as obstetrician-gynecologists and their staff, at risk for cysticercosis. A questionnaire developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists was sent to a representative sample of 1,000 physicians to assess their awareness of T. solium infection and the potential for it to be encountered in an obstetrics and gynecology setting. In total, 31.4% of respondents correctly answered that taeniasis is caused by eating undercooked pork containing T. solium cysts (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.6-36.5). While only 14.5% (95% CI = 11.0-18.6) of respondents correctly answered that cysticercosis is acquired by ingesting tapeworm eggs shed in human stools, twice that number (30.3%; 95% CI = 25.5-35.3) correctly answered that a mother with taeniasis can cause cysticercosis in her infant. Practicing in a state in which cysticercosis was reportable at the time of the survey was not significantly associated with answering any of the 12 knowledge questions correctly. Overall, knowledge of T. solium infection among U.S. obstetricians-gynecologists is limited. This may result in missed opportunities to diagnose and treat pregnant women with taeniasis, which may put family members and obstetrics clinical staff at risk for cysticercosis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabri?l, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies...

  20. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Apoptosis of supraoptic AVP neurons is involved in the development of central diabetes insipidus after hypophysectomy in rats

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    Huang Lijin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that various types of axonal injury of hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract can result in degeneration of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs in hypothalamus and development of central diabetes insipidus (CDI. However, the mechanism of the degeneration and death of MCNs after hypophysectomy in vivo is still unclear. This present study was aimed to disclose it and to figure out the dynamic change of central diabetes insipidus after hypophysectomy. Results The analysis on the dynamic change of daily water consumption (DWC, daily urine volume(DUV, specific gravity of urine(USG and plasma vasopressin concentration showed that the change pattern of them was triphasic and neuron counting showed that the degeneration of vasopressin neurons began at 10 d, aggravated at 20 d and then stabilized at 30 d after hypophysectomy. There was marked upregulation of cleaved Caspase-3 expression of vasopressin neurons in hypophysectomy rats. A "ladder" pattern of migration of DNA internucleosomal fragments was detected and apoptotic ultrastructure was found in these neurons. There was time correlation among the occurrence of diabetes insipidus, the changes of plasma vasopressin concentration and the degeneration of vasopressin neurons after hypophysectomy. Conclusion This study firstly demonstrated that apoptosis was involved in degeneration of supraoptic vasopressin neurons after hypophysectomy in vivo and development of CDI. Our study on time course and correlations among water metabolism, degeneration and apoptosis of vasopressin neurons suggested that there should be an efficient therapeutic window in which irreversible CDI might be prevented by anti-apoptosis.

  2. Disseminated cysticercosis: clinical spectrum, Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms and role of albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qavi, Abdul; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Kumar, Neeraj; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we describe clinical and imaging spectrum, and the natural course of patients with disseminated cysticercosis. How albendazole affects the course of disease has also been evaluated. We assessed the Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms, to know the reason for the apparently higher prevalence of disseminated cysticercosis in India. Sixty consecutive patients with disseminated cysticercosis were enrolled. Sixty age-and-sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled for the purpose of genetic study. Twenty patients, who gave consent, were treated with albendazole along with corticosteroids. Forty patients did not give consent for antiparasitic therapy. Assessment for Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genes) was done. Patients were followed for 6 months. We also performed a literature search of cases published in English language using PubMed electronic database and analyzed 56 cases thus available. There was an increased risk (6.63 fold and 4.61 fold) of disseminated cysticercosis in the presence of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor-4, respectively. The allelic frequency of Gly (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] = 3.52) and Ile alleles (11% vs. 2%, P = 0.009, OR = 4.738) in disseminated cysticercosis was high. Albendazole resulted in complete disappearance of all cerebral lesions in 35% (7/20) patients and reduction in lesion load in remaining 65% (13/20) patients. No significant change in number of cysticercal lesion was noted in patients who did not receive albendazole. No major adverse reaction following antiparasitic treatment was noted. Three deaths were recorded in patients who did not receive antiparasitic treatment. Of the 56 cases reported in PubMed, 33 patients received antiparasitic treatment with follow-up data available for 31 patients. Most (24) of these patients received albendazole. A significant clinical and/or imaging improvements, on follow up, were observed in

  3. Involvement of central opioid systems in human interferon-α induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Mitsuhiro; Kitano, Yutaka; Komiyama, Chika; Hirohashi, Masaaki; Takasuna, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which human interferon-α (IFN-α) increases the immobility time in a forced swimming test, an animal model of depression.Central administration of IFN-α (0.05–50 IU per mouse, i.cist.) increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in mice in a dose-dependent manner.Neither IFN-β nor -γ possessed any effect under the same experimental conditions.Pre-treatment with an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (1 mg kg−1, s.c.) inhibited the prolonged immobility time induced by IFN-α (60 KIU kg−1, i.v. or 50 IU per mouse. i.cist.).Peripheral administration of naloxone methiodide (1 mg kg−1, s.c.), which does not pass the blood–brain barrier, failed to block the effect of IFN-α, while intracisternal administration of naloxone methiodide (1 nmol per mouse) completely blocked.The effect of IFN-α was inhibited by a μ1-specific opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine (35 mg kg−1, s.c.) and a μ1/μ2 receptor antagonist, β-FNA (40 mg kg−1, s.c.). A selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (3 mg kg−1, s.c.) and a κ-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (20 mg kg−1, s.c.), both failed to inhibit the increasing effect of IFN-α.These results suggest that the activator of the central opioid receptors of the μ1-subtype might be related to the prolonged immobility time of IFN-α, but δ and κ-opioid receptors most likely are not involved. PMID:10903965

  4. Central nervous system involvement in mantle cell lymphoma : clinical features, prognostic factors and outcomes from the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheah, C. Y.; George, A.; Gine, E.; Chiappella, A.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Jurczak, W.; Krawczyk, K.; Mocikova, H.; Klener, P.; Salek, D.; Walewski, J.; Szymczyk, M.; Smolej, L.; Auer, R. L.; Ritchie, D. S.; Arcaini, L.; Williams, M. E.; Dreyling, M.; Seymour, J. F.

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is uncommon, and the manifestations and natural history are not well described. We present the data on 57 patients with MCL who developed CNS involvement, from a database of 1396 consecutively treated patients at 14 institutions.

  5. Identification of regions involved in substrate binding and dimer stabilization within the central domains of yeast Hsp40 Sis1.

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    Júlio C Borges

    Full Text Available Protein folding, refolding and degradation are essential for cellular life and are regulated by protein homeostatic processes such those that involve the molecular chaperone DnaK/Hsp70 and its co-chaperone DnaJ. Hsp70 action is initiated when proteins from the DnaJ family bind an unfolded protein for delivery purposes. In eukaryotes, the DnaJ family can be divided into two main groups, Type I and Type II, represented by yeast cytosolic Ydj1 and Sis1, respectively. Although sharing some unique features both members of the DnaJ family, Ydj1 and Sis1 are structurally and functionally distinct as deemed by previous studies, including the observation that their central domains carry the structural and functional information even in switched chimeras. In this study, we combined several biophysical tools for evaluating the stability of Sis1 and mutants that had the central domains (named Gly/Met rich domain and C-terminal Domain I deleted or switched to those of Ydj1 to gain insight into the role of these regions in the structure and function of Sis1. The mutants retained some functions similar to full length wild-type Sis1, however they were defective in others. We found that: 1 Sis1 unfolds in at least two steps as follows: folded dimer to partially folded monomer and then to an unfolded monomer. 2 The Gly/Met rich domain had intrinsically disordered characteristics and its deletion had no effect on the conformational stability of the protein. 3 The deletion of the C-terminal Domain I perturbed the stability of the dimer. 4 Exchanging the central domains perturbed the conformational stability of the protein. Altogether, our results suggest the existence of two similar subdomains in the C-terminal domain of DnaJ that could be important for stabilizing each other in order to maintain a folded substrate-binding site as well as the dimeric state of the protein.

  6. Risk factors associated with taeniasis-cysticercosis in Lagamar, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vergara, M L; Prata, A; Netto, H V; Vieira, C de O; Castro, J H; Micheletti, L G; Otaño, A S; Franquini Júnior, J

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was carried out in 3,344 people of an urban town in Lagamar, Minas Gerais, Brazil--during 1992-1993, to evaluate the main risk factors related to taeniasis and cysticercosis. A total number of 875 (78.9%) houses were visited and 1080 (32.3%) subjects were clinically examined. Poor sanitary conditions were positively associated with former history of taeniasis or seizures in households (p < 0.05). It was remarkable the positive relationship between taeniasis and seizures when households were questioned and subjects were clinically evaluated (p < 0.05). The relative risk of seizures was 2.3 between households and 1.7 for individuals clinically examined respectively. The breeding of swine nearby and the chronic carriers of taeniasis are determinant factors in the maintenance of the epidemiological link between taeniasis and cysticercosis in endemic areas.

  7. Risk factors associated with taeniasis-cysticercosis in Lagamar, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Vergara Mario León

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was carried out in 3,344 people of an urban town in Lagamar, Minas Gerais, Brazil - during 1992-1993, to evaluate the main risk factors related to taeniasis and cysticercosis. A total number of 875 (78.9% houses were visited and 1080 (32.3% subjects were clinically examined. Poor sanitary conditions were positively associated with former history of taeniasis or seizures in households (p < 0.05. It was remarkable the positive relationship between taeniasis and seizures when households were questioned and subjects were clinically evaluated (p < 0.05. The relative risk of seizures was 2.3 between households and 1.7 for individuals clinically examined respectively. The breeding of swine nearby and the chronic carriers of taeniasis are determinant factors in the maintenance of the epidemiological link between taeniasis and cysticercosis in endemic areas.

  8. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment.

  9. The Incidence of Human Cysticercosis in a Rural Community of Eastern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabri?l, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sam...

  10. High-dose methotrexate following intravitreal methotrexate administration in preventing central nervous system involvement of primary intraocular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroki; Takase, Hiroshi; Kubo, Fumito; Miki, Tohru; Yamamoto, Masahide; Tomita, Makoto; Mochizuki, Manabu; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2016-10-01

    In order to prevent central nervous system (CNS) involvement and improve the prognosis of primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL), we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of combined therapy using intravitreal methotrexate (MTX) and systemic high-dose MTX on treatment-naïve PIOL. Patients with newly diagnosed PIOL whose lymphoma was limited to the eyes were enrolled. The patients were treated with weekly intravitreal MTX until the ocular lesions were resolved, followed by five cycles of systemic high-dose MTX (3.5 g/m 2 ) every other week. Ten patients were enrolled in this study and completed the treatment. All patients achieved complete response for their ocular lesions with rapid decrease of intravitreal interleukin-10 concentration. Adverse events of intravitreal and systemic high-dose MTX were mild and tolerable. With a median follow-up of 29.5 months, four patients (40%) experienced the CNS disease development and the mean CNS lymphoma-free survival (CLFS) time was 51.1 months. Two-year CLFS, which was the primary end-point of the study, was 58.3% (95% confidence interval, 23.0-82.1%). In contrast, eight patients were treated with intravitreal MTX alone in our institute, and their 2-year CLFS was 37.5% (95% confidence interval, 8.7-67.4%). In conclusion, systemic high-dose MTX following intravitreal MTX is feasible and might be effective in preventing CNS involvement of PIOL. Further arrangements are worth considering in order to improve the effects. This study was registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000003921). © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Recent advances and perspectives in molecular epidemiology of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Cysticercosis caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium is spreading all over the world through globalization and is one of the most neglected, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) or neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In the present study, the reason why T. solium cysticercosis has been neglected is discussed at first, and followed with an overview on the most recent advances and perspectives in molecular approaches for epidemiology of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, since although taeniasis does not constitute recognized zoonoses, transmission and complete development are dependent on human definitive hosts. Main topics are discussions on (1) the two, Asian and Afro/American, genotypes of T. solium, (2) comparative analysis of mitochondrial (haploid) and nuclear (diploid) genes, and (3) the presence of hybrids of these two genotypes which indicates out-crossing of two genotypes in hermaphrodite tapeworms in Madagascar. Additional topics are on (4) the usefulness of phylogeographic analyses to discuss where the infection was acquired from, and (5) miscellaneous unsolved topics around these genetic diversity of T. solium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

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    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  13. Short report: secondary transmission in porcine cysticercosis: description and their potential implications for control sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Armando E; López-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Byron Y; Gavidia, César M; Garcia, Héctor H; Silva, María E; Ramos, Daphne D; Manzanedo, Rafael; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Lelia; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

    2005-09-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is one of few potentially eradicable infectious diseases and is the target of control programs in several countries. The larval stage of this zoonotic cestode invades the human brain and is responsible for most cases of adult-onset epilepsy in the world. The pig is the natural intermediate host, harboring the larvae or cysticerci. Our current understanding of the life cycle implicates humans as the only definitive host and tapeworm carrier (developing taeniasis) and thus the sole source of infective eggs that are responsible for cysticercosis in both human and pigs through oral-fecal transmission. Here we show evidence of an alternative pig-to-pig route of transmission, previously not suspected to exist. In a series of four experiments, naive sentinel pigs were exposed to pigs that had been infected orally with tapeworm segments (containing infective eggs) and moved to a clean environment. Consistently in all four experiments, at least one of the sentinel pigs became seropositive or infected with parasite cysts with much lower cyst burdens than did primarily infected animals. Second-hand transmission of Taenia solium eggs could explain the overdispersed pattern of porcine cysticercosis, with few pigs harboring heavy parasite burdens and many more harboring small numbers of parasites. This route of transmission opens new avenues for consideration with respect to control strategies.

  14. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rodriguez-Hidalgo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  15. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Praet, N; Saa, L R; Vercruysse, J; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2006-11-01

    Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  16. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Complicated with Central Nervous System Involvement in Taiwan in 1980–1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan-Yin Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen cases from the 1980-1981 Taiwan outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD associated with central nervous system involvement were identified: nine had polio-like syndrome, four had encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, one had cerebellitis, and two had aseptic meningitis. They all had fever, five (31% had documented myoclonic jerk, and 15 (93% had HFMD. Their mean blood leukocyte count was 12,490/mL, and five (31% had leukocytosis (> 15,000/mL; mean cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leukocyte count was 156/mL, CSF protein was 57 mg/dL and CSF glucose was 57 mg/dL. Two patients with HFMD plus encephalitis died within 1 day of hospitalization, and one of them had acute cardiopulmonary failure mimicking myocarditis. Twenty years later, at least one male patient had sequelae of polio-like syndrome and was therefore exempted from military service. Clinical severity was comparable to the 1998 EV71 epidemic. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:173-176

  17. MR findings of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient : a report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hye Suk; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byeong Hee; Jeong, Sun Yang

    1996-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients are an early and common feature. The spectrum of AIDS-related CNS diseases are encephalitis caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) itself, opportunistic infection, infarct and malignancy. We experienced two cases of CNS involvement in AIDS and they were serologically diagnosed as HIV encephalitis and CNS toxoplasmosis, respectively. In the case of the HIV encephalitis patient, brain MRI showed a non-enhancing lesion with high signal intensity on T2WI and low signal on T1WI and there was no mass effect on the right frontal lobe, periventricular white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum or bilateral basal ganglia. In the other case of CNS toxoplasmosis, MR showed multiple nodular and rim enhanced mass lesions in the right basal ganglia, thalamus and periventricular white matter, which were of low signal intensity on T1WI and of high intensity on T2WI. We thus report the related MRI findings

  18. Piloting the effectiveness of pig health education in combination with oxfendazole treatment on prevention and/or control of porcine cysticercosis, gastrointestinal parasites, African swine fever and ectoparasites in Angónia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chilundo, Abel; Johansen, Maria Vang; Pondja, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    A community-based intervention combining health education (HE) and treatment of pigs for control of porcine cysticercosis (PC), gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, African swine fever (ASF) and external parasites was tested involving six villages of resource-poor smallholder pig farmers. Farmers...... and prevention of ASF and ectoparasites, there was no significant reduction in the sero-prevalence of ASF and the prevalence of ectoparasites throughout the two-year period. The reported ineffectiveness of the intervention in this study suggested that more research is needed to develop more effective methods...

  19. Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector H. Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrollado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación.Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a series of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

  20. Changes in knowledge and practices related to taeniasis/cysticercosis after health education in a south Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, A M; Mohan, V R; Muliyil, J; Dorny, P; Rajshekhar, V

    2012-09-01

    A health education programme for taeniasis/cysticercosis was implemented and evaluated among schoolchildren and the general community in a rural block in southern India, an area that is endemic for cysticercosis. The baseline survey among 831 participants from three randomly selected villages showed poor knowledge regarding the spread of taeniasis and neurocysticercosis. There was also a lack of adequate hygiene and sanitation practices. Health education was given in these villages and in the schools located in these villages regarding the lifecycle of the pork tapeworm, spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis, and prevention of these conditions. The post-intervention test conducted 6 months later among 1060 participants revealed a 46% increase in the overall score of knowledge and practices. Awareness about the mode of spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis improved by almost 3 times and the reported practice of washing hands with soap and water before eating improved by 4.8 times and after using the toilet by 3.6 times. One person who reported the passage of tapeworm segments was confirmed to be a carrier of Taenia solium and was treated. The health education given on prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis was useful in improving the knowledge and practices of the community and also in diagnosing taeniasis through self-reporting.

  1. Animal movement network analysis as a tool to map farms serving as contamination source in cattle cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Aragão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine cysticercosis is a problem distributed worldwide that result in economic losses mainly due to the condemnation of infected carcasses. One of the difficulties in applying control measures is the identification of the source of infection, especially because cattle are typically acquired from multiple farms. Here, we tested the utility of an animal movement network constructed with data from a farm that acquires cattle from several other different farms to map the major contributors of cysticercosis propagation. Additionally, based on the results of the network analysis, we deployed a sanitary management and drug treatment scheme to decrease cysticercosis’ occurrence in the farm. Six farms that had commercial trades were identified by the animal movement network and characterized as the main contributors to the occurrence of cysticercosis in the studied farm. The identification of farms with a putative risk of Taenia saginata infection using the animal movement network along with the proper sanitary management and drug treatment resulted in a gradual decrease in cysticercosis prevalence, from 25% in 2010 to 3.7% in 2011 and 1.8% in 2012. These results suggest that the animal movement network can contribute towards controlling bovine cysticercosis, thus minimizing economic losses and preventing human taeniasis.

  2. Risk factors, perceptions and practices associated with Taenia solium cysticercosis and its control in the smallholder pig production systems in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungu, Joseph M; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Ocaido, Michael; Grace, Delia

    2017-01-03

    Prevalence studies report Taenia solium cysticercosis in pig and human populations in Uganda. However, the factors influencing occurrence in smallholder pig production systems are not well documented and little is known about farmers' perceptions of T. solium cysticercosis or farmer practices that could reduce transmission. To determine the risk factors, perceptions and practices regarding T. solium cysticercosis, a household survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted in 1185 households in the rural and urban pig production systems in Masaka, Mukono and Kamuli Districts. Logistic regression was used to measure associations of risk factors with infection. Performance scores were calculated to summarise perceptions and practices of farmers regarding taeniosis, human cysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis as well as farmer behavior related to control or breaking transmission. Pig breed type, farmers' knowledge about transmission, sources of water used, and pig keeping homes where family members were unable to use the latrine were all significantly associated with T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. Performance scores indicated that farmers were more aware of taeniosis (63.0%; 95% Confidence Interval 60.0-65.8) than human or porcine cysticercosis; only three farmers (0.3%, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8) had knowledge on all three conditions. More farmers reported that they dewormed pigs (94.1%) than reported deworming themselves and their family members (62.0%). Albendazole was the most commonly used drug for deworming both pigs and humans (85.0 and 81.5% respectively). Just over half (54.6%) of the farmers interviewed had clean water near the latrines for washing hands. Of these, only 41.9% used water with soap to wash hands after latrine use. Factors that significantly influenced occurrence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs were identified. Farmers had some knowledge about the disease but did not link taeniosis, human cysticercosis, and porcine cysticercosis

  3. Central neuropeptide Y receptors are involved in 3rd ventricular ghrelin induced alteration of colonic transit time in conscious fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritter Michael

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding related peptides have been shown to be additionally involved in the central autonomic control of gastrointestinal functions. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, is involved in the autonomic regulation of GI function besides feeding behavior. Pharmacological evidence indicates that ghrelin effects on food intake are mediated by neuropeptide Y in the central nervous system. Methods In the present study we examine the role of ghrelin in the central autonomic control of GI motility using intracerobroventricular and IP microinjections in a freely moving conscious rat model. Further the hypothesis that a functional relationship between NPY and ghrelin within the CNS exists was addressed. Results ICV injections of ghrelin (0.03 nmol, 0.3 nmol and 3.0 nmol/5 μl and saline controls decreased the colonic transit time up to 43%. IP injections of ghrelin (0.3 nmol – 3.0 nmol kg-1 BW and saline controls decreased colonic transit time dose related. Central administration of the NPY1 receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226, prior to centrally or peripherally administration of ghrelin antagonized the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic transit. On the contrary ICV-pretreatment with the NPY2 receptor antagonist, BIIE-0246, failed to modulate the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic motility. Conclusion The results suggest that ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to modulate gastrointestinal motor function utilizing NPY1 receptor dependent mechanisms.

  4. Brain parenchyma involvement as isolated central nervous system relapse of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma: An International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Doolittle (Nancy); L.E. Abrey (Lauren); T.N. Shenkier (Tamara); T. Siegal (Tali); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); E.A. Neuwelt (Edward); C. Soussain (Carole); K. Jahnke (Kristoph); P. Johnston (Patrick); G. Illerhaus (Gerald); D. Schiff (David); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); S. Montoto (Silvia); D.F. Kraemer (Dale); E. Zucca (Emanuele)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIsolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse involving the brain parenchyma is a rare complication of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, management, and outcomes of this complication. After complete response to initial non-Hodgkin

  5. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, Claudia P.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Geerling, Janine J.; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated

  6. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, C.P.; Biermasz, N.R.; Geerling, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated

  7. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis in Reunion island: comparison with computerized tomography scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michault, A; Coubes, P; Laporte, J P; Bouillan-Linet, E; Leroy, D

    1988-03-01

    An immunoenzymologic (Elisa) serodiagnosis of cysticercosis is evaluated in 75 encephalic cysticercotic patients whose diagnosis of the disease and its progression is assessed by tomodensitometry. A Taenia solium antigen is used. Only Ig G are investigated. The sensibility of serodiagnosis is 85 % and specificity 87 % when there is a progression of the disease; no difference is noticed in the patients without any progression of the disease and in control normal subjects. This serodiagnosis of cysticercosis appears of value for the evaluation of the activity of the disease.

  8. Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana em um município do Estado do Piauí, Região Nordeste do Brasil Seroepidemiological survey of human cysticercosis in a municipality of Piaui State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2004-12-01

    infection/disease involving the teniasis/cysticercosis complex, along with the family members. Some 13.6% of the individuals were seroreactive for cysticercosis by the ELISA method. The second stage, in 2001, evaluated 92 serum samples of individuals who had been detected as reactive for cysticercosis in the first stage, along with their family members; 24% of the samples were reactive to cysticercosis by ELISA and 29% by Western blot. During this same stage a coprological survey was performed with 701 individuals, including volunteers. Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 51%, with a higher prevalence of protozoans (95% than helminths (5%. The results indicate the endemicity of cysticercosis in the area, in addition to the high frequency of intestinal protozoan infections.

  9. Cysticidal Efficacy of Combined Treatment With Praziquantel and Albendazole for Parenchymal Brain Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H; Lescano, Andres G; Gonzales, Isidro; Bustos, Javier A; Pretell, E Javier; Horton, John; Saavedra, Herbert; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of current antiparasitic treatment for cerebral Taenia solium cysticercosis with either albendazole (ABZ) or praziquantel (PZQ) is suboptimal. A recent study demonstrated that combining these 2 antiparasitic drugs improves antiparasitic efficacy. We present here the parasiticidal efficacy data obtained during a previous phase II pharmacokinetic study that compared combined ABZ plus PZQ with ABZ alone. The study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of ABZ (15 mg/k/d, for 10 days) and PZQ (50 mg/k/d, for 10 days) in intraparenchymal brain cysticercosis. Patients received the usual concomitant medications, including an antiepileptic drug (phenytoin or carbamazepine), dexamethasone, and ranitidine. Randomization was stratified by antiepileptic drug. Patients underwent safety laboratory evaluations at days 4, 7, and 11, as well as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 6 months to assess parasiticidal efficacy. Thirty-two patients were included, 16 in each arm. All of them completed antiparasitic treatment and underwent follow-up brain MR imaging. Cysticidal efficacy was strikingly higher in the combined ABZ-plus-PZQ group than in the ABZ-alone group (proportion of cysts resolved, 78 of 82 [95%] vs 23 of 77 [30%] [relative risk {RR}, 3.18; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.08-4.88; P < .001]; patients with complete cyst clearance, 12 of 16 [75%] vs 4 of 16 [25%] [RR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.23-7.34; P = .005]). The combination of ABZ plus PZQ is more effective in destroying viable brain cysticercosis cysts than ABZ alone. NCT00441285. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Estudo da cisticercose em pacientes portadores de epilepsia residentes em municípios do Cariri paraibano Cysticercosis research in epileptic patients dwelling in towns of the western Cariri in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Inês de Sousa Freitas

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo contou com uma amostra de 110 pacientes epilépticos residentes no Cariri paraibano, tendo sido desenvolvido em três etapas sucessivas. Durante a primeira etapa, aplicou-se a ficha epidemiológica visando identificar fatores de risco associados ao complexo teníase-cisticercose na etiologia da epilepsia dos pacientes. A segunda etapa consistiu em exames imunológicos dos 110 pacientes com a utilização da técnica EITB para a identificação de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticercos, e da técnica ELISA para a presença de antígenos circulantes. Na terceira etapa, treze pacientes com sorologia considerada positiva foram submetidos a exames tomográficos. A partir da aplicação do questionário, foram detectados alguns fatores de risco. A soroprevalência constatada foi 118,2/1000 habitantes. Dos 13 pacientes com sorologia positiva para cisticercose, 46,1% têm lesões sugestivas de cisticercose de localização parenquimatosa. Conclui-se que os municípios estudados apresentam perfil epidemiológico compatível com a ocorrência do complexo teníase-cisticercose e que a cisticercose possivelmente desempenhe papel importante no surgimento da epilepsia nesses pacientes.This research involved a sample of 110 epileptic patients from western Cariri, Paraíba, Brazil and it has been developed in three successive phases. During the first one, an epidemiological form was applied with the aim of identifying risk factors related to the taeniasis cysticercosis complex in the etiology of the patients' epilepsy. The second phase consisted of immunological exams of 110 patients, by means of the EITB technique to identify the anti-cysticerci serum antibodies, whereas the presence of circulating antigens was verified through the ELISA technique. In the third phase, thirteen patients who were seropositive, were submitted to brain CT scan. Applying the questionnaire enabled us to know some risk factors. The seroprevalence detected was 118

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina; Ressonancia magnetica de paciente com cisticercose racemosa da cauda equina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da; Lemos, Sandro Pedroso [Hospital da Baleia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2003-12-01

    37-year-old man presented with low back pain for the last 6 months followed by sensation of numbness in the lower limbs that evolved with paraparesis, urinary retention and impotence. Subsequently, he lost control over the bowel function. Neurological examination revealed increased muscle tone along with grade zero power in both lower limbs. Knee and ankle jerks were exaggerated. Nine months prior to admission, a type II diabetes mellitus was diagnosed and he has been taking insulin ever since. MRI revealed multiple cystic lesions in the cauda equina opposite the L1-S1 vertebral bodies with no involvement of the spinal cord (Figure A: sagittal section T1-weighted image after contrast with cystic lesions on the left side - yellow arrow -, and T2-weighted image on the right - red arrows pointing cystic lesions). The cysts were hypointense on T1-weighted images (Figure B: horizontal section - yellow arrows) and hyperintense in T2-weighted images (Figure A - red arrows). Computerized tomography of the brain showed moderate ventricle dilatation (Figure C) with no intra or extra axial lesions. He was submitted to laminectomy and the cysts were surgically removed. An intense inflammatory process (arachnoiditis) involving the nerve roots of the cauda equina was reported. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of racemous cysticercosis. He improved quickly after surgery. Three months later, at the outpatient clinic, he walked with support, resumed sphincter control of the bladder and bowel and had no more pain. Ten months later he returned to hospital walking with crutches, with hypoesthesia and paraesthesia on the left leg and urinary incontinence. He refused treatment with albendazole and steroids. (author)

  12. Risk factors associated with taeniasis-cysticercosis in Lagamar, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Vergara Mario León; Prata Aluízio; Silveira Netto Horácio Velloso; Vieira Cláudio de Oliveira; Castro João Henrique; Micheletti Luciane Giroto; Otaño Arturo Santana; Franquini Júnior João

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was carried out in 3,344 people of an urban town in Lagamar, Minas Gerais, Brazil - during 1992-1993, to evaluate the main risk factors related to taeniasis and cysticercosis. A total number of 875 (78.9%) houses were visited and 1080 (32.3%) subjects were clinically examined. Poor sanitary conditions were positively associated with former history of taeniasis or seizures in households (p < 0.05). It was remarkable the positive relationship between taeniasis and s...

  13. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin; Pondja, Alberto

    -funded projects have addressed the problem, first by assessing the prevalence, risks and impacts of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs in Mozambique and Tanzania from 2006-2009, and, through an on-going project, by trying to develop sustainable solutions for control of the disease...... infections included poor pig husbandry practices especially free ranging of pigs, open defecation, age of pigs, pork cooking practices, lack of meat inspection, and lack of knowledge regarding transmission of the disease. The on-going project focuses on health education and proper pig management as means...

  14. Examining American Indian Perspectives in the Central Region on Parent Involvement in Children's Education. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackety, Dawn M.; Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Parent involvement is recognized as an important factor in encouraging student achievement. However, a survey by the National Center for Education Statistics found that in public schools with 25 percent or more American Indian students, teachers identified lack of parent involvement as one of their schools' three most serious problems. At an…

  15. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on ‘the control of neglected zoonotic diseases – from advocacy to action’, that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to el...

  16. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  17. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomans, Claudia P; Biermasz, Nienke R; Geerling, Janine J; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Havekes, Louis M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2011-12-01

    Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated tissue-specific glucose uptake. Tolbutamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP) channels), or vehicle was infused into the lateral ventricle in the basal state and during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic conditions in postabsorptive, chow-fed C57Bl/6J mice and in postabsorptive C57Bl/6J mice with diet-induced obesity. Whole-body glucose uptake was measured by d-[(14)C]glucose kinetics and tissue-specific glucose uptake by 2-deoxy-d-[(3)H]glucose uptake. During clamp conditions, intracerebroventricular administration of tolbutamide impaired the ability of insulin to inhibit EGP by ∼20%. In addition, intracerebroventricular tolbutamide diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle (by ∼59%) but not in heart or adipose tissue. In contrast, in insulin-resistant mice with diet-induced obesity, intracerebroventricular tolbutamide did not alter the effects of insulin during clamp conditions on EGP or glucose uptake by muscle. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in muscle in part through effects via K(ATP) channels in the central nervous system, in analogy with the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. High-fat diet-induced obesity abolished the central effects of insulin on liver and muscle. These observations stress the role of central insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of diet-induced insulin resistance.

  18. Recurrent neuromyelitis optica with diffuse central nervous system involvement: case report Neuromielite óptica recorrente com envolvimento difuso do sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan B. Domingues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Several demyelinating disorders can affect children. The differential diagnosis between these diseases is usually an arduous task. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for some of these disorders, however most of them have not yet been clinically and prospectively validated. Here we present a case of a ten year-old boy with recurrent bilateral optic neuritis and spinal cord involvement. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid data have fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Devic's neuromyelitis optica (NMO. The differential diagnosis with multiple sclerosis (MS has become troublesome since not only optic nerves and spinal cord were involved. In one of the relapses a left hemiparesis with facial involvement was registered. Magnetic resonance imaging was also compatible with MS. This case illustrates that CNS demyelinating disorders can fulfill diagnostic criteria for more than one demyelinating disease, making the clinical judgment an important tool in the management of these patients.Diversas doenças desmielinizantes podem ocorrer em crianças, sendo muitas vezes o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas difícil. Critérios diagnósticos têm sido propostos para algumas destas entidades, entretanto nenhum deles pode ser considerado definitivo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o caso de um paciente de 10 anos de idade, com quadro recorrente de neurite óptica bilateral e mielopatia. Os dados clínicos e liquóricos preencheram critérios para o diagnóstico de neuromielite óptica de Devic. O diagnóstico diferencial foi especialmente difícil em relação à esclerose múltipla, pois não apenas os nervos ópticos e medula foram acometidos, visto que em um dos surtos registrou-se hemiparesia, com acometimento facial. A ressonância magnética foi também compatível com esclerose múltipla. Este caso ilustra que pacientes com doenças desmielinizantes do SNC podem preencher critérios diagnósticos para mais de uma delas, o que torna o julgamento cl

  19. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah; Magnussen, Pascal; Braae, Uffe Christian

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on 'the control of neglected zoonotic diseases - from advocacy to action', that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to elucidate theoretical outcomes of various control options suggested for TSTC elimination in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over a 4-year period. Our current knowledge regarding T. solium epidemiology and control primarily builds on studies from Latin America. A simple transmission model - built on data from Latin America - has been used to predict the effect of various interventions such as mass treatment of humans, vaccination and treatment of pigs, and health education of communities, potentially leading to change in bad practices and reducing transmission risks. Based on simulations of the transmission model, even a 4-year integrated One Health approach fails to eliminate TSTC from a small community and in all simulations, the prevalence of human taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis start to rise as soon as the programmes end. Our current knowledge regarding transmission and burden of TSTC in SSA is scarce and while claiming to be tool ready, the selection of diagnostic and surveillance tools, as well as the algorithms and stepwise approaches for control and elimination of TSTC remain major challenges.

  20. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrion, Anna S.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite’s transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis). Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available. PMID:28892472

  1. Porcine Cysticercosis in Southeast Uganda: Seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro Districts

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    C. Waiswa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and humans. Human exposure is a function of the size of the animal reservoir of this zoonosis. This is the first field survey for porcine cysticercosis to investigate the prevalence of antigen-positive pigs across an entire rural district of south-east Uganda. In our field surveys, 8.6% of 480 pigs screened were seropositive for the parasite by B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. In addition, of the 528 homesteads surveyed 138 (26% did not have pit latrines indicating a high probability of pigs having access to human faeces and thus T. solium eggs. This study thus indicates the need for better data on this neglected zoonotic disease in Uganda, with a particular emphasis on the risk factors for infection in both pigs and humans. In this regard, further surveys of pigs, seroprevalence surveys in humans and an understanding of cysticercosis-related epilepsy are required, together with risk-factor studies for human and porcine infections.

  2. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

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    Meritxell Donadeu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Target Product Profiles (TPPs are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis. Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  3. Swine cysticercosis in the Karangasem district of Bali, Indonesia: An evaluation of serological screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suardita, I Ketut; Kepeng, I Nengah; Wandra, Toni; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Mizuki; Giraudoux, Patrick; Nakao, Minoru; Yoshida, Takahiko; Eka Diarthini, Luh Putu; Sudarmaja, I Made; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Budke, Christine M; Ito, Akira

    2016-11-01

    A serological assessment was undertaken on pigs from the Kubu and Abang sub-districts of Karangasem on the island of Bali, Indonesia, where earlier studies had detected patients with cysticercosis. Antigens purified from Taenia solium cyst fluid by cation-exchange chromatography were used to evaluate antibody responses in the pigs and the serological tests were also evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. A total of 392 serum samples from naturally exposed pigs were tested using an ELISA that could be read based on both a colour change perceptible by the naked eye and an ELISA based on absorbance values. Twenty six (6.6%) pigs were found seropositive by the naked-eye ELISA and were categorized into three groups: strongly positive (absorbance values >0.8, n=6), moderately positive (absorbance values between 0.2 and 0.8, n=7), and weakly positive (absorbance values Bali were tested using the same ELISA. All 60 pigs were seronegative with no evidence of Taenia infection at necropsy. The results confirm the presence of porcine cysticercosis on Bali and, while the serological responses seen in T. solium infected animals were much stronger than those infected with T. hydatigena, the diagnostic antigens are clearly not species specific. Further studies are necessary to confirm if it is possible to draw a cut off line for differentiation of pig infected with T. solium from those infected with T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadeu, Meritxell; Fahrion, Anna S; Olliaro, Piero L; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2017-09-01

    Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis). Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  5. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

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    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  6. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

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    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  7. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

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    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  8. Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

    2013-06-01

    A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis.

  9. A STUDY ON ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS INVOLVING CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, ITS SEVERITY AND CAUSALITY ASSESSMENT IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS ADMITTED TO A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Arati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted in Department of pediatrics SCB Medical College and SVPPGIP for a period of 2 years i.e. September 2012 to August 2014 . All the patients from birth to 14 years admitted to the pediatric ward in this study were under ADR surveillance. Patients admitted to our hospital with adverse drug reaction o r patients developing adverse drug reaction in our hospital were studied; only those cases where the central nervous system was involved were taken in our study. The cases were compiled and the causality of offending drugs was found using WHO - UMC causality assessment score. The severity of drug reaction in every case was determined by using HARTWIG’s severity scoring scale. Total 350 Adverse reactions were reported in this period with prevalence rate of 2.04% i.e. 20 out of 1000 children faced ADR due to dr ugs, with annual incidence rate of 0.9% and 1.14% over two years. Out of total 350 cases dermatological system was most commonly involved i.e. 207 cases (59.14%. This is followed by involvement of central nervous system 46 number of cases (13.14%. The GI system was involved in 34 cases i.e. (9.71%. Life threatening reactions like anaphylaxis, angioedema and shock like immediate life threatening ADRs were reported in 16 cases. Our study group was the patient in whom the ADR involved the CNS. Out of 46 suc h cases, there were 25 female and 21 male. Various reaction due to drug were encephalopathy , eps, febrile seizure, tremor, head reeling, ototoxicity, persistant cry, pseudotumor cerebri, psychosis, seizure, status epilepticus, toxic amblyopia, tremor, atax ia etc. The most common CNS manifestation was Extra pyramidal side effects (EPS involving 21% of cases. The most common Drug causing CNS manifestation was ATT (HRZE causing blindness, Eps, psychosis , toxic amblyopia blindness etc.

  10. Libidibia ferrea mature seeds promote antinociceptive effect by peripheral and central pathway: possible involvement of opioid and cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Luis Armando; Monteiro, Vanessa Sâmia da Conçeição; Rabelo, Guilherme Rodrigues; Dias, Germana Bueno; Da Cunha, Maura; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins; Bastos, Gilmara de Nazareth Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea (LF) is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF), partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg), naloxone (5 mg/kg) in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  11. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

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    Luis Armando Sawada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Libidibia ferrea (LF is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF, partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg, naloxone (5 mg/kg in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  12. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

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    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region.

  13. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Methods Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Results Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P grupos incluían habitantes rurales de una región endémica (n=200), inmigrantes de larga duración de zonas rurales a urbanas (n=589), e individuos que vivían en la misma zona urbana (n=196). Las convulsiones se detectaron mediante una encuesta y un neurólogo examinó a quienes habían respondido positivamente. Se procesaron muestras de suero de 981/985 individuos en busca de anticuerpos para cisticercosis mediante inmunoblot. Resultados La prevalencia de epilepsia (por 1,000 personas) era de 15.3 en el grupo urbano, 35.6 en inmigrantes y 25 en habitantes rurales. Se observó un gradiente en la seroprevalencia de los anticuerpos para cisticercosis: grupos urbano 2%, inmigrante 13.5% y rural 18% (p<0.05). Se observó un patrón de aumento similar de mayor seroprevalencia entre inmigrantes según la edad que tenían en el momento de emigrar. En pobladores rurales, había una evidencia importante de asociación entre tener una serología positiva y sufrir convulsiones (p=0

  14. Do biofilm communities respond to the chemical signatures of fracking? A test involving streams in North-central Arkansas.

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    Johnson, Wilson H; Douglas, Marlis R; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Stuecker, Tara N; Carbonero, Franck G; Austin, Bradley J; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally A; Douglas, Michael E

    2017-02-03

    Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction (fracking) is ongoing in 29 North American shale basins (20 states), with ~6000 wells found within the Fayetteville shale (north-central Arkansas). If the chemical signature of fracking is detectable in streams, it can be employed to bookmark potential impacts. We evaluated benthic biofilm community composition as a proxy for stream chemistry so as to segregate anthropogenic signatures in eight Arkansas River catchments. In doing so, we tested the hypothesis that fracking characteristics in study streams are statistically distinguishable from those produced by agriculture or urbanization. Four tributary catchments had UNG-wells significantly more dense and near to our sampling sites and were grouped as 'potentially-impacted catchment zones' (PICZ). Four others were characterized by significantly larger forested area with greater slope and elevation but reduced pasture, and were classified as 'minimally-impacted' (MICZ). Overall, 46 bacterial phyla/141 classes were identified, with 24 phyla (52%) and 54 classes (38%) across all samples. PICZ-sites were ecologically more variable than MICZ-sites, with significantly greater nutrient levels (total nitrogen, total phosphorous), and elevated Cyanobacteria as bioindicators that tracked these conditions. PICZ-sites also exhibited elevated conductance (a correlate of increased ion concentration) and depressed salt-intolerant Spartobacteria, suggesting the presence of brine as a fracking effect. Biofilm communities at PICZ-sites were significantly less variable than those at MICZ-sites. Study streams differed by Group according to morphology, land use, and water chemistry but not in biofilm community structure. Those at PICZ-sites covaried according to anthropogenic impact, and were qualitatively similar to communities found at sites disturbed by fracking. The hypothesis that fracking signatures in study streams are distinguishable from those produced by other anthropogenic effects

  15. The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.

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    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n = 226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence.

  16. The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.

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    Kabemba E Mwape

    Full Text Available A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA, while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay. Stool samples (n = 226 were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (reinfected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence.

  17. One Health-ness Evaluation of Cysticercosis Surveillance Design in Portugal

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    Ana Gloria Fonseca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of human cysticercosis, a zoonotic neglected disease, is challenging the traditional prevention and control paradigm and calling for One Health (OH solutions in industrialized countries. OH solutions for health interventions are increasingly being used to capture expected and unexpected outcomes across people, animals, and the environment. The Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH proposes an evidence-based framework, relying on systems and mixed methods approaches to evaluate the One Health-ness. In this case study, this tool is used to evaluate the design of the Observatory of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis, as an example of intersectorial collaboration for surveillance in Portugal. The OH Initiative (drivers and expected outcomes and its system (boundaries, aim, dimensions, actors, and stakeholders were described. The different aspects of this Initiative were scored with values from 0 (=no OH approach to 1 (=perfect OH approach. The OH index was 0.31. Its OH ratio is 1.98. Overall scores were as follows: OH thinking 0.75; OH planning 0.60; OH working 0.60; OH sharing 0.35; OH learning 0.50; and systemic organization 0.50. Operational levels of the Initiative are the main strengths, indicating a comprehensive multidimensional innovative approach and transdisciplinarity. Critical issues in the supporting infrastructure were observed, related to communication, learning and organizational gaps in the project, with the evaluation being conducted as the project is being designed and implemented. The strengths and weaknesses detected may be used to refine the Initiative. This case study therefore exemplifies and supports OH assessment also for ongoing projects, at design and early implementation stages for guiding and guaranteeing an OH-oriented perspective.

  18. Expression Analysis of Multiple Genes May Involve in Antimony Resistance among Leishmania major Clinical Isolates from Fars Province, Central Iran

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    Nafiseh GHOBAKHLOO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is being faced with serious difficulties in Fars Province, due to emerging of resistance against meglumine antimonite (Glucantime®. In this context, determining some biomarkers for drug sensitivity monitoring seems to be highly essential. Different studies have been carried out to decipher the genes might be involved in antimony resistant phenotype in Leishmania spp. Here, we selected three genes: AQP (as drug transporter, TDR-1-1(as drug activator, and γ-GCS (inducing reduction environment for comparative expression analysis on clinical resistant and sensitive isolates of L. major.Methods: The clinical isolates of L. major were collected from CL patients referred to Valfajr Health Center, Shiraz from Oct 2011 to Feb 2012. The susceptibility test was performed to confirm drug sensitivity of strains in vitro as well. Then, the gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR using SYBR® Green.Results: By comparison of expression level between strains, up regulation of γ-GCS gene and down regulation of AQP gene were observed in resistant strains compared to the sensitive isolates; however, down regulation of AQP was not statistically specific. Analysis of TDR-1-1 gene unexpectedly showed a high level of expression in the non-responsive cases.Conclusion: The γ-GCS, at least, can be considered as a suitable molecular marker for screening antimony sensitivity in clinical isolates, although AQP and TDR-1-1gene seem not to be reliable resistant markers. 

  19. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41...... intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration....

  20. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  1. [Western Blot diagnostic yield for simultaneous antibody-detection in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davelois, Kelly; Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César

    2016-01-01

    . To determine the diagnostic yield using western blotting to simultaneously detect antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis. Materials and methods . Cross-sectional study of diagnostic yield assessment. Excretory/secretory antigens were obtained from Taenia solium larvae, Echinococcus granulosus cysts, and the adult flukes of Fasciola hepática, which were then separated using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, transferred, and attached to a nitrocellulose membrane to be probed with sera from the patient infected with the three parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using 300 individual serum samples, 60 pools of two parasites, and 20 pools of three parasites with 75 sera from patients with other parasites, 10 from patients with other diseases, and 15 from patients without parasites. Results . The technique revealed 13 glycoproteins (GP): GP 35, 31, 24, 23, 18, 17, 14, and 13 kDa for cysticercosis; GP 8, 16, and 21 kDa for hydatidosis; and GP 17 and 23 kDa for fascioliasis. The test detected the presence of antibodies with a sensitivity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 94.62-98.54%) in the detection of one or the thirteen bands, a specificity of 100% (95% CI = 99.50-100.00%); individually, there was a sensitivity for cysticercosis of 97% (95% CI = 93.16-100.00%), for hydatidosis of 94% (95% CI = 88.85-99.15%) and for fascioliasis of 96% (95% CI = 91.66-100.00%). Conclusions . Western blotting is effective in the simultaneous detection of antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and fascioliasis, and it can be used as a diagnostic test to either rule out or confirm the presence of antibodies in endemic areas.

  2. The homogentisate pathway: a central catabolic pathway involved in the degradation of L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and 3-hydroxyphenylacetate in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Olivera, Elías R; Luengo, José M; Fernández, Cristina; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo; Miñambres, Baltasar

    2004-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida metabolizes Phe and Tyr through a peripheral pathway involving hydroxylation of Phe to Tyr (PhhAB), conversion of Tyr into 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (TyrB), and formation of homogentisate (Hpd) as the central intermediate. Homogentisate is then catabolized by a central catabolic pathway that involves three enzymes, homogentisate dioxygenase (HmgA), fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (HmgB), and maleylacetoacetate isomerase (HmgC), finally yielding fumarate and acetoacetate. Whereas the phh, tyr, and hpd genes are not linked in the P. putida genome, the hmgABC genes appear to form a single transcriptional unit. Gel retardation assays and lacZ translational fusion experiments have shown that hmgR encodes a specific repressor that controls the inducible expression of the divergently transcribed hmgABC catabolic genes, and homogentisate is the inducer molecule. Footprinting analysis revealed that HmgR protects a region in the Phmg promoter that spans a 17-bp palindromic motif and an external direct repetition from position -16 to position 29 with respect to the transcription start site. The HmgR protein is thus the first IclR-type regulator that acts as a repressor of an aromatic catabolic pathway. We engineered a broad-host-range mobilizable catabolic cassette harboring the hmgABC, hpd, and tyrB genes that allows heterologous bacteria to use Tyr as a unique carbon and energy source. Remarkably, we show here that the catabolism of 3-hydroxyphenylacetate in P. putida U funnels also into the homogentisate central pathway, revealing that the hmg cluster is a key catabolic trait for biodegradation of a small number of aromatic compounds.

  3. Clinicopathologic features of adult T-cell leukemias/lymphomas at a North American tertiary care medical center: infrequent involvement of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Andy C; Kreisel, Friederike H; Frater, John L; Nguyen, TuDung T

    2014-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Published series of ATLLs seen at a United States medical institution are rare. We present the features of 4 ATLLs diagnosed at our North American tertiary care medical center from 1990 to 2012. Despite the absence of a history of origin from an endemic region, all our ATLLs demonstrated evidence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by ATLL was uncommon in our series, and represented only 1.6% (1/64) of all CNS B-cell or T-cell lymphomas diagnosed over a 20+ year period at our institution. Review of the medical literature reveals that the majority of CNS-involved ATLLs present with the lymphoma or acute subtype, and complete remission is difficult to achieve in these cases. CNS involvement frequently occurs with a systemic disease, which carries an aggressive clinical course with poor prognosis. In addition, CNS involvement by ATLL can be the initial presentation or seen with relapsed disease, can be the only site or be associated with other tissue sites of involvement, and may manifest with variable clinical signs/symptoms. Our retrospective study reveals that ATLLs are rare mature T-cell lymphomas in a native North American population, but the clinical and histopathologic features of ATLLs from this nonendemic region are similar to those seen from other endemic regions. Early recognition of these rare ATLLs involving uncommon sites, such as the CNS, will help optimize treatment for these infrequent mature T-cell lymphomas.

  4. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda

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    Gerald Zirintunda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended.

  5. High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

    2006-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01).

  6. Successful treatment with cladribine of Erdheim-Chester disease with orbital and central nervous system involvement developing after treatment of langerhans cell histiocytosis

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    Perić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD is a rare, systemic form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the juvenile xantho-granuloma family with characteristic bilateral symmetrical long bone osteosclerosis, associated with xanthogranulomatous extras-keletal organ involvement. In ECD, central nervous system (CNS and orbital lesions are frequent, and more than half of ECD patients carry the V600E mutation of the proto-oncogene BRAF. The synchronous or metachronous development of ECD and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH in the same patients is rare, and the possible connection between them is still obscure. Cladribine is a purine substrate analogue that is toxic to lymphocytes and monocytes with good hematoencephalic penetration. Case report. We presented a 23-year-old man successfully treated with cladribine due to BRAF V600E-mutation-negative ECD with bilateral orbital and CNS involvement. ECD developed metachronously, 6 years after chemotherapy for multisystem LCH with complete disease remission and remaining central diabetes insipidus. During ECD treatment, the patient received 5 single-agent chemotherapy courses of cladribine (5 mg/m2 for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks, with a reduction in dose to 4 mg/m2 in a fifth course, delayed due to severe neutropenia and thoracic dermatomal herpes zoster infection following the fourth course. Radiologic signs of systemic and CNS disease started to resolve 3 months after the end of chemotherapy, and CNS lesions completely resolved within 2 years after the treatment. After 12-year follow-up, there was no recurrence or appearance of new systemic or CNS xanthogranu-lomatous lesions or second malignancies. Conclusion. In accordance with our findings and recommendations provided by other authors, cladribine can be considered an effective alternative treatment for ECD, especially with CNS involvement and BRAF V600E-mutation-negative status, when interferon-α as the first-line therapy fails.

  7. Tratamento da cisticercose subcutânea co praziquantel: um novo agente cestoidicida Treatment of dermal cysticercosis with praziquantel: a new cestocidal agent

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    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult patients presenting dermal cysticercosis without cerebral or ocular involvement were treated with praziquantel. The first eleven cases received 60 mg/kg/day and the last nine cases 30 mg/kg/day. In both groups the daily dose was split into three oral intakes 4 to 6 hours apart and the drug administration lasted for 6 consecutive days. The latter group of patients also got dexamethasone, 3 mg daily, from one day before until four days after the treatment period with praziquantel. The drug proved to be 100% efficacious as demonstrated histopathologically by the death of the cysticerci of Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae in serial biopsies taken from the 2nd week on after the end of treatment, as well as clinically by the steady disappearence of the dermal nodules during the 6 months following the therapy. Tolerance of praziquantel was good as the incidence and severity of side-effects were not relevant. The drug safety was confirmed through laboratory tests which failed to detect any abnormal findings related to the hematopoietic, liver and kidney functions.

  8. Improving pig husbandry in tropical resource-poor communities and its potential to reduce risk of porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekule, Faustin P; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

    2003-06-01

    To minimise the risk of cysticercosis in pigs it is necessary to raise pigs in confinement. The prevailing production system using free-range pigs is apparently very resilient although economic studies have shown that these traditional production systems are wasteful and unprofitable due to poor feed conversion, high mortality rates, low reproductive rates and poor final products. However, experiences from Africa show that intensive pig farming is stagnant and the sustainability of the traditional sector is better than that of the intensive sector. Examples from various African countries are given on the failure of intensive pig farming. This apparent paradox has various explanations. The lower fixed cost of traditional pig production compared with intensive production is one. Another explanation is that many households have some kind of kitchen waste, which can be exploited by a pig, but there is only enough for the partial feeding of a single pig. A third explanation of the paradox is that the pig has functions that are not reflected in a simple economic balance. The pig is a source of capital income, which can be realised at times of major expenses, and it can also be used as a way to put aside small amounts of money, which alternatively might evaporate. The pig's scavenging behaviour has clear nutritional benefits. Thus, a diet consisting of e.g. maize or sorghum, which are some of the feeds available on the small farms, will only provide approximately 30% of the pigs requirements of lysine and methionine, which are the most limiting amino-acids in pig feeds. Simulations with data available for green feeds and material of animal origin show that a 20% "supplement" from the fields may increase the amino-acid provision to about 80% of the optimum. If pigs are kept enclosed this supplement has to be fed to the pig which involves purchase and labour costs. The paper discusses the various options in terms of feeding, housing and use of genetic resources for the

  9. Mapping the residual incidence of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Colombia, 2009-2013, using geographical information systems: Implications for public health and travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Yepes-Echeverri, María Camila; Acevedo-Mendoza, Wilmer F; Marín-Rincón, Hamilton A; Culquichicón, Carlos; Parra-Valencia, Esteban; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Flisser, Ana

    In Colombia, taeniasis and cysticercosis have been significantly reduced over the past decades, however still reported with implications for public health and travel medicine. An observational, retrospective study, in which the incidence of taeniasis and cysticercosis (ICD-10 codes B68s/B69s) in Colombia, 2009-2013, was estimated based on data extracted from the Individual Health Records System (Registro Individual de Prestación de Servicios, RIPS) was performed. The Geographic Information System (GIS) generated national maps showing the distribution of taeniasis and cysticercosis by department by year. During the period, 3626 cases were reported (median 796/year), for a cumulative crude national rate of 7.7 cases/100,000pop; 58.2% corresponded to male; 57% were taeniasis due to T. solium, T. saginata, ocular cysticercosis and cysticerci in other organs. Bolivar, a touristic department, had the highest cumulated incidence rate (16.17 cases/100,000pop), as also evident across the map series developed in this study. Despite the limitations of this study, data presented provide recent estimates of national taeniasis and cysticercosis incidence in the country useful in public health and for travel medicine practitioners, as some highly touristic areas presented higher disease incidence. Improved control, particularly of taeniasis, should be an attainable goal, which among other strategies would require improved sanitation and health education to prevent transmission, but also enhanced surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping the residual incidence of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Colombia, 2009–2013, using geographical information systems: Implications for public health and travel medicine☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Yepes-Echeverri, María Camila; Acevedo-Mendoza, Wilmer F.; Marín-Rincón, Hamilton A.; Culquichicón, Carlos; Parra-Valencia, Esteban; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A.; Flisser, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Background In Colombia, taeniasis and cysticercosis have been significantly reduced over the past decades, however still reported with implications for public health and travel medicine. Methods An observational, retrospective study, in which the incidence of taeniasis and cysticercosis (ICD-10 codes B68s/B69s) in Colombia, 2009–2013, was estimated based on data extracted from the Individual Health Records System (Registro Individual de Prestación de Servicios, RIPS) was performed. The Geographic Information System (GIS) generated national maps showing the distribution of taeniasis and cysticercosis by department by year. Results During the period, 3626 cases were reported (median 796/year), for a cumulative crude national rate of 7.7 cases/100,000pop; 58.2% corresponded to male; 57% were taeniasis due to T. solium, T. saginata, ocular cysticercosis and cysticerci in other organs. Bolivar, a touristic department, had the highest cumulated incidence rate (16.17 cases/100,000pop), as also evident across the map series developed in this study. Conclusion Despite the limitations of this study, data presented provide recent estimates of national taeniasis and cysticercosis incidence in the country useful in public health and for travel medicine practitioners, as some highly touristic areas presented higher disease incidence. Improved control, particularly of taeniasis, should be an attainable goal, which among other strategies would require improved sanitation and health education to prevent transmission, but also enhanced surveillance. PMID:29288739

  11. Necrotizing Liver Granuloma/Abscess and Constrictive Aspergillosis Pericarditis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Different Remarkable Phenotypes in Different Chronic Granulomatous Disease Genotypes

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    Sanem Eren Akarcan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a primary immune deficiency causing predisposition to infections with specific microorganisms, Aspergillus species and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common ones. A 16-year-old boy with a mutation in CYBB gene coding gp91phox protein (X-linked disease developed a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to medical therapy, surgical treatment was necessary for the management of the disease. A 30-month-old girl with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CYBA gene mutation affecting p22phox protein had invasive aspergillosis causing pericarditis, pulmonary abscess, and central nervous system involvement. The devastating course of disease regardless of the mutation emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and intervention of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible in children with CGD.

  12. Four novel connexin 32 mutations in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Phenotypic variability and central nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Georgia; Koutsis, Georgios; Raftopoulou, Maria; Floroskufi, Paraskewi; Karletidi, Karolina-Maria; Panas, Marios

    2014-06-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, the most common hereditary neuropathy, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. X-linked CMT (CMTX) is usually caused by mutations in the gap junction protein b 1 gene (GJB1) coding for connexin 32 (Cx32). The clinical manifestations of CMTX are characterized by significant variability, with some patients exhibiting central nervous system (CNS) involvement. We report four novel mutations in GJB1, c.191G>A (p.Cys64Tyr), c.508G>T (p.Val170Phe), c.778A>G (p.Lys260Glu) and c.300C>G (p.His100Gln) identified in four unrelated Greek families. These mutations were characterized by variable phenotypic expression, including a family with the Roussy-Lévy syndrome, and three of them were associated with mild clinical CNS manifestations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. One Patient, Two Uncommon B-Cell Neoplasms: Solitary Plasmacytoma following Complete Remission from Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma Involving Central Nervous System

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    Joycelyn Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Second lymphoid neoplasms are an uncommon but recognized feature of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, putatively arising secondary to common genetic or environmental risk factors. Previous limited evaluations of clonal relatedness between successive mature B-cell malignancies have yielded mixed results. We describe the case of a man with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma involving the central nervous system who went into clinical remission following immunochemotherapy and brain radiation, only to relapse 2 years later with a plasmacytoma of bone causing cauda equina syndrome. The plasmacytoma stained strongly for the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 on immunohistochemistry, while the original intravascular large cell lymphoma was negative, a disparity providing no support for clonal identity between the 2 neoplasms. Continued efforts atcataloging and evaluating unique associations of B-cell malignancies are critical to improving understanding of overarching disease biology in B-cell malignancies.

  14. Animal cysticercosis in indigenous Brazilian villages Cisticercose animal em aldeias indígenas brasileiras

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    Samuel Carvalho de Aragão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary inspection of beef and pork meat has been the major tool for diagnosing animal cysticercosis and for preventing taeniasis in Brazil. The indigenous villages Jaguapiru and Bororo are located close to the urban area of the municipality of Dourados in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, where precarious basic sanitation conditions are observed. Both cattle and pigs are raised for self-consumption of meat and milk as well as for sale on the external market, generally without official sanitary inspection. In this study, 96 bovine carcasses and 117 pig blood serum samples from animals raised in these indigenous villages were evaluated for the presence of metacestodes by postmortem evaluation, and anti-Taenia sp. antibodies were investigated using the indirect ELISA test. Metacestode forms were observed in 18.7% of the bovine carcasses, and 9.4% of the pig serum samples were positive for anti-Taenia sp. antibodies. The occurrence of animal cysticercosis in the villages may favor the occurrence of this zoonosis in the indigenous populations. Enforcement of proper slaughter and sanitary inspection conditions are urgently needed for controlling the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex among the indigenous population.A inspeção sanitária da carne bovina e suína tem sido a principal forma diagnóstica da cisticercose animal e da prevenção da teníase no Brasil. As aldeias indígenas Jaguapirú e Bororó estão localizadas próximo à área urbana do município de Dourados-MS, com condições precárias de saneamento básico, onde bovinos e suínos são criados como fonte de alimento para consumo próprio, bem como para comercialização externa, geralmente sem inspeção sanitária oficial. Neste estudo, 96 carcaças bovinas e 117 amostras de soro de suínos, criados nas aldeias indígenas, foram avaliadas para a presença de formas metacestóides à inspeção sanitária e de anticorpos anti-Taenia sp. ao teste ELISA, respectivamente

  15. Role of porcine serum haptoglobin in the host-parasite relationship of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria

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    Moses Gweba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic diseases Parasitosis intestinales, cisticercosis e hidatidosis

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    David Botero

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper offers an up to date review of the intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic disease found In Colombia. Their main epidemiological, clinical, preventive and therapeutic features are presented, to provide the reader with a current view of their public health Importance, prevalence and impact on morbidity and mortality.

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre las parasitosis intestinales, la cisticercosis y la hidatidosis en Colombia, con una breve descripción de la prevalencia, las características epidemiológicas, los efectos sobre la salud y algunos aspectos de control y tratamiento. Con esta revisión se busca tener información resumida sobre las parasitosis que se encuentran en Colombia y su mayor o menor Importancia en salud pública. TambIén se pretende ofrecer una Idea del nivel de gravedad de estas entidades como causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en este país. 

  18. Medical and veterinary doctors, social scientists and agricultural researchers meet to carry forward the fight against cysticercosis, a neglected and fatal disease of the poor : to the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fifth general assembly meeting on cysticercosis/taeniosis was held at the Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, Mozambique, from 11-13 October 2007. The meeting was organised by the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA in cooperation with the Medical and Veterinary Faculties of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark with support from DBL - Centre for Health Research and Development, Denmark, and the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Local support in Maputo was provided by Nestle, Medis Farmaceutica, Mcel and the Golden Travel Agency.

  19. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Christian Braae

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. “Track-and-treat” of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤15 from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8% was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17–0.89, compared to baseline (4.1%. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8% had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32–0.76 in this district compared to baseline (13%, whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with ‘track-and-treat’ contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on

  20. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  1. Kitchen waste as pig feed sustains transmission of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mbeya, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin

    . This resulted in 43 farmers in the case group and 50 farmers in the control group from 20 villages. Potato peels were said to be given to pigs either raw or boiled by 46% of the farmers. Based on logistic regression porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or a completely open latrine (p=0.......29-114.55) compared to cemented floors, were more likely to be infected. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs, or whether the contamination is from the water used, or from dirty hands, in the process of peeling the potatoes, need to be confirmed. The results obtained in this study are strengthened...

  2. Development of a health education intervention strategy using an implementation research method to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Helena; Ozbolt, Ivan; Millogo, Athanase; Dermauw, Veronique; Somé, Télesphore; Spicer, Paul; Jervis, Lori L; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Carabin, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are two diseases caused by Taenia solium, a parasite transmitted between humans and pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and disabilities. Transmission of the parasite is linked to environmental and behavioural factors such as inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor pig management, and consumption of infected pork. This study used implementation research method to design a health education intervention strategy for reducing T. solium infections in Burkina Faso, a country endemic for the parasite. Eighteen group discussions were conducted with 8-18 participants each in three villages. In addition, structured interviews were conducted among 4 777 participants and 2 244 pig owners, who were selected through cluster random sampling in 60 villages of three provinces of Burkina Faso. Both approaches assessed knowledge and practices related to T. solium. The information obtained was used to develop a community-adapted health education intervention strategy to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. The group discussions revealed that participants had a poor quality of life due to the diseases as well as inadequate access to latrines, safe water, and healthcare services. In addition, it was found that pig production was an important economic activity, especially for women. Furthermore, financial and knowledge constraints were important limitations to improved pig management and latrine construction. The survey data also showed that open defecation and drinking unboiled water were common behaviours, enhanced by a lack of knowledge regarding the transmission of the parasite, perceived financial barriers to the implementation of control measures, lack of public sensitization, as well as a lack of self-efficacy towards control of the parasite. Nevertheless, the perceived financial benefits of controlling porcine cysticercosis could be emphasized by an education program that discourages open defecation and encourages drinking safe

  3. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Agarwal, Rajni; Modlin, Leslie A.; Gray, Christine C.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn; Kiamanesh, Eileen F.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  4. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  5. Estimating prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of bovine cysticercosis in Belgium in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test using a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Famke; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Eichenberger, Ramon Marc; Berkvens, Dirk

    2018-04-30

    A Bayesian model was developed to estimate values for the prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of bovine cysticercosis (Taenia saginata) by combining results of four imperfect tests. Samples of 612 bovine carcases that were found negative for cysticercosis during routine meat inspection collected at three Belgian slaughterhouses, underwent enhanced meat inspection (additional incisions in the heart), dissection of the predilection sites, B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and ES Ab-ELISA. This Bayesian approach allows for the combination of prior expert opinion with experimental data to estimate the true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard test. A first model (based on a multinomial distribution and including all possible interactions between the individual tests) required estimation of 31 parameters, while only allowing for 15 parameters to be estimated. Including prior expert information about specificity and sensitivity resulted in an optimal model with a reduction of the number of parameters to be estimated to 8. The estimated bovine cysticercosis prevalence was 33.9% (95% credibility interval: 27.7-44.4%), while apparent prevalence based on meat inspection is only 0.23%. The test performances were estimated as follows (sensitivity (Se) - specificity (Sp)): enhanced meat inspection (Se 2.87% - Sp 100%), dissection of predilection sites (Se 69.8% - Sp 100%), Ag-ELISA (Se 26.9% - Sp 99.4%), Ab-ELISA (Se 13.8% - Sp 92.9%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of national schistosomiasis control programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood...

  7. Lack of survival improvement with novel anti-myeloma agents for patients with multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: the Greek Myeloma Study Group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katodritou, Eirini; Terpos, Evangelos; Kastritis, Efstathios; Delimpasis, Sossana; Symeonidis, Argiris S; Repousis, Panagiotis; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Vadikolia, Chrysa; Michalis, Eurydiki; Polychronidou, Genovefa; Michael, Michael; Papadaki, Sofia; Papathanasiou, Maria; Kokoviadou, Kyriaki; Kioumi, Anna; Vlachaki, Eythimia; Hadjiaggelidou, Christina; Kouraklis, Alexandra; Patsias, Ioannis; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Verrou, Evgenia; Gastari, Vasiliki; Christoulas, Dimitrios; Giannopoulou, Evlambia; Pouli, Anastasia; Konstantinidou, Pavlina; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios

    2015-12-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare complication of multiple myeloma (MM). Herein, we have described the incidence, characteristics, prognostic factors for post CNS-MM survival, and outcome of CNS-MM and explored the efficacy of novel agents (NA) (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide) in this setting. Between 2000 and 2013, 31 (0.9 %) out of 3408 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients, consecutively diagnosed and treated during the same period in 12 Greek centers, developed CNS-MM (M/F 15/16, median age 59 years, range 20-96 years; newly diagnosed/relapsed-refractory 2/29; median time to CNS-MM diagnosis 29 months). Clinical and laboratory characteristics were retrospectively recorded. Twenty-six percent of patients had circulating plasma cells (PCs) or plasma cell leukemia (PCL) at CNS-MM and 39 % had skull-derived plasmacytomas, suggesting hematological and contiguous spread. Treatment for CNS-MM was offered in 29/31 patients and 11/29 responded (NA 18/29, additional radiotherapy 9/28, intrathecal chemotherapy 13/29). The median post CNS-MM survival was 3 months (95 % CI 1.9-4.1) and did not differ between patients treated with NA and/or radiotherapy vs. others. In the multivariate analysis, prior treatment of MM with NA, extramedullary disease (EMD) during MM course (i.e., plasmacytomas, circulating PCs, or documented PCL) and abnormally high LDH at MM diagnosis were independent prognostic factors, whereas treatment of CNS-MM with NA did not predict for post CNS-MM survival. Despite the relatively limited number of patients due to the rarity of CNS-MM, our results suggest that NA do not seem to improve post CNS-MM survival. Patients with EMD display shortened post CNS-MM survival and should be followed thoroughly.

  8. Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V; Sikasunge, C S; Odongo-Aginya, E; Simukoko, C; Mwanjali, G; Alarakol, S; Ovuga, E; Matuja, W; Kihamia, C; Löscher, T; Winkler, A S; Bretzel, G

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium metacestodes/cysts obtained from pig carcasses constitute a primary source for diagnostic tools used for the detection of human cysticercosis. Data on T. solium cyst preparation in Africa is still scarce but required to establish independent reference laboratories. The aim of the present study is a) to present the likely yield of T. solium cyst material by the use of two different preparation methods in the field and b) to investigate its suitability for immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis. In Zambia, Uganda and Tanzania 670 pigs were screened for T. solium infection. Cysts were prepared by 'shaking method' and 'washing method'. Generated crude antigens were applied in a standard western blot assay. 46 out of 670 pigs (6.9%) were found positive for T. solium (Zambia: 12/367, 3.3%; Uganda: 11/217, 5.1%; Tanzania 23/86, 26.7%). Mean values of 77.7 ml whole cysts, 61.8 ml scolices/membranes and 10.9 ml cyst fluid were obtained per pig. Suitability of collected material for the use as crude antigen and molecular diagnostic techniques was demonstrated. This study clearly shows that T. solium cyst preparation in African settings by simple field methods constitutes an effective way to obtain high quality material as source for diagnostic tools and research purposes.

  9. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  10. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  11. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  12. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E

    2002-01-01

    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  13. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23]). A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants

  14. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  15. Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniasis: Animal-human health and economic approach with treatment trends in Kombolcha Town, Wollo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragaw Tegegne

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniasis accounted for parasitic zoonotic implications with economic losses from organ contamination and treatment cost. The disease is common where hygienic conditions are poor and the inhabitants traditionally eat raw or insufficiently cooked meat under inadequate community awareness on the associated risk factors for the occurrences of infections in developing countries such as Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess bovine cysticercosis and Taenia saginata human taeniasis considering animal-human health and economic approach with treatment trends in Kombolcha Town, Wollo, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in cattle slaughtered at Kombolcha ELFORA abattoir from November 2016 to April 2017. A questionnaire survey was applied for community awareness, exposure risk, and treatment trends for taeniasis assessment in Kombolcha Town with economic losses from organ condemnation, and drug cost for taeniasis treatments were estimated. Results: Of the 234 examined carcasses, 21 (8.97% were found infected with bovine cysticercosis. Organ distribution of the cysts showed highest proportions in liver 40 (29.2%, followed by heart 26 (18.9%, tongue 22 (16.1%, masseter muscle 20 (14.6%, triceps 15 (10.9%, diaphragm 9 (6.7%, and lung 5 (3.6%. Both male, i.e., 15 (6.4%, and female, i.e., 6 (12.8%, were infected. Regardless of sample size, Cysticercus bovis infection was found 8 (21.62% in adults and 13 (6.60% older aged. Of 110 interviewed individuals, about 31.8% aware of taeniasis and they also have exposure risk for taeniasis with no differences (p>0.05 within studied demography. The majorities (54.3% of exposed groups use pharmaceutical drugs, while 28.6% use herbal medicine, but 17.2% use both for treatment. Of 31,469 clinical cases in Kombolcha Town, 22 (0.07% were positive for taeniasis over the year 2016. An inventory of pharmaceutical shops revealed the

  16. Involvement of Gaba and Cannabinoid Receptors in Central Food Intake Regulation in Neonatal Layer Chicks: Role of CB1 and Gabaa Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zendehdel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Feeding behavior is regulated via a complex network which interacts via diverse signals from central and peripheral tissues. Endocannabinoids modulate release of GABA in a variety of regions of the central nervous system. Endocannabinoids and GABAergic system have an important role in the central regulation of appetite. Thus, the present study examines the possible interaction of central canabinoidergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in 3-h food-deprived (FD3 neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol, selective CB1 receptors agonist, 2µg significantly increased food intake and this effect of 2-AG was attenuated by Picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist, 0.5µg (P0.05. Also, hyperphagic effect of CB65 (CB2 receptors agonist, 1.25µg was not affected by Picrotoxin or CGP54626 (p>0.05. Moreover, the food intake of chicks was significantly increased by ICV injection of GABAA agonist (Gaboxadol, 0.2 µg and SR141716A (CB1 receptors antagonist, 6.25µg significantly decreased Gaboxadol-induced hyperphagia (P0.05. These data showed there might be an interaction between central cannabinoidergic and GABAergic systems via CB1 and GABAA receptors in control of food intake in neonatal layer chicks.

  17. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    possible modulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different histaminergic receptor antagonists, the selective histaminergic H1 receptor antagonist, i.e., chlorpheniramine (CHL) or the H2 receptor antagonist, i.e., cimetidine (CIM) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR resulted from the i.c.v. cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (PHY) were also examined in order to confirm and to analyze effects of cross interaction between central histaminergic and cholinergic systems on CSR. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) Standalone microinjection of different selective cholinergic receptor antagonists (PRZ, MTR or HEX) or different selective histaminergic receptor antagonists (CHL or CIM) into the NTS with each given dose had no effects on the CSR function and on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, respectively (P > 0.05). (2) The pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS with each corresponding dose could attenuate CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA in some degrees, which remarkably moved the posterior half range of ISP-MAP relationship curve downwards (P CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA were more obvious than those with PRZ (P CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA (P > 0.05). (3) The effects of pretreatment of CHL or CIM into the NTS with each corresponding dose on CSR resetting made by i.c.v. PHY were similar to those of pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS on CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA, and the decreasing effects of pretreatment with CHL into the NTS on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. PHY were more remarkable than those with CIM (P CSR resetting resulted from either HA or PHY into the lateral ventricle may partly involve the descending histaminergic or cholinergic pathway from the hypothalamus to NTS, which might evoke a cross activation of the cholinergic system in the NTS, via cholinergic M1 and M2 receptors mediation, especially the M2 receptors showing actions, or trigger another cross activation of the

  18. Radioisotopic studies of the sub-arachnoid space in cerebral cysticercosis; correlation of scintigraphic with pneumoencephalographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswaldo Loayza, A.

    1976-01-01

    Cerabral cysticercosis is a grave public health problem in Ecuador and is caused by a tapeworm, which is parasite of man. The larvae of this tapeworm lodge in various tissues, notably in the brain, causing blockage of the sub-arachnoid space and leading to epileptic seizures and to mental deterioration. The present investigation on 115 patients has compared clinical and radiological findings with those from radionuclide cisternography, performed with a gamma camera after injection of 15-200μCi 131 I-albumin into the cerebro-spinal fluid. The results from 86 patients have been selected for detailed analysis. Radiological techniques such as pneumoencephalography were in general found to be more precise in determining the site of obstruction than cisternography

  19. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Pray

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis, and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated.In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4 of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences.These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig's roaming area (i.e., home range and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs.

  20. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W; Swanson, Dallas J; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E

    2016-04-01

    Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig's roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs.

  1. Towards the international collaboration for detection, surveillance and control of taeniasis/ cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Sato, Marcello O; Mamuti, Wulamu; Xiao, Ning; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Both cysticercosis and echinococcosis are potentially among the most serious helminth zoonoses threatening human health worldwide. However, due to the lack of reliable tools for confirmation or identification of patients or infected animals, epidemiological data are expected to be underestimated. Conversely, sometimes, such data are over estimated due to the lack of specificity. The most important issue for doing field surveys is that they use evidence based science. In this communication, advanced immunological and molecular tools for detection of individuals infected with either metacestodes or adult tapeworms are briefly overviewed, and the applications of such tools for epidemiological surveys in Indonesia, China and other countries are introduced. As immunological tools are based on antigen-antibody responses, there may exist some cross-reactions. Therefore, immunodiagnostic tools are expected to be useful for primary screening, and should be combined with confirmation of direct parasitological evidence (morphology or DNA), and imaging techniques for cysts. As a risk factor for human cysticercosis is the presence of tapeworm carriers, detection of taeniasis cases and differentiation of the three human Taenia species (Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica) in Asia and the Pacific requires consideration. Similarly, in northwest China, Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis are coendemic and differentiation of these species is required in humans and definitive hosts. It is stressed that combination of several tools for identification of the parasite and for confirmation of diseases is important for obtaining highly reliable data before consideration of control of these zoonoses. Recent projects coordinated by Asahikawa Medical College have concentrated on immunological and molecular diagnostic techniques transferable to colleagues from endemic regions of Asia and the Pacific, and on organization of two international symposia to establish a platform

  2. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics of Taenia solium cysts obtained from the skeletal muscle and central nervous system of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Navarrete-Perea

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS and the skeletal muscles (SM. The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive intermixing of host and parasite proteins reported for tapeworm infections.Several antigens in cysticercosis, i.e., GP50, paramyosin and a calcium-binding protein were enriched in skeletal muscle cysts. Our results suggested the occurrence of tissue-enriched antigen that could be useful in the improvement of the immunodiagnosis for cysticercosis. Using several algorithms for epitope detection, we selected 42 highly antigenic proteins enriched for each tissue localization of the cysts. Taking into account the fold changes and the antigen/epitope contents, we selected 10 proteins and produced synthetic peptides from the best epitopes. Nine peptides were recognized by serum antibodies of cysticercotic pigs, suggesting that those peptides are antigens. Mixtures of peptides derived from SM and CNS cysts yielded better results than mixtures of peptides derived from a single tissue location, however the identification of the 'optimal' tissue-enriched antigens remains to be discovered. Through machine learning technologies, we determined that a reliable immunodiagnostic test for porcine cysticercosis required at least five different antigenic determinants.

  3. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics of Taenia solium cysts obtained from the skeletal muscle and central nervous system of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Isasa, Marta; Paulo, Joao A; Corral-Corral, Ricardo; Flores-Bautista, Jeanette; Hernández-Téllez, Beatriz; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Gygi, Steven P; Laclette, Juan P

    2017-09-01

    In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts) can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and the skeletal muscles (SM). The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive intermixing of host and parasite proteins reported for tapeworm infections.Several antigens in cysticercosis, i.e., GP50, paramyosin and a calcium-binding protein were enriched in skeletal muscle cysts. Our results suggested the occurrence of tissue-enriched antigen that could be useful in the improvement of the immunodiagnosis for cysticercosis. Using several algorithms for epitope detection, we selected 42 highly antigenic proteins enriched for each tissue localization of the cysts. Taking into account the fold changes and the antigen/epitope contents, we selected 10 proteins and produced synthetic peptides from the best epitopes. Nine peptides were recognized by serum antibodies of cysticercotic pigs, suggesting that those peptides are antigens. Mixtures of peptides derived from SM and CNS cysts yielded better results than mixtures of peptides derived from a single tissue location, however the identification of the 'optimal' tissue-enriched antigens remains to be discovered. Through machine learning technologies, we determined that a reliable immunodiagnostic test for porcine cysticercosis required at least five different antigenic determinants.

  4. Central nervous system involvement at first relapse in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy without intrathecal prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Montesinos (Pau); J. Díaz-Mediavilla (Joaquín); G. Debén (Guillermo); V. Prates (Virginia); M. Tormo (Mar); V. Rybio (Vicente); I. Pérez (Inmaculada); I. Fernández (Isolda); M. Viguria (Maricruz); C. Rayón (Chelo); J. de Serna (Javier); J. Esteve (Jordi); J.M. Bergua (Juan Miguel); C. Rivas (Concha); J.D. González (José David); M. González (Marcos); S. Negri (Silvia); S. Brunet (Salut); B. Löwenberg (Bob); M.A. Sanz (Miguel Angel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of and risk factors for central nervous system recurrence in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia are not well established and remain a controversial matter. Design and Methods: Between 1996 and 2005, 739 patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic

  5. [Retrospective evaluation of sarcoidosis patients 1970-1979 at the Bad Berka Central Clinic for Heart and Lung Diseases for the detection of possible heart involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, D; Schaedel, H; Kessler, G

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac involvement in pulmonary sarcoidosis was found in a higher percentage than formerly reported, by careful observation. In a retrospective analysis of 1 236 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis we found a possible cardiac involvement in 15.1%. In cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis or lymph node sarcoidosis combined with sarcoid lesions in other organs (liver, eyes, skin etc.) cardiac involvement is possible. Heart sarcoidosis was found in all roentgenographic stages and without sex difference. Patients with possible heart sarcoidosis suffer from dyspnoe , thoracical pain, heart discomfort, or angina pectoris in a higher part than without it. Enlargement of the heart and/or cardiac failure are signs of sarcoid involvement in patient with sarcoidosis, also in elderly patients. There are some difficulties in differential diagnosis of sarcoid cardiac involvement and ischaemic heart disease.

  6. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  8. [Neurologic and laboratory findings in a population of an endemic area for taeniasis-cysticercosis, Lagamar, MG, Brazil (1992-1993)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vergara, M L; Vieira, C de O; Castro, J H; Micheletti, L G; Otaño, A S; Franquini júnior, J; Cabral, M; Leboreiro, A; Marques, J O; de Souza, W F

    1994-01-01

    A clinic-epidemiological enquiry was conducted on in an endemic area for teniasis-cysticercosis. From the whole population 1080 (32.2%) individuals were examined. We found 198 (18.3%) individuals referring teniasis-bearing in the past, and 103 (9.5%) affirming to have had convulsions, either in the past or present. From the last group, 39 (37.8%) indicated that the crisis had begun in adulthood. From the group of patients presenting convulsions, 62 (62%) had laboratory tests performed. Computed tomography showed intracranial calcifications in 21 (33.8%) patients, variable in number and location, suggesting neurocysticercosis and no evidence of disease activity. Electroencephalograms showed abnormal waves in 21 (33.8%) patients and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were altered in 27 (43.5%) cases, having detected eosinophils only in 3 (4.8%) patients. Spinal fluid tests for cysticercosis through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or indirect immunofluorescence were taken in only 26 (41.9%) patients, obtaining positive results in 6 (23%) samples. Varying upward shifts of protein levels were found in spinal fluid analysis. Assuming that all epidemiologic risk factors for teniasis-cysticercosis in the studied region and its correlation with the laboratory alterations described in convulsing crisis, a prevalence of 1.9% for neurocysticercosis was found.

  9. Oral cysticercosis: case report and review of the literature Cisticercose oral: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Melhem Elias

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a condition that occurs when man is infested by the larvae of Taenia solium, acting as an intermediate host instead of definitive. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event, and it represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. A case of oral cysticercosis in a 23-year-old white female who presented a painless swelling in the dorsal portion of the tongue is reported. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm.A cisticercose é uma doença que ocorre quando o indivíduo é infectado pela larva da Taenia solium, atuando como hospedeiro intermediário ao invés de definitivo. A cisticercose em cavidade oral é rara e seu diagnóstico clínico é difícil. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso de cisticercose oral em paciente de 23 anos, sexo feminino que apresentou um crescimento indolor na região de dorso de língua. Foi realizada uma biópsia excisional e o exame histopatológico revelou uma cavidade cística apresentando em seu interior a larva.

  10. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Mario; Gernone, Floriana; Simone, Antonio De; Giannuzzi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    A wild young male red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  11. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ricciardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  12. Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-10-18

    Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Headache and Central Positioning Vertigo in a Middle Aged Female-a Case of Solitary Cerebellar Tuberculoma Involving Left Cerebellar Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakya Bhattacharjee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 48 year old female presented with headache and an illusory sensation of spinning of head in respect to environment for last 8 weeks. Her head spinning or vertigo had no particular direction or not precipitated by any specific head posture. Headache is non- specific in nature and intensified in last few days.Her neurological examination revealed a central positional vertigo with horizontal gaze evoked nystagmus and ataxia. Her MRI scan brain showed the presence of a large solitary ring enhancing lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The lesion was surgically excised and was examined histopathologicaliy that revealed a chronic inflammatory granuloma with caseation necrosis and multinucleated giant cells suggestive of tuberculosis

  14. Thermography imaging during static and controlled thermoregulation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: diagnostic value and involvement of the central sympathetic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Mirjam

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 is a clinical diagnosis based on criteria describing symptoms of the disease. The main aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of calculation methods used to assess thermographic images (infrared imaging obtained during temperature provocation. The secondary objective was to obtain information about the involvement of the sympathetic system in CRPS1. Methods We studied 12 patients in whom CRPS1 was diagnosed according to the criteria of Bruehl. High and low whole body cooling and warming induced and reduced sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. The degree of vasoconstrictor activity in both hands was monitored using a videothermograph. The sensitivity and specificity of the calculation methods used to assess the thermographic images were calculated. Results The temperature difference between the hands in the CRPS patients increases significantly when the sympathetic system is provoked. At both the maximum and minimum vasoconstriction no significant differences were found in fingertip temperatures between both hands. Conclusion The majority of CRPS1 patients do not show maximal obtainable temperature differences between the involved and contralateral extremity at room temperature (static measurement. During cold and warm temperature challenges this temperature difference increases significantly. As a result a higher sensitivity and specificity could be achieved in the diagnosis of CRPS1. These findings suggest that the sympathetic efferent system is involved in CRPS1.

  15. A serological study of cysticercosis in patients with HIV Estudo sorológico da cisticercose em pacientes com HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Parija

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC has attained the importance of one of the most common cause of focal brain lesions in patients infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus. Adequate data regarding the rate of this co-infection is lacking. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cysticercosis among HIV patients residing in Puducherry or its neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu State, India. A total of one hundred blood samples were collected from HIV seropositive cases visiting JIPMER hospital, Puducherry, between June 2007 and May 2008. Enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used to demonstrate anti- T. solium larval stage antibodies and Co-agglutination (Co-A test was used to detect T. solium larval stage antigens in sera. Two HIV seropositive cases were found positive for anti-T. solium larval stage antibody by EITB and four were positive by ELISA. Only one sample was positive by both EITB and ELISA. No serum sample was found positive for T. solium larval stage antigen by Co-A test. The overall seropositivity detected by all the methods was 5% in this study group. The accurate clinical diagnosis of NCC in HIV is difficult due to deranged immunological parameters in the HIV infected patients. The results of this study provides important data on the prevalence of cysticercosis in HIV positive patients in Puducherry and neighboring areas which was previously unknown. This study will also increase awareness among physicians and public health agencies about T. solium cysticercosis in the selected group.Neurocisticercose (NCC tem alcançado a importância de uma das mais comuns causas de lesões focais no cérebro em pacientes infectados pelo HIV (vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida. Dados adequados relativos à frequencia desta co-infecção estão faltando. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a prevalência da cisticercose entre pacientes com HIV

  16. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior Surgical treatment of cysticercosis in posterior cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.Cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic diseases of the nervous system. When located in the posterior fossa, it presents a dramatic picture of intracranial hypertension. Seventy patients of cysticercosis in posterior cranial fossa have been studied, all of them attended at the Neurosurgery Service of the University of São Paulo

  17. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Mwape, K E; Van Damme, I; Hobbs, E; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Zulu, G; Colston, A; Willingham, A L; Devleesschauwer, B; Van Hul, A; Chota, A; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

    2017-11-16

    Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard). Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half), including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56%) and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%), out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3%) had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than 10 cysticerci. Depending on the aim of the

  18. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  19. The nummulithoclast event within the Lower Eocene in the Southern Tethyan margin: Mechanisms involved, analogy with the filament event and climate implication (Kairouan, Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardassi, Besma

    2017-10-01

    Early Eocene deposits in Tunisia are marked by clear variations in terms of facies and thickness. Each facies corresponds to an appropriate depositional environment. Shallow water deposits pass gradually offshore into deeper carbonates along a homoclinal ramp. In Central Tunisia, detailed investigation of carbonate facies under transmitted light shows a particular richness of the middle part of Early Eocene deposits in nummulithoclasts. These facies are often frequent within corrugated banks. They are overlaying Globigerina rich well-bedded limestones and overlain by nummulites and Discocyclina rich massively-bedded carbonates. Nummulithoclasts occurrence is recorded on field by an abrupt vertical change from autochthonous thinly-bedded limestones to massively-bedded fossiliferous carbonates. Change concerns structures, textures and limestones' composition. Nummulithoclasts are associated either to planktonic micro-organisms or to benthic fauna and phosphates grains. The middle and the upper parts of the Early Eocene deposits, particularly, fossilize hummocky cross-stratifications and megaripples. Their presence advocates the role of energetic currents in sweeping nummulites from lower circatidal to upper bathyal environments. The absence of a slope break helped the settling of reworked nummulites within deeper environments. The abrupt change, nummulithoclast associations and current structures arouse reflection and make them not reliable to characterize depositional environments. However, their preferential occurrence within the middle part of Early Eocene deposits and the tight linkage with storm activity lead them to be considered as event. The large scale hummocks recorded on field suggests that nummulite fragmentation was triggered by tropical cyclones rather than humble storms. The frequent occurrence of cyclones which correspond to low pressure atmospheric systems seems in relation with a global warming enhancing the sea surface temperature.

  20. Involvement of N6 and N3 polyunsaturated faty acids on the lipidic profile in central nervous system of the animals of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iamandei1, Veronica Mocanu1, T. Oboroceanu2, Veronica Luca1

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: N-3 and N-6polyunsaturated fatty acids has manyinvolvements in activities within orentering in regulating various physiologicalprocesses and in certain pathologies.Among systemic physiological effects inwhich they are involved we mention thecentral nervous system development andrecall of the retina, regulating plasma lipidlevels, cardiovascular and immune systemfunctions, regulating the activity of insulin.Material and methods: The experimentthere were used 60 male Wistar rats , weight180 ± 20 grams, procured from the animalfarm of the Department ofPathophysiology, University of Medicineand Pharmacy “Gr.T. Popa”, Iaşi.Male Wistar rats were divided into twostudy groups: normal control animals (Mand test animals.Test group was further divided intothree groups - each group being composedof 15 animals.Administration of the substances wasmade for 36 weeks (nine months, afterwhich the animals were evaluated andsubsequently sacrificed.Results: Following statistical analysis, wedetermined the following:• Averages of AGP n3 were significantlyhigher in groups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p<0.001 compared with group 4• Averages ratio n6: n3 in nerve cellmembrane were significantly lower ingroups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p <0.001compared with group 4Discussions: Our experimentdemonstrates that increased amounts ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids in themembranes of nerve cells which can justifythe positive evolution of animals inassessing the performance of concomitantbehavioral tests.Conclusions: This study brings new lighton the importance of the existence of abalance between PUFA intake and dailydiet.

  1. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had central nervous system involvement: a study from the Adult ALL Working Group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Akio; Kako, Shinichi; Mitsuhashi, Kenjiro; Iwato, Koji; Uchida, Naoyuki; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sawa, Masashi; Senoo, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Takada, Satoru; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Morishima, Yasuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Mizuta, Shuichi; Tanaka, Junji

    2017-06-01

    The prognosis for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement (CNS+) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of allo-SCT for patients with CNS involvement and for patients without CNS involvement (CNS-) using a database in Japan. The eligibility criteria for this study were as follows: diagnosis of ALL, aged more than 16 years, allo-SCT between 2005 and 2012, and first SCT. Data for 2582 patients including 136 CNS+ patients and 2446 CNS- patients were used for analyses. As compared with CNS- patients, CNS+ patients were younger, had worse disease status at SCT and had poorer performance status (PS) at SCT (P < 0.01). Incidence of relapse was higher in CNS+ patients (P = 0.02), and incidence of CNS relapse was also higher (P < 0.01). The probability of 3-year overall survival (OS) was better in CNS- patients (P < 0.01) by univariate analysis. However, in patients who received SCT in CR, there was no difference in the probability of OS between CNS+ and CNS- patients (P = 0.38) and CNS involvement did not have an unfavorable effect on OS by multivariate analysis. CNS+ patients who achieved CR showed OS comparable to that of CNS- patients.

  2. Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Miran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis (due to the larval stage of Echinococcus spp. and cysticercosis (due to the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena pose a significant economic losses due to slaughter condemnation and risk to public health in developing countries such as Tanzania where sanitation is poor and people live in close proximity with each other and with animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and to identify the predisposing factors for echinococcosis and cysticercosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs located in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional based survey was conducted, from January 2013 to April 2013, whereby a total of 180 animals comprising 90 goats and 90 sheep of both sexes were examined at postmortem for the evidence of larval stages of Echinococcus spp. (hydatid cyst and T. hydatigena (Cysticercus tenuicollis through visual inspection, incision and palpation of organs and viscera. Results: The prevalence of echinococcosis was 22.2% and 16.6%, in goats and sheep, respectively, while the overall infection rates for cysticercosis were 61.1% in goats and 42.2% in sheep. The result of this study revealed that goats and sheep in Malambo slaughter slab had significantly higher prevalence of T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis and hydatid cysts (p<0.05 compared to other slab points. T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis cysts were more frequently detected in the omentum than other visceral organs among the animals examined. Conclusion: In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of the two metacestodes larval stages leads to high condemnation rates of edible offals and raises significant public health concerns. This underscores for the need to undertake more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the causal factors, economic impact, and public health importance of the disease in this livestock-wildlife interface setting.

  3. Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, M B; Kasuku, A A; Swai, E S

    2017-04-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatidosis (due to the larval stage of Echinococcus spp.) and cysticercosis (due to the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena ) pose a significant economic losses due to slaughter condemnation and risk to public health in developing countries such as Tanzania where sanitation is poor and people live in close proximity with each other and with animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and to identify the predisposing factors for echinococcosis and cysticercosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs located in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. A cross-sectional based survey was conducted, from January 2013 to April 2013, whereby a total of 180 animals comprising 90 goats and 90 sheep of both sexes were examined at postmortem for the evidence of larval stages of Echinococcus spp. (hydatid cyst) and T. hydatigena ( Cysticercus tenuicollis ) through visual inspection, incision and palpation of organs and viscera. The prevalence of echinococcosis was 22.2% and 16.6%, in goats and sheep, respectively, while the overall infection rates for cysticercosis were 61.1% in goats and 42.2% in sheep. The result of this study revealed that goats and sheep in Malambo slaughter slab had significantly higher prevalence of T. hydatigena ( C. tenuicollis ) and hydatid cysts (p<0.05) compared to other slab points. T. hydatigena ( C. tenuicollis ) cysts were more frequently detected in the omentum than other visceral organs among the animals examined. In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of the two metacestodes larval stages leads to high condemnation rates of edible offals and raises significant public health concerns. This underscores for the need to undertake more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the causal factors, economic impact, and public health importance of the disease in this livestock-wildlife interface setting.

  4. Performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis using experimentally and naturally cattle infected with metacestode of Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Paola Meneguete dos Guimarães-Peixoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The bovine taeniasis-cysticercosis complex can be defined as a set of pathological changes caused by the adult form of Taenia saginata in humans and their larval form in animals (Cysticercus bovis. Data on the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis comes from the records of veterinary inspection of meat in slaughterhouses under fiscalization, where some positive cases may go unnoticed, especially in moderate infections. So, it is relevant the use of serological tests that have greater sensitivity than the post-mortem routine exams. Studies have shown the possible application of the ELISA test as a tool for epidemiological studies of the parasitosis and in the identification of animals with cysts. The aim of this study is to determine the detection threshold of the indirect ELISA test, using experimentally and naturally infected animals in detecting cases of cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the test to naturally infected animals using a cut-off 1 and 2 added with 2 standart-deviation (SD was of 12% and 24.4%, respectively. However, when using the cut-off of 1 and 2 added with 3 SD, the test sensitivity dropped, represented by 14.4% and 1.99% of the test sensitivity. As for the samples from experimentally infected animals, using the cut-off 1 and 2 added with 2 SD the sensitivity was 55.9% and 92.5%; and adding 3 SD the values found were 31.2% and 86%, respectively. The specificity of the test in all situations tested was 100%. It is important to take into account the right choice of control sera used in the ELISA test, whereas, according to its application, it is necessary to increase the sensitivity or specificity.

  5. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  6. Central executive involvement in children's spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Su Yin; Lee, Kerry

    2008-11-01

    Previous research with adults found that spatial short-term and working memory tasks impose similar demands on executive resources. We administered spatial short-term and working memory tasks to 8- and 11-year-olds in three separate experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2 an executive suppression task (random number generation) was found to impair performances on a short-term memory task (Corsi blocks), a working memory task (letter rotation), and a spatial visualisation task (paper folding). In Experiment 3 an articulatory suppression task only impaired performance on the working memory task. These results suggest that short-term and working memory performances are dependent on executive resources. The degree to which the short-term memory task was dependent on executive resources was expected to be related to the amount of experience children have had with such tasks. Yet we found no significant age-related suppression effects. This was attributed to differences in employment of cognitive strategies by the older children.

  7. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.

    2015-01-01

    %), radiculopathy (27%), headache (25%), confusion (21%), peripheral neuropathy (9%), dizziness (7%) and seizures (6%). MRI of the brain and/or spine were performed in 156 patients (91%), and showed evidence of disease in 145 (93%). After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median OS for the entire group was 7...

  8. Central nervous system involvement in Whipple's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, B.; Bohl, J.; Heferkamp, G.

    1981-01-01

    A case of Whipple's disease is presented manifesting itself predominantly with neurological and mental symptoms but without gastrointestinal complaints. Although the first cranial CT in the fourth year of the disease was normal, the second, 1.5 years later, revealed intensive hypodensity of the white matter and cortical enhancement. CT findings are compared with autopsy results and a review of the pertinent literature is given. (orig.)

  9. Experimental infection in cattle: kinetics of production of IgM and IgG against bovine cysticercosis and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Paola Meneguete dos Guimarães-Peixoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that affects humans in their adult form (taeniasis and its larval is found inserted in the musculature of infected cattle (cysticerci. It is still not entirely clear how animal immune response against infection occurs, being the comprehension of this process necessary for the enhancement of diagnostic capacity and disease prevention. This work aimed to evaluate the evolution of the immune response in experimentally infected cattle, compared with findings in cell response by optical microscopy. Nine animals were infected at a rate of 120,000 eggs of Taenia saginata. Five of the animals were similar in the kinetics of antibody production against cysticerci, with maximal levels of IgG and IgM. The other four animals showed an immune response different from the majority, with two of them showing delayed response to infection by cysticerci while the others apparently did not have initial contact with antigens secreted by cysticerci. Regarding the cellular response, it was found that, in lesions of viable cysticerci, inflammatory cells predominated, whereas in nonviable cysticerci there were tissue repair cells in the most part, being possible to notice that the amount of migratory calcareous corpuscles are related to the death stage of the parasite. These findings are important for the understanding immune response of cattle infected with cysticercosis.

  10. Seroprevalence of fascioliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis and cysticercosis in blood samples diagnosed in Medic Medical Center Laboratory, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Toan; Cheong, Fei Wen; Liew, Jonathan Wee Kent; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-09-05

    Despite the global effort against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), developing countries with middle to low income are still burdened by them. Vietnam has been undergoing substantial economic growth and urbanization, but underprivileged people living in rural and suburban areas are still having little access to public health infrastructure and proper sanitation. Hitherto, limited information is available for seroprevalence and risk factors of several parasitic diseases in Vietnam. A retrospective study was performed on diagnostic results of Fasciola spp., Toxocara spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia solium IgG ELISA tests from Medic Medical Center Laboratory, Ho Chi Minh City in 2012. The data were first stratified before statistical analyses were performed. Seroprevalence of fascioliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis and cysticercosis was determined and the age and gender risk factors were evaluated. Seroprevalence of fascioliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis and cysticercosis was 5.9 % (590/10,084; 95 % CI: 5.44-6.36), 45.2 % (34,995/77,356; 95 % CI: 44.85-45.55), 7.4 % (3,174/42,920; 95 % CI: 7.15-7.65) and 4.9 % (713/14,601; 95 % CI: 4.55-5.25), respectively. Co-exposure to multiple parasites was detected in 890 males (45.7 %; 95 % CI: 43.49-47.91) and 1,059 females (54.3 %; 95 % CI: 52.09-56.51). Social structure and differences in behavioural factors caused the gender factor to have a significant effect on the prevalence of all the diseases, while the seropositivity for fascioliasis and strongyloidiasis were age group-related. The seroprevalence of fascioliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis and cysticercosis in the blood samples diagnosed in Medic Medical Center Laboratory, Ho Chi Minh City, in year 2012 were comparatively high. The Vietnamese customs and cultures, dietary habits and agricultural practices exposed them to high risk of contracting NTDs. Despite the possibility of false positive results due to antigenic cross

  11. Effectiveness of a community-based educational programme in reducing the cumulative incidence and prevalence of human Taenia solium cysticercosis in Burkina Faso in 2011–14 (EFECAB: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The effectiveness of drug-free interventions in controlling human cysticercosis is not well known. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a community-based educational intervention in reducing the frequency of human cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. Methods: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial between 2011 and 2014. 60 eligible villages from three provinces (Boulkiemdé, Sanguié, and Nayala were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Villages raising pigs, that were not a regional capital or located on a main road, that were more than 20 km from Ouagadougou or 5 km from one another, were eligible. In each village, 60 participants were asked for blood samples at baseline, 18 months later (before randomisation, and 18 months after randomisation. Villages were block randomised (1:1 by pig-raising department immediately after the pre-randomisation visit. The intervention aimed to improve knowledge of Taenia solium transmission and control through screening and structured discussion of a 52-min movie, and to increase community self-efficacy through a Self-esteem, Associative strengths, Resourcefulness, Action planning, Responsibility (SARAR approach via the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST model. The primary outcome was active cysticercosis, defined as the presence of circulating antigens detected by use of B158/B60 ELISA. Effectiveness measured at the village level was estimated by use of three Bayesian hierarchical models. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT0309339. Findings: Two villages in the same randomisation block were excluded, resulting in a final sample size of 58 villages. Overall, the intervention tended towards a decrease in the cumulative incidence of active cysticercosis from baseline to after randomisation (adjusted cumulative incidence ratio 0·65, 95% Bayesian credible interval [95% CrI] 0·39–1·05 and a decrease in active

  12. Disseminated cysticercosis: clinical spectrum, Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms and role of albendazole: A prospective follow-up of 60 cases with a review of 56 published cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qavi, Abdul; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Kumar, Neeraj; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we describe clinical and imaging spectrum, and the natural course of patients with disseminated cysticercosis. How albendazole affects the course of disease has also been evaluated. We assessed the Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms, to know the reason for the apparently higher prevalence of disseminated cysticercosis in India.Sixty consecutive patients with disseminated cysticercosis were enrolled. Sixty age-and-sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled for the purpose of genetic study. Twenty patients, who gave consent, were treated with albendazole along with corticosteroids. Forty patients did not give consent for antiparasitic therapy. Assessment for Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genes) was done. Patients were followed for 6 months. We also performed a literature search of cases published in English language using PubMed electronic database and analyzed 56 cases thus available.There was an increased risk (6.63 fold and 4.61 fold) of disseminated cysticercosis in the presence of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor-4, respectively. The allelic frequency of Gly (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] = 3.52) and Ile alleles (11% vs. 2%, P = 0.009, OR = 4.738) in disseminated cysticercosis was high. Albendazole resulted in complete disappearance of all cerebral lesions in 35% (7/20) patients and reduction in lesion load in remaining 65% (13/20) patients. No significant change in number of cysticercal lesion was noted in patients who did not receive albendazole. No major adverse reaction following antiparasitic treatment was noted. Three deaths were recorded in patients who did not receive antiparasitic treatment.Of the 56 cases reported in PubMed, 33 patients received antiparasitic treatment with follow-up data available for 31 patients. Most (24) of these patients received albendazole. A significant clinical and/or imaging improvements, on follow up, were observed in 27 patients

  13. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe...... variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of Taenia hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers...... a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to be elucidated....

  14. Is banking supervision central to central banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1997-01-01

    Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...

  15. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control.

  16. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  17. The PACARDO research project: youthful drug involvement in Central America and the Dominican Republic Proyecto de investigación PACARDO: el consumo de drogas entre la juventud en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Dormitzer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occurrence and school-level clustering of drug involvement among school-attending adolescent youths in each of seven countries in Latin America, drawing upon evidence from the PACARDO research project, a multinational collaborative epidemiological research study. METHODS: During 1999-2000, anonymous self-administered questionnaires on drug involvement and related behaviors were administered to a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample that included a total of 12 797 students in the following seven countries: Costa Rica (n= 1 702, the Dominican Republic (n= 2 023, El Salvador (n= 1 628, Guatemala (n= 2 530, Honduras (n= 1 752, Nicaragua (n= 1 419, and Panama (n= 1 743. (The PACARDO name concatenates PA for Panamá,CA for Centroamérica,and RDO for República Dominicana. Estimates for exposure opportunity and actual use of alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, cocaine (crack/coca paste, amphetamines and methamphetamines, tranquilizers, ecstasy, and heroin were assessed via responses about questions on age of first chance to try each drug, and first use. Logistic regression models accounting for the complex survey design were used to estimate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Cumulative occurrence estimates for alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, and illegal drug use for the overall sample were, respectively: 52%, 29%, 5%, 4%, and 5%. In comparison to females, males were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, and illegal drugs; the odds ratio estimates were 1.3, 2.1, 1.6, 4.1, and 3.2, respectively. School-level clustering was noted in all countries for alcohol and tobacco use; it was also noted in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama for illegal drug use. CONCLUSIONS: This report sheds new light on adolescent drug experiences in Panama, the five Spanish-heritage countries of Central America, and the Dominican Republic, and presents the first estimates of school

  18. CXCL10 is the key ligand for CXCR3 on CD8+ effector T cells involved in immune surveillance of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; de Lemos, Carina; Moos, Torben

    2006-01-01

    /ligand pair is thought to play a central role in regulating T cell-mediated inflammation in this organ site. In this report, we investigated the role of CXCL10 in regulating CD8(+) T cell-mediated inflammation in the virus-infected brain. This was done through analysis of CXCL10-deficient mice infected...... indicate a central role for CXCL10 in regulating the accumulation of effector T cells at sites of CNS inflammation, with no apparent compensatory effect of other CXCR3 ligands....

  19. Porcine Cysticercosis: Possible Cross-Reactivity of Taenia hydatigena to GP50 Antigen in the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Claudio; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Flecker, Robert H; Gamboa, Ricardo; Barreto, Percy Vilchez; Dorny, Pierre; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E; For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru

    2017-12-01

    The lentil lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB, reported sensitivity 99% and specificity 100%) is used as a serologic marker of exposure to Taenia solium in pigs. However, only a limited number of parasites have been evaluated for cross reactivity. Pigs may host other related cestode infections, including Taenia hydatigena, which have not been formally evaluated for cross-reactions. We investigated a corral in Tumbes, Peru, a region where a cysticercosis elimination demonstration project was completed in 2012. In this corral, 14/19 (73.7%) 6-8-week-old piglets were reactive to GP50 on LLGP EITB, and all had circulating Taenia sp. antigens. From eight necropsied piglets; four were infected with T. hydatigena metacestodes whereas none had evidence of T. solium infection. Two resident dogs were subsequently confirmed to have T. hydatigena taeniasis. These results suggest GP50 cross-reactivity in T. hydatigena- infected pigs, although controlled experimental infection is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  1. Taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence in a small village from Northeastern Brazil Prevalência de teníase e sorologia positiva para cisticercose em Mulungu do Morro, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenio Gomes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Although not considered as an endemic region, the Northeast of Brazil has the necessary conditions for the development of taeniasis-cysticercosis complex. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that Mulungu do Morro municipality, in the State of Bahia, has a high seroprevalence to cysticercosis in epileptic patients. OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of taeniasis and positive cysticercosis serology in the population of Mulungu do Morro. METHOD: blood and stool samples were collected from a random sampling of the population, by family. The identification of antibodies against T. solium cysticerci was made by EITB and T. solium antigens were identified using a polyclonal antibody-capture ELISA. RESULTS: the cysticercosis seroprevalence was 1.6% (C.I. = 0.8 to 2.8% and the taeniasis prevalence 4.5% (C.I. = 3.0 to 6.5%. Seropositivity to cysticercosis was higher among those who lived in a house of a person testing positive for coproantigen, p=0.017. CONCLUSION: our results demonstrate that the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is endemic in Mulungu do Morro. We believe that all areas in the world with the same socio-economic and sanitary characteristics are likely to have high prevalence of this parasite.Embora alguns autores não a considerem uma região endêmica, existem no Nordeste do Brasil as condições necessárias para o desenvolvimento do complexo teníase/ cisticercose. Em uma publicação prévia demosntramos no município de Mulungu do Morro, Bahia, alta soroprevalência para cisticercose em pacientes epilépticos. OBJETIVO: determinar a prevalência de teníase e sorologia positiva para cisticercose na população de Mulungu do Morro. MÉTODO: foram coletadas amostras de sangue e fezes em 175 famílias definidas aleatoriamente. A identificação de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco foi feita através do método de EITB e a presença de teníase foi verificada através de ELISA de captura para identificação de antígenos do

  2. Notificação compulsória da cisticercose em Ribeirão Preto - SP Compulsory notification of cysticercosis in Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo M. Takayanagui

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose é grave problema de saúde pública em várias regiões da Ásia, África e América Latina. Os estudos epidemiológicos baseados na freqüência de casos nos serviços especializados de neurologia, neurocirurgia, tomografia computadorizada, nas necrópsias e nos estudos soroepidemiológicos não permitem a avaliação da real prevalência populacional. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a análise da prevalência da cisticercose no município de Ribeirão Preto, através da notificação compulsória implantada em caráter pioneiro no Brasil. O coeficiente de prevalência foi de 54 casos/100000 habitantes, no período de 20-outubro-1992 a 31-de-dezembro de 199S. Os resultados indicaram, adicionalmente, que a cisticercose não está sob controle no nosso meio pois 21% dos casos notificados apresentavam a forma ativa. A notificação compulsória revelou ser recurso valioso para o estudo epidemiológico da cisticercose, permitindo, adicionalmente, o mapeamento das áreas mais afetadas para melhor direcionamento das estratégias de prevenção.Cysticercosis is a severe public health problem in several regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Epidemiologic studies based on the frequency of cases observed in specialized neurology, neurosurgery and computed tomography services, at autopsy and in seroepidemiologic studies do not permit the determination of the true prevalence of the disease in the population. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of cysticercosis by compulsory notification. The coefficient of prevalence was 54 cases/100000 inhabitants in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto. The results also indicated that cysticercosis is not under control in our region since 21% of cases presented the active form of the disease. Compulsory notification proved to be a valuable resource for the epidemiologic study of cysticercosis, also permitting the mapping of more affected areas for a better

  3. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  4. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  5. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  6. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved; Cycles de combustibles. Production d'uranium, programme de centrales electriques et effort financier correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, J; Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude presentee comporte l'examen d'un certain nombre d'hypotheses de programmes de centrales nucleaires de types differents. Ces programmes correspondent a l'utilisation de tonnages d'uranium et de thorium de l'ordre de grandeur de ceux qui seront probablement produits par la France dans les quinze prochaines annees. Comme il est possible de batir un programme de centrales nucleaires, comportant a la fois plusieurs filieres suivant des variantes en nombre infini, on s'est contente d'examiner successivement les resultats ous si on utilisait exclusivement l'une des trois filieres suivantes: - filiere uranium

  7. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved; Cycles de combustibles. Production d'uranium, programme de centrales electriques et effort financier correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, J.; Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude presentee comporte l'examen d'un certain nombre d'hypotheses de programmes de centrales nucleaires de types differents. Ces programmes correspondent a l'utilisation de tonnages d'uranium et de thorium de l'ordre de grandeur de ceux qui seront probablement produits par la France dans les quinze prochaines annees. Comme il est possible de batir un programme de centrales nucleaires, comportant a la fois plusieurs filieres suivant des variantes en nombre infini, on s'est contente d'examiner successivement les resultats ous si on utilisait exclusivement l

  8. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  9. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...... of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes...

  10. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  11. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  12. Central hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

  13. Cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana no município de Barbalha, Ceará Porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis in municipal district of Barbalha, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Em Barbalha, Ceará, foram realizados levantamentos de casos de cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana causadas por Taenia solium, e realizou-se uma pesquisa quanto aos sistemas de criação de suínos na região. De 85 suínos abatidos em abatedouro local 4,7% apresentavam cisticercose, a maioria dos cisticercos localizava-se na língua e coração. Entre 2001 e 2004, das 302 criações de suínos denunciadas à vigilância sanitária, 96,6% eram chiqueiros. A teníase, entre 1998 e 2003, correspondeu a 1,1% das verminoses diagnosticadas pela Secretária de Saúde Municipal. Entre 2001 e 2003, os casos de neurocisticercose humana corresponderam a 5% das tomografias de crânio requisitadas nos hospitais da região.In Barbalha, municipal district of Ceará state, an assessment of cases of porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis caused by the Taenia solium was performed in order to evaluate the situation of these diseases. It was also carried out a research about the types of swine farms registered in the area. Considering the 85 swine slaughtered at the slaughterhouse of Barbalha, 4.7% presented cysticercosis. Most cysticerci were located in the tongue and in the heart. Between 2001 and 2004, from 302 swine farms denounced to the Sanitary Surveillance, 9.6% were pigsties. Taeniasis, between 1998 and 2003, corresponded to 1.1% of the helminthes diagnosed by the Municipal Health Office. From 2001 to 2003, the cases of human neurocysticercosis corresponded to 5% of the skull tomographies requested in the hospitals of the area.

  14. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  15. Multisystem involvement in neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of pediatric neuromyelitis optica (NMO with muscle and lung involvement in addition to central nervous system disease. Our patient initially presented with features of area postrema syndrome, then subsequently with optic neuritis. The patient also had recurrent hyperCKemia that responded to corticosteroids. Finally, axillary and hilar adenopathy with pulmonary consolidation were noted as well and responded to immunomodulation. Our case highlights multisystem involvement in NMO including non-infectious pulmonary findings which have not been described in the pediatric population previously.

  16. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  17. Involvement of central airways in vibroacoustic disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reis Ferreira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vibroacoustic disease (VAD is the whole-body pathology caused by excessive exposure to LFN. For the past 25 years, it has been know that low frequency noise (LFN, <500 Hz, including infrasound targets the respiratory system. In LFN-exposed rodents, the morphological changes of respiratory tract tissue partially explained some respiratory symptoms reported by VAD patients. However, many questions remain unanswered. Recently, some volunteer VAD patients underwent bronchoscopy in order to ascertain possible damage that could be associated with their respiratory complaints. Methods. Fourteen fully-informed and volunteer VAD patients were submitted to bronchoscopy, and biopsies were removed for analysis. Results. All patients exhibited small submucosal vascular-like lesions near the spurs, consisting of increased collagen and elastin fibres. Histology disclosed cilliary abnormalities, basal membrane hyperplasia, and thickening of vessel walls. In five patients, collagen bundles appeared degenerative and disrupted. No inflammatory process was ever identified, and no differences were seen between smokers and non-smokers. Discussion. Data is in accordance with what was observed in LFN-exposed animal models and also in 8 VAD patients who developed lung tumours. Collagen disruption and degeneration was also observed in electron microscopy images of the respiratory tract of LFN-exposed rodents. Thickened blood and lymphatic vessel walls have been consistently seen in images of VAD patients and of LFN-exposed rodents. During bronchoscopy performed by other reasons, this sort of structural aspects is not frequently seen. Taken together, it is strongly suggested that these findings could be VAD-specific. Resumo: Nos últimos vinte cinco anos constatou-se que o aparelho respiratório constitui um alvo do ruído de baixa frequência (RFB <500Hz, incluindo infra-sons. Denomina-se doença vibroacústica (VAD a patologia sistémica causada pela exposição excessiva a RBF. Em ratos Wistar expostos a RBF, as alterações morfológicas observadas nos tecidos das vias aéreas centrais explicam, parcialmente, os sintomas apresentados pelos doentes com a VAD. Apesar disso, muitas perguntas permanecem por responder. Recentemente, voluntários com a doença vibroacústica submeteram-se a exames broncoscópicos para esclarecer e, se possível, demonstrar possíveis lesões das vias aéreas centrais que estariam associadas com as queixas respiratórias. Treze doentes voluntários, exaustivamente esclarecidos sobre este exame, submeteram-se a broncoscopias, durante as quais se colheram fragmentos para exame histológico e ultra-estrutural. Em todos os indivíduos se observaram lesões de tipo vascular na submucosa próximas das bifurcações das vias aéreas. Estas lesões caracterizavam-se por numerosos pequenos vasos com paredes espessadas, mergulhados em feixes de colagénio e algumas fibras de elastina. Em cinco indivíduos as lesões evidenciavam degenerescência e ruptura do colagénio. Histologicamente, na mucosa normal observaram-se alterações ciliares, hiperplasia da membrana basal e espessamento dos vasos sanguíneos. Em nenhum caso se observaram infiltrados celulares de natureza inflamatória. O estudo da ultra-estrutura revelou numerosos axonemas (de dois a oito contidos numa membrana ciliar comum, algumas vesículas emanando dos cílios, imagens de apoptose com reforço do citosqueleto celular e das ligações intercelulares. Não se observaram diferenças entre fumadores e não fumadores. Estes dados estão de acordo com o que já fora observado nas vias aéreas centrais de oito doentes com carcinoma pavimento-celular do pulmão e também com as imagens observadas em ratos expostos a RBF. Em broncoscopias efectuadas em doentes sem a doença vibroacústica, não é normal observar-se este tipo de lesões vasculares. Assim, estas lesões vasculares das vias aéreas centrais podem ser específicas da doença vibroacústica. Key-words: Low frequency noise, vibroacoustic disease, vascular lesions, displasia, auto-imune disorders, collagen disease, ciliar structure, apoptosis, mecano-transduction, Palavras-chave: Ruído de baixa frequência, doença vibroacústica, lesões vasculares, displasia, doença auto-imune, doença do colagénio, estrutura ciliar, apoptose, mecano-transdução

  18. Peripheral and Central Nervous System Involvement in Recently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study was designed to assess the electrophysiological alterations of some selected variables of nerve conduction, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in hypothyroid patients. Subjects and Methods: Sixty patients of newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and an equal ...

  19. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic regression analysis showed peripheral neuropathy as the main factor implicated in postural instability in these patients. However, significant correlation was found between MEP amplitude and MCT composite score in patients without peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Although type 2 diabetic patients had ...

  20. Distant metastatic retinoblastoma without central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in children, with a reported incidence ranging from 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 18,000 live births. Metastatic retinoblastoma is rare in developed countries, with a reported range from 4.8% in the United States to 5.8% in the United Kingdom. However, the frequency reported from developing countries varies from 9 to 11% at presentation. The mortality is very high owing to late presentations, delayed diagnosis compounded by socio-economic factors. The management of metastatic retinoblastoma is evolving, but it is still a challenge in pediatric oncology. We present a case of an extensive skeletal metastasis that initially presented as a massive orbital retinoblastoma.

  1. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  2. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  3. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  4. Epizootiology of game cervid cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Letková, Valéria; Lazar, Peter; Soroka, Jaroslav; Goldová, Mária; Čurlík, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The protection of game from diseases is important for several reasons. Mainly, this is concerned with the health of the animals themselves, which under the conditions obtaining in the Slovak Republic are at an increasing rate exposed to negative factors arising from the activities of man. Among other factors, exposure to diseases, including these caused by parasitic infections, is increasing. In order to assess the prevalence of Taenia species in wild carnivores, which is indicative of or rel...

  5. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as affective mood disorder with chronic tension type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnarpan Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common parasitic infection in India presenting usually with seizues, headache, focal neurological deficits. Neurocysticercosis presenting as a psychiatric illness is rare. Disseminated cysticercosis with involvement of central nervous system and head and neck muscles is rare even in endemic areas. We present a case of disseminated cysticercosis, which presented with chronic tension type headache and affective mood disorder. Treatment with cysticidal drugs led to complete remission of psychiatric complaints. In endemic areas history suggestive of mood disorder should not be used as supportive evidence of a primary headache syndome like tension type headche without ruling out secondary causes. Making an early diagnosis can prevent morbidity.

  6. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  7. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  8. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guma, A.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.; Acebes, J.; Arruga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  9. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  10. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...... in perspectives, values and understandings between patients and healthcare professionals, or the lack of managerial attention and prioritization....

  11. Central America's shrinking forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health.

  12. Different types of centrally acting antihypertensives and their targets in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Chalmers, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The central regulation of blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters may involve the baroreceptor reflex are, including both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways, as well as amino acids, as neurotransmitters. Both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways have been recognized as targets for

  13. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with involvement of the pons: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourtsi, A. [Xatzopoulou, Athens (Greece)]|[Department of Radiology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece); Papadopoulos, A.; Moulopoulos, L.A.; Vlahos, L. [Department of Radiology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece); Xenellis, J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    1998-03-01

    Central nervous system involvement is uncommon in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The suprasellar region is more frequently affected. There have been few reports of involvement of the brain parenchyma shown on CT or MRI. We present a case of involvement of the pons, showing marked contrast enhancement on MRI. (orig.) With 2 figs., 17 refs.

  14. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with involvement of the pons: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourtsi, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Moulopoulos, L.A.; Vlahos, L.; Xenellis, J.

    1998-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement is uncommon in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The suprasellar region is more frequently affected. There have been few reports of involvement of the brain parenchyma shown on CT or MRI. We present a case of involvement of the pons, showing marked contrast enhancement on MRI. (orig.)

  15. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  16. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  17. Gangs in Central America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    ... activities of Central American gangs. Citizens in several Central American countries have identified crime and gang violence among the top issues of popular concern, and Honduras and El Salvador have recently enacted tough anti-gang legislation...

  18. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  19. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  20. Central nervous system in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, J P; Anderson, R E; Namiki, Hideo

    1964-03-12

    The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occurred most often in acute myelogenous leukemia and was markedly increased in patients dying with high terminal white blood cell counts. Possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia are discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were not related to leukocytosis but appeared to be influenced by marked thrombocytopenia. Leukemic infiltrates of a diffuse nature involving the meninges were paradoxically increased in patients receiving adequate chemotherapy. Meningeal tumors did not show this peculiar relationship to therapy and were not found in association with lymphatic leukemia. Infections involving the central nervous system were confined to patients receiving chemotherapy including steroids. 39 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  1. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities......-natal data. Data revealed that men, according to their partner’s perceptions, used consumption as a virtual umbilical cord, although levels of consumption involvement varied from co-involvement for most purchases, to limited involvement, and/or involvement for ‘large’ items, particularly travel systems...... and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...

  2. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  3. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  4. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  5. MR findings of central nerocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Myung Soon

    1997-01-01

    Central neurocytoma is a reae neuronal differentiated intraventricular tomor of young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristic MR appearance of central neurocytoma. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 12 patients with central neurocytoma, confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. We analyzed patient age, and on all sequences, tumor location, extension into the third ventricle, involvement of brain parenchyma, cyst, hemorrhage, vascular signal void and signal intensity ; and egree of Gd-enhancement was examined on MR images, pattern of calcification on CT, and neovascularity, tumor staining on angiography. Age distribution was wide ranging from 26 to 64 years ; the most frequent age group was the fourth decade (five patients). All tumors except one (in the third ventricle) were located in the lateral ventricle and most were seen in the region of the foramen of Monro (10 cases). Tumors showed extension into the third ventricle and involvement of parenchyma in three cases. The internal architecture of the tumor was heterogenous and consisted of cysts (83%), hemorrhage (25%) and vascular signal void (25%). The solid portion of the tumor showed variable signal intensity on T1-weighted images and iso or high signal intensity on T2- and proton density-weighted images. On MR imaging, mild to moderate heterogenous Gd-enhancement was seen in ten cases (83%), and on CT, a spotted, amorphous, nodular pattern of calcifications was seen in seven cases (63%). On angiography, neovasevlarity and tumor staining was seen in three cases (100%). The typical location of the lateral and third ventricles and MR imaging characteristics including variable signal intensity and heterogenous internal architecture are helpful in the diagnosis of central neurocytoma in young adults

  6. Report of the Central Tracking Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, D.G.; Hanson, G.G.

    1986-10-01

    Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4π detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4π detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved

  7. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  8. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  9. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as neurontin (gabapentin) can be useful. Lowering stress levels appears to reduce pain. View Full Treatment Information Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition caused ...

  10. Central Diabetes Insipidus, Central Hypothyroidism, Renal Tubular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    readmitted to the hospital because of jaundice and failure to thrive, for which he was investigated and diagnosed to have central congenital hypothyroidism. Shortly thereafter, he was admitted to our institute with a history of vomiting, decreased oral intake, polyuria, and dehydration having lasted 5 days. He was investigated ...

  11. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  12. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  13. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  14. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  15. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  16. Idiopathic central diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj

    2011-10-01

    Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.

  17. MR appearance of central neurocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.H.; Han, M.H.; Kim, D.G.; Chi, J.G.; Suh, D.C.; Kim, S.J.; Cha, S.H.; Han, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    To provide a detailed description of the MR appearances of central neurocytoma, MR images of 13 patients with central neurocytoma were retrospectively reviewed and compared with CT examinations. The histology was confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. In 12 patients the tumors were histologically benign and located in the anterior part of the lateral ventricle, 6 of which extended to the 3rd ventricle. There was one case of a histologically malignant variant involving the thalamus and lateral ventricle. The tumors were primarily solid, but contained cysts (85%, 11/13), calcifications (69%, 9/13), and signal void from tumor vessels (62%, 8/13), frequently producing heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Most of the solid portion appeared isointense or slightly hyperintense relative to the cerebral cortex on all MR pulse sequences. Calcifications were iso- or hypointense on MR, making them difficult to characterize with MR alone. Intratumoral hemorrhage was seen in 2 patients on MR but not on CT. Contrast enhancement was variable in degree and pattern. Coronal and sagittal MR images were valuable in evaluating the tumor extent and origin site, and in planning the surgical approach. It is concluded that MR imaging appears to be more useful than CT in the overall evaluation of central neurocytoma, even though calcification is better characterized with CT. (orig.)

  18. Disseminated tuberculosis with rare involvements; Tuberculose floride avec localisations rares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goasdoue, P.; Dubayle, P.; Boyer, B.; Le Clainche, P.; Pharaboz, C.; Debord, T. [Hopital d`Instruction des Armees Begin, 94 - Saint-Mande (France)

    1997-09-01

    We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis involving the middle ear, the central nervous system, the spine and the lung. The tuberculous epidural abscess and otomastoiditis don`t have any specific imaging features. But their coexistence with an other tuberculous involvement might suggest their tuberculous nature. The epidural abscess may result from direct extension from otomastoiditis. (authors).

  19. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  20. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  1. Reactors also involve people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    As the nuclear industry develops it is to be hoped that high quality occupational health programs will evolve along with other sound operational procedures and practices. The immediate involvement of occupational health personnel may well afford a safety factor which will minimize the likelihood of either the selection of personnel not adequate for the full responsibilities of their work or the continuation in responsible positions of personnel who develop handicaps of either a physical or mental nature

  2. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  3. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  4. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  5. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome mimicking mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Descartes, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Later-onset congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (LO-CCHS) does not present only breathing problems but can be present as episodic multiple organs involvement. Our unique case demonstrated LO-CCHS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases and having nontypical polysomnography result.

  6. Protein profiles of Taenia solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and the central nervous system of pigs: Search for tissue-specific proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl José; Villalobos, Nelly; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium is a parasite disease transmitted among humans and pigs, the main intermediate host. The larvae/cysts can lodge in several tissues of the pig, i.e. skeletal muscles and different locations of the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms associated to tissue preferences of the cysts remain poorly understood. The major public health concern about this zoonosis is due to the human infections by the larval form in the central nervous system, causing a highly pleomorphic and debilitating disease known as neurocysticercosis. This study was aimed to explore the 2DE protein maps of T. solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and central nervous system of naturally infected pigs. The gel images were analyzed through a combination of PDQuest™ and multivariate analysis. Results showed that differences in the protein patterns of cysts obtained from both tissues were remarkably discrete. Only 7 protein spots were found specifically associated to the skeletal muscle localization of the cysts; none was found significantly associated to the central nervous system. The use of distinct protein fractions of cysts allowed preliminary identification of several tissue-specific antigenic bands. The implications of these findings are discussed, as well as several strategies directed to achieve the complete characterization of this parasite's proteome, in order to extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue localization of the cysts and to open avenues for the development of immunological tissue-specific diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Central Diffraction in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. I will report on first analysis results of meson production in double gap events in minimum-bias proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, and will describe a dedicated double gap trigger for future data taking.

  8. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  9. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  10. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  11. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  12. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  13. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  14. The central noradrenergic system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-27

    Jul 27, 2006 ... recognition of a direct influence of the central noradrenergic system on peripheral ... influences on cerebral function and behavior it is impossible to imagine ... stimuli and to speed-up information processing.4. The influence of ...

  15. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  16. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  17. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  18. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  19. Central Pontine Myelinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a neurological disorder that most frequently occurs ... Experts estimate that 10 percent of those with CPM will also have areas of EPM. The initial ...

  20. Central banks: Paradise lost

    OpenAIRE

    Issing, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the paper is to analyze how the concept behind central bank policy developed over time and how the recent financial crisis and its consequences will have an influence. While the principles of the institutional arrangement for central banks (independence, clear mandate, prohibition of monetary financing) are relevant as ever, pre- crisis consensus strategies of monetary policy have been revealed as flawed. The close monitoring of money and credit developments, a key lesson to be d...

  1. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission are believed to be centrally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact and the cholinergic muscarinic agonist xanomeline has shown antipsychotic effects in clinical studies. Preclinic...

  2. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  3. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  4. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas

  5. Prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Prevalence of Taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the rural area of Viçosa-MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Felix Iasbik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A teníase é uma doença que se manifesta no ser humano em decorrência da presença da forma adulta da Taenia sp., enquanto a cisticercose decorre da infecção pelo estágio larvar da Taenia sp. ou Taenia solium, no caso dos suínos e humanos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visando a determinar a prevalência de cisticercose em suínos e de teníase em 176 propriedades localizadas na zona rural de Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 226 suínos e fezes de 266 humanos, além da realização de um inquérito epidemiológico. Não foi identificada teníase humana, e a prevalência da cisticercose suína foi de 0,4%. As informações obtidas mostraram que a maioria das pessoas possuía o hábito de consumir carne suína não inspecionada; entretanto, todas as pessoas se alimentavam da carne bem aquecida. Em apenas 1,1% das propriedades, o esgoto era depositado diretamente no solo e em 99,4% destas a água era canalizada, enquanto 88,1% dos suínos eram criados presos. Concluiu-se que, na zona rural do município de Viçosa-MG, a prevalência do complexo teníase-cisticercose foi baixa, mostrando ainda um nível de contaminação inferior ao de outros municípios onde o complexo foi estudado.Taeniasis occurs due to the presence of the adult form of Taenia sp. in human beings, and cysticercosis is caused by the presence of the larval stage of T. solium in pigs and humans. A transversal study was conducted aiming to determine the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis in 176 farms located in rural areas of Viçosa-MG. Blood samples of 226 pigs, and feces samples of 266 humans were collected. An epidemiological survey has also been done. We found a prevalence of 0.4% of porcine cysticercosis and Taeniasis has not been found. The epidemiological data has shown that although most people consumed non-inspected pork, it used to be prepared well-done. Data showed that 88.1% of the pigs are reared in confinement

  6. Brain malformation in single median maxillary central incisor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Wagner, Aa; Thomsen, L L

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic examinations and MR scan of a 12-year-old girl with SMMCI (single median maxillary central incisor) showed impaired growth and a midline defect involving the central incisor, cranium and the midline structures in the brain, falx cerebri and pituitary gland. She had a sev...

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  8. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  9. Crustal structure of Central Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo

    2018-01-01

    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  10. Central myofibroma of the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofibroma is a rare benign localized or generalized proliferation of myofibroblastic tissue occurring mostly in infants or children. In the oral region, most lesions occur in the mandible, lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue; however, the lesions arising in the maxilla are very rare. Myofibroma has an aggressive clinical presentation and is often treated aggressively because of an inappropriate diagnosis. A unique feature of central myofibroma of the jaws is the potential for teeth and other odontogenic structures to be involved by tumor. We report a case of myofibroma arising in the left side of the maxilla of a 12-year-old girl and describe the differential diagnosis from other spindle cell lesions of neural and smooth muscle origin. We treated the case using surgical excision under general anesthesia. Immunohistochemical staining was done for establishing the diagnosis since histopathological diagnosis with conventional staining could not distinguish myofibroma from spindle cell tumors.

  11. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  12. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  13. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  14. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addressed. A number of safety rules based on European standards apply to AC charging equipment up to 44 kW. The connection interlock and the automatic de......-energization are identified as fundamental requirements for safety in such a charging station. The connection interlock is a solution which ensures that no power is applied to the DC cable when the EV connector is not connected. The automatic de-energization device ensures that whenever a strain on the cable is detected, e...

  15. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  16. 血清尿酸水平与中枢神经系统感染的相关性研究%The study of relationship between the serum levels of uric acid and infections of central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 王玉鸽; 彭福华; 李敏; 邓旭辉; 胡学强

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI), which may be helpful to provide new ways for evaluation and clinical intervention of CNSI. Methods The SUA levels was measured in 357 patients with different types of CNSI (viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis, brain cysticercosis, tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis and bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitisi respectively) and 132 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 89 healthy controls (HO. Each group of CNSI was administered with relevantly conventional therapy [main treatments were as fallows; viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis ; Valaciclovir Hydrochloride Tablets et al; cysticercosis of brain; Albendazole et al; tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis: using Isonicotinyl hydrazide, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, Aldinamide (PZA) and Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride Tablets et al; cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis: Amphotericin B, 5-FU, Diflucan et alt bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis: Rocephin et al]. SUA levels were compared before and after relevant conventional therapy. Results SUA levels of patients with viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cysticercosis of brain, tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis and bacterial meningitis ormeningoencephalitis [ (264. 94 ± 120. 67), (264. 86 ± 96. 97), (200.04 ± 129.81), (179.59 ± 106.77), (170. 22±102. 02) μmol/L, respectively] were significantly lower when compared with HC C(312. 06 ± 92. 76) μmol/L3 (all P0. 05); but the SUA levels in tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis, cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis and bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis were significantly lower when compared with MS (all P<0. 01), were also lower than viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis (all P = 0

  17. Atmospheres of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a brief summary of atmospheric models that are of possible relevance to the central stars of planetary nebulae, and then discusses the extent to which these models accord with the observations of both nebulae and central stars. Particular attention is given to the significance of the very high Zanstra temperature implied by the nebulae He II lambda 4686 A line, and to the discrepancy between the Zanstra He II temperature and the considerably lower temperatures suggested by the appearance of the visual spectrum for some of these objects. (Auth.)

  18. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  19. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Dana L. Roth

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  20. Central Venous Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R.; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article

  1. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  2. Neurologic involvement in scleroderma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Tiago Nardi; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Marques-Neto, João Francisco; Appenzeller, Simone

    2013-12-01

    To perform a systematic review of neurologic involvement in Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Localized Scleroderma (LS), describing clinical features, neuroimaging, and treatment. We performed a literature search in PubMed using the following MeSH terms, scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, localized scleroderma "en coup de sabre", Parry-Romberg syndrome, cognitive impairment, memory, seizures, epilepsy, headache, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), neuropsychiatric, psychosis, neurologic involvement, neuropathy, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy, myelopathy, autonomic nervous system, nervous system, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with other connective tissue disease knowingly responsible for nervous system involvement were excluded from the analyses. A total of 182 case reports/studies addressing SSc and 50 referring to LS were identified. SSc patients totalized 9506, while data on 224 LS patients were available. In LS, seizures (41.58%) and headache (18.81%) predominated. Nonetheless, descriptions of varied cranial nerve involvement and hemiparesis were made. Central nervous system involvement in SSc was characterized by headache (23.73%), seizures (13.56%) and cognitive impairment (8.47%). Depression and anxiety were frequently observed (73.15% and 23.95%, respectively). Myopathy (51.8%), trigeminal neuropathy (16.52%), peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy (14.25%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (6.56%) were the most frequent peripheral nervous system involvement in SSc. Autonomic neuropathy involving cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was regularly described

  3. Centralized vs. de-centralized multinationals and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs – here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument –, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large. Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs. ...

  4. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  7. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to

  8. NCEP Central Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ) NCO Organizational Chart NOAA's Weather and Climate Operational Supercomputing System is known as Climate Climate Prediction Climate Archives Weather Safety Storm Ready NOAA Central Library Photo Library NCO's MISSION * Execute the NCEP operational model suite - Create climate, weather, ocean, space and

  9. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  10. Central American Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Central America, as where mean temperatures are relatively warm throughout the year de- so spite seasonal rainfall changes. 75 Elevation, solar angle...November 1982 Control Hidalgo Anos.1952-1963, Republica de Nicaragua, Ministerio de Formento Y O0.PP, Comision Nacional de Energia . Craig, Richard A., The

  11. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  12. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja B. Yung; Todd P. Primm

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  13. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja B. Yung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  14. Perspectives for nuclear electricity in Central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa Kalenga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyses the energy system of the Central African countries and evaluates the projected global demand of energy. It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for satisfying future demands in relation to other forms of energy available in the region. Finally, it discusses the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle (supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment). (author)

  15. Perspectives for nuclear electricity in central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa Kalenga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyses the energetic system of Central African countries and evaluate the projected global demand of energy. It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for the satisfaction of future demand versus other forms of energy available in the region. It appreciates finally the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle (supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment) [fr

  16. Centrality and Creativity:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Lorenzen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    To provide new insights into urban hierarchy, this article brings together one of economic geography’s oldest and most well-established notions with one of its newest and most disputed notions: Christäller’s centrality and Florida’s creative class. Using a novel original database, the article...... compares the distribution of the general population and the creative class across 444 city regions in 8 European countries. It finds that the two groups are both distributed according to the rank-size rule, but exhibit different distinct phases with different slopes. The article argues that the two...... distributions are different because market thresholds for creative services and jobs are lower than thresholds for less specialized services and jobs. The article hence concludes that centrality exerts a strong influence upon urban hierarchies of creativity and that the study of creative urban city hierarchies...

  17. Central American Flying Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    CEILING; VISIBILITY; WIND, PRECIPITATIDNc’--." HAZE, SMOKE, TEMPORALE ; MOUNTAIN WAVE; MILITARY METEOROLOGY. 4k- / ’A. bstract; Asummary of~ing weather...1 The " Temporale " ....................................1 Mountain Waves ......................I...............1 Severe Thunderstorms...charts. The for any part of Central America lies in having: Tactical Pilota.e Chart series , produced by the Df -.nse Mapping Agency, is * A good, basic

  18. The European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Michael; Wieland, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The establishment of the ECB and with it the launch of the euro has arguably been a unique endeavor in economic history, representing an important experiment in central banking. This note aims to summarize some of the main lessons learned from this experiment and sketch some of the prospects for the ECB. It is written for "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics", 2nd edition. JEL Classification: E52, E58

  19. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  20. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...

  1. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  2. Centralized vs decentralized contests

    OpenAIRE

    Beviá, Carmen; Corchón, Luis C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two contests, decentralized in which there are several independent contests with non overlapping contestants and centralized in which all contestants fight for a unique prize which is the sum of all prizes in the small contests. We study the relationship between payoffs and efforts between these two contests. The first author acknowledges financial support from ECO2008-04756 (Grupo Consolidado-C), SGR2014-515 and PROMETEO/2013/037. The second author acknowledges financial suppor...

  3. Centralized versus distributed propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The functions and requirements of auxiliary propulsion systems are reviewed. None of the three major tasks (attitude control, stationkeeping, and shape control) can be performed by a collection of thrusters at a single central location. If a centralized system is defined as a collection of separated clusters, made up of the minimum number of propulsion units, then such a system can provide attitude control and stationkeeping for most vehicles. A distributed propulsion system is characterized by more numerous propulsion units in a regularly distributed arrangement. Various proposed large space systems are reviewed and it is concluded that centralized auxiliary propulsion is best suited to vehicles with a relatively rigid core. These vehicles may carry a number of flexible or movable appendages. A second group, consisting of one or more large flexible flat plates, may need distributed propulsion for shape control. There is a third group, consisting of vehicles built up from multiple shuttle launches, which may be forced into a distributed system because of the need to add additional propulsion units as the vehicles grow. The effects of distributed propulsion on a beam-like structure were examined. The deflection of the structure under both translational and rotational thrusts is shown as a function of the number of equally spaced thrusters. When two thrusters only are used it is shown that location is an important parameter. The possibility of using distributed propulsion to achieve minimum overall system weight is also examined. Finally, an examination of the active damping by distributed propulsion is described.

  4. Factors involved in social mobilization and empowerment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many community mobilizers in Uganda do not recognize that psychological empowerment is central in social mobilization, and that social mobilization involves an interplay among several social psychological variables including; social capital, psychological sense of community and group member satisfaction to produce ...

  5. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  6. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeling, Emma L.; Brady, Angela F. [North West Thames Regional Genetics Service, Kennedy-Galton Centre, Level 8 V, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford Road, HAI 3UJ, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Cruwys, Michele [Department of Paediatrics, Hillingdon Hospital, Hillingdon, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Suri, Mohnish [Clinical Genetics Service, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Aylett, Sarah E. [Neurosciences Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair. We report a 7-year-old boy with TTD due to mutation in the XPD gene. The patient has classic features of this condition, including brittle, sulphur-deficient hair, ichthyosis, growth retardation and developmental delay. In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this association is not widely recognised. We review the radiological findings in this and other similar cases and discuss the natural history of these bony changes. (orig.)

  7. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  8. Decentralized central heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, S.; Hudjera, A.

    1994-08-04

    The decentralized central heating is essentially based on new technical solutions for an independent heating unit, which allows up to 20% collectible energy savings and up to 15% savings in built-in-material. These savings are already made possible by the fact that the elements described under point A are thus eliminated from the classical heating. The thus superfluous made elements are replaced by new technical solutions described under point B - technical problem - and point E - patent claim. The technical solutions described in detail under point B and point E form together a technical unit and are essential parts of the invention protected by the patent. (author)

  9. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the

  10. Achados neurológicos e laboratoriais em população de área endêmica para teníase-cisticercose, Lagamar, MG, Brasil (1992-1993 Neurologic and laboratory findings in population of endemic area for teniasis-cysticercosis, Lagamar, MG, Brazil (1992-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario León Silva-Vergara

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um inquérito clínico-epidemiológico em área endêmica para teníase-cisticercose. Foram examinados 1080 (32,2% indivíduos da população total, encontrando-se 198 (18,3% indivíduos referindo antecedente de teníase, e 103 (9,5% apresentaram história anterior ou atual de convulsões. Destes últimos, 39 (37,8% referiram início das crises na vida adulta, e 62 (60% foram avaliados laboratorialmente. Em 21 (33,8% casos, o resultado da tomografia mostrou calcificações intracranianas compatíveis com neurocisticercose, em número e localização variáveis, mas sem evidência de atividade da doença. Traçados eletroencefalográficos anormais foram lidos em 21 (33,8% pacientes e alterações no exame do líquido cefalorraquiano (LCR detectadas em 27 (43,5%, em 3 (4,8% foi verificada presença de eosinófilos. Somente LCR de 26 (41,9% pacientes foram submetidos a pesquisa de anticorpos para cisticerco, obtendo-se positividade em 6 (23% deles, por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA ou reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Outras alterações do LCR foram devidas a aumento variável das proteínas. Considerando-se os fatores epidemiológicos de risco para teníase-cisticercose na região estudada e sua correlação com as alterações laboratoriais mencionadas acima com as crises convulsivas, encontra-se uma provável prevalência de 1,9% para a neurocisticercose.A clinic-epidemiological enquiry was conducted on in an endemic area for teniasis-cysticercosis. From the whole population 1080 (32.2% individuals were examined. We found 198 (18.3% individuals refering teniasis-bearing in the past, and 103 (9.5% affirming to have had convulsions, either in the past or present. From the last group, 39 (37.8% indicated that the crisis had begun in adulthood. From the group of patients presenting convulsions, 62 (62% had laboratory tests performed. Computed tomography showed intracranial calcifications in 21 (33.8% patients, variable in

  11. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil Inquérito epidemiológico sobre o complexo teníase-cisticercose bovina no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; pApesar da importância do complexo teníase-cisticercose bovina para a saúde pública, animal e para a economia, a realidade epidemiológica da ocorrência dessas zoonoses no Brasil é pouco conhecida. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o perfil epidemiológico desta zoonose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, MG. A prevalência encontrada de cisticercose bovina foi de 0,42%, e nenhum caso de teníase humana foi diagnosticado. Foi verificada presença de fatores favoráveis a manutenção dessa zoonose, como fornecimento de água sem tratar aos animais, criação de animais destinados ao abate sem inspeção sanitária, criação de bovinos com baixa adoção de tecnologia, e utilização de água sem tratamento. O consumo de carne bovina oriunda da propriedade e da cidade foi caracterizado como variável de risco (OR=16,77; p<0,05 para a cisticercose bovina. Apesar disso, as famílias das propriedades pesquisadas possuíam hábitos favoráveis como medida de controle para o desenvolvimento desta parasitose, como a quase ausência de esgoto a céu aberto e a ingestão de carne bovina bem passada. A

  12. Central Banking after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick S. Mishkin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...

  13. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs

  14. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to establish whether students' involvement in sports activities affected their involvement in academic activities. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using percentages and means. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses that guided ...

  15. The central Iowa project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H M

    1994-10-01

    This project developed and tested a population-based survey, the HS Form, to examine health and health care in the Central Iowa community. Data from this new collection of proven sets of items were used to compare competing health plans, doctor offices, hospitals, and to develop preliminary norms of the community's insured, in two areas: system performance and health burden. The results showed that the survey: (1) was both feasible and efficient in delivering a comprehensive and generic assessment of consumers and patients; (2) revealed consistent, noteworthy differences between plans and between providers across both sets of criteria; and (3) indicated that there is substantial room for improvement in Central Iowa's health care delivery system from the public's perspective. Recommendations for next steps include: (1) following through on the June 1993 community forum (held to discuss the project's methods and results with local decision makers); (2) broadening the evaluation design to increase sample representativeness; and (3) implementing a pre/post approach to measure changes in plan and provider performance.

  16. Alpha current flow betweenness centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Medyanikov, V.; Sokol, M.

    2013-01-01

    A class of centrality measures called betweenness centralities reflects degree of participation of edges or nodes in communication between different parts of the network. The original shortest-path betweenness centrality is based on counting shortest paths which go through a node or an edge. One of

  17. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vázquez-Flores

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  18. Biomarkers for CNS involvement in pediatric lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Tamar B; Putterman, Chaim; Goilav, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    CNS disease, or central neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (cNPSLE), occurs frequently in pediatric lupus, leading to significant morbidity and poor long-term outcomes. Diagnosing cNPSLE is especially difficult in pediatrics; many current diagnostic tools are invasive and/or costly, and there are no current accepted screening mechanisms. The most complicated aspect of diagnosis is differentiating primary disease from other etiologies; research to discover new biomarkers is attempting to address this dilemma. With many mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cNPSLE, biomarker profiles across several modalities (molecular, psychometric and neuroimaging) will need to be used. For the care of children with lupus, the challenge will be to develop biomarkers that are accessible by noninvasive measures and reliable in a pediatric population. PMID:26079959

  19. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  20. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…