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Sample records for cyprinids actinopterygii cyprinidae

  1. Reproductive biology and age determination of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) in central Iran

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    ABEDI, Masoud; SHIVA, Amir Houshang; Mohammadi, Hamid; MALEKPOUR, Rokhsareh

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843, a native cyprinid fish species from the Armand stream in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari province, central Iran, were investigated by regular monthly collections throughout 1 year. A significant relationship between length and weight and the isometric growth pattern were observed in this fish. There were no significant differences in the total number of male and female specimens. The population of this cyprinid fish had a narrow age...

  2. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

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    Farashi, Azita; Kaboli, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Hassan; Coad, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is "Vulnerable" according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  3. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae

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    Azita Farashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is “Vulnerable” according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843 and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956 within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  4. Devario deruptotalea, a new species of cyprinid fish from Manipur, India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

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    Ramananda, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2014-07-02

    Devario deruptotalea, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Dutah Stream, a tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin drainage) in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique colour pattern consisting of the following combination of pigmented elements: 4‒6 dark brown irregularly shaped and arranged bars that are partly confluent with adjacent bars at different levels on the anterior one-third of the side of the body, followed by three distinct dark brown stripes posteriorly, a P stripe that is darker and about twice as broad as other stripes and extending to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays.

  5. REARING OF PELED (COREGONUS PELED Gmelin IN POLYCULTURE WITH CYPRINIDS (CYPRINIDAE AND STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE

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    G. Kurinenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  6. EFFECT OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT PH ON THE LEVEL OF ECTOPARASITE INFESTATION, PROTEIN AND LYSOZYME CONTENT IN SOME CYPRINID SPECIES (CYPRINIDAE)

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    L. Kurovskaya; G. Stril’ko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study the effect of рН values of the aquatic environment on the level of ectoparasite infestation, protein and lysozyme content in organs and serum of some cyprinid species in experimental conditions. Methodology. The objects of the study were yearlings of Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva caught in ponds of fish farm “Nyvka” (Kiev region) in spring. Fish were kept in experimental conditions at neutral pH water (6.8-7.2) and a temperature of 17...

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Myxobolus orissae (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae

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    Thangapalam Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Myxosporeans are best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish species. Identification of myxosporeans at the species-level is mainly based on conventional methods. The 18S rRNA gene sequence of morphologically identified Myxobolus orissae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala was characterized in the present study. The plasmodia of M. orissae were small, elongated and white to pale in colour. Phylogenetically, the 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of M. orissae was clustered with other gill-infecting Myxobolus spp. of cyprinids. The species closely related to M. orissae was M. koi (FJ841887 infecting the gill lamellae of Cyprinus carpio with 96% similarity. The carp fin-infecting Thelohanellus caudatus (KC865607 from India exhibited only 78% DNA sequence similarity with M. orissae. Low level of M. orissae infection on gill caused thickening of epithelial cells surrounding the plasmodium. Under stressful conditions, it is likely that such infection can easily spread in confined fish and may cause serious disease outbreaks and economical losses.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Myxobolus orissae (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae).

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    Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Sarkar, Agniswar; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Dash, Gadadhar

    2015-01-01

    Myxosporeans are best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish species. Identification of myxosporeans at the species-level is mainly based on conventional methods. The 18S rRNA gene sequence of morphologically identified Myxobolus orissae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala was characterized in the present study. The plasmodia of M.orissae were small, elongated and white to pale in colour. Phylogenetically, the 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of M.orissae was clustered with other gill-infecting Myxobolus spp. of cyprinids. The species closely related to M. orissae was M. koi (FJ841887) infecting the gill lamellae of Cyprinus carpio with 96% similarity. The carp fin-infecting Thelohanelluscaudatus (KC865607) from India exhibited only 78% DNA sequence similarity with M. orissae. Low level of M. orissae infection on gill caused thickening of epithelial cells surrounding the plasmodium. Under stressful conditions, it is likely that such infection can easily spread in confined fish and may cause serious disease outbreaks and economical losses.

  9. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

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    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del

  10. EFFECT OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT PH ON THE LEVEL OF ECTOPARASITE INFESTATION, PROTEIN AND LYSOZYME CONTENT IN SOME CYPRINID SPECIES (CYPRINIDAE

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    L. Kurovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of рН values of the aquatic environment on the level of ectoparasite infestation, protein and lysozyme content in organs and serum of some cyprinid species in experimental conditions. Methodology. The objects of the study were yearlings of Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva caught in ponds of fish farm “Nyvka” (Kiev region in spring. Fish were kept in experimental conditions at neutral pH water (6.8-7.2 and a temperature of 17-18оC. To study the changes in the level of fish parasite infestation at different pH values, we used carp yearlings, as an object, the most infected with parasites. Fish were placed in aquariums with water pH of 5.0-5.5 (slightly acidic environment and 8.5-9.0 (slightly alkaline environment for 5 days. Thereafter, the ectoparasites were counted on fish body surface and gills. The protein content in serum and tissue extracts of organs (liver, kidney, spleen of Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva infected and uninfected ectoparasites, after holding them in slightly acidic or slightly alkaline environment for 8 days, was determined by Lowry’s method, while lysozyme content was determined by a diffusion method on agar. Findings. A comparative assessment of the number of ectoparasites (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp. on fish body surface and gills, the content of protein and lysozyme in serum and organs at different pH values of aquatic environment has been presented. It was demonstrated that the number of ectoparasites on fish body surface and gills was significantly reduced when keeping the fish in both slightly acidic and slightly alkaline environments. In infected Carassius auratus gibelio, a reduction in the protein and lysozyme content in liver, kidney and serum was observed only in the neutral pH environment compared to uninfected individuals. In the slightly acidic or slightly alkaline

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of the family Cyprinidae (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) as evidenced by sequence variation in the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein-coding gene: further evidence from a nuclear gene of the systematic chaos in the family.

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    He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L; Wang, Xuzheng; Wang, Wei; Tang, Kevin L; Chen, Wei-Jen; Chen, Yiyu

    2008-03-01

    The family Cyprinidae is the largest freshwater fish group in the world, including over 200 genera and 2100 species. The phylogenetic relationships of major clades within this family are simply poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group; however, several investigators have advanced different hypotheses of relationships that pre- and post-date the use of shared-derived characters as advocated through phylogenetic systematics. As expected, most previous investigations used morphological characters. Recently, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and combined morphological and mtDNA investigations have been used to explore and advance our understanding of species relationships and test monophyletic groupings. Limitations of these studies include limited taxon sampling and a strict reliance upon maternally inherited mtDNA variation. The present study is the first endeavor to recover the phylogenetic relationships of the 12 previously recognized monophyletic subfamilies within the Cyprinidae using newly sequenced nuclear DNA (nDNA) for over 50 species representing members of the different previously hypothesized subfamily and family groupings within the Cyprinidae and from other cypriniform families as outgroup taxa. Hypothesized phylogenetic relationships are constructed using maximum parsimony and Basyesian analyses of 1042 sites, of which 971 sites were variable and 790 were phylogenetically informative. Using other appropriate cypriniform taxa of the families Catostomidae (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), Gyrinocheilidae (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri), and Balitoridae (Nemacheilus sp. and Beaufortia kweichowensis) as outgroups, the Cyprinidae is resolved as a monophyletic group. Within the family the genera Raiamas, Barilius, Danio, and Rasbora, representing many of the tropical cyprinids, represent basal members of the family. All other species can be classified into variably supported and resolved monophyletic lineages, depending upon analysis

  12. Garra waensis, a new cyprinid fish (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Nan River Basin of the Chao Phraya River system, northern Thailand.

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    Lothongkham, Amornchai; Arbsuwan, Sakda; Musikasinthorn, Prachya

    2014-04-23

    A new cyprinid fish, Garra waensis, is described from the Wa River, a tributary of the Nan River of the Chao Phraya River system in northern Thailand. The species is distinguishable from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: the absence of barbels; 7 branched dorsal fin rays; 31-37 lateral-line scales; 10-12 circumpeduncular scales; a small and broad head (head length [HL] 22.7-26.1% in standard length, head depth 56.1-64.9% HL, head width 74.0-85.0 % HL); a weakly developed proboscis in front of nostrils; the presence of reddish-orange spots (white or dull yellowish white in preserved specimens) on the side of the body; and a dark mid-lateral stripe running from the upper edge of the gill opening to the caudal peduncle and expanding into a large anteriorly-pointed triangular blotch at the end of the body (in preserved condition). A vomero-palatine organ of the species is also described in detail for the first time for Asian species of Garra. The genus Placocheilus is treated as a junior synonym of Garra. 

  13. Ancient Mitochondrial Capture as Factor Promoting Mitonuclear Discordance in Freshwater Fishes: A Case Study in the Genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in Greece

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    Vukić, Jasna; Šanda, Radek; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting are common confounding factors in phylogeny and speciation resulting in mitonuclear disparity. Mitochondrial introgression, a particular case of hybridization, may, in extreme cases, lead to replacement of the mitochondrial genome of one species with that of another (mitochondrial capture). We investigated mitochondrial introgression involving two species of the cyprinid genus Squalius in the western Peloponnese region of Greece using molecular and morphological data. We found evidence of complete mitochondrial introgression of Squalius keadicus into two populations recognized as Squalius peloponensis from the Miras and Pamissos River basins and a divergence of mitochondrial genomes of S. keadicus from the Evrotas basin from that of the introgressed populations dating from the Pleistocene. Secondary contact among basins is a possible factor in connection of the species and the introgression event. Morphological analyses support the hypothesis of mitochondrial introgression, as S. keadicus was different from the other three populations recognized as S. peloponensis, although significant differences were found among the four populations. Isolation by geographical barriers arose during Pleistocene in the western Peloponnese were the source of the evolution of the two reciprocally monophyletic subclades found in the S. keadicus mitochondrial clade, and the morphological differences found among the four populations. Along with the lack of structure in the nuclear genome in the three populations ascribed to S. peloponensis, this suggests an incipient speciation process occurring in these Squalius species in the western Peloponnese. PMID:27906993

  14. Expansión del alburno Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae en la península Ibérica: el papel de los embalses

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    Sardà-Palomera, F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its first record in a tributary of the Ebro basin in 1992, the bleak Alburnus alburnus has spread to almost the whole Iberian Peninsula. In this paper (based on electrofishing surveys in 598 localities, we provide information on the expansion of the bleak. We detail current distribution in the Ebro basin and the rivers of the Eastern Pyrenees and we report its presence in three other major Iberian drainages. Currently, the bleak is sympatric with 15 Iberian endemic species (58% of total Iberian endemic fish. The possible threats to the rich Iberian ichthyofauna caused by the presence of the bleak are discussed. The factors that promoted the extremely rapid expansion of this exotic cyprinid are examined, focusing on the role of reservoirs, which seem to favour its dispersal.Desde su aparición en un afluente de la cuenca del Ebro en 1992, el alburno Alburnus alburnus se ha expandido en gran parte de la península Ibérica. El presente trabajo aporta nueva información sobre su expansión (basada en el muestreo de 598 localidades mediante pesca eléctrica. Se facilita información detallada sobre su actual distribución en la cuenca del Ebro y en cuencas al este de los Pirineos, así como nuevas citas de tres grandes cuencas hidrográficas. De acuerdo a su actual distribución en la península Ibérica, el alburno habita en simpatría con 15 especies endémicas (el 58% del total de endemismos ibéricos. Se analiza la posible amenaza que el alburno representa para la ictiofauna ibérica, examinando los factores causantes de su rápida expansión, en especial el papel de los embalses.

  15. A new species of the genus Yuriria Jordan & Evermann, 1896 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Ameca basin of the Central Mexican Plateau

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    Pompa-Domínguez, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new cyprinid species is described based on morfometric, meristic and genetic characters. The new species identified, Yuriria amatlana sp. nov., inhabits the high Ameca Basin in the central plateau of Mexico. This Mexican minnow differs from Yuriria alta and Yuriria chapalae in terms of the following characters: (50-52 53-54 pored lateralline scales; 10 upper transverse-line scales, 5-6 lower transverse-line scales and 8-10 gill rakers. Body coloration is light yellowish-brown. Compared to Yuriria alta and Yuriria chapalae, the new species has a less conspicuous dark grey band running from the start of the dorsal fin to the head. Cytochrome b gene sequences differ from those of Yuriria alta and Yuriria chapalae in terms of 29 fixed nucleotide positions (molecular autopomorphies. Calculated genetic divergences for the cytochrome b gene were: `DHKY = 3.8 (3.2-4.4% between Yuriria amatlana sp. nov. and Y. alta; `DHKY = 5 (4.8-5.2% between Y. amatlana sp. nov and Y. chapalae; and `DHKY = 2.6 (2.1-3.3% between Y. chapalae and Y. alta.Se describe una nueva especie, Yuriria amatlana sp. nov., en base a caracteres morfométricos, merísticos y genéticos. La nueva especie proviene de la parte alta de la cuenca del río Ameca en la Meseta Central de México. Esta especie se diferencia de Yuriria alta y Yuriria chapalae por una combinación de los siguientes caracteres: (50-52 53-54 escamas en una serie longitudinal, 10 escamas en una serie transversal por encima de la línea lateral y 5-6 escamas por debajo de la línea lateral y 8-10 branquiespinas. El color del cuerpo es amarillo-marrón claro. La nueva especie tiene una banda gris oscura menos marcada en el cuerpo desde el comienzo de la aleta dorsal hacia la cabeza con respecto a Yuriria alta y Yuriria chapalae. La nueva especie se diferencia de Yuriria alta y Yuriria chapalae en 29 posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas (autopomorfias moleculares para el citocromo b. La divergencia genética entre

  16. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

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    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was

  17. 中鲤亚属的分支系统学分析%Cladistic Analysis of the Cyprinid Subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) Fang (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小勇; 杨君兴

    2002-01-01

    Phylogeny of the cyprinid subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) is elucidated based on both external and osteological features. All five species of Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) are including in the ingroup in addition to two Cyprinus (Cyprinus) species. Procypris merus was treated as outgroup in comparison. A total of 48 characters were identified as variable among ingroup and outgroup. Phylogenetic analysis was accomplished using Parsimony and Bootstrap methods with Branch-and-Bound search of PAUP*. There are 28 characters remaining useful after excluding unpolarized characters and autapomorphies of terminal taxa. Analysis of the characters resulted in one tree with a length of 69 steps, Consistency Index (CI) of 0.7246, CI excluding uninformative characters of 0.6122, and Retention Index (RI) of 0.6346. It is apparent that the Mesocyprinus group consisting of five species is a polyphyletic group. This result suggests that subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) should be suspended.%基于外部形态特征和内部骨骼特征对鲤科鲤属中鲤亚属进行了分支系统学分析.内群包括中鲤亚属的全部5种和鲤亚属的2种鱼类,外群采用乌原鲤.在鲤属鱼类和外群间共有48个性状存在变化.系统发育分析采用PAUP*软件的Parsimony和Bootstrap两种方式的Branch-and-Bound算法.排除不能极化的特征和特有离征之后,还有28个特征可用,由这28个特征可得到唯一的系统树,树长69,一致性系数0.7246,排除无用特征的一致性系数0.6122,保留系数0.6346.由5种中鲤组成的中鲤亚属明显不构成一个单系群.结果表明:中鲤亚属是一个复系群,该类元应该被撤销.

  18. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae, de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

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    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior findings suggest the existence of undescribed species among the cyprinids of central Mexico. Within the genus Notropis distributed across central Mexico and adjacent areas sometimes reaching southern basins, two groups have been recognized: a Southern Mexican clade and a central Mexican clade. Within this last clade, Notropis calientis has been defined as a species complex of four small minnows inhabiting upland areas. Here we describe two new species of this complex based on morphometric, meristic and genetic characters. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. was diagnosed according to the following set of characters: 7, rarely 8, branched pelvic fin rays (vs. 8, rarely 7 or 9, in other species of the N. calientis complex and 9, rarely 8, scales in a transverse series (vs. 10, rarely 9 or 11 in N.grandis & N. calientis; a dark, narrow lateral stripe running from around the pectoral fin to the caudal peduncle origin; and twenty-six fixed nucleotide positions in the cytochrome b gene. The diagnosis of Notropis grandis sp. nov. was based on: 6, rarely 7, branched fin rays (vs. 7, rarely 6 or 8, in N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis and N. aulidion and 8, rarely 7 or 9, in N. calbazas and N. amecae, 42, rarely 40-41, or 43-45 scales in a lateral series (vs. 40, rarely 37-39, in N. calabazas; 35-36, rarely 37-39, or 33-34 in N. amecae; 35, rarely 31-34, or 36 in N. marhabatiensis and N. calientis and 34, rarely 30-33, or35 in N. aulidion and 11 rarely 10 or 12 gill rakers in the first arch; a dark lateral stripe widening from approximately the pectoral fin origin to the dorsal fin origin, forming a slightly convex segment; adult animals larger (n=30, or = 42.6, SD=4.69 relative to N. calientis (n=55, or = 33.3, SD= 3.28 and N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, or = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p or = 6.3% to 8.1% for N. grandis.Diversos estudios sugieren la existencia de especies no descritas de ciprínidos en el centro de México. Las especies del g

  19. The c-myc coding DNA sequences of cyprinids (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): Implications for phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG XiangHui; WANG XuZhen; GAN XiaoNi; HE ShunPing

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is one of the largest fish families in the world, which is widely distributed in East Asian, with obvious difference in characteristic size among species. The phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid taxa based on the functionally important genes can help to understand the speciation and functional divergence of the Cyprinidae. The c-myc gene is an important gene regulating individual growth.In the present study, the sequence variations of the cyprinid c-myc gene and their phylogenetic significance were analyzed. The 41 complete sequences of the c-myc gene were obtained from cyprinids and outgroups through PCR amplification and clone. The coding DNA sequences of the c-myc gene were used to infer molecular phylogenetic relationships within the Cyprinidae. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae), Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cobitidae) and Hemimyzon sinensis (Homalopteridae)were assigned to the outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian retrieved similar topology. Within the Cyprinidae, Leuciscini and Barbini formed the monophyletic lineage respectively with high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae, Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae, and Barbini contains Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. Danio rerio, D.myersi and Rasbora trilineata were supposed to separate from Leuciscinae and Barbini and to form another lineage. The positions of some Danioninae species were still unresolved. Analyses of both amino acid variation with parsimony information and two high variation regions indicated that there is no correlation between variations of single amino acid or high variation regions and characteristic size of cyprinids. In addition, the species with smaller size were usually found to be basal within clades in the tree, which might be the results of the adaptation to the primitive ecology and survival pressure.

  20. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch.

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    Lukáš Vejřík

    Full Text Available Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama and common carp (Cyprinus carpio are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY perch (Perca fluviatilis, with sizes of 37-52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus and bleak (Alburnus alburnus, widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem.

  1. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

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    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV, which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this

  2. Molecular variation and evolution of the tyrosine kinase domains of insulin receptor IRa and IRb genes in Cyprinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, XiangHui; Wang, XuZhen; He, ShunPing

    2011-07-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) gene plays an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation and development. In the present study, DNA sequences of insulin receptor genes, IRa and IRb, were amplified and sequenced from 37 representative species of the Cyprinidae and from five outgroup species from non-cyprinid Cypriniformes. Based on coding sequences (CDS) of tyrosine kinase regions of IRa and IRb, molecular evolution and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed to better understand the characteristics of IR gene divergence in the family Cyprinidae. IRa and IRb were clustered into one lineage in the gene tree of the IR gene family, reconstructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). IRa and IRb have evolved into distinct genes after IR gene duplication in Cyprinidae. For each gene, molecular evolution analyses showed that there was no significant difference among different groups in the reconstructed maximum parsimony (MP) tree of Cyprinidae; IRa and IRb have been subjected to similar evolutionary pressure among different lineages. Although the amino acid sequences of IRa and IRb tyrosine kinase regions were highly conserved, our analyses showed that there were clear sequence variations between the tyrosine kinase regions of IRa and IRb proteins. This indicates that IRa and IRb proteins might play different roles in the insulin signaling pathway.

  3. Characterizing the transcriptome of yellow-cheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) enables evolutionary analyses within endemic East Asian Cyprinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Ma, Xufa

    2014-09-01

    The identification of genes that may be responsible for the divergence of closely related species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. The species of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae diverged less than 8millionyears ago, and the morphological differences among these species are great. However, the genetic basis of their divergence remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the transcriptome of one endemic East Asian cyprinid - the yellow-cheek carp Elopichthys bambusa. A comparison with the publicly available transcriptomes of other endemic East Asian cyprinids, including the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and blunt-nose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), revealed a number of candidate adaptive genes in each species, such as zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 in E. bambusa and zebrafish vitelline envelope protein in M. amblycephala. An enrichment test showed the enrichment of some specific gene ontology (GO) terms for these putatively adaptive genes. Taken together, our work is the first step toward elucidating the genes that may be related to the divergence of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae, and these genes identified as being probably under positive selection should be good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional studies.

  4. Sphaerothecum destruens pathology in cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, D; Gozlan, R E; Stone, D; Martin, P; Bateman, K; Feist, S W

    2011-06-16

    Sphaerothecum destruens is a significant intracellular parasite of fish which has caused disease and mortalities in cultured north American Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Several hosts for S. destruens have been identified within the Salmonidae family, and the histopathology of the infection can differ between hosts. Recently, S. destruens has been associated with the most invasive cyprinid species in Europe, topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. Accurate disease identification based on thorough descriptions of clinical signs and histopathology in this new range of hosts is thus paramount to support further epizootiological studies. In this study, the associated histopathology of S. destruens infection is described along with its pathogenesis in the endangered cyprinid sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus. Histological examination of 100 L. delineatus in a wild population in the south of England revealed the presence of S. destruens infections, with a prevalence of 5% with S. destruens, suggesting an over-dispersed distribution within the L. delineatus sample. Clinical signs of the infection were absent, but histological examination revealed the presence of both disseminated and nodular lesions in several organs.

  5. Molecular evolution of connective tissue growth factor in Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Kong; Xuzhen Wang; Xiaoni Gan; Junbing Li; Shunping He

    2008-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in regulation ofcell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and individual development in animals. The study of sequences variation and molecular evolution of CTGF gene across various species of the cyprinid could be helpful for understanding of speciation and gene divergence in this kind of fish. In this study, 19 novel sequences of CTGF gene were obtained from the representative species of the family Cyprinidae using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (N J), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian method. Oryzias latipes from the family Cyprinodontidae was assigned to be the outgroup taxon. Leuciscini and Barbini were clustered into the monophyletic lineages, respectively, with the high nodal supports. The estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) for the various branches indicated that there stood the different evolution rates between the Leuciscini and the Barbini. With the ratio of dN/dS of the Leuciscini being lower than that of the Barbini, species within the Barbini were demonstrated to be subjected to the relatively less selection pressure and under the relaxable evolution background. A 6 bp indel (insertion/deletion) was found at the 5' end of CTGF gene of Cyprinidae, and this 6 bp deletion only appeared in the Leuciscini, which is a typical characteristic of the Leuciscini and provides evidence for the monophylogeny of the Leuciscini. For the amino acid sequences of CTGF protein, the most variations and indels were distributed in the signal region and IGFBP region of this protein, implying that these variations were correlated with the regulation of the CTGF gene expression and protein activity.

  6. Identity of Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Istra Peninsula in Croatia (Adriatic Sea basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Primoz; Mrakovcic, Milorad; Marcic, Zoran; Naseka, Alexander M; Bogutskaya, Nina G

    2010-08-27

    A chub of previously ambiguous identity from the Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers (south-eastern Istra Peninsula) was studied and compared with geographically close Squalius squalus, Squalius zrmanja, and Squalius janae recently described from the Dragonja River drainage in the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia. It was shown that the chub from the south-eastern Istra Peninsula differs from all know species of Squalius but one: Squalius janae. Three samples examined from Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers and Squalius janae from its type locality, Dragonja River, show the following characters typical for the latter species: a long head (the head length 27-32% SL); a pointed conical snout with a clearly projecting upper jaw; a long straight mouth cleft, the lower jaw length (39-45% HL) exceeding the caudal peduncle depth; a large eye; commonly 9? branched anal-fin rays; commonly 44 total vertebrae (24+20 or 25+19); bright silvery colouration, scales easily lost; iris, pectoral, pelvic and anal fin pigmentation with yellow shades. The data on the distribution of Squalius chubs in the northern Adriatic basin support the assumption that the range of Squalius janae is determined by the geology of the Trieste Flysch Basin and the Pazin Flysch Basin forming the base of the Istra Peninsula. The distribution pattern of this species does not support a simple model of fish dispersal and a complete connectivity within the whole Palaeo-Po historical drainage. Indeed, it indicates a disrupted surface palaeohydrography that was heavily fragmented by karstification in the whole Dinaric area.

  7. Phenotypic variation in the Snowtrout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray, 1832) (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from the Indian Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mir, F.A.; Mir, J.I.; Chandra, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraspecific variation of the Snowtrout, Schizothorax richardsonii on the basis of morphometric characters. Altogether, 217 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Western and Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 14 landmarks to yield

  8. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae.

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    Vincent Dubut

    Full Text Available Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region.

  9. Remarkable phylogenetic resolution of the most complex clade of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): a proof of concept of homology assessment and partitioning sequence data integrated with mixed model Bayesian analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wenjing; Mayden, Richard L; He, Shunping

    2013-03-01

    Despite many efforts to resolve evolutionary relationships among major clades of Cyprinidae, some nodes have been especially problematic and remain unresolved. In this study, we employ four nuclear gene fragments (3.3kb) to infer interrelationships of the Cyprinidae. A reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the family using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses is presented. Among the taxa within the monophyletic Cyprinidae, Rasborinae is the basal-most lineage; Cyprinine is sister to Leuciscine. The monophyly for the subfamilies Gobioninae, Leuciscinae and Acheilognathinae were resolved with high nodal support. Although our results do not completely resolve relationships within Cyprinidae, this study presents novel and significant findings having major implications for a highly diverse and enigmatic clade of East-Asian cyprinids. Within this monophyletic group five closely-related subgroups are identified. Tinca tinca, one of the most phylogenetically enigmatic genera in the family, is strongly supported as having evolutionary affinities with this East-Asian clade; an established yet remarkable association because of the natural variation in phenotypes and generalized ecological niches occupied by these taxa. Our results clearly argue that the choice of partitioning strategies has significant impacts on the phylogenetic reconstructions, especially when multiple genes are being considered. The most highly partitioned model (partitioned by codon positions within genes) extracts the strongest phylogenetic signals and performs better than any other partitioning schemes supported by the strongest 2Δln Bayes factor. Future studies should include higher levels of taxon sampling and partitioned, model-based analyses.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris A; Freyhof, Jörg; Lajbner, Zdeněk; Perea, Silvia; Abdoli, Asghar; Gaffaroğlu, Muhammet; Ozuluğ, Müfit; Rubenyan, Haikaz R; Salnikov, Vladimir B; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the matrilineal phylogeny of Asian algae-eating fishes of the genus Capoeta based on complete mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b sequences obtained from 20 species sampled from the majority of the range and 44 species of closely related barbs of the genera Barbus s. str. and Luciobarbus. The results of this study show that Capoeta forms a strongly supported monophyletic subclade nested within the Luciobarbus clade, suggesting that specialized scraping morphology appeared once in the evolutionary history of the genus. We detected three main groups of Capoeta: the Mesopotamian group, which includes three species from the Tigris-Euphrates system and adjacent water bodies, the Anatolian-Iranian group, which has the most diversified structure and encompasses many species distributed throughout Anatolian and Iranian inland waters, and the Aralo-Caspian group, which consists of species distributed in basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, including many dead-end rivers in Central Asia and Northern Iran. The most probable origination pathway of the genus Capoeta is hypothesized to occur as a result of allopolyploidization. The origin of Capoeta was found around the Langhian-Serravallian boundary according to our molecular clock. The diversification within the genus occurred along Middle Miocene-Late Pliocene periods.

  11. Common culture practices for cyprinids in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinids are the largest group of cultured freshwater fish and thus the most important from the aspect of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses. The common practices employed in the culture of this group are described to provide background information which may be used in the formulation of strategies for the control of these zoonoses. Only the common carp is cultured in monoculture: all the rest of the carp species are usually cultured in polyculture systems incorporating several species. Polyculture of cyprinids may be carried out in ponds, cages or in free range culture in natural or man-made water bodies, Polyculture of cyprinids is often integrated with agriculture, such as livestock, poultry or crop farming, utilizing byproducts of the agriculture activity, especially manure, as a source of nutrient for the fish pond. If precautions are not taken, this practice may provide an avenue for the transmission of fish borne parasites to man.

  12. Infectivity and development of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in immunosuppressed Barbonymus gonionotus fingerlings (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Arunsan, Patpicha; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn

    2016-10-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini infection, is a serious public health problem in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. Cyprinid fish are required for the transmission of O. viverrini metacercariae to fish eating-mammal hosts including humans. The transmission of infective metacerariae is an important event, potentially resulting in the development of cholangiocarcinoma in cases of chronic opisthorchiasis. For a better understanding of the development of O. viverrini metacercariae in the second intermediate host, Barbonymus gonionotus (Cyprinidae), the immune response of infected B. gonionotus through fibrous tissue formation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The immunosuppressant (prednisolone) was administered to B. gonionotus infected with O. viverrini cercariae to study infectivity and development of the metacercariae. Additionally, the effects of prednisolone were studied by the investigation of fibrous tissue formation around the metacercariae, as well as SOD activity. In our study, prednisolone administered prior to infection in B. gonionotus had higher metacercarial recovery when compared to the non-administered control group. On the other hand, the administration of prednisolone after the O. viverrini infection allowed metacercariae to develop to the infective stage. Energy consumption from encystation to the infective stage required 443.9-463.7degree-days. The results show that immunosuppression decreases fibrous tissue and SOD activity in infected fish, and also affects the ability of O. viverrini metacercariae to develop to the infective stage. The immune response to metacercarial development of O. viverrini in cyprinid fish should be further studied to gain a greater understanding of this process, and hence, a better understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in metacercarial wall formation.

  13. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2013-04-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. It is mainly characterized by medium-sized, bifurcate deirids, the presence of 14 anterior prostomal teeth and distinct basal teeth, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of esophagus (1:6-9), length of the left spicule (669-774 μm), absence of a dorsal barb on the right spicule, length ratio of spicules (1:4.9-6.0), arrangement of genital papillae, and smooth eggs without filaments or swellings. In addition, specifically unidentified fourth-stage larvae of Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sp., morphologically similar to R. hypsibarbi, were recorded from the red-tailed tinfoil Barbonymus altus (Günther) (Cyprinidae) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. Rhabdochona hypsibarbi is the fourth nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 reported from fishes in Thailand and the second species of the nominotypical subgenus found in this country.

  14. Romanian cyprinids phylogeny based on 16S ARN mitochondrial genes

    OpenAIRE

    Luca C.; Kevorkian S.; Elvira M.; Dinischiotu A.; Costache M.

    2007-01-01

    The vertebrate mitochondrial genome has been an important model system for studying molecular evolution, organism phylogeny, and genome structure. Phylogenetic relatioships were inferred from analysis of 570 base pairs (bp) of mithocondrial DNA (mtDNA), representing a conserved region of 16S rRNA. We sequenced 13 cyprinids species and one putative outgroup (Misgurnus fossilis) from Romania. Based upon nucleotide sequence comparisons of cyprinid mitochondrial 16SRNA genes, we established the p...

  15. Different population structure in genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar

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    Miriam Casal-Lopez

    2015-12-01

    Here, through a phylogeographic study based on mitochondrial molecular markers, we found different structures on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, as well as faunistic connections probably established on both sides during Miocene. Our results show that populations may have followed different and complex histories and species have suffered diverse events of vicariance and dispersion. While north Moroccan population show a well-defined structure, showing not only unique haplotypes, but different species, the case of the southern populations of the Iberian endemism, Luciobarbus sclateri Günther, 1868, differs substantially.

  16. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from Morocco with the description of two new species

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    Doadrio, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919, although some authors consider L. magniatlant as a junior synonym of L. nasus. This lack of consensus on the taxonomy of rheophilic barbs is constrained by limited population studies that do not encompass their entire distribution range. Using molecular, morphometric, and osteological data we studied populations of rheophilic barbs of three drainage basins in which they are currently present: Tensift, Moulouya and Oum er Rbia. Our results clearly identified the rheophilic barbs of each basin as different species. The species Luciobarbus magniatlantis is a well-recognized species endemic to Tensift Basin. In contrast, the investigated populations from the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe two new Luciobarbus species in the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins.El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919 aunque algunos autores consideran a L. magniatlantis como un sinónimo de L. nasus. Esta falta de consenso en la taxonomía de los barbos reófilos está limitada por los escasos estudios poblacionales realizados que no abarcan la totalidad del área de distribución de estos barbos. Nosotros, usando datos moleculares, morfométricos y osteológicos, estudiamos las poblaciones de los barbos reófilos de tres cuencas hidrográficas, en las cuales están actualmente presentes: Tensift, Moulouya y Oum er Rbia. Nuestros resultados claramente identifican a los barbos reófilos de cada una de estas cuencas como diferentes especies. La especie L. magniatlantis es una especie bien definida y endémica de la cuenca del Tensift. En contraste, las poblaciones analizadas de las cuencas del Moulouya y Oum er Rbia no pudieron ser asignadas a ninguna especie previamente descrita. Consecuentemente, nosotros describimos dos nuevas especies de Luciobarbus en las cuencas del Moulouya y del Oum er Rbia.

  17. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Morocco with the description of two new species

    OpenAIRE

    Doadrio, I; Casal-López, M.; Perea, S.; YAHYAOUI A.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874) and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919), although some authors consider L. magnia...

  18. Taxonomic review of the genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from northwestern Morocco with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal-Lopez, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus in Morocco presents high diversification, in contrast to the generally impoverished freshwater fish fauna from North Africa. Within Morocco the northern area is one of the least studied territories, due to both its historical background and the limited accessibility of many regions. Previous phylogenetic studies identified Luciobarbus populations that are morphologically and genetically differentiated, to the same extent as others already recognized as separate species. The aim of this work is to describe these populations as distinct species, based on morphological, meristic, and genetic traits. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FC4B423-104C-4097-A468-ED3D2664A15AEn Marruecos el género Luciobarbus está altamente diversificado, en comparación con la empobrecida fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África. Dentro de Marruecos la región norte es una de las áreas menos estudiadas, por motivos históricos y también por la poca accesibilidad en algunas de sus regiones. Los estudios filogenéticos previos para esta área han señalado la existencia de poblaciones pertenecientes al género Luciobarbus tan diferenciadas morfológica y genéticamente como otras que ya habían sido reconocidas como diferentes especies. En este trabajo describimos estas poblaciones como diferentes taxa, en base a caracteres morfológicos, merísticos y genéticos.

  19. Testing freshwater Lago Mare dispersal theory on the phylogeny relationships of iberian cyprinid genera Chondrostoma and Squalius (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae

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    Carmona, José Ambrosio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A phylogeny of the species in the genera Chondrostoma and Squalius was constructed based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140pb. The molecular phylogeny was used to test the effect of the Mediterranean Lago Mare dispersal theory on the processes of divergence and speciation of European freshwater fishes. Phylogenetic relationships among Squalius samples and the molecular clock revealed that the ancestor of the current Iberian Squalius species inhabited a wide geographic area in the central and southwestern part of the former Iberian Peninsula during the Miocene before the Lago Mare phase. Similarly, the four main Iberian lineages of the genus Chondrostoma originated in the Middle-Upper Miocene. Hence, the Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea seems to have been a too recent paleogeographic event to have had any major impact on the dispersion of Squalius and Chondrostoma species. However, the reduction of the water-bodies during the Tortonian and Messinian may have intensified the isolation of populations. The Operational Biogeographic Units recovered from the Squalius and Chondrostoma phylogenies also reject the Lago Mare dispersal theory and support the idea that the differentiation processes were due to both the formation of the current hydrographical basin during the Plio-Pleistocene as well as to an earlier endorrheism event that occurred prior to hydrographical configuration.Realizamos una filogenia de los géneros Chondrostoma y Squalius mediante el estudio de la secuencia completa del gen mitocondrial citocromo b (1140pb. La filogenia molecular fue usada para comprobar el efecto que la teoría de dispersión del Mediterráneo Lago Mare ha tenido sobre los procesos de divergencia y especiación en los peces de agua dulce europeos. Las relaciones filogenéticas entre las muestras de Squalius y la aplicación del reloj molecular pusieron de manifiesto que el ancestro de las actuales especies ibéricas de Squalius habitaba una amplia área del centro y suroeste de la Península Ibérica durante el Mioceno antes de la fase Lago Mare. Del mismo modo, los cuatro grandes linajes ibéricos del género Chondrostoma tuvieron su origen en el Mioceno Medio-Superior. La fase Lago Mare del Mediterráneo parece un hecho demasiado reciente como para haber tenido un impacto importante en la dispersión de las especies de los géneros Squalius y Chondrostoma. No obstante, la reducción de los cuerpos de agua durante el Tortoniense y Mesiniense pudo haber intensificado el aislamiento de las poblaciones. Las Unidades Biogeográficas Operativas obtenidas de las filogenias de los géneros Squalius y Chondrostoma también rechazan la teoría de la dispersión en la fase Lago Mare y sugieren que los procesos de diferenciación de la fauna de peces de agua dulce se debieron al aislamiento de las cuencas hidrográficas, y a fenómenos antiguos de endorreísmo que se produjeron antes de la configuración de las cuencas hidrográficas.

  20. Devario fangae and Devario myitkyinae, two new species of danionin cyprinids from northern Myanmar (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Danioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Sven O

    2017-02-03

    Devario comprises 38 potentially valid species in southern Asia. Ten species of Devario have been reported so far from Myanmar, six of which belong in the group of striped devarios, with predominantly horizontal stripes in the colour pattern. Among them, records of D. aequipinnatus most likely represent misidentifications. Remaining species of striped devarios in Myanmar are known only from brief descriptions and are in need of taxonomic revision. Devario yuensis and D. deruptotalea, known previously only from India, are here reported for the first time from Myanmar. Devario fangae, new species, is described on the basis of specimens collected in 1998 from small streams in Putao in the extreme north of Myanmar. These streams drain to the Mali Hka River, a tributary of the Ayeyarwaddy River. Devario fangae shares uniquely with D. browni and D. kakhienensis an anterior expansion in width of the middle dark stripe on the side (P stripe). It differs from D. browni and D. kakhienensis in presence of a broad P stripe, wider than adjacent interstripes, vs. narrow, as wide as or narrower than interstripes. Devario fangae is further similar to other species of Devario characterized by three dark stripes (P, P+1, P-1) along the side, but differs from these in having all three stripes wide and of about equal width vs. P stripe wide and P+1 and P-1 stripes much narrower. The largest specimen of D. fangae is 61.0 mm SL. Females are significantly more deep-bodied than males. A specimen of D. aequipinnatus reported from Putao in 1919 probably represents D. fangae.        Devario myitkyinae, new species, is described on the basis of specimens collected in 1997 and 1998 from a stream and lake in the Ayeyarwaddy River drainage near Myitkyina in northern Myanmar. It is similar to D. browni and D. kakhienensis, but different from D. fangae in having horizontal stripes on side equal in width, narrow, irregular, and to some extent curved away from horizontal extension. Devario myitkyinae differs from D. browni, D. kakhienensis, and D. fangae in absence of anterior widening of the P stripe. Devario myitkyinae is similar to other species of Devario characterized by three dark stripes (P, P+1, P-1) along the side, but differs from these in having all three stripes irregular and of equal width vs. stripes regular, P stripe wide and P+1 and P-1 stripes much narrower. The largest wild specimen of D. myitkyinae is 68.7 mm SL. A specimen collected near Myitkyina and reported as D. aequipinnatus in 1929 probably represents D. myitkyinae.

  1. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  2. Pliocene cyprinids (Cypriniformes,Teleostei) from Kunlun Pass Basin,northeastern Tibetan Plateau and their bearings on development of water system and uplift of the area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann

    2010-01-01

    Here described are the cyprinid fossils from the Pliocene Lower Member of Qiangtang Formation of the Kunlun Pass Basin,northeastern Tibetan Plateau,collected at a locality 4769 m above the sea level(asl).The materials consist of numerous disarticulated and incomplete bones as well as thousands of pharyngeal teeth,fin rays,and vertebrae.The fossils were referred to the genus Gymnocypris,lineage Schizothoracini,family Cyprinidae;the lineage Schizothoracini;and the family Cyprinidae respectively.The Schizothoracini is a freshwater fish group endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding area.Previous workers on living schizothoracins regarded that Gymnocypris belongs to the highly specialized grade of the group,colonizing higher altitudes than other members of the group.Two species are so far unequivocally assigned to the genus,i.e.,G.przewalskii and G.eckloni,and they are inhabiting Qinghai Lake and the waters on both north(the Golmud River) and south(upper reach of the Yellow River) sides of the East Kunlun Mountain,respectively.The abundant fossil schizothoracins occur in the Kunlun Pass Basin on the southern slope of the East Kunlun Mountain(at 4769 m asl),close to the present Golmud River,indicating comparatively rich waters in the area and possible connections between the water systems on north and south sides of the East Kunlun Mountain during the Pliocene.This also suggests a more humid climate in the area during the Pliocene than it is today.The presence of the highly specialized schizothoracin Gymnocypris may also imply less amplitude of uplift(approximately 1000 m) in the area since the Pliocene than previously proposed.

  3. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

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    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  4. Enteroendocrine cells of the cyprinid fish, Barbus conchonius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Information on the endocrine regulation of digestion in fish is scarce especially on stomachless cyprinids. In the present study (chapters I, III) 3 distinct enteroendocrine cell types will be described for the intestinal epithelium of Barbus conchonius. With the light microscope, enteroendocrine ce

  5. [Characteristics of the reparative regeneration of fins in the polypterid fish (Polypteridae, Actinopterygii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, A I; Golichenkov, V A

    2012-01-01

    Epimorphic regeneration of fins was studied in different ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), but species representing the phylogenetically basal lineages of the taxon have remained outside the attention of researchers. Information on the regenerative abilities of these groups is important both for understanding the evolutionary origins of the epimorphic regeneration phenomenon and for assessing the universality of regenerative potencies in Actinopterygii. Addressing this problem, we studied for the first time fin regeneration in two members of the archaic family Polypteridae: the ropefish (Erpetoichthys calabaricus) and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus). Along with the ability to regenerate the bony rays of fins, widespread among Actinopterygii, polypterids show the ability to effectively regenerate the endoskeleton and musculature of their fins. This unusual feature allows us to suggest polypterids as new model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of vertebrate limb regeneration.

  6. MICROSATELLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN CENTRAL STONEROLLER CAMPOSTOMA ANOMALUM (PISCES: CYPRINIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum) is a small cyprinid fish that is native to streams and rivers of central and eastern North America. It can be found in a range of anthropo- genically modified habitats, ranging from nearly pristine to highly polluted waters (Zimmerma...

  7. Lake Tana's piscivorous Barbus (Cyprinidae, Ethiopia) ecology - evolution - exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.

    2003-01-01

    The 15 Barbus species of Lake Tana, a large shallow lake located at an altitude of 1830 m in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia, form the only remaining intact species flock of large (max. 100cm) cyprinid fishes. Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile and high waterfalls (40 m) at Tissisat

  8. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Edward D.; Holcomb, Jordan M.; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis. PMID:27293777

  9. Detection of novel strains of cyprinid herpesvirus closely related to koi herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelsma, Marc Y.; Way, Keith; Dodge, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a devastating virus of carp. Using generic primers for the DNA polymerase and the major capsid protein genes of cyprinid herpesviruses, nucleotide sequences divergent from previously described CyHV-3 were obtained. At least 3 novel groups...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea Silvia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense

  11. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Indonesian freshwater fish Rasbora lateristriata species complex (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae): Cryptic species and west-to-east divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Wahyu Endra; Ratmuangkhwang, Sahat; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2016-12-01

    Rasbora lateristriata is a primary freshwater fish described from Java Island of Indonesia but its taxonomy, phylogeny, and distributional boundary have not been fully studied. Rasbora baliensis was described as a species endemic to Balinese lakes but its taxonomic status has been controversial in relation to R. lateristriata. Here, we collected Rasbora fishes from various freshwater localities of Java Island, as well as five neighboring islands to conduct molecular and morphological analyses on their phylogenetic relationships. Both molecular analyses using two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences and morphological analyses featuring the body color pattern consistently support that the currently recognized R. lateristriata forms a species complex including at least four major lineages that possibly represent different species. In one of the major lineages, Balinese individuals cluster with those from East Javanese, Lombok and Sumbawa localities, calling for taxonomic revision on R. baliensis. The other three major lineages occur in distinct regions of central, west-central, and western Java and they can be clearly distinguished by the combination of pigmentation patterns in the basicaudal blotch and the supra anal pigment. Our molecular phylogeny suggests west-to-east divergences of the R. lateristriata species complex in Java Island from the late Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene before it finally crossed Wallace's Line, colonizing Lombok and Sumbawa Islands very recently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueng, Yih-Tsong; Chen, Kun-Neng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Cheng, Chung-Yao; Li, Yi-Min

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), which has broader distribution range and diverse genetic structure than other species under the genus Zacco, was first determined in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,612 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. Its gene arrangement and translation direction were identical to those of other typical vertebrate. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 27.02%, C 26.23%, A 28.94% and G 17.82%, with a slight AT bias of 55.95%.

  13. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Microphysogobio brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung-Yao; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Cheng, Ju-Wen; Ueng, Yih-Tsong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Microphysogobio brevirostris (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), an endemic primary freshwater fish in Taiwan. This mitochondrial genome, consisting of 16,608 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding control region as those found in other vertebrates, with the gene synteny identical to that of typical vertebrates. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 26.28%, C 26.62%, A 30.26%, and G 16.85%, with a slight AT bias of 56.53%.

  14. Sur les poissons fossiles (Teleosteens. Cyprinidae des gypses turoliens du fosse de Teruel: essai d'approche paléoécologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudant, J.

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The revision of the Turolian fossil fishes from Los Aljezares, near Teruel (Spain leads one to .establish that they belong to the Recent genus Rutilus RAFINESQUE. So, they must be named R. pochecoi (ROYO GÓMEZ. The occurrence of Cyprinid fishes in the Turolian gypsum of Teruel basin clearly indicates that the sedimentation has taken place in continental waters with low salt-content.

    La révision des Poissons fossiles turoliens de Los Aljezares de Teruel (Espagne conduit à considérer qu'ils appartiennent au genre actuel Rutilus RAFINESQUE. Ces Poissons sont done désignés comme R. pochecoi (ROYO GÓMEZ. La présence de Cyprinidae dans les gypses turoliens du fossé de Teruel indique clairement que le dépôt de ceux-ci s'est produit dans des eaux continentales à faible salinité. La revisión de los peces fósiles turolienses de Los Aljezares de Teruel conduce a considerarlos como pertenecientes al género actual Rutilus RAFINESQUE. Estos peces son designados como R. pochecoi (ROYO GÓMEZ. La presencia de Ciprínidos en los yesos turolienses de la cuenca de Teruel indica claramente que el depósito de éstos se ha producido en aguas continentales de escasa salinidad.

  15. Effects of habitat availability on dispersion of a stream cyprinid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Grossman, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed temporal changes in the dispersion of the rosyside dace,Clinostomus funduloides, (family Cyprinidae) in a headwater stream, to assess the role of habitat availability in promoting fish aggregation. The dace foraged alone and in groups of up to about 25 individuals, and dispersion varied significantly among monthly censuses conducted from May through December. In two of three study pools, dace aggregated during July, October and/or December, but spread out during other months, especially during September when dispersion did not differ significantly from random. Dispersion was not significantly correlated with the total amount of suitable habitat available to foraging dace, but during summer, corresponded to the availability of depositional areas adjacent to rapid currents. Foragers aggregated in eddies or depositional areas during high stream discharge in July, and shifted out of depositional areas when current velocities declined from July to September. During late autumn, however, aggregations formed independently of changes in habitat conditions, and dace dispersion did not vary significantly among months in a third pool. The study suggests that dace dispersion cannot be predicted from the overall availability of suitable habitat as estimated from point measurements of depth and velocity; both the occurrence of a specific habitat feature (i.e., eddies adjacent to high velocity currents) and seasonal differences in behavior more strongly influenced the spatial distribution of foragers.

  16. Chemical composition of meat in two cyprinid species

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    Valerica Macovei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical analyses of the meat were determined in two species of carps, respectively Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idella. We worked on four groups of 10 fishes each (two groups for C. carpio and two groups for Ct. idella. One group from both species was fed with special fodder, and the other two groups were fed with clover (Trifolium pratense and reeds (Phragmites communis for C. carpio and Ct. idella respectively. The determination was made in the laboratory of chemical analyses of the Faculty of Animal Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi and we determined the content of the meat in proteins, fat, dry substance and minerals. The characteristic chemicals of the meat were determined on the extracted sample from the lateral musculature of the body. Biochemical analysis of meat from the four carp lots shows that protein content of meat is higher in groups which received combined feed compared to group which individuals were fed with natural food. Therefore, in case of feeding fish with combined fodder the protein content of meat increases, which proves a good recovery of protein in feed. Fat content and minerals in cyprinid meat are both higher in individuals fed with combined feed compared to those fed with natural components. When fat content in meat is higher, the dry matter content in meat is higher.

  17. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3: An Archetype of Fish Alloherpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Rakus, Krzysztof; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Vancsok, Catherine; Morvan, Léa; Peñaranda, Ma Michelle D; Stone, David M; Way, Keith; van Beurden, Steven J; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales encompasses viruses that share structural, genetic, and biological properties. However, members of this order infect hosts ranging from molluscs to humans. It is currently divided into three phylogenetically related families. The Alloherpesviridae family contains viruses infecting fish and amphibians. There are 12 alloherpesviruses described to date, 10 of which infect fish. Over the last decade, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infecting common and koi carp has emerged as the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. Since its first description in the late 1990s, this virus has induced important economic losses in common and koi carp worldwide. It has also had negative environmental implications by affecting wild carp populations. These negative impacts and the importance of the host species have stimulated studies aimed at developing diagnostic and prophylactic tools. Unexpectedly, the data generated by these applied studies have stimulated interest in CyHV-3 as a model for fundamental research. This review intends to provide a complete overview of the knowledge currently available on CyHV-3.

  18. ON THE ACTIVITY OF alpha-AMYLASE IN SOME SPECIES OF ASIAN CYPRINIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    amylase in two Asian cyprinids namely, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. The activity of -amylase has been determined by the Métais-Bieth method, the results obtained being expressed as mg starch / ml x 30 min. Our experimental data evidence some differences between the activity of -amylase from the digestive tube, in the two species under study.

  19. Identification of novel SINEs from Cyprinidae and their evolutionary significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yawei; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2007-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are widespread among eukaryotic genomes. They are repetitive DNA sequences that have been amplified by retrotransposition. In this study, a class of SINEs were isolated from the Opsariichthys bidens genome, and named Opsar. Sequence analysis confirmed that Opsar is a new class of typical SINEs derived from tRNA molecules. With the tRNA-derived region of Opsar and through BLASTN search, we further identified Zb-SINEs from the zebrafish genome, which includes two groups: Zb-SINE-A and Zb-SINE-B. The Zb-SINE-A group comprises subfamilies of -A1-A5, and the Zb-SINE-B group is a dimer of the tRNAAla-derived region and shares a similar dimeric composition to Alu. Zb-SINEs are composed of three distinct regions:a 5' end tRNA-derived region, a tRNA-unrelated region and a 3' end AT-rich region. The flanking regions are AT rich. The average length of Zb-SINEs elements is about 340 bp. Zb-SINEs account for as much as 0.1% of the whole zebrafish genome. About 70 % of the Zb-SINEs are on chromosomes 11, 18, and 19. These Zb-SINEs were characterized by PCR and dot hybridization. The distribution pattern of Zb-SINEs in genome strongly supports the master genes model. The tRNA-derived regions of Opsar and Zb-SINEs were compared with the tRNAAla gene, and they showed 76 % similarity, indicating that Opsar and Zb-SINEs originated from an inactive tRNAAlasequence or a tRNAAla-like sequence. In view of the evolutionary status of zebrafish in the Cyprinidae, we deduced that Zb-SINEs were a very old class of interspersed sequences.

  20. Selective Herbivory by an Invasive Cyprinid, the Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; John, Farrell M [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Stehman, Stephen V [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Boyer, Gregory L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Fernando, Danilo D [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Teece, Mark A [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    1. Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where significant native herbivores did not previously exist or have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid that has a nearly global longitudinal distribution due to human translocations, yet it is unknown whether the rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common to North American waters. 2. We tested a null hypothesis of non-selective feeding by rudds using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisneria americana. Four rudds were placed in 15 different 890-L tanks and presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species (each tank serving as a block in a randomized complete block design). Each macrophyte bundle was weighed on six dates during a 13 d experiment. Differences in mean percent weight remaining among macrophyte species were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. We also quantified differences among chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and qualitatively determined if selective feeding by rudds was related to dry matter content (DMC), percent C by dry weight (%C), percent N by dry weight (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1,000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites, and total phenolic compounds. 3. Selective feeding by rudds was evident, with the order of macrophyte removal (from highest to lowest) being: N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C:N, but not DMC, %N, or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudds would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte

  1. Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2013-03-01

    Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer.

  2. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  3. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal Mir, Javaid; Saxena, Neha; Singh Patiyal, Rabindar; Kumari Sahoo, Prabhati

    2015-01-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that...

  4. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Graaf, de M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning durin

  5. Experimental evidence for the biological species status in Lake Tana’s Labeobarbus flock (Cyprinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Palstra, A.P.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tana (Ethiopia) harbours the only known remaining intact species flock of large (max. 100 cm standard length, SL) cyprinid fishes (15 Labeobarbus spp.). In 'common garden' experiments progeny of the riverine spawning benthivorous L. tsanensis, and of the piscivorous L. truttiformis and L. megas

  6. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; de Graaf, M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during t

  7. Identification of the Angel-related elements in cyprinid fishes and their phylogenetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2007-01-01

    Angel-related element belongs to the family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In this paper we report the identification of an Angel- related element in the series Leuciscini of cyprinid fishes, which is located in the second intron of the growth hormone (GH) gene. We have also found that this element is absent in orthologous locus in the series Barbini of cyprinid fishes, that provides new evidence for the monophyly of the series Leuciscini. The insertion of Angel-related element into the GH gene might take place in the common ancestor of the series Leuciscini after its divergence from the series Barbini. The high sequence divergence and relatively broad species distribution of Angel-related elements implies that they might be ancient transposons which appeared about 26 million years ago.

  8. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth A. McColl; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationshi...

  9. Leuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae karyotypes: Transect of Portuguese populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Collares-Pereira

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The presently described Iberian chubs - Leuciscus carolitertii and L. pyrenaicus - sampled throughout their distribution ranges in Portugal were cytogenetically analyzed. Their chromosome numbers were consistently 2n = 50, except for two specimens of L. carolitertii, which exhibited a supernumerary chromosome in some of the metaphases. The karyotypes were found to be highly typical for other Leuciscus taxa, as well as for European leuciscine cyprinids: the chromosome sets are dominated by metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs (three to four; the largest pair of the complements belongs typically to this latter category. The chubs from northern drainages, assignable to L. carolitertii, have apparently a more stable karyotype structure (12M:30S:8A than the chubs from L. pyrenaicus, which have 12M:32S:6A, but may exhibit in the most southern river basins (Guadiana, Mira, Aljezur, Bordeira and Arade more variable karyotypes. Besides, these data support the very recent discovery of two genetically distinct Leuciscus taxa in this region of the Iberian Peninsula, suggesting the stochastic fixation of structural chromosome rearrangements in these small and isolated drainages, which may be affected by bottlenecks due to significant variations in hydrological regimes. The NORs were apparently located in one small submetacentric pair of chromosomes and the presence of a heteromorphic sex chromosome system of the ZW/ZZ type was also evidenced for the Iberian endemic chubs.A análise citogenética dos dois endemismos de Leuciscus atualmente descritos na Península Ibérica foi efetuada em amostras obtidas ao longo da sua área de distribuição. Apresentaram um valor diplóide de 2n = 50, com exceção de dois exemplares de L. carolitertii, os quais exibiam um cromossomo supranumerário em algumas metáfases. Caracterizaram-se por um padrão cariológico idêntico ao dos restantes táxons do mesmo g

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) as inferred from S7 nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of North American (NA) phoxinins, and family Leuciscidae (formerly Cyprinidae, in part) in general, have had a very dynamic history marked by uncertainty regarding the validity of many taxonomic designations. Recent molecular studies, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, of NA phoxinins have provided the first comprehensive hypotheses for the group and suggest that they are comprised of three major lineages: creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), western, and open posterior myodome clades. A number of phylogenetic evaluations, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, of the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae (=Cyprinoidea) have failed to support the traditional subfamily designations. This study, based on sequences from the first intron of the nuclear gene S7, supports many of the findings of the earlier molecular studies of NA phoxinins, but also suggests that European Leuciscidae evolved within the NA phoxinin lineage and are most likely descended from the common ancestor of the CC-P clade. As in some other recent phylogenetic studies of the Cyprinoidea, analyses of this study fail to support the broader subfamily designations within the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae.

  11. Anatomy and early development of the pectoral girdle, fin, and fin spine of sturgeons (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Casey B; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan clades. To this end, we examined comparative developmental series from the pectoral girdle in Acipenser fulvescens, A. medirostris, A. transmontanus, and Scaphirhynchus albus to document, describe, and compare ontogenetic and allometric differences in the pectoral girdle. We find, not surprisingly, broad congruence between taxa in the basic pattern of development of the dermal and chondral elements of the pectoral girdle. However, we also find clear differences in the details of structure and development among the species examined in the dermal elements, including the clavicle, cleithrum, supracleithrum, posttemporal, and pectoral-fin spine. We also find differences in the internal fin elements such as the distal radials as well as in the number of fin rays and their association with the propterygium. Further, there are clear ontogenetic differences during development of the dermal and chondral elements in these species and allometric variation in the pectoral-fin spine. The characters highlighted provide a suite of elements for further examination in studies of the phylogeny of sturgeons. Determining the distribution of these characters in other sturgeons may aid in further resolution of phylogenetic relationships, and these data highlight the role that ontogenetic and comparative developmental studies provide in systematics.

  12. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Eastern Asian Cyprinidae (Pisces: Cypriniformes) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shunping; LIU; Huanzhang; CHEN; Yiyu; Masayuki; Kuwah

    2004-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of 54 species, including 18 newly sequenced, were analyzed to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae in East Asia. Phylogenetic trees were generated using various tree-building methods, including Neighbor-joining (NJ), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods, with Myxocyprinus asiaticus (family Catostomidae) as the designated outgroup. The results from NJ and ML methods were mostly similar, supporting some existing subfamilies within Cyprinidae as monophyletic, such as Cultrinae, Xenocyprinae and Gobioninae (including Gobiobotinae). However, genera within the subfamily "Danioninae" did not form a monophyletic group. The subfamily Leuciscinae was divided into two unrelated groups: the "Leuciscinae" in East Asia forming as a monophyletic group together with Cultrinae and Xenocyprinae, while the Leuciscinae in Europe, Siberia, and North America as another monophyletic group. The monophyly of subfamily Cyprininae sensu Howes was supported by NJ and ML trees and is basal in the tree. The position of Acheilognathinae, a widely accepted monophyletic group represented by Rhodeus sericeus, was not resolved.

  13. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  14. Experimental infection of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae to the cyprinid fish, Barbonymus gonionotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Arunsan, Patpicha; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn

    2014-08-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is an important public health problem, a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma in the Greater Mekong subregion including Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. Humans acquire the infection by consumption of raw, fermented or partially cooked freshwater cyprinid fish containing infective metacercariae. This study examined the effect of cercarial infection dosage (25-200 cercariae), age (1-60 day) and size (1-24mm) of Barbonymus gonionotus fish on infection success of O. viverrini cercariae. Additionally, the site of cyst formation of O. viverrini cercariae and subsequent development to the metacercariae was examined. The result showed that cercarial infection dose (F4,95=8.52, Pviverrini metacercariae recovery with in every additional fish age, the O. viverrini metacercarial recovery rate increased by 5.4% (Pviverrini cercarial infection dosage, and age and size of fish were important determinants for a successful infection to fish.

  15. The Epidemiology of Ligula intestinalis (Phylum Platyhelminthes within the Cyprinid Populations Inhabiting the Danubian Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This prevalence study was conducted between the years 2003 and 2008. The survey aimed at assessing the occurrence of the plerocercoid Ligula intestinalis within five cyprinid populations, cyprinus carpio, carassius gibelio, hypophtalmichthys molitrix, ctenopharingodon idella and abramis brama, from four natural complexes: Sontea-Fortuna, Gorgova-Uzlina, Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie. Of the four study sites, the highest frequency of the disease was recorded within the Razim-Sinoie lakes, probably due to an apparently higher number of piscivorous birds and copepods that may have inhabited this area during the study time period. Only A. brama and H. molitrix were found infected by the helminth, with a mean prevalence of the cases in A. brama of 16.31% and in H. molitrix of 13.06%.

  16. A foraging cost of migration for a partially migratory cyprinid fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Ben B; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had......Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory...... behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach...

  17. The Significance of Protein Components in Heterogeneous Eggs for Embrionic Development and Larvas Persistence of Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalepukhin Valeriy Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous heterogeneity of females and their eggs is one of the most important factors of annual generation’s formation in nature-spawn and incubative centers. Its assessment is significant for comprehending the notion of biochemical changes in proximate prespawn period. Between the shares of egg’s biochemical composition of Cyprinidae species only protein and b-lipoproteids levels are incovering constant and authentic correlations with embrionic development and larval survival in the conditions of artificial reproduction. The promotion of protein’s level to 20 – 24 % (in wet weigth in percolating eggs positively affects the fertilization and larvae vitality. This trend is fair for the domesticated and nature-spawn fish. The same significance is important for the b-lipoproteids level in ovular eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.. The optimal concentration is 100-200 mg % in wet weight.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from the partial S6K1 gene sequences and implication of indel sites in intron 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is widely distributed in East Asia, and has the important phylogenetic signifi- cance in the fish evolution. In this study, the 5′ end partial sequences (containing exon 1, exon 2 and indel 1) of S6K1 gene were obtained from 30 representative species in Cyprinidae and outgroup using PCR amplification and sequencing. The phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed with neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian meth- ods. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae) was assigned to the outgroup taxon. Similar phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae were achieved with the four analyses. Leuciscini and Barbini were monophyletic lineages respectively with the high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Hypophthalmichthyinae, Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, Gobioninae, Acheilognathinae and East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae. Monophyly of East Asian clade was supported with high nodal support. Barbini comprises Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. The monophyletic lineage consisting of Danio rerio, D. myersi, and Rasbora trilineata was basal in the tree. In addition, the large fragment indels in intron 1 were analyzed to improve the understanding of Cyprinidae relationships. The results showed that the large fragment indels were correlated with the relations among species. Some conserved regions in intron 1 were thought to be involved in the functional regulation. However, no correlation was found between sequence variations and species characteristic size.

  19. Taxonomía de las especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) de Marruecos con la descripción de dos nuevas especies

    OpenAIRE

    Doadrio, Ignacio; Casal-López, M.; Perea, Silvia; Yahyaoui, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874) y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919) aunque ...

  20. Integrating multi-origin expression data improves the resolution of deep phylogeny of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Tao, Wenjing; Arratia, Gloria; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The actinopterygians comprise nearly one-half of all extant vertebrate species and are very important for human well-being. However, the phylogenetic relationships among certain groups within the actinopterygians are still uncertain, and debates about these relationships have continued for a long time. Along with the progress achieved in sequencing technologies, phylogenetic analyses based on multi-gene sequences, termed phylogenomic approaches, are becoming increasingly common and often result in well-resolved and highly supported phylogenetic hypotheses. Based on the transcriptome sequences generated in this study and the extensive expression data currently available from public databases, we obtained alignments of 274 orthologue groups for 26 scientifically and commercially important actinopterygians, representing 17 out of 44 orders within the class Actinopterygii. Using these alignments and probabilistic methods, we recovered relationships between basal actinopterygians and teleosts, among teleosts within protacanthopterygians and related lineages, and also within acanthomorphs. These relationships were recovered with high confidence.

  1. The analysis of the pharyngeal-sieve mechanism and the efficiency of food intake in the bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanism and the selectivity of food intake in bream ( Abramis brama ). It is a compilation of six articles which have been published (or will soon be published) in international journals.In the first chapter, diets and feeding modes in cyprinid fishes are described

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of Sox genes in a tetraploid cyprinid fish, Tor douronensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO BaoCheng; LI JunBing; TONG ChaoBo; HE ShunPing

    2008-01-01

    A PCR survey for Sox genes in a young tetraploid fish Tor douronensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) was per-formed to access the evolutionary fates of important functional genes after genome duplication caused by polyploidization event. Totally 13 Sox genes were obtained in Tor douronensis, which represent SoxB, SoxC and SoxE groups. Phylogenetic analysis of Sox genes in Tor douronensis provided evidence for fish-specific genome duplication, and suggested that Sox19 might be a teleost specific Sox gene member. Sequence analysis revealed most of the nucleotide substitutions between duplicated copies of Sox genes caused by tetraploidization event or their orthologues in other species are silent substitutions. It would appear that the sequences are under purifying selective pressure, strongly suggesting that they repre- sent functional genes and supporting selection against all null allele at either of two duplicated loci of Sox4a, Sox9a and Sox9b. Surprising variations of the intron length and similarities of two duplicated copies of Sox9a and Sox9b, suggest that Tor douronensis might be an allotetraploidy.

  3. Current and historical hybridization with differential introgression among three species of cyprinid fishes (genus Cyprinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Richard E; Vedala, Krishna C; Crowl, Tessa M; Ritterhouse, Lauren L

    2011-05-01

    Hybridization is common among freshwater fishes, particular among the Cyprinidae. We used two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to characterize hybridization among two species pairs of Cyprinella in southwestern North America. Genalogical patterns revealed that C. lutrensis and C. venusta are currently hybridizing in several localities producing apparent F(1), F(2) and backcross generations, yet there was no evidence for introgression outside of local hybrid zones. Alternatively, mitochondrial haplotypes from C. lutrensis appear to have introgressed into a C. lepida population in the Nueces River completely replacing the native C. lepida haplotype. There was no evidence of introgression of nuclear DNA and there does not appear to be ongoing hybridization. The population of C. lepida from the nearby Frio River exhibits no evidence of hybridization with C. lutrensis. Thus, contact between C. lutrensis and C. venusta results in the formation of localized hybrid swarms, while contact between C. lutrensis and C. lepida has resulted in complete mitochondrial introgression in the Nueces River or no apparent hybridization in the Frio River. The three different outcomes of contact between these species illustrate the variable nature of interspecific reproductive interactions and provide an excellent system in which to better understand the factors influencing hybridization among freshwater fishes.

  4. New locality record for Haplorchoides mehrai and possible interactions with Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in cyprinid fishes in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpratum, Yupin; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn

    2017-02-01

    Metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic liver fluke, and Haplorchoides sp., a trematode maturing in catfish, are commonly found in cyprinid fish, the second intermediate hosts of both flukes. However, the specific identity of Haplorchoides sp. in Thailand and a precise assessment of the effects of co-infections with O. viverrini have never been clarified. Therefore, we aimed to identify the species of Haplorchoides and to investigate possible interactions of the two trematode species in cyprinid fishes. Based on the morphology and morphometry of the cercaria, metacercaria, and adult stages, the Haplorchoides species found was identified as Haplorchoides mehrai Pande and Shukla 1976. Thailand is formally recorded as a new locality for H. mehrai, where naturally infected hosts include the snail Melanoides tuberculata (first intermediate host), the cyprinid fishes Hampala dispar, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Puntius leiacanthus, Labiobarbus burmanicus, and Cirrhina jullieni (second intermediate hosts), and a catfish, Mystus nemurus (definitive host). The co-infection rates of O. viverrini and H. mehrai were significantly associated with fish species and fish body region (P < 0.001), with an overall significantly higher average intensity of H. mehrai (126.26 metacercariae/fish) than that of O. viverrini (18.02 metacercariae/fish). Further work is required to demonstrate the extent and mechanisms of possible interactions between these trematode species in the fish host. These data may provide a better understanding of O. viverrini transmission dynamics, and help design integrated control interventions.

  5. Osteology of Paedocypris, a miniature and highly developmentally truncated fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, R; Conway, K W

    2009-04-01

    Species of the cyprinid genus Paedocypris are among the smallest and most developmentally truncated fishes and vertebrates. Our analysis of their skeletal structure reveals a puzzling combination of extreme developmental truncation and an increased morphological complexity in sexually dimorphic characters. The skeleton of Paedocypris is characterized by reduction and loss and resembles in many aspects that of a larval/early juvenile stage of its close relatives. We found 61 characters that have been affected by developmental truncation. A comparison with the skeletal development of a close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, demonstrates that the majority of the absent bones or skeletal structures in Paedocypris are those that appear late in the ossification trajectory of the zebrafish. Thus, their absence in Paedocypris seems to be due to the simple developmental truncation of terminal stages in the ossification sequence. Our study of the sexually dimorphic structures in Paedocypris demonstrates that predominantly the male exhibits the more complex state. In relation to the female, male Paedocypris uniquely possess a cleithrum with a pointed posterior process that covers the scapula laterally, and a more medially situated posterior flange that contacts the dorsal area of the coracoid; a massive and heavily ossified uppermost pectoral radial tightly bound to the scapula; thickened and enlarged three uppermost pectoral-fin rays; a large triangular, dorsolaterally directed process on the outer arm of the massive os suspensorium; and a enlarged and shovel-like anterodorsally directed basipterygium; and a hypertrophied first pelvic-fin ray with additional anterior flanges that support keratinized pads of skin. Female Paedocypris show only one structure that is better developed than in males: the first proximal-middle radial and the anteriormost fin ray of the dorsal fin are more massive and more heavily ossified. Although the function and biological role of these

  6. Novel evolutionary lineages in Labeobarbus (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) based on phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshera, Kebede A; Harris, Phillip M; Mayden, Richard L

    2016-03-22

    Phylogenetic relationships within Labeobarbus, the large-sized hexaploid cyprinids, were examined using cytochrome b gene sequences from a broad range of geographic localities and multiple taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed novel lineages from previously unsampled drainages in central (Congo River), eastern (Genale River) and southeastern (Revue and Mussapa Grande rivers) Africa. Relationships of some species of Varicorhinus in Africa (excluding 'V.' maroccanus) render Labeobarbus as paraphyletic. 'Varicorhinus' beso, 'V.' jubae, 'V.' mariae, 'V.' nelspruitensis, and 'V.' steindachneri are transferred to Labeobarbus. Bayesian estimation of time to most recent common ancestor suggested that Labeobarbus originated in the Late Miocene while lineage diversification began during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene and continued to the late Pleistocene. The relationships presented herein provide phylogenetic resolution within Labeobarbus and advances our knowledge of genetic diversity within the lineage as well as provides some interesting insight into the hydrographic and geologic history of Africa.

  7. Heavy metal accumulations in water, sediment, and some cyprinid species in Porsuk Stream (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Esengül; Çiçek, Arzu; Uysal, Kazim; Tokatlı, Cem; Emiroğlu, Özgür; Arslan, Naime

    2015-03-01

    Porsuk Stream is one of Turkey's most important river systems and also one of the most important branches of the Sakarya River. It provides drinking and utility water for two Turkish cities (Kütahya and Eskişehir) with a total population of one million. In this study, water, sediment, and some tissues (liver, gill, and muscle) of five cyprinid fish species were collected seasonally (2010-2011) from eight stations on the Porsuk Stream, and the zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) levels of collected samples were determined. The data observed were evaluated with national and international quality criteria. Based on the data observed, it was determined that the Porsuk Stream is affected by significant inorganic pollution from the Kütahya and Eskişehir Provinces. It was also determined that the Porsuk Dam Lake has an important cleaning capacity and that the water and sediment quality of the Porsuk Stream improves after the output of the dam lake.

  8. Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W; Rüber, Lukas

    2009-06-22

    Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties.

  9. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kenneth A; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-12-08

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationship between virus transmissibility and virulence. Based on observations from natural outbreaks, as well as the biology of virus-host interactions, we hypothesize that (i) close contact between carp provides the most efficient transmission of virus, (ii) transmission occurs at regular aggregations of carp that favour recrudescence of latent virus, and (iii) the initially high virulence of CyHV-3 will decline following its release in Australia. We also suggest that the evolution of carp resistance to CyHV-3 will likely necessitate the future release of progressively more virulent strains of CyHV-3, and/or an additional broad-scale measure(s) to complement the effect of the virus. If the release of CyHV-3 does go ahead, longitudinal studies are required to track the evolution of a virus-host relationship from its inception, and particularly the complex interplay between transmission, virulence and host resistance.

  10. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari

    2015-03-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a 'leave-one-out' procedure). With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.

  11. Does hardness of food affect the development of pharyngeal teeth of the black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ryan, Timothy M.; Stauffer, Jay R.;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related to differe...

  12. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species.

  13. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  14. Distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in cyprinid fish in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinlaor, Somchai; Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-12-01

    To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Torini Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Kai

    2017-02-22

    Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.

  16. Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

    1988-01-01

    The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed.

  17. A RAD-based linkage map and comparative genomics in the gudgeons (genus Gnathopogon, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakioka Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The construction of linkage maps is a first step in exploring the genetic basis for adaptive phenotypic divergence in closely related species by quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis. Linkage maps are also useful for comparative genomics in non-model organisms. Advances in genomics technologies make it more feasible than ever to study the genetics of adaptation in natural populations. Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD sequencing in next-generation sequencers facilitates the development of many genetic markers and genotyping. We aimed to construct a linkage map of the gudgeons of the genus Gnathopogon (Cyprinidae for comparative genomics with the zebrafish Danio rerio (a member of the same family as gudgeons and for the future QTL analysis of the genetic architecture underlying adaptive phenotypic evolution of Gnathopogon. Results We constructed the first genetic linkage map of Gnathopogon using a 198 F2 interspecific cross between two closely related species in Japan: river-dwelling Gnathopogon elongatus and lake-dwelling Gnathopogon caerulescens. Based on 1,622 RAD-tag markers, a linkage map spanning 1,390.9 cM with 25 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 0.87 cM was constructed. We also identified a region involving female-specific transmission ratio distortion (TRD. Synteny and collinearity were extensively conserved between Gnathopogon and zebrafish. Conclusions The dense SNP-based linkage map presented here provides a basis for future QTL analysis. It will also be useful for transferring genomic information from a “traditional” model fish species, zebrafish, to screen candidate genes underlying ecologically important traits of the gudgeons.

  18. A RAD-based linkage map and comparative genomics in the gudgeons (genus Gnathopogon, Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The construction of linkage maps is a first step in exploring the genetic basis for adaptive phenotypic divergence in closely related species by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Linkage maps are also useful for comparative genomics in non-model organisms. Advances in genomics technologies make it more feasible than ever to study the genetics of adaptation in natural populations. Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing in next-generation sequencers facilitates the development of many genetic markers and genotyping. We aimed to construct a linkage map of the gudgeons of the genus Gnathopogon (Cyprinidae) for comparative genomics with the zebrafish Danio rerio (a member of the same family as gudgeons) and for the future QTL analysis of the genetic architecture underlying adaptive phenotypic evolution of Gnathopogon. Results We constructed the first genetic linkage map of Gnathopogon using a 198 F2 interspecific cross between two closely related species in Japan: river-dwelling Gnathopogon elongatus and lake-dwelling Gnathopogon caerulescens. Based on 1,622 RAD-tag markers, a linkage map spanning 1,390.9 cM with 25 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 0.87 cM was constructed. We also identified a region involving female-specific transmission ratio distortion (TRD). Synteny and collinearity were extensively conserved between Gnathopogon and zebrafish. Conclusions The dense SNP-based linkage map presented here provides a basis for future QTL analysis. It will also be useful for transferring genomic information from a “traditional” model fish species, zebrafish, to screen candidate genes underlying ecologically important traits of the gudgeons. PMID:23324215

  19. Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabon, J.; Louboutin, L.; Castric, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious infective, notifiable disease affecting common carp and varieties. In survivors, infection is generally characterized by a subclinical latency phase with restricted viral replication. The CyHV-3 genome is difficult to detect i...

  20. Identification and Characterization of Cyprinid Herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3 Encoded MicroRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen H Donohoe

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Some viruses encode their own miRNAs and these are increasingly being recognized as important modulators of viral and host gene expression. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3 is a highly pathogenic agent that causes acute mass mortalities in carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi (Cyprinus carpio koi worldwide. Here, bioinformatic analyses of the CyHV-3 genome suggested the presence of non-conserved precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA genes. Deep sequencing of small RNA fractions prepared from in vitro CyHV-3 infections led to the identification of potential miRNAs and miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs derived from some bioinformatically predicted pre-miRNAs. DNA microarray hybridization analysis, Northern blotting and stem-loop RT-qPCR were then used to definitively confirm that CyHV-3 expresses two pre-miRNAs during infection in vitro. The evidence also suggested the presence of an additional four high-probability and two putative viral pre-miRNAs. MiRNAs from the two confirmed pre-miRNAs were also detected in gill tissue from CyHV-3-infected carp. We also present evidence that one confirmed miRNA can regulate the expression of a putative CyHV-3-encoded dUTPase. Candidate homologues of some CyHV-3 pre-miRNAs were identified in CyHV-1 and CyHV-2. This is the first report of miRNA and moRNA genes encoded by members of the Alloherpesviridae family, a group distantly related to the Herpesviridae family. The discovery of these novel CyHV-3 genes may help further our understanding of the biology of this economically important virus and their encoded miRNAs may have potential as biomarkers for the diagnosis of latent CyHV-3.

  1. On Gonorynchus, Gonorhynchus, Gonorinchus, Gonorhinchus and Gonorrhynchus, and some other names of labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae and Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottelat, Maurice

    2016-10-25

    The supposed cyprinid genus 'Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1838' does not exist; the name refers to Gonorhynchus Cuvier, 1816, which is a junior objective synonym of Gonorynchus Scopoli, 1777. The correct family-group name, authorship and date are: Gonorynchidae Fowler, 1941 (1848). Tariqilabeo Mirza & Saboohi, 1990 is the valid genus name for the South Asian species earlier placed in Crossocheilus or 'Gonorhynchus'. The family-group names Garrae Bleeker, 1863 and Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 are declared nomina protecta and Platycarinae Macleay, 1841 is declared nomen oblitum.

  2. Myxobolus anatolicus sp. nov. (Myxozoa) infecting the gill of Anatolian khramulya Capoeta tinca (Cyprinidae) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Yardimci, Banu; Yilmaz, Savas; Polat, Nazmi

    2014-07-03

    This work is part of an ongoing investigation into the characteristics of myxozoan parasites of freshwater fish in Turkey and was carried out using morphology, histopathology and molecular analysis. A new species of the genus Myxobolus (M. anatolicus sp. nov.) was found infecting the gills of 3 of 34 specimens (8.8%) of Anatolian khramulya Capoeta tinca from the Samsun Province, Northern Turkey. Both morphology and 18S rDNA sequence data revealed that M. anatolicus sp. nov. was distinct from other Myxobolus species found in the gills of cyprinid fishes. The small, white and round-shaped plasmodia, measuring 0.2 to 1.4 mm in diameter, were observed macroscopically in the gills. Histological analysis revealed that the cyst-like plasmodia have an intralamellar-vascular type development. Mature spores of M. anatolicus sp. nov. were oval in both frontal and sutural views, and tapered at the anterior poles. The spores were 10.1 ± 0.41 (9.4 to 10.7) µm long, 6.9 ± 0.28 (6.6 to 7.2) µm wide, and 4.5 ± 0.36 (4.4 to 4.6) µm thick. The 2 polar capsules were pyriform, equal in size, 4.6 ± 0.45 (4.4 to 4.8) µm long and 2.1 ± 0.12 (2 to 2.3) µm wide. Polar filaments within the polar capsules were coiled with 5 or 6 turns. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. anatolicus sp. nov. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids. This is the first record of a Myxobolus species infecting Anatolian khramulya Capoeta tinca, and the first record of this species from Eurasia.

  3. Growth and longevity of the cui-ui and longevity of other catostomids and cyprinids in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Coleman, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Annulus formation on opercula of the cui-ui Chasmistes cujus in Pyramid Lake, Nevada, was validated over an 8-year interval. Many fish were old, as old as 41 years of age, As many as three annuli were hidden (covered by supporting bone) in older fish. Growth was rapid during the first 10 years, slow from 10 to 20 years, and extremely slow or nil after 20 years. Age and growth were strongly correlated for about the first 10 years of life, but less so when fish became sexually mature. Examination of opercula of 15 additional species of large catostomids and cyprinids of western North America revealed that they were older than had previously been thought.

  4. Some aspects of branchial parasitism in Leuciscus cephalus(Teleostei, Cyprinidae: first record of Lamproglena compacta(Cyclopoida, Lernaeidae in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala-Maria Stavrescu-Bedivan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper records for the first time the presence of the crustacean copepod Lamproglena compacta in the branchial microhabitat of the cyprinid species Leuciscus cephalus that elongs to a lotic Romanian ecosystem. Also, we discuss the affinity for fixing site on gill filaments, the observations being sustained by the t Student statistic test.

  5. New Extinct Carp Fish Species (Teleostei, Cyprinidae from the Late Neogene of Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk М.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Новые вымершие виды карповых рыб (Teleostei, Cyprinidae из позднего неогена юга Восточ- ной Европы. Ковальчук А. Н. - Описаны новые виды вымерших карповых рыб из отложений верхнего неогена юга Восточной Европы. Rutilus robustus Kovalchuk, sp. n. из раннего плиоцена Приозерного (Республика Молдова отличается от других известных видов рода Rutilus массивной высокой ceratobranchiale, длинным передним неозубленным отростком, а также широкими пере- городками между септами кавернозной поверхности. Scardinius ponticus Kovalchuk, sp. n. из позд- него миоцена Лектостратотипа понта (Украина характеризуется большими глоточными зубами и увеличенным количеством зубцов на их внешнем жевательном крае.

  6. The cloning of Dmc1 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy cyprinid fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dmc1 (disrupted meiotic cDNA) is a functionally specific gene, which was firstly discovered in yeast and then found to encode a protein required for homologous chromosome synapsis during the process of meiosis. In this investigation, we cloned the partial cDNAs of Dmc1 of diploid red crucian carp, Japanese crucian carp, common carp, triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids by using a pair of degenerate primers based on the conservative sequence of amino acids of the DMC1 protein in yeast, mouse and human. The full length cDNAs were then obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Our data showed that the full length cDNAs of Dmc1 in the three diploid fishes are all 1375 bp long, while it is 1383 bp long in triploids and 1379 bp long in allotetraploids. And despite of the variation in length, all the cDNAs encode a protein of 342 amino acids. A high homology of 97.3% of the DMC1 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in the three diploids, which is also of 86%, 86% and 95% similarity to human, mouse and zebrafish, respectively. A comparative study of the expression pattern of Dmc1 was carried out by RT-PCR using specific primers against the same se-quences of coding regions in different ploidy cyprinid fishes, from which it was showed that Dmc1 was expressed only in gonads of these five kinds of fishes. The expression pattern of Dmc1 in both ovaries and testes from different ploidy fishes within breeding season was also studied by Real-time PCR, and the results showed that the expression of this gene was greatly different among the three different ploidy fishes, which was the highest of triploid and lowest of allotetraploids. The histological sections data showed matured gonads of both diploid red crucian carp and allotetraploids in breeding season, although the latter demonstrated a higher maturation, and no gonadal maturation could be observed in triploids. In conclusion, we suggest that Dmc1 is specifically expressed in the

  7. The cloning of Dmc1 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy cyprinid fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dmc1 (disrupted meiotic cDNA) is a functionally specific gene, which was firstly discovered in yeast and then found to encode a protein required for homologous chromosome synapsis during the process of meiosis. In this investigation, we cloned the partial cDNAs of Dmc1 of diploid red crucian carp, Japanese crucian carp, common carp, triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids by using a pair of degenerate primers based on the conservative sequence of amino acids of the DMC1 protein in yeast, mouse and human. The full length cDNAs were then obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Our data showed that the full length cDNAs of Dmc1 in the three diploid fishes are all 1375 bp long, while it is 1383 bp long in triploids and 1379 bp long in allotetraploids. And despite of the variation in length, all the cDNAs encode a protein of 342 amino acids. A high homology of 97.3% of the DMC1 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in the three diploids, which is also of 86%, 86% and 95% similarity to human, mouse and zebrafish, respectively. A comparative study of the expression pattern of Dmc1 was carried out by RT-PCR using specific primers against the same sequences of coding regions in different ploidy cyprinid fishes, from which it was showed that Dmc1 was expressed only in gonads of these five kinds of fishes. The expression pattern of Dmc1 in both ovaries and testes from different ploidy fishes within breeding season was also studied by Real-time PCR, and the results showed that the expression of this gene was greatly different among the three different ploidy fishes, which was the highest of triploid and lowest of allotetraploids. The histological sections data showed matured gonads of both diploid red crucian carp and allotetraploids in breeding season, although the latter demonstrated a higher maturation, and no gonadal maturation could be observed in triploids. In conclusion, we suggest that Dmc1 is specifically expressed in the

  8. Semi-permeable species boundaries in Iberian barbels (Barbus and Luciobarbus, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gante, Hugo F; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alves, Maria Judite; Dowling, Thomas E

    2015-06-12

    The evolution of species boundaries and the relative impact of selection and gene flow on genomic divergence are best studied in populations and species pairs exhibiting various levels of divergence along the speciation continuum. We studied species boundaries in Iberian barbels, Barbus and Luciobarbus, a system of populations and species spanning a wide degree of genetic relatedness, as well as geographic distribution and range overlap. We jointly analyze multiple types of molecular markers and morphological traits to gain a comprehensive perspective on the nature of species boundaries in these cyprinid fishes. Intraspecific molecular and morphological differentiation is visible among many populations. Genomes of all sympatric species studied are porous to gene flow, even if they are not sister species. Compared to their allopatric counterparts, sympatric representatives of different species share alleles and show an increase in all measures of nucleotide polymorphism (S, Hd, K, π and θ). High molecular diversity is particularly striking in L. steindachneri from the Tejo and Guadiana rivers, which co-varies with other sympatric species. Interestingly, different nuclear markers introgress across species boundaries at various levels, with distinct impacts on population trees. As such, some loci exhibit limited introgression and population trees resemble the presumed species tree, while alleles at other loci introgress more freely and population trees reflect geographic affinities and interspecific gene flow. Additionally, extent of introgression decreases with increasing genetic divergence in hybridizing species pairs. We show that reproductive isolation in Iberian Barbus and Luciobarbus is not complete and species boundaries are semi-permeable to (some) gene flow, as different species (including non-sister) are exchanging genes in areas of sympatry. Our results support a speciation-with-gene-flow scenario with heterogeneous barriers to gene flow across the genome

  9. Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation of agouti-related protein (AgRP) in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, RongBin; Yuan, DengYue; Wang, Tao; Zhou, ChaoWei; Lin, FangJun; Chen, Hu; Wu, HongWei; Yang, ShiYong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ju; Gao, YunDi; Li, ZhiQiong

    2013-09-15

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence for AgRP in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti). The AgRP gene, encoding 126-amino acids, was strongly expressed in the brain. The AgRP gene was detected in embryos at developmental stages. Further, its mRNA was detectable in unfertilized eggs. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression profile of AgRP during short-term and long-term fasting of the hypothalamus. The expression level of AgRP in unfed fish was significantly increased at 3 and 4h post-fasting than in fed fish but did not affect AgRP mRNA expression after 14 days fasting. Overall, our results suggest that AgRP is a conserved peptide that might be involved in the regulation of short-term feeding and other physiological function in Schizothorax prenanti. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Description of Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Rasbora paviana Tirant in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2012-09-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish (sidestripe rasbora) Rasbora paviana Tirant in the Bangbaimai Subdistrict, Muang District, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. It differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 which possess eggs provided with lateral swellings in having a spinose formation at the tail tip of both sexes and in some other morphological features, such as the body length of gravid female (8.6-23.7 mm), presence of two-three swellings on the egg, eight anterior prostomal teeth, length ratio of spicules (1:5.3-6.7) and arrangement of male genital papillae. This is the third nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 and the second species of the subgenus Globochona reported from fishes in Thailand. The three species of Rhabdochona recently described from fishes in Pakistan, viz. R. annai Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, R. bifurcatum [sic] Kakar et Bilqees, 2012, and R. pakistanica Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, are considered to be species inquirendae.

  11. Geometric and morphometric analysis of fish scales to identity genera, species and populations case study: the Cyprinid family

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    Seyedeh Narjes Tabatabei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using fish scale to identity species and population is a rapid, safe and low cost method. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using geometric and morphometric methods in fish scales for rapid identification of species and populations and compare the efficiency of applying few and/or high number of landmark points. For this purpose, scales of one population of Luciobarbus capito, four populations of Alburnoides eichwaldii and two populations of Rutilus frisii kutum, all belonging to cyprinid family, were examined. On two-dimensional images of the scales 7 and 23 landmark points were digitized in two separate times using TpsDig2, respectively. Landmark data after generalized procrustes analysis were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA and Cluster Analysis. The results of both methods (using 7 and 23 landmark points showed significant differences of the shape of scales among the three species studied (P0.05. The results also showed that few number of landmarks could display the differences between scale shapes. According to the results of this study, it could be stated that the scale of each species had unique shape patterns which could be utilized as a species identification key.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J.; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection. PMID:28148967

  13. In vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of the endangered endemic cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens)

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    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Todo, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan. The entire process of spermatogenesis was recapitulated in vitro using cryopreserved spermatogonia of non-spawning adult and juvenile fish. The differentiation of sperm from spermatogonia was captured as a time-lapse video and confirmed by 5-ethynyl-2‧-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation into sperm. Fertility was demonstrated by artificial insemination. These results suggest that the combination of cryopreservation of spermatogonia and in vitro sperm differentiation will provide a new and promising strategy for the preservation of paternal genetic materials.

  14. Conflict between morphology and molecular data: a case of the genus Caryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic tapeworms of cyprinid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Brabec, Jan; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás

    2014-08-01

    Molecular analysis of an extensive specimen collection of morphologically distinct tapeworms of the genus Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes in the Palaearctic Region, brought evidence of host-related plasticity in critical morphological characters widely used for species circumscription and classification of these tapeworms. The results obtained here do not support the traditionally used morphological concept of species-defining characters of the order Caryophyllidea Carus, 1863, especially due to high morphological plasticity of the scolex and the anterior end of the body. Several morphotypes within both Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) and Caryophyllaeus brachycollis Janiszewska, 1953 generally corresponding to different hosts and geographical regions, were recognised likely suggesting host- and geography-related intraspecific morphological variability. Genetic data confirmed euryxenous host specificity of both species, most profoundly C. laticeps, but did not support the existence of cryptic species. In fact, some of the fish hosts may harbour both of the congeneric species including several of their respective morphotypes. The pattern of morphological and genetic divergence observed in both cestode species studied indicates a scenario of possible host range extensions and subsequent parasite diversification. If molecular sequence variability and host-related morphological polymorphism are confirmed in other groups of monozoic cestodes, it may complicate species identification and straightforward classification of these parasites.

  15. Divergence with gene flow between Ponto-Caspian refugia in an anadromous cyprinid Rutilus frisii revealed by multiple gene phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Choleva, Lukás; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Ekmekçi, F Guler; Ivanova, Petya P

    2008-02-01

    The Black and Caspian Seas have experienced alternating periods of isolation and interconnection over many Milankovitch climate oscillations and most recently became separated when the meltwater overflow from the Caspian Sea ceased at the end of the last glaciation. Climate-induced habitat changes have indisputably had profound impacts on distribution and demography of aquatic species, yet uncertainties remain about the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in the response of species shared between the Black and Caspian Sea basins. We examined these issues using phylogeographical analysis of an anadromous cyprinid fish Rutilus frisii. Bayesian coalescence analyses of sequence variation at two nuclear and one mitochondrial genes suggest that the Black and Caspian Seas supported separate populations of R. frisii during the last glaciation. Parameter estimates from the fitted isolation-with-migration model showed that their separation was not complete, however, and that the two populations continued to exchange genes in both directions. These analyses also suggested that majority of migrations occurred during the Pleistocene, showing that the variation shared between the Black and Caspian Seas is the result of ancient dispersal along the temporary natural connections between the basins, rather than of incomplete lineage sorting or recent human-mediated dispersal. Gene flow between the refugial populations was therefore an important source of genetic variation, and we suggest that it facilitated the evolutionary response of the populations to changing climate.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A

    2017-02-02

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection.

  17. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  18. Biologie de la reproduction du Cyprinidae, Barbus callensis dans le lac de barrage Hamiz (Algérie

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    Ould Rouis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive Biology of the Cyprinidae, Barbus callensis in an Algerian Dam. The freshwater fish, Barbus callensis (Valenciennes, 1842 was studied from 2005 to 2007 for the first time in Hamiz dam. This species endemic of North African continent is widely spread in the rivers of Algeria. This reservoir is situated in Boumerdes 35 km southeast of Algiers. During these three years, the monthly sampling was carried out by trammel nets, fishing near the dike during one night. At the same time, the fry was captured with a transparent plastic bottle baited with breadcrumbs put down near the lakeshore. The monthly follow-up of the gonadosomatic ratio (RGS reveals that the spawning period occurred between April and May. The evolution of the condition factor (K shows low seasonal variations. However, a lower value appears in spring when the temperature increases and the breeding begins. The sex ratio is higher for the adult females (1:2.8, more than 26 cm. The first sexual maturity size (L50 is lower for males (19.6 cm than for females (27.7 cm.

  19. The ecological complexity of the Thai-Laos Mekong River: III. Health status of Mekong catfish and cyprinids, evidence of bioaccumulative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanwichien, Kantimanee; Pradermwong, Apichart; Keenan, Helen E; Masawang, Kamonporn; Lauhachinda, Nitaya; Songsasen, Apisit; Sakultantimetha, Arthit; Bangkedphol, Sornnarin; Gaines, Alec F

    2010-11-01

    Histopathology of fish organs was used as biomarkers of toxicity from environmental pollutants. A total of 117 fishes comprising of 52 cyprinids and 65 catfishes were randomly collected from the Mekong River from 5 stations: Chiang Rai, Loei, Nongkhai, Nakhon Phanom and Ubonratchathani. The health of the fish collected in December and April, winter and summer respectively, was evaluated. All fish from the 5 stations developed pathologic lesions with the same characteristics in their livers, kidneys and spleen. In the liver, there was vacuolation of hepatocytes, accumulation of brownish-green granules in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, necrosis of hepatocytes, granuloma formation and angiogenesis. Kidney lesions consisted of glomerular degeneration, necrosis and focal hyperplasia of renal tubules. In the spleen, there were haemorrhage, melanomacrophage centre infiltration and necrosis of the red pulp and white pulp. The pathologic severity of the catfish was found to be more severe than in the cyprinids and the catfish collected in summer were less healthy than the catfish collected in the winter. These histopathological appearances might arise from the fish feeding on the benthos and thereby accumulating toxic pollutants in their organs. The activities of the serum enzymes, Glutamic Oxalacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), were markedly increased, indicating detoxification activity. The highest activity of GOT found in the cyprinids from Chiang Rai 365.30 U/L whereas in the catfish from Nakhon Phanom the activity was 300.73 U/L. The highest GPT activity found in the cyprinids from Nakhon Phanom was 203.23 U/L where as in the catfish from the same station was GPT 389.77 U/L. According to the results from this study, catfish collected from Chiang Rai, Nakhon Phanom and Ubonratchathani showed more severe pathological changes than catfish from the other stations. Fish organs and river water were analysed for Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs

  20. Exposing native cyprinid (Barbus plebejus) juveniles to river sediments leads to gonadal alterations, genotoxic effects and thyroid disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Luigi; De Flora, Silvio; Gobbi, Marco; Guiso, Giovanna; Izzotti, Alberto; Mandich, Alberta; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Roscioli, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Juveniles (50 days post hatch) of a native cyprinid fish (Barbus plebejus) were exposed for 7 months to sediments from the River Lambro, a polluted tributary impairing the quality of the River Po for tens of kilometers from their confluence. Sediments were collected upstream of the city of Milan and downstream at the closure of the drainage basin of the River Lambro. Chemical analyses revealed the presence of a complex mixture of bioavailable endocrine-active chemicals, with higher exposure levels in the downstream section of the tributary. Mainly characterized by brominated flame retardants, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and minor co-occurring personal care products and natural hormones, the sediment contamination induced reproductive disorders, as well as other forms of endocrine disruption and toxicity. In particular, exposed male barbel exhibited higher biliary PAH-like metabolites, overexpression of the cyp1a gene, vitellogenin production in all specimens, the presence of oocytes (up to 22% intersex), degenerative alterations in their testis, liver fat vacuolization, a marked depression of total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) plasma levels, and genotoxic damages determined as hepatic DNA adducts. These results clearly demonstrate that Lambro sediments alone are responsible for recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive and, in general, the endocrine system of a native fish species. In the real environment, exposure to waterborne and food-web sources of chemicals are responsible for additional toxic loads, and the present findings thus provide evidence for a causal role of this tributary in the severe decline observed in barbel in recent decades and raise concern that the fish community of the River Po is exposed to endocrine-mediated health effects along tens of kilometres of its course.

  1. Impact of urban and industrial sewage discharges on the trophic ecology of two wild native cyprinids in a Mediterranean stream

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    Sergi Vargas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean Rivers have experienced a long-history of anthropogenic impacts. Water pollution is still one of the major threats to freshwater biota despite the marked investments in sewage treatment plants (STPs in recent decades. This is attributed, in part, to the reduced water flow of these systems due to climate and water abstractions, coupled to some illegal spills and agricultural run-off. The present study examined the potential effects of the effluents from urban and industrial STPs on the trophic ecology of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis and the Ebro chub (Squalius laietanus in a small Mediterranean stream. Fish were collected in summer 2012 and their gut contents were compared between three reference and three polluted sites and related to the water quality. In all sampling sites, the composition of prey consumed by both fish species was compatible with ommivory, including macro-invertebrates, plants and detritus. However, the two fish species ingested a higher richness and diversity prey in the baseline compared to the polluted sites. These differences were also mirrored in the taxonomic composition of preys consumed, reflecting the replacement of sensitive species with tolerant ones along a pollution gradient. Specifically, fish diet was dominated in reference sites by water beetles and plant matter, whereas two typical representatives of polluted waters, snails and chironomids, were the predominant prey type downstream the STPs inputs. No major differences in richness, diversity and taxonomic composition were observed in the prey consumed within polluted or reference sites. Our results are consistent with the generalist trophic ecology of native cyprinids in Mediterranean rivers, and suggest a similar trophic position for B. meridionalis and S. laietanus. However, differences in the taxonomic composition of prey consumed between polluted and reference sites suggest that STP inputs may have altered the energy fluxes

  2. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  3. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

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    Hongjun Wang

    Full Text Available Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1, 0.23 mg L(-1, and 0.10 mg L(-1, respectively; of Cu(2+0.17 mg L(-1, 0.09 mg L(-1, and 0.12 mg L(-1 respectively; of Cd(2+6.5 mg L(-1, 18.47 mg L(-1, 5.36 mg L(-1, respectively; and of Zn(2+44.48 mg L(-1, 31.37 mg L(-1, and 12.74 mg L(-1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf and amplitude (Va increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+ and Cu(2+ (P<0.05, and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+. Zn(2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05. The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC of 0.019 mg L(-1, 0.046 mg L(-1, 2.142 mg L(-1, and 0.633 mg L(-1 for Hg(2+, Cu(2+, Cd(2+, and Zn(2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor.

  4. Genetic and morphological consequences of Quaternary glaciations: A relic barbel lineage (Luciobarbus pallaryi, Cyprinidae) of Guir Basin (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, Amina; Tarai, Nacer; Benhassane, Abdelkrim; Henrard, Arnaud; Libois, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Climatic variations during the Quaternary period had a considerable impact on landscapes and habitat fragmentation (rivers) in North Africa. These historical events can have significant consequences on the genetic structure of the populations. Indeed, geographically separated and genetically isolated populations tend to differentiate themselves through time, eventually becoming distinct lineages, allowing new species to emerge in later generations. The aim of the present study is to use genetic and morphological techniques to evaluate the major role of the Saalian glaciation (Middle Quaternary) in the establishment of the geographic space and in the evolution of the intraspecific genetic diversity, by tracing the demographic history of barbels belonging to the Luciobarbus pallaryi (Cyprinidae) species in the Guir Basin (Algeria). In this context, two populations, from two distinct and isolated sites, were studied. Analysis of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial markers and of the "D-loop" control region has shown that the "upstream" and "downstream" Guir populations are genetically differentiated. The molecular analyses suggest that the upstream population was disconnected from this hydrographic system during the Saalian glaciation period of the Quaternary. Subsequently, it was isolated in the foggaras underground waters in the Great Western Erg, at approximately 320 000 years BP, creating, through a bottleneck effect, a new allopatric lineage referred to as "Adrar". Conversely, the high genetic diversity in the upstream Guir (Bechar) population suggests that the stock is globally in expansion. These barbels (n=52) were also examined with meristic, morphometric, osteological, and biological features. These data also reveal a complete discrimination between the two populations, with a remarkable and distinctive behavioural adaptation for the Adrar specimens: neoteny.

  5. Dynamics of Rex3 in the genomes of endangered Iberian Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae and their natural hybrids

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    Carla Sofia A. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iberian Leuciscinae are greatly diverse comprising taxa of hybrid origin. With highly conservative karyotypes, Iberian Chondrostoma s.l. have recently demonstrated sub-chromosomal differentiation and rapid genome restructuring in natural hybrids, which was confirmed by ribosomal DNA (rDNA transposition and/or multiplication. To understand the role of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of their genomes, a genetic and molecular cytogenetic survey was conducted in Achondrostoma oligolepis, Anaecypris hispanica, Iberochondrostoma lemmingii, I. lusitanicum, Pseudochondrostoma duriense, P. polylepis, Squalius pyrenaicus and hybrids between A. oligolepis x (P. duriense/P. polylepis, which represent 'alburnine', chondrostomine and Squalius lineages. The chromosomal distribution of Rex3 retroelement was found highly compartmentalized at centromeres and moderately at telomeres, co-localizing with 5S rDNA loci, and grossly correlating with heterochromatin and blocks of C0t-1 DNA. This accumulation was evident in at least 10 chromosome pairs, a pattern that seemed to be shared among the different species, likely predating their divergence. Nevertheless, species-specific clusters were detected in I. lusitanicum, P. duriense, P. polylepis and S. pyrenaicus demonstrating rapid and independent differentiation. Natural hybrids followed the same accumulation pattern and association with repetitive sequences but with increased number of Rex3 clusters and correlating with translocated 45S rDNA clusters. Rex3 sequence phylogeny didn't agree with its hosts' phylogeny but the observed distribution pattern is congruent with an evolutionary tendency to protect its activity, a robust regulatory system and/or events of horizontal transfer. This is the first report of retroelement physical mapping in Cyprinidae. It helped outlining conceivable ancestral homologies and recognizing retrotransposon activation in hybrids, being possibly associated with genome

  6. Comparative Studies of 5S rDNA Profiles and Cyt b Sequences in two Onychostoma Species (Cyprinidae

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    Chiao-Chuan Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Onychostoma barbatulum and O. alticorpus, two primarily freshwater cyprinid fish, have similar morphological characters and partially overlapping ecological habitats. In order to explore the genetic differences between these two species, chromosomal characteristics and genetic variations were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of 5S rDNA and cytochrome (Cyt b gene analysis. Ten specimens of O. barbatulum and O. alticorpus were collected from the Nanzihsian Stream in southern Taiwan. FISH revealed that the 5S rDNA loci of O. barbatulum and O. alticorpus were found at a pericentromeric and subtelomeric position, respectively, in a pair of submetacentric chromosomes. Cyt b genes were amplified and sequenced from five individuals of each species. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.001–0.004 in O. barbatulum and from 0.001–0.006 in O. alticorpus. Genetic distances between these two species ranged from 0.132–0.142. The phylogenetic tree showed these two species are not sister species. In conclusion, FISH cytogenetic information and Cyt b gene analyses indicated that these two species have significantly different genetic characteristics; nevertheless, their morphological similarities may be due to environmental adaptation.

  7. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  8. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes.

  9. Revision of Khawia spp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish, including a key to their identification and molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Brabec, Jan; Král'ová-Hromadová, Ivica; Oros, Mikulás; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Ermolenko, Alexey; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2011-09-01

    Monozoic cestodes of the genus Khawia Hsü, 1935 (Caryophyllidea: Lytocestidae), parasites of cyprinid fish in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America, are revised on the basis of taxonomic evaluation of extensive materials, including recently collected specimens of most species. This evaluation has made it possible to critically assess the validity of all 17 nominal species of the genus and to provide redescriptions of the following seven species considered to be valid: Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (type species); K. armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915); K. baltica Szidat, 1941; K. japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934); K. parva (Zmeev, 1936); K. rossittensis (Szidat, 1937); and K. saurogobii Xi, Oros, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009. Several new synonyms are proposed: Khawia barbi Rahemo et Mohammad, 2002 and K. lutei Al-Kalak et Rahemo, 2003 are synonymized with K. armeniaca; K. coregoni Kritscher, 1990 with Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (family Caryophyllaeidae); K. cyprini Li, 1964 and K. iowensis Calentine et Ulmer, 1961 with K. japonensis; K. dubia (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex dubius Szidat, 1937) with K. rossittensis; and Tsengia neimongkuensis Li, 1964 and T. xiamenensis Liu, Yang et Lin, 1995 with K. sinensis. Khawia prussica (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex prussicus Szidat, 1937) is considered to be species incertae sedis, but its morphology indicates it may belong to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Caryophyllaeidae). The molecular analysis of all seven valid species, based on comparison of sequences of two nuclear ribosomal and two mitochondrial genes, has shown that the species form three major groups clustered according to their fish hosts. Five species from common and crucian carp and goldfish were grouped together, whereas K. armeniaca from barbels (Barbinae) and K. baltica from tench (Tinca) formed separate clades. In contrast, geographical distribution does not seem to play a crucial role in grouping of individual taxa. A phylogenetic tree based on

  10. Molecular phylogenetics and microsatellite analysis reveal cryptic species of speckled dace (Cyprinidae: Rhinichthys osculus) in Oregon's Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Kendra; Sidlauskas, Brian L

    2014-08-01

    Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) is a small cyprinid that occurs throughout western North America and is the most commonly occurring fish in Oregon. Because of the high genetic and morphological variation in this species across its range, it has been referred to as a species complex; however, no revision to its taxonomy has occurred since 1984. Here, the phylogenetics and population genetics of speckled dace are examined throughout Oregon's Great Basin to describe genetic variation and infer the geographic boundaries between distinct taxonomic entities and populations. We tested the validity of a putative subspecies, Foskett Spring speckled dace, that occurs in a single spring within Warner Valley in Southeast Oregon and is listed Federally as threatened. Dace were collected from Foskett Spring and all surrounding basins containing speckled dace (Warner, Goose Lake, Lake Abert, Silver Lake, and Malheur), as well as Stinking Lake Spring (located within Malheur), created phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear S7 sequence data, and genotyped eight microsatellite loci for population-level analyses. Three highly divergent clades warrant species-level status: Malheur stream dace, Stinking Lake Spring dace, and dace from the other four basins combined. Although Foskett Spring dace were not monophyletic, substantial population structure occurs at the basin-level and separates Foskett Spring dace from other dace in the surrounding Warner Valley. Thus, we recommend ESU status for the isolated population of speckled dace in Foskett Spring. The high, previously unrecognized, taxonomic diversity within this region indicates a need for a range-wide phylogeographic study of speckled dace and an investigation of the morphological distinctiveness of the putative new species.

  11. Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae

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    Sayyaf Dezfuli Bahram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the European cyprinids, tench, Tinca tinca (L., and the pathological effects their cestodes may effect, have received very little or no attention. Most literature relating to Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922, a common intestinal cestode of tench, for example, has focused on aspects of its morphology rather than on aspects of the host-parasite interaction. Results Immunopathological and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of 28 tench, collected from Lake Piediluco, of which 16 specimens harboured tight clusters of numerous M. wageneri attached to the intestinal wall. The infection was associated with the degeneration of the mucosal layer and the formation of raised inflammatory swelling surrounding the worms. At the site of infection, the number of granulocytes in the intestine of T. tinca was significantly higher than the number determined 1 cm away from the site of infection or the number found in uninfected fish. Using transmission electron microscopy, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in close proximity to, and inside, the intestinal capillaries; often these cells were in contact with the cestode tegument. At the host-parasite interface, no secretion from the parasite's tegument was observed. Intense degranulation of the mast cells was seen within the submucosa and lamina muscularis, most noticeably at sites close to the tegument of the scolex. In some instances, rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa. In histological sections, hyperplasia of the mucous cells, notably those giving an alcian blue positive reaction, were evident in the intestinal tissues close to the swelling surrounding the worms. Enhanced mucus secretion was recorded in the intestines of infected tench. Conclusions The pathological changes and the inflammatory cellular response induced by the caryophyllidean monozoic tapeworm M. wageneri within the intestinal tract of an Italian population of wild

  12. Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda) in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Among the European cyprinids, tench, Tinca tinca (L.), and the pathological effects their cestodes may effect, have received very little or no attention. Most literature relating to Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922, a common intestinal cestode of tench, for example, has focused on aspects of its morphology rather than on aspects of the host-parasite interaction. Results Immunopathological and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of 28 tench, collected from Lake Piediluco, of which 16 specimens harboured tight clusters of numerous M. wageneri attached to the intestinal wall. The infection was associated with the degeneration of the mucosal layer and the formation of raised inflammatory swelling surrounding the worms. At the site of infection, the number of granulocytes in the intestine of T. tinca was significantly higher than the number determined 1 cm away from the site of infection or the number found in uninfected fish. Using transmission electron microscopy, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in close proximity to, and inside, the intestinal capillaries; often these cells were in contact with the cestode tegument. At the host-parasite interface, no secretion from the parasite's tegument was observed. Intense degranulation of the mast cells was seen within the submucosa and lamina muscularis, most noticeably at sites close to the tegument of the scolex. In some instances, rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa. In histological sections, hyperplasia of the mucous cells, notably those giving an alcian blue positive reaction, were evident in the intestinal tissues close to the swelling surrounding the worms. Enhanced mucus secretion was recorded in the intestines of infected tench. Conclusions The pathological changes and the inflammatory cellular response induced by the caryophyllidean monozoic tapeworm M. wageneri within the intestinal tract of an Italian population of wild tench is reported for the first

  13. Assessment of metal concentrations in two Cyprinid fish species (Leuciscus cephalus and Tinca tinca) captured from Yeniçağa Lake, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygı, Yasemin; Yiğit, Sibel Atasagun

    2012-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate certain major and toxic metal concentrations in muscle, gill and liver tissues of two Cyprinid species (Leuciscus cephalus, Tinca tinca). Generally liver and gill tissue exhibited higher metal concentrations than did muscle. The highest metal concentrations found in tench and chub muscle tissues were determined to be Al (59.01-108 mg kg(-1)), Zn (45.23-57.81 mg kg(-1)), Fe (9.23-16.03 mg kg(-1)) and Ba (3.50-2.69 mg kg(-1)) respectively. The level of metal accumulation is evaluated for potential risk to human health based on international standards. Zinc, lead and arsenic values of muscle tissues of the fishes were found to be above the allowed limits for human consumption.

  14. Researches on Evaluating the Efficiency of Hormonal Stimulation with Silver Carp Pituitary Extract in Order to Optimize Controlled Reproductive Technology at Asian Cyprinids

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    Adina Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Large requirements of fish larvae, led the specialists at the Carja 1 farm to experience injection with pituitary extract from other species of cyprinids, silver carp pituitary. The experiment took place in the period from 2-25 June 2008. To verify the effectiveness of injections of silver carp pituitary suspension were used two experimental groups of 30 exemplars (1:1, the first group of females received a total dose of 2.9 mg/kg, and the second batch a dose of 4.5 mg/kg. The total dose used for breeding male is 2 mg/kg pituitary. During the Asian cyprinid reproductive guided aimed to determine: the proportion of breeding maturation, fertilization rates and survival during embryonic development index and the index of survival to hatch from eggs to larvae of 3-5 days (most representative for the whole process of reproduction. Determining the number of larvae from each batch of fertilized eggs, the ultimate goal of action is guided by reproductive hormonal stimulation with silver carp pituitary. The number of larvae obtained from experimental plots 3-5 days silver carp injected with silver carp pituitary extract (63,96 and 64,67 thousand comparable with those obtained in experimental groups grass carp (36,21 and 31,14 thousand and bighead carp (39,36 and 41, 34 thousand was approximately 58% higher.

  15. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

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    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    the indication of the quality and general state of fish seeds. The changes in certain parameters in young-of-the-year cyprinids observed in the process of their growing suggest certain changes in their physiological conditions and may be considered as a specific signal for developing appropriate preventive actions and optimizing fish rearing process.

  16. Dieta de la carpa Notropis moralesi (Pisces: Cyprinidae en el río Amacuzac, Morelos, México

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    Patricia Trujillo-Jiménez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Notropis moralesi, conocido comúnmente como "carpa tepelneme", es un pez endémico del río Papaloapan. Se analizó su dieta y hábitos alimentarios. Se tomaron muestras mensuales en el río Amacuzac, Morelos, México. La identificación del contenido estomacal (294 ejemplares se llevó hasta el taxon más específico posible. Para la cuantificación se utilizaron los métodos numérico (No y frecuencia de aparición (F.O.. Se utilizó el índice de amplitud de nicho trófico de Levin y el índice de traslape de MacArthur y Levin. N. moralesi presentó la ingestión de once componentes alimenticios, de los cuales diez son de origen animal y uno vegetal. Los quironómidos y efemerópteros fueron los más consumidos independientemente del sexo, talla y época del año. El análisis por épocas del año, reportó diez componentes en el estiaje y ocho en las lluvias. La dieta de los inmaduros estuvo constituida por diez componentes, la de las hembras por ocho y el de los machos por cinco. La prueba de Ji-cuadrada reveló que no existen diferencias significativas entre las dietas por estadio de desarrollo, sexos y épocas del año. El traslape de los nichos tróficos, reveló valores superiores a 0.60 en todas las combinaciones por sexos y épocas del año. N. moralesi es una especie carnívora con tendencias insectívoras y presenta hábitos alimentarios de tipo bentófago.Diet of the chub, Notropis moralesi (Pisces: Cyprinidae in the Amacuzac River, Morelos, Mexico. Notropis moralesi, locally known as "carpa tepelneme", is a small endemic fish of the Papaloapan River. We analyzed its diet and feeding habits. Specimens were captured monthly from Amacuzac, River, Morelos, Mexico. The gut content of 294 specimens was identified to the most specific taxonomic category possible. We quantified gut content by the numerical and frequency of occurrence methods and used the Levin’s amplitude of trophic niche indices and MacArthur and Levin`s indices for

  17. A new species of Auriculostoma (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from Central Veracruz, Mexico, described with the use of morphological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. is described from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) collected in a tributary creek of the Bobos River in Filipinas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is set apart from all congeners by the combination of some morphological characters such as the testes position (oblique in most specimens), the ventral to oral sucker ratio (1:1.2 × 1:1.1), the cirrus sac originating at the ovarian region, and by having vitelline follicles not confluent in the posttesticular region. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. closely resembles Auriculostoma platense (Szidat, 1954) Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 and Auriculostoma diagonale Curran, Tkach and Overstreet, 2011 by possessing oblique testes; however, it differs from both species by possessing a genital pore located at level of the cecal bifurcation and by having vitelline follicles extending anteriorly up to the cecal bifurcation level, instead of a genital pore located between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and cecal bifurcation, and vitelline follicles extending anteriorly to the mid level of the esophagus as in A. platense or to the pharynx level as in A. diagonale. Additionally, the new species differs from A. diagonale by having vitelline follicles not confluent or scarcely confluent in the posttesticular region rather than extensively confluent. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the new species demonstrated the presence of a single pair of muscular lobes on either side of the oral sucker, with a broad base, stretching from the ventrolateral to the dorsolateral side. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of the 28S rRNA gene sequences placed A. totonacapanensis as sister species of Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 . Nucleotide variation between A. totonacapanensis and A. astyanace was 2.0% and 3.6% for the 28S rRNA gene and ITS2 sequences, respectively. Sequence variation

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus mucosus sp. n. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) with basifilamental sporulation in two cyprinid fishes, Rutilus rutilus (L.) and Leuciscus leuciscus (L.) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X H; Voronin, V N; Dudin, A S; Zhang, J Y

    2016-03-01

    A new Myxobolus species, Myxobolus mucosus sp. n., was found in the basifilamental location of roach, Rutilus rutilus, and common dace, Leuciscus leuciscus, during the investigation of fish myxosporean fauna in Finnish Bay of Baltic Sea and Lake Ladoga in 2014. Plasmodia from the two hosts share similar morphometric and morphological features which are whitish and slightly elongated oval and measured 300-500 μm in diameter. Mature spores of M. mucosus sp. n. are ellipsoidal in frontal view and lemon shaped in sutural view, measuring 13.6 ± 0.62 (12.8-14.2) μm in length, 10.7 ± 0.51 (10.3-11.4) μm in width, 7.8 ± 0.41 (7.2-8.3) μm in thickness and 13.0 ± 0.89 (11.5-14.2) μm in length, 10.8 ± 0.77 (10.2-11.5) μm in width, 7.7 ± 0.52 (7.3-8.0) μm in thickness from roach and common dace, respectively. Polar capsules were pyriform, equal in size, converging anteriorly, with 5.9 ± 0.22 (5.7-6.3) μm in length and 3.9 ± 0.3 (3.5-4.1) μm in width and 5.6 ± 0.38 (5.1-6.2) μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.24 (3.5-4.0) μm in width from roach and common dace, respectively. Spore valves are relatively thin, symmetrical, and smooth. The most remarkable morphological character of this new Myxobolus species is the distinct mucous envelope, surrounding the full myxospore valves, up to 25 and 32 μm, respectively, in roach and common dace. The partial 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence variation of myxospores from two hosts is very tiny (below 0.8 %) but significantly differing from all available sequences of myxosporeans in GenBank. Therefore, it can be concluded that this myxosporean from these two closely related cyprinids are conspecific by combining morphological characteristics, tissue specificity, and molecular data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this newly described species cluster with several gill-infecting Myxobolus species from cyprinid fish inhabiting in Eastern Europe.

  19. A new species of the genus Achondrostoma Robalo, Almada, Levy & Doadrio, 2007 (Actynopterigii, Cyprinidae from western Spain

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    Doadrio, I.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new freshwater fish species, Achondrostoma salmantinum, formerly considered as one population of Iberochondrostoma lemmingii, is described on the basis of genetic and morphological characters. The new species inhabits the rivers Huebra, Águeda and Uces and tributaries in the Duero River basin in Salamanca province, western Spain. The species is distinguished from Iberochondrostoma lemmingii and from other species of the genus Achondrostoma according to morphometric, meristic and genetic characters such as a narrow caudal peduncle, long postorbital and head lengths, small number of scales (9-10/44-53/4-6, small number of gill rakers (15-22, usually 5-5 pharyngeal teeth, four diagnostic isozyme loci (IDHP-2*, IDHP-3*, MDH-B* and PEP* and one unique allele (MDH-A*95. The distribution of I. lemmingii is currently known to be restricted to the Tajo, Guadiana, Odiel and Guadalquivir basins. This new cyprinid is considered Endangered (EN according to IUCN Red List Categories.

    Se describe una nueva especie de pez de agua dulce, Achondrostoma salmantinum, anteriormente considerada como una población de Iberochondrostoma lemmingii, a partir de caracteres genéticos y morfológicos. La nueva especie vive en la cuenca del río Duero en los ríos Uces, Huebra y Águeda y sus afluentes en la provincia de Salamanca en el oeste de España. De acuerdo con los caracteres morfométricos y genéticos la especie se distingue de Iberochondrostoma lemmingii y de otras especies del género Achondrostoma por un pedúnculo caudal estrecho, larga longitud de la cabeza y de la distancia postorbital, pequeño número de escamas (9/10/44-53/4-6, pequeño número de branquispinas (15-22, frecuentemente 5-5 dientes faríngeos, cuatro loci isozimáticos diagnósticos (IDHP-2*, IDHP-3*, MDH-B* y PEP* y un único alelo (MDH-A*95. La distribución de I. lemmingii se

  20. Shifts in the climate space of temperate cyprinid fishes due to climate change are coupled with altered body sizes and growth rates.

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    Ruiz-Navarro, Ana; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Britton, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    Predictions of species responses to climate change often focus on distribution shifts, although responses can also include shifts in body sizes and population demographics. Here, shifts in the distributional ranges ('climate space'), body sizes (as maximum theoretical body sizes, L∞) and growth rates (as rate at which L∞ is reached, K) were predicted for five fishes of the Cyprinidae family in a temperate region over eight climate change projections. Great Britain was the model area, and the model species were Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Squalius cephalus, Gobio gobio and Abramis brama. Ensemble models predicted that the species' climate spaces would shift in all modelled projections, with the most drastic changes occurring under high emissions; all range centroids shifted in a north-westerly direction. Predicted climate space expanded for R. rutilus and A. brama, contracted for S. cephalus, and for L. leuciscus and G. gobio, expanded under low-emission scenarios but contracted under high emissions, suggesting the presence of some climate-distribution thresholds. For R. rutilus, A. brama, S. cephalus and G. gobio, shifts in their climate space were coupled with predicted shifts to significantly smaller maximum body sizes and/or faster growth rates, aligning strongly to aspects of temperature-body size theory. These predicted shifts in L∞ and K had considerable consequences for size-at-age per species, suggesting substantial alterations in population age structures and abundances. Thus, when predicting climate change outcomes for species, outputs that couple shifts in climate space with altered body sizes and growth rates provide considerable insights into the population and community consequences, especially for species that cannot easily track their thermal niches.

  1. Khawia abbottinae sp. n. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from the Chinese false gudgeon Abbottina rivularis (Cyprinidae: Gobioninae) in China: morphological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bing Wen; Oros, Mikulás; Wang, Gui Tang; Scholz, Tomás; Xie, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Khawia abbottinae sp. n. is described from the Chinese false gudgeon, Abbottina rivularis (Basilewsky) (Cyprinidae: Gobioninae), from the Yangtze River basin in China. The new species can be distinguished from the congeneric species mainly by the arrangements of the testes, which form two longitudinal bands (other congeneric species have the testes irregularly scattered throughout the testicular region) and their number (at maximum 85 testes versus at least 160 in the other Khawia spp.), and the morphology of the scolex, which varies from cuneiform to widely bulbate scolex, being separated from the remaining body by a short neck and possessing a smooth, blunt or rounded anterior margin. Other typical features of K. abbottinae are its small size (total length less than 1.5 cm) and body shape, with the maximum width at its first third. The distinct status of the new species was confirmed by molecular data (ssrDNA and ITS1 sequences). Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship of the new species with K. rossittensis (Szidat, 1937) and K. parva (Zmeev, 1936), parasites of crucian carp and goldfish (Carassius spp.), but both species markedly differ from K. abbottinae in their morphology. Until now, five valid species of Khawia (K. abbottinae, K. japonensis, K. rossittensis, K. saurogobii and K. sinensis) have been reported from China.

  2. A new monozoic tapeworm, Lobulovarium longiovatum n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), from barbs Puntius spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Indomalayan region.

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    Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-09-01

    A new caryophyllidean cestode is described from barbs Puntius spp. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with P. sophore (Hamilton) as its type-host, in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in India and Bangladesh, and a new genus, Lobulovarium n. g., is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Lytocestidae because its vitelline follicles are situated in the cortex. It is typified by: (i) a peculiar ovary, which is roughly H-shaped, but with asymmetrical, irregular lobes on its ventral and dorsal sides; (ii) an extensive vitellarium formed by numerous vitelline follicles scattered throughout the cortex; (iii) a long, conical postovarian part of the body with numerous vitelline follicles; (iv) a broadly digitate scolex with a slightly protrusible central cone; (v) a single gonopore (male and female genital ducts open via a single pore and a common genital atrium is absent); and (vi) a small number of testes (90 μm in L. longiovatum), which are spherical (length/width ratio 1:1 versus 2.5-3:1 in the new species), and the presence of vitelline follicles alongside the ovarian lobes (almost completely absent in L. longiovatum).

  3. Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea infecting gills of Barilius barna Hamilton, 1822 (Pisces: Cyprinidae from a global biodiversity hotspot - Arunachal Pradesh (India

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    Leki Wangchu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was a part of an ongoing parasitological survey to investigate the health status of hill stream fish in river systems of Arunachal Pradesh - A global biodiversity hotspot. Materials and Methods: During the 2013/2015, 18 live specimens of Barilius barna (Cyprinidae were captured from the local rivers of Arunachal Pradesh and examined for parasitic monogenoids. These fish, with their flatworms, were immediately fixed in hot (60°C 4% formalin for later examination. Identification and morphometric description used in this study followed Gussev (1976. Type specimens were deposited in the British Natural History Museum, UK. Results: Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. is described and illustrated from specimens of B. barna (Hamilton, 1822 from Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species is characterized by a combination of the following characters: Copulatory tube coiled in 1½ counterclockwise rings, vagina consisting of a vaginal tube and vaginal pore, a complex sclerotized plate of unknown function in between male copulatory organ and vagina, and an anteromedial knob-like process on the dorsal bar. Conclusion: D. barnae sp. n. is the fourth species of Dactylogyrus described from the Northeast India and brings the total number of species of Dactylogyrus in Indian waters to 56. B. barna represents a new host record for Dactylogyrus spp., and possibly the first report for any parasite.

  4. Invasive cyprinid fish in Europe originate from the single introduction of an admixed source population followed by a complex pattern of spread.

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    Andrea Simon

    Full Text Available The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva, was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential.

  5. Invasive cyprinid fish in Europe originate from the single introduction of an admixed source population followed by a complex pattern of spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hänfling, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential.

  6. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 as a potential biological control agent for carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Australia: susceptibility of non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, K A; Sunarto, A; Slater, J; Bell, K; Asmus, M; Fulton, W; Hall, K; Brown, P; Gilligan, D; Hoad, J; Williams, L M; Crane, M St J

    2016-12-27

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is a pest species in Australian waterways, and cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is being considered as a potential biological control (biocontrol) agent. An important consideration for any such agent is its target specificity. In this study, the susceptibility to CyHV-3 of a range of non-target species (NTS) was tested. The NTS were as follows: 13 native Australian, and one introduced, fish species; a lamprey species; a crustacean; two native amphibian species (tadpole and mature stages); two native reptilian species; chickens; and laboratory mice. Animals were exposed to 100-1000 times the approximate minimum amount of CyHV-3 required to cause disease in carp by intraperitoneal and/or bath challenge, and then examined clinically each day over the course of 28 days post-challenge. There were no clinical signs, mortalities or histological evidence consistent with a viral infection in a wide taxonomic range of NTS. Furthermore, there was no molecular evidence of infection with CyHV-3, and, in particular, all RT-PCRs for viral mRNA were negative. As a consequence, the results encourage further investigation of CyHV-3 as a potential biocontrol agent that is specific for carp.

  7. Ascent ability of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and two Iberian cyprinids − Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei, and northern straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma duriense − in a vertical slot fishway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ronda, Fco. Javier; Bravo-Cordoba, F.J.; Fuentes-Perez, J.F.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage performance of brown trout (Salmo trutta), Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) was investigated in a vertical slot fishway in the Porma River (Duero River basin, Spain) using PIT telemetry. We analysed the effects of different fishway discharges on motivation and passage success. Both cyprinid species ascended the fishway easily, performing better than the trout despite their theoretically weaker swimming performance. Fishway discharge affected fish motivation although it did not clearly influence passage success. Observed results can guide design and operation criteria of vertical slot fishways for native Iberian fish.

  8. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species.

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    Emmanuel Corse

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites. We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents. Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state where the invasive species is more

  9. Sequence structure and intragenomic variability of ribosomal ITS2 in monozoic tapeworms of the genus Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-10-01

    The sequence structure of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) was determined for six species of Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish in the Holarctic Region. Homologous intragenomic ITS2 structure was found in Khawia armeniaca, Khawia baltica, and Khawia rossittensis; whereas divergent intragenomic ITS2 copies were detected in Chinese, Japanese, and Slovak isolates of Khawia sinensis and in Khawia japonensis, both parasitic in common carp, and in Khawia saurogobii, recently described from Chinese lizard gudgeon in China. Despite distinct morphological differences between K. saurogobii and K. sinensis, both species display very high level of molecular homogeneity. Variation in number of short repetitive motifs [(GCCT)(n) (GCCC)(n)], [(GTG)(n)], [(ATAC)(n)], [ACGTGT (TCGTGT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], and [(ACCT)(n) (GCCT)(n)] resulted in assortment of ITS2 sequences in four ITS2 variants in K. saurogobii from China, three in Chinese and Japanese isolates of K. sinensis, and five ITS2 variants in K. sinensis from Slovakia. In K. japonensis, the structure and arrangement of microsatellites was different from those of K. sinensis and K. saurogobii. The heterogeneity in the number of two microsatellite regions [(TG)(n); (TTG)(n)] divided ITS2 clones into two variants-first ITS2 variant (472 bp) with (TG)(5) and (TTG)(6), and second variant with (TG)(7) and (TTG)(2) (465 bp). Sequence identity of K. saurogobii with all but one (K. sinensis) congeneric species ranged between 49.5 and 69.2%, which corresponds to the interspecific differences. In contrast, sequence identity of K. saurogobii and K. sinensis (87.6-95.0%) failed into the range of intraspecific variation determined for K. sinensis samples. This close genetic similarity indicates that recently described K. saurogobii may have undergone morphological divergence as a result of ongoing sympatric speciation by host switching.

  10. Phylogeography, historical demography and distribution modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Perea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean freshwater fish fauna has evolved under constraints imposed by the seasonal weather/hydrological patterns that define the Mediterranean climate. These conditions have influenced the genetic and demographic structure of aquatic communities since their origins in the Mid-Pliocene. Freshwater species in Mediterranean-type climates will likely constitute genetically well-differentiated populations as a consequence of fragmentation resulting from drought/flood cycles, to varying extents depending on basin size. We developed an integrative framework to study spatial patterns in genetic diversity, demographic trends, distribution modelling, and landscape genetics to evaluate the evolutionary response of Mediterranean-type freshwater fish to seasonal fluctuations in weather. To test this evolutionary response, the model species used was Squalius valentinus, an endemic cyprinid of the Spanish Levantine area, where seasonal weather fluctuations are extreme, although our findings may be extrapolated to other Mediterranean-type species. Our results underscore the significant role of the Mediterranean climate, along with Pleistocene glaciations, in diversification of S. valentinus. We found higher nuclear diversity in larger drainage basins, but higher mitochondrial diversity correlated to habitat suitability rather than basin size. We also found strong correlation between genetic structure and climatic factors associated with Mediterranean seasonality. Demographic and migration analyses suggested population expansion during glacial periods that also contributed to the current genetic structure of S. valentinus populations. The inferred species distribution models support the significant contribution of precipitation and isothermality for S. valentinus habitat suitability. We highlight the importance of stable habitat conditions, fostered by typical karstic springs found on the Mediterranean littoral coasts, for the preservation of

  11. Investigations in associated protozoa-bacterial infections of cyprinids from a fish farm situated on the Jijia river in N-E of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laz?r

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2011 in cyprinid farms located in Iasi on the Jijia river, several infections with bacterial strains and macroscopical external cysts on the skin were diagnosedwhich developed as a result of the stress induced by biotic and abiotic factors. On the examination of the cyst contents the presence of numerous spores was observed, mostly of the Dermocystidium sp genusThe samples were taken from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio and crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio species from the fish farm as well as from the Jijia River. 35 fish were examined, all of them showing cysts, fragmentation of their dorsal fin and congestion of the gills. Histological examination of the skin showed a field of multiple dermal cysts with round light eosinophilic formations (14-16µm containing a central refractable body similar to that reported for Dermocystidium sp. Gills samples were taken from the affected areas for the SEM examination with the purpose of evaluating not only aspects of normal morphology, but also aspects of some modifications of the affected areas as well as the presence of the etiologically incriminated bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens. The isolates were identified through phenotypic methods. All the strains that showed mobility and oxidase-positivity were tested using API 20 NE strip. Consequently, they were taxonomically grouped into the species Pseudomonas fluorescens. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used for the first time in the characterization of the bacterial lesions produced by Pseudomonas strains on Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio gills. The diagnosis of septicemia with conditional pathogen species of Pseudomonas fluorescens was correlated with the results of the physico-chemical investigations of water and the data concerning the breeding conditions of the investigated livestock.

  12. Genetic heterogeneity reveals on-going speciation and cryptic taxonomic diversity of stream-dwelling gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the middle Danubian hydrosystem (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into

  13. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  14. Toxicity Testing and the Effect of Landfill Leachate in Malaysia on Behavior of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae

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    Jaffar Y.M. Alkassasbeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Landfill leachate had been implicated in environmental pollution, developmental anomalies, birth defect and surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. This study has been conducted to determine the toxicity of landfill leachate from three different landfills in Malaysia on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae in combination with some physico-chemical parameters analysis. Approach: Leachates were collected from Air Hitam (AHL, Ampar Tenang (ATL and Sungai Sedu (SSL landfills. The experiments were performed as three replicates using a total of 180 carps for each definitive test. The semi-static renewal method of acute toxicity test was used. The data obtained were statically evaluated by the use of the EPA computer program based on Finney’s Probit Analysis Method. Results: The leachate used in this study had an invariable of (1640-7600 mg L-1 COD and (321.22-956.86 mg L-1 Ammonical-N. The 96 h LC50 values of landfills leachate from the three landfills using fry C. carpio individuals with an average weight of 0.92±0.24 g and average length of 3.83±0.19 cm were found to be 1.132, 2.0 and 3.822% respectively. Among the behavioral changes observed for the individual fish at different leachate concentrations, decline in general activity, loss of balance, breathing difficulties, excessive mucosal secretion and gathering at the surface for breathing. Conclusion: This study of acute toxicity to the recommended fish species, C. caprio, is considered the first in Malaysia. Further research with toxicity testing methods directly on fish will be very useful in assessing possible ecological risk assessment of landfill leachate.

  15. Hepatocyte nuclear structure and subcellular distribution of copper in zebrafish Brachydanio rerio and roach Rutilus rutilus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) exposed to copper sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris-Palacios, Severine [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: severine.paris@univ-reims.fr; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: sylvie.biagianti@univ-reims.fr

    2006-05-10

    Copper is a trace element essential to life, but also a heavy metal with toxic effect clearly demonstrated. Cu induced perturbations in fish liver are well documented but the variability of the reported results is large. In this study two cyprinids, zebrafish and roach, were exposed to copper. Reported histocytological changes are either adaptative or degenerative depending on fish species, concentration of metal, and duration of exposure. Hepatic subcellular distribution of copper was determined by X-ray microanalysis in control and Cu-exposed roach and zebrafish. Sublethal copper sulphate contamination induced the development of a particular nucleolar alteration forming a network or honeycomb like structure in liver. This perturbation is observable in almost all the hepatocytes of zebrafish and roach exposed to copper for a minimum of 4 days of exposure. It seemed to concern more precisely the pars fibrosa. X-ray microanalysis showed that the appearance of network nucleolus was in relation to a Cu accumulation. Cu deposit was well located in the network as pars granulosa and nucloplasm showed very lower metal concentrations. The origin and consequence of network structure in nucleolus was discussed.

  16. The feeding habit of the Cyprinidae Rastrineobola argentea in its new habitat, lakes Bulera and Ruhondo, two Rwandan lakes (Eastern Africa

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    Isumbisho M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rastrineobola argentea Pellegrin 1904, a small pelagic endemic cyprinid from lake Victoria was introduced into lake Bulera (Rwanda in 1991 in order to develop a fishery. From there, it accidentally colonized lake Ruhondo. To study its biology in its new habitat, samples were collected in 2007 and size and the feeding habits of the fish were analyzed. R. argentea is smaller in lake Bulera (41.8 ± 6 mm than in lake Ruhondo (mean total body length: 72.6 ± 15 mm. The mean total body length in lake Bulera is less than its size at the first maturity in lake Victoria (47 mm. Differences in size structure of fish between lakes Bulera and Ruhondo is attributed mainly to the food availability in the two lakes. In lake Bulera, the fish feeds on six food items with plant remnants dominant. In lake Ruhondo, R. argentea is a zooplanktivorous feeder like in lake Victoria. The dominant prey is a cladoceran species, Daphnia sp. which has not been observed in lake Bulera during the sampling period.

  17. Role of socio-cultural and economic factors in cyprinid fish distribution networks and consumption in Lawa Lake region, Northeast Thailand: Novel perspectives on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina Sunyoung; Smith, John F; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Echaubard, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-02-16

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in depth interviews (IDIs) were used to explore socio-cultural determinants underlying raw fish consumption practices, and global positioning system (GPS) devices to map local fish distribution networks. Qualitative data affirmed major socio-cultural and dietary lifestyle transitions occurring consequent on recent decades of modernization policies and practices, but also the persistence of Isaan traditional raw-fish eating practices and incorrect beliefs about infection risk avoidance. Fish traders/middlemen purchase most of the catch at the lakeshore and play the dominant role in district market fish distribution networks, at least for the larger and less likely infected, fish species. The lower economic value of the small potentially-infected cyprinid fish means local fishermen typically distribute them free, or sell cheaply, to family and friends, effectively concentrating infection risk in already highly Ov infected villages. Our study confirmed the persistence of traditional Isaan raw-fish meal practices, despite major ongoing socio-cultural lifestyle transitions and decades of Ov infection health education programs. We contend that diffuse socio-cultural drivers underpin this practice, including its role as a valued cultural identity marker. A "fish economics" factor was also evident in the concentration of more likely infected fish back into local villages due to their low economic value at

  18. Effects of effects of suspended sediment on early-life stage survival of Yaqui chub, an endangered USA–Mexico borderlands cyprinid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalow, Stephani L. Clark; Bonar, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of total suspended sediment (TSS) can have negative consequences on fishes, such as altering food supply, lowering food acquisition, clogging gills, and disrupting reproduction. While effects of TSS on salmonids and estuarine fish are well studied, less is known about possible negative impacts of suspended sediment on desert fishes. Several imperiled desert fishes inhabit streams and springs near the U.S.–Mexico border and are potentially threatened by increased sediment loads from borderlands activity such as livestock grazing, road building, illegal traffic, and law enforcement patrols. One such species is the Yaqui Chub Gila purpurea, a federally listed endangered cyprinid. We exposed Yaqui Chub embryos and fry (mean TL = 12.6 mm; SE = 0.42) to a range of TSS levels commonly found in one of the only streams they inhabit, Black Draw, which crosses the Arizona–Mexico border. We tested effects of 0; 300; 500; 1,000; 5,000; and 10,000 mg/L TSS loads on fry and embryos over a 5-d period in three replicate containers for each treatment. Fifty percent hatch rate (i.e., median lethal concentration, LC50) was 3,977 mg/L for embryos. The LC50 for fry (concentration at which half died) was 8,372 mg/L after 12 h of exposure; however, after 5-d exposure, LC50 leveled at 1,197 mg/L. The TL of fry did not change significantly in any treatment over the 5-d period. Suspended sediment in Black Draw reached concentrations lethal to Yaqui Chub embryo and fry during four floods in 2012. Although some desert fishes have evolved in rivers and streams subject to elevated TSS and are tolerant to high TSS concentrations, other fish species are less tolerant and may be impacted by land practices which increase erosion into stream systems. Management of critically endangered desert fishes should include considerations of the effects of increased suspended sediment.

  19. Isolation and characterisation of mRNA encoding the salmon- and chicken-II type gonadotrophin-releasing hormones in the teleost fish Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penlington, M C; Williams, M A; Sumpter, J P; Rand-Weaver, M; Hoole, D; Arme, C

    1997-12-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7,Leu8]-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (salmon-type GnRH; sGnRH:GeneBank accession no. u60667) and the [His5,Trp7,Tyr8]-GnRH (chicken-II-type GnRH; cGnRH-II: GeneBank accession no. u60668) precursor in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) were isolated and sequenced following reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs consisted of 439 and 628 bp, and included open reading frames of 282 and 255 bp respectively. The structures of the encoded peptides were the same as GnRHs previously identified in other vertebrates. The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs, including the non-coding regions, had 88.6 and 79.9% identity respectively, to those identified in goldfish (Carassius auratus). However, significant similarity was not observed between the non-coding regions of the GnRH cDNAs of Cyprinidae and other fish. The presumed third exon, encoding partial sGnRH associated peptide (GAP) of roach, demonstrated significant nucleotide and amino acid similarity with the appropriate regions in the goldfish, but not with other species, and this may indicate functional differences of GAP between different families of fish. cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs from roach had relatively high nucleotide similarity across this GnRH variant. Cladistic analysis classified the sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs into three and two groups respectively. However, the divergence between nucleotide sequences within the sGnRH variant was greater than those encoding the cGnRH-II precursors. Consistent with the consensus developed from previous studies, Northern blot analysis demonstrated that expression of sGnRH and cGnRH-II was restricted to the olfactory bulbs and midbrain of roach respectively. This work forms the basis for further study on the mechanisms by which the tapeworm, Ligula intestinalis, interacts with the pituitary-gonadal axis of its fish host.

  20. Histological and molecular studies of species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in the gills of Abramis, Blicca and Vimba spp. (Cyprinidae), with the redescription of M. macrocapsularis Reuss, 1906 and M. bliccae Donec & Tozyyakova, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor; Székely, Csaba

    2011-06-01

    Although Myxobolus spp. from cyprinid fishes are generally characterised by a strict host-specificity, this study has found that the breams Abramis brama (L.), Blicca bjoerkna (L.) and Vimba vimba (L.) may be infected by the same Myxobolus spp. It is demonstrated that M. macrocapsularis Reuss, 1906, a parasite of the gill filaments of B. bjoerkna, can also infect A. brama. In the same way, M. bliccae Donec & Tozyyakova, 1984, also a parasite of B. bjoerkna, can also occur in V. vimba. The molecular sequences of M. macrocapsularis spores from B. bjoerkna and A. brama were 100% identical. Two of the 18S rDNA sequences of three replicate samples of M. bliccae from B. bjoerkna were 100% identical, whereas the third sequence exhibited a 99.7% similarity with sequences from V. vimba. M. bliccae sequences of spores collected from V. vimba showed a 99.8% similarity to the first two isolates and 99.6% to the third. Data obtained by morphological, histological and molecular biological methods all suggest that Myxobolus spp., known for their strict host-specificity, may sometimes infect several closely related cyprinids.

  1. The barbs of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: morphological diversity and its implications for taxonomy, trophic resource partitioning, and fisheries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The rediscovery of a unique species flock of cyprinid fish, its taxonomy and its feeding-biology are described. Fourteen species of barbs (Barbus spp, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) were found in highland (1800 m) Lake Tana, in northwestern Ethiopia. Lake Tana is an isolated fresh-water system, because its

  2. Molecular surveillance of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in goldfish cultured in China%金鱼鲤疱疹病毒Ⅱ型的分子诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉娟; 罗杨志; 刘学芹; 顾泽茂; 袁军法

    2013-01-01

    Originally described from Japan, Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) was present in at least five other countries and probably has a global distribution in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Up to now,CyHV-2 has drawn little attention and is rarely reported in China. Recently, silver prussian carp {Carassius auratus gibelio} farmed in Yancheng,Jiangsu Province, was reported by news to be infected by CyHV-2 and caused heavy economic losses. But little was known about the ways of virus transmission, potential reservoirs and sources of infection for this newly emerged virus. Goldfish can be a source of infection by carrying CyHV-2 but showing no clinical symptom. To understand the epidemiology of CyHV-2 in China,healthy goldfish from markets in different districts were tested for CyHV-2 by degenerate polymerase chain reaction of the viral polymerase gene followed by sequencing. Results demonstrated that CyHV-2 has a wide geographic distribution in China. Molecular study indicated that the sequences of DNA polymerase encoded by CyHV-2 isolated from goldfish in China were identical with the published sequence for CyHV-2. The helicase sequences of CyHV-2 from goldfish were also partially i-dentical with those from silver prussian carp cultured in China,suggesting that the virus carried by goldfish and silver prussian carp were the same. Between the isolates from goldfish and H. Fukuda from Japan, there was only one or two residues difference in the amino acid sequence of helicase or intercapsom-eric triplex protein,suggesting that the two isolates of CyHV-2 were highly similar,but not the same.%针对国内市场上流通的金鱼,开展CyHV-2的流行病学调查,并比较CyHV-2不同分离株的分子特征.结果显示:无明显临床症状的金鱼带毒率较高(13.89%),表明我国已有CyHV-2的分布.分子生物学研究显示,我国金鱼和异育银鲫来源的CyHV-2编码的解旋酶基因部分序列一致,表明异育银鲫来源的CyHV-2和金鱼来源的CyHV-2

  3. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ZACCO PLATYPUS (CYPRINIFORMES: CYPRINIDAE) DISTRIBUTED IN BEIJING%北京地区宽鳍(鱼巤)的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢迎春; 赵亚辉; 李高岩; 唐文乔; 张春光

    2011-01-01

    Pale chub Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846), a kind of small cyprinid fish, widely distributes in the East Asia including east part of China, Japan and Korea Peninsula. This fish is always found in rivers and streams, especially in the swiftly running waters. In breeding season, the male will express remarkable sexual dimorphism. Numerous sharp nuptial tubercles can be found on the head (especially jaws) and fins. Recently, the populations of Zacco platypus are shrinking down in many places in China due to over-capture, environment change and pollution. Under this background, understanding the life history of Zacco platypus will be very helpful for future conservation and sustainable use. Therefore, we observed the early development of Zacco platypus collected from the Huaijiuhe River in Beijing. Fertilized eggs were obtained through dry method of artificial fertilization, 10-15 fertilized eggs in the process ofgranule development were randomly selected. The processes and characteristics of early development have been observed and documented under the microscope. The mature eggs were spherical in shape, and the average egg diameter was 1.04 mm. At average water temperature of 23.CC (17.1-28.0"C), the early development from fertilization to hatch took total 73h01m and 1682.31Ch accumulated temperature. The embryonic development took 37min to develop into blastodermic disc through discoidal cleavage; and then took another more than 30min to develop into two-cell. Mulberry occurred about 4h after fertilization, multi-layer stack such as morula blastomeres, animal pole extremely high uplift. Blastula finished at 6h22min after fertilization, and embryonic development was into gastrula about 6hl8min after late blastula. Blastopore formed around 19h after fertilization, and then myocomma appeared when blastopore closed. Eye capsule formed at 22h46min after fertilization. 25h27min after fertilization, tail bud appeared on the ventral posterior embryo. Tail fin

  4. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  5. Perturbations hépatiques induites expérimentalement par une concentration sublétale de procymidone (fongicide dicarboximide chez Brachydanio rerio (Téléostéen, Cyprinidé : approche histo-cytopathologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARIS-PALACIOS S.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La procymidone[N-(3,5 dichlorophényl-1,2 diméthylcyclopropane-1,2 dicarboximide] est une molécule utilisée pour ses capacités antifongiques principalement dans la lutte contre Botrytis et Sclerotinia. Elle présente une rémanence de plusieurs semaines dans l'environnement et est donc susceptible de contaminer, après lessivage des sols, les milieux aquatiques et les organismes qui les peuplent. L'analyse des perturbations histo-cytologiques hépatiques induites chez le Cyprinidé Brachydanio rerio par une concentration sublétale (1 mg.l-1 de ce fongicide a été réalisée après 4, 7 et 14 jours de contamination expérimentale. L'éventuelle réversibilité des perturbations induites a été étudiée après 14 jours de contamination suivis de 14 jours de décontamination. Les résultats révèlent des réponses hépatocytaires non spécifiques à l'agression toxique et d'intensité croissante en fonction de la durée de contamination. Il s'agit de réponses adaptatives (déplétion glycogénique, accumulation lipidique, réduction de la surface d'absorption hépatocellular... et de réponses dégénératives (désorganisation des travées hépatocytaires, lyse du parenchyme dans les régions périvasculaires.... Ces réponses s'accompagnent d'une activation notable de la réponse immunitaire cellulaire non spécifique (augmentation du nombre des macrophages en relation avec l'accroissement du catabolisme tissulaire hépatique induit. Des perturbations plus originales ont été observées : il s'agit de développements d'une organisation concentrique des travées hépatocytaires et de protrusions cytoplasmiques entre hépatocytes adjacents amenant parfois la membrane plasmique au contact de l'enveloppe nucléaire. Le retour en eau non contaminée provoque la réduction des atteintes hépatiques (réversibilités des perturbations induites et une forte activation du métabolisme hépatocytaire (hyperdéveloppement du r

  6. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological recognition of artificial F1 hybrids between three common European cyprinid species:Rutilus rutilus,Blicca bjoerkna and Abramis brama%三种普通欧洲鲤科鱼类(拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊)人工杂交F1代形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. NZAU MATONDO; M. OVIDIO; P. PONCIN; P. VANDEWALLE; J.C. PHILIPPART

    2008-01-01

    black line. In all interspecific crosses of these three cyprinid species fish, the reciprocal hybrids were generally indistinguishable.

  8. Detection of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in healthy cyprinid seed stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Won, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Jin-Woo; Jee, Bo-Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Hong, Suhee

    2014-11-13

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) disease is a lethal disease in common carp, an important food fish in Asian countries, the seed of which is used in restocking programs for freshwater fishery management. We inspected apparently healthy seed stock of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and Siberian crucian carp Carassius auratus for the presence of KHV using PCR-based diagnostic tests as a part of a stock enhancement program from 2009 to 2010 in Korea. Consequently, KHV was detected from 24 of 232 inspections with yearly detection percentages of 5.2% in 2009 and 15.5% in 2010 using PCR primer sets for TK or SphI-5 as recommended by the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Results indicate that the SphI-5 primer set was slightly more sensitive than the TK primer set, as shown by a higher detection rate. To determine the genotype of the KHV strains detected in this study, ORF40-specific PCR amplification was conducted, and the PCR products from 6 samples showed 100% nucleotide sequence identity with a Japanese strain (GenBank accession number AP008984) but not with US (DG657948) and Israeli strains (DG177346). This report conclusively demonstrated the presence of KHV in externally healthy seed of common carp and Siberian crucian carp, indicating a possible risk that subclinically infected seed stock can be released with a potential threat to wild populations.

  9. The Natural Diet of Five Cyprinid Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2005-03-01

    There are very few published papers on the biology of these fish species, and even less on their natural feeding in the open waters. Although these fish species economically less important, is play an important role in the open waters ecological niche. One of the most important factors for the ecological niche is food web. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to revise the research and written documentation collected on the feeding of chub, bleak, spirlin, barbel and stream barbel in Croatia and in Europe. More important results on recent research done for each fish species in various waters in Europe are also presented in this paper.

  10. A new endemic cyprinid species from the Danube drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčić, Z; Buj, I; Duplić, A; Caleta, M; Mustafić, P; Zanella, D; Zupančič, P; Mrakovčić, M

    2011-08-01

    Populations of endemic Croatian dace were found to belong to two different species, one of which is first described in this study. Telestes karsticus sp. nov. differed morphologically from Telestes polylepis in the total count of lateral line scales, number of gill rakers and the shape of the posterior margin of the anal fin. Morphological differences were corroborated with mtDNA analyses (with p-distance between T. polylepis and T. karsticus sp. nov. ranging between 3·2 and 4·1%; and the number of substitutions between 37 and 47). The newly described species is geographically very localized. It has been recorded from only four localities around Velika Kapela and Mala Kapela mountains in Croatia. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Diversity of CD2 subfamily receptors in cyprinid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Shiro; Nakao, Miki; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    CD2 family receptor (CD2f) is evolutionarily conserved and is widely expressed by various types of leukocytes. To elucidate the phylogenetic diversity of the CD2f, we characterized CD2f in teleosts using ginbuna crucian carp and zebrafish. The identified CD2f isoforms of the ginbuna carp (caauCD2f) exhibited high sequence similarity to the mammalian CD2 subsets CD48, CD244, and CD319, but it was difficult to classify them into their respective mammalian CD2f based on sequence similarity, the presence of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM), and phylogenetic tree analysis. Although the four caauCD2f isoforms share an extracellular domain with quite high identity (83-94% identity at the nucleic acid level), they differ in the number of ITSM motifs in their cytoplasmic tail. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses showed that the caauCD2f isoforms are expressed by different cell populations, suggesting that they, like mammalian CD2f, have diverse roles. Interestingly, immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-like sequences with high identity to caauCD2fs are clustered close together within 0.6 Mbp on zebrafish chromosomes 1 and 2 (at least 8 and 35 sequences, respectively), and many pairs of the Ig domains share more than 90% identity at the amino acid level. Therefore, the teleost CD2fs with considerably high identity have been probably generated from a common ancestral Ig-domain gene by a very recent gene duplication event. These findings suggest that the identified CD2f acquired functional diversification through successive duplications together with the acquisition of ITSM.

  12. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 : An Archetype of Fish Alloherpesviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Rakus, Krzysztof; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Vancsok, Catherine; Morvan, Léa; Peñaranda, Ma Michelle D; Stone, David M; Way, Keith; van Beurden, Steven J; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales encompasses viruses that share structural, genetic, and biological properties. However, members of this order infect hosts ranging from molluscs to humans. It is currently divided into three phylogenetically related families. The Alloherpesviridae family contains viruses infe

  13. Cadmium as toxicant in Freshwater Cyprinid, Labeo rohita

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sajo

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(33) ... in fresh water bodies, may act as strong toxic agent for L. rohita. ... untreated waste, dumping of industrial effluent and run- ..... effects of environmental contaminants in European.

  14. New circumscription of freshwater fish parasites Monobothrium diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) using morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further

  15. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoàng, Huy Đức; Phạm, Hùng Mạnh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Trần, Ngân Trọng; Phan, Phúc Đình

    2015-08-25

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle Đồng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the Đồng Nai basin, and the An Lão River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph.

  16. Local adaptation of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Cyprinidae) on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyi; Ludwig, Arne; Zhang, Cunfang; Tong, Chao; Li, Guogang; Tang, Yongtao; Peng, Zuogang; Zhao, Kai

    2015-05-06

    Divergent selection among environments affects species distributions and can lead to speciation. In this article, we investigated the transcriptomes of two ecotypes of scaleless carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and G. p. ganzihonensis) from the Tibetan Plateau. We used a transcriptome sequencing approach to screen approximately 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the gill and kidney tissues of twelve individuals from the Ganzi River and Lake Qinghai to understand how this freshwater fish has adapted to an ecological niche shift from saline to freshwater. We identified 9,429 loci in the gill transcriptome and 12,034 loci in the kidney transcriptome with significant differences in their expression, of which 242 protein-coding genes exhibited strong positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1). Many of the genes are involved in ion channel functions (e.g., Ca(2+)-binding proteins), immune responses (e.g., nephrosin) or cellular water absorption functions (e.g., aquaporins). These results have potentially broad importance in understanding shifts from saline to freshwater habitats. Furthermore, this study provides the first transcriptome of G. przewalskii, which will facilitate future ecological genomics studies and aid in the identification of genes underlying adaptation and incipient ecological speciation.

  17. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  18. Genetic and structural characterization of the growth hormone gene and protein from tench, Tinca tinca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicz, R; Sadowski, J; Drozd, R

    2012-12-01

    The analysis of the tench growth hormone gene structure revealed a comparable organization of coding and non-coding regions than other from cyprinid species. Based on the performed mRNA and amino acid sequence alignments, gh tench is related to Asian than to European representatives of Cyprinidae family. Second aim of the work was to characterize and predict protein structure of the tench growth hormone. Tinca tinca GH share many common features with human GH molecule. The Tench GH protein binds to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) using two regions I and II that are situated at opposite sites of molecule. Binding site I is placed in the central part of T. tinca GH and H 189 amino acid in the middle region of the IV helix is crucial for GH-GHR interactions.

  19. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Sanders, George E.; Conway, Carla M.; Binkowski, Fred P.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in cultured and wild fish worldwide. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio carp), and koi (C. carpio koi) suffer the highest mortalities from SVCV infections, while other cyprinid fish species have varying susceptibility. Although salmonid fish typically are considered refractory to infection by SVCV, there have been a few reports suggesting infection has occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There have been no reports of Percid fish being infected with SVCV. Since the first North American outbreak of SVCV at a North Carolina koi farm in 2002 there have been eight subsequent detections or outbreaks of SVCV among fish species from the families of Cyprinidae andCentrarchidae within the US and Canada. Thus, this exotic virus is considered a potential threat to native and cultured fish populations in North America. We performed multiple experimental challenges with fish species from three families (Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, and Percidae) to identify the potential risk associated with SVCV exposure of resident fish populations in North America.

  20. A NEW SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE SPATHIAN (EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU (ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Saurichthys, S. majiashanensis , is described. It comes from a series of marine vertebrate-bearing beds of the upper member of the Nanlinghu Formation outcropping in the large quarry at the top of Majiashan (Majia Hill near Chaohu (Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. Its age is Middle Spathian (Olenekian, Early Triassic. This new species deeply differs from the several pre-Spathian species of Saurichthys mainly for having only two longitudinal scale rows together with a reduced grid-like structure for the neural elements in the vertebral column. Further derived characters are in the endoskeleton of the dorsal and anal fin, where radials articulate only to anterior lepidotrichia, the posterior ones being supported by the first scale from the caudal pedicle mid-dorsal and mid-ventral rows, deeply imbedded in the body. In addition, the haemal spines of the caudal region are much enlarged and reversed, with their distal parts pointing forwards. Though the skull is lacking, postcranial characters are enough to justify the erection of a new species. This new Saurichthys species, together with other few actinopterygians, can be considered as the oldest assemblage of the Triassic Middle Fish Fauna, which bloomed probably in the early Anisian and widespread especially all over the Tethys for the Middle Triassic and at least the Carnian in the Late Triassic. This new fish assemblage, together with some of the oldest marine reptiles, is considered as the beginning of the actual Triassic recovery among marine vertebrates.

  1. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century,

  2. Cryptic Caribbean species of Scorpaena (Actinopterygii: Scorpaeniformes) suggested by cytogenetic and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, M; Oliveira, C; Siccha-Ramirez, Z R; Sene, V F; Sánchez-Romero, O R; Ehemann, N R; Milana, V; Rossi, A R; Sola, L

    2016-10-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular analyses enabled identification of two cytotypes among individuals of the spotted scorpion fish Scorpaena plumieri from Margarita Island, Venezuela. Cytotype 1 was characterized by 48 subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes and fundamental number (number of chromosome arms; FN) equalled 48, while cytotype 2 was characterized by two metacentric and 46 subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes and FN was 50. These cytotypes also differed in the location of the ribosomal gene clusters and in the distribution of the constitutive heterochromatin. Moreover, fish from the cytotypes 1 and 2 were found to belong to distinct mitochondrial lineages. The presence of two S. plumieri cytotypes from two lineages separated by high genetic distance suggests that they correspond to sympatric cryptic species.

  3. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848 (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes.

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    Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo

    Full Text Available Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations.Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π and the haplotype diversity index (H indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, and H+-ATPase (HA was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes.These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G. maculatus osmoregulatory system, especially at hyposmotic environments, associated to a drastic shift in habitat and life cycle at a scale of a few thousand years.

  4. Morphofunctional Adaption of the Renal Tissue of Acipenser Ruthenus (Actinopterygii, Acipenseriformes under Transformed Habitation Conditions

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    Koziy M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Светооптическим мето- дом изучено морфофункциональное состояние мезонефроса стерляди (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 из низовьев р. Днепр. Отмечены адаптивные изменения в структурно-функциональных элементах нефронов туловищной почки. К наиболее ощутимым сдвигам можно отнести очаговые кровоизлияния в ретикуломиелоидной ткани, отёчность эпителия и воспалительные процессы. Отмеченные нарушения являются ответной реакцией на негативные воздействия компонентов сточных вод.

  5. A new species of anguilliform catfish (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Bangladesh and northeastern India.

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    Ng, Heok Hee; Ferraris, Carl J Jr

    2016-02-12

    We describe Olyra praestigiosa, a new anguilliform bagrid catfish, from the Brahmaputra River drainage in Bangladesh and northeastern India. The new species differs from congeners in having the following unique combination of characters: interorbital distance 30-37% HL; body depth at anus 6-9% SL; length of adipose-fin base 99-16% SL; adipose fin separate from upper principal caudal-fin rays; post-adipose distance 15-18% SL; 17-22 anal-fin rays; caudal peduncle length 14-19% SL; and caudal peduncle depth 6-8% SL.

  6. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  7. Using mariculture as a breeding site: reproduction of Hypleurochilus fissicornis (Actinopterygii: Blenniidae

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    Bianca Possamai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture in estuaries provides substrate for colonization by fouling organisms, thus attracting small cryptic fish species hitherto unknown in this environment. The blenny Hypleurochilus fissicornis is one of the species that is associated with this new system and is found in high abundance in bivalve farming. To understand the reproductive strategy that this species uses in this new environment, we collected specimens monthly in a mariculture on the southern coast of Paraná State (Brazil. After obtaining morphometric data, we removed gonads to determine sex and maturity stage. Gonads were weighed and analysed histologically. Oogenesis showed the same pattern as in other teleosts, but spermatogenesis showed a very complex dynamics. The spawning is multiple and synchronous between sexes, lasting eight months (May to December and peaking in winter. Hypleurochilus fissicornis was reproductively successful using the mariculture as a breeding site. The species has a variety of tactics to protect its offspring (e.g. batch spawning, long reproductive period, reduced L50, parental care and a reproductive peak in winter.

  8. A new saurichthyiform (Actinopterygii with a crushing feeding mechanism from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou (China.

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    Feixiang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Equipped with an effective predatory feeding mechanism enhanced by large and sharp teeth, pointed snout and elongate body, saurichthyiform fishes are considered common fish-eaters in the early Mesozoic aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, because of the similar body plan across species, saurichthyiforms are also regarded evolutionally conservative, with few morphological and ecological changes during their long history. However, their phylogenetic affinity remains unclear as to whether they are chondrostean, neopterygian or stem-actinopteran, and likewise the intrarelationships of the group have rarely been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a new saurichthyiform from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou, China, based on the well-preserved specimens including a 3-D braincase. The new taxon, Yelangichthys macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov., is unique among saurichthyiforms in having a peculiar neurocranium with a broad orbital tectum, paired posterior myodomes, a deep, transverse fossa in the posterodorsal part of the orbit, and a feeding mechanism structured for durophagy. Phylogenetic analysis places Yelangichthys gen. nov. at the most basal position in the Saurichthyiformes as the sister to Saurichthyidae, and a new family Yelangichthyidae is erected to include only Y. macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov. The monophyly of the Chondrostei comprising [Saurichthyiformes + Acipenseriformes] Birgeriiformes is supported, but not the monophyly of Saurichthys, the type genus of Saurichthyidae. With its outstanding osteological details, Yelangichthys gen. nov. greatly increases the neurocranial variations in saurichthyiforms, and its novel feeding structure suggests the consumption of hard-preys instead of fishes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings highlight the detailed osteology of a saurichthyiform braincase and its feeding design. We suggest that saurichthyiforms are closely allied to the Acipenseriformes. Saurichthyiforms were very diverse in the cranial osteology and they might have undergone a rapid evolutionary radiation via, for the new material here, transforming the feeding mechanism and thus exploiting the food resources unsuitable for other saurichthyiforms.

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae) in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Reina, Ruth G; Doadrio, Ignacio; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-01

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among members of the Poecilia sphenops species complex to resolve the colonization process and radiation of this group in Central America. We analyzed 2550 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including ATP synthase 6 and 8, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes, and 906bp of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein of 86 ingroup individuals from 61 localities spanning most of its distribution from Mexico to Panama. Our mitochondrial data rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the P. sphenops complex that differed with the nuclear data set topology, which did not recover the monophyly of the P. mexicana mitochondrial lineage. Coalescent-based simulations tests indicated that, although hybridization cannot be completely ruled out, this incongruence is most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting in this group, which also showed the widest geographic distribution. A single colonization event of Central America from South America was estimated to have occurred between the early Paleocene and Oligocene (53-22millionyears ago). Subsequently, two largely differentiated evolutionary lineages diverged around the Early Oligocene-Miocene (38-13million years ago), which are considered two separate species complexes: P. sphenops and P. mexicana, which can also be distinguished by their tricuspid and unicuspid inner jaw teeth, respectively. Ultimately, within lineage diversification occurred mainly during the Miocene (22-5million years ago). All major cladogenetic events predated the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. The allopatric distribution of lineages together with the long basal internodes suggest that vicariance and long term isolations could be the main evolutionary forces promoting radiation in this group, although dispersal through water barriers might also have occurred. Lastly, our results suggest the need to review the current species distribution and taxonomy of the P. sphenops complex sensu lato.

  10. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars ,Lepisosteus oculatus ,Actinopterygii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light,scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy.In the enamel,slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed,suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians.Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus,rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage.In the maturation stage,a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts,while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm.The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells,stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts,but there was no stratum intermedium.It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  11. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  12. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p Fish length also differed among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus was lower than previous studies acknowledged in the system (0.037 g.WWm- 2.year- 1), indicating that the production estimates of this species in estuaries can vary considerably depending on of several factors such as the sampling year and strategy, population and fish size.

  13. Parasites of sticklebacks (Actinopterygii: Gasterosteidae) from South-Eastern Baltic Sea (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulgostowska, Teresa; Vojtkova, Ludmila

    2005-01-01

    A total of 142 individuals of Gasterosteus aculeatus L. and 22 individuals of Pungitius pungitius (L.) from several areas of the coastal waters of the Gdańsk Bay both brackish- and freshwater were examined for parasites. The survey was carried out within 1988-1991. Six parasite species, namely: Gyrodactylus arcuatus, Apatemon gracilis, Sphaerostomum bramae, Phyllodistomumfolium, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, and Argulus foliaceus were recovered from sticklebacks caught in freshwater habitats; while the other 4 parasites: Apatemon annuligerum, Bothriocephalus sp., Schistocephalus solidus, Proteocephalus percae occurred only in fish from brackish-water areas. Additional 5 parasites: Trichodina domerguei, Diplostomum pungitii, Diplostomum spathaceum, Rhaphidascaris acus, and Thersitina gasterostei were recorded in fishes from both habitats.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA reveals unexpected diversity of chubs (genus Squalius; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic basin

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    Ivana Buj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Squalius comprises more than 40 species inhabiting various freshwater habitats. They are distributed in Europe and Asia, with particularly high diversity recorded in the Mediterranean area. The taxonomic status of many populations is still matter of debate. With this investigation we aimed to help in resolving taxonomic uncertainties of the chubs distributed in the Adriatic basin in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b revealed high diversity of chubs in the investigated area. Two evolutionary independent lineages are revealed: the first one comprising species Sq. svallize, Sq. tenellus, Sq. illyricus and Sq. zrmanjae; whereas the second lineage corresponds with Sq. squalus. High intraspecific structuring of Sq. squalus was detected, implying necessity of taxonomic revision of that species. Based on the obtained results, most important aspects of the evolutionary history of the genus Squalius in the Adriatic basin will be discussed and evolutionary significant units identified.

  15. New species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae) from Indonesia, with comments on head papillae nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard; Erdmann, Mark V

    2015-06-17

    Three new species of the gobiid Trimma are described from Indonesian waters, and a partially reformulated nomenclature for the cephalic sensory papillae of members of this genus is provided. Trimma aturirii possesses two dark oblique stripes on either side of the pupil (blue, edged with red in life, dark brown in preservative), the lower of which continues posteriorly across the dorsal margin of the opercle, with the dorsal half of the body red and the ventral half abruptly white in life. The species has a narrow bony interorbital (≤50% pupil width), a moderate interorbital trench with a slight groove posterodorsal to the eye, no scales on the cheek, opercle or in the predorsal midline, no elongate spines in the first dorsal fin, 9-10 dorsal and 9 anal fin rays, 17-18 (7-11 branched) pectoral fin rays and an unbranched fifth pelvic fin ray. Trimma kardium has a pair of tapering oval red spots which join anteriorly over the anterior region of the hyoid arches, forming an approximate heart-shaped marking on the ventral surface of the head. It has a narrow bony interorbital (≤40% pupil width), a moderate interorbital trench with a slight groove posterodorsal to the eye, 17-18 unbranched pectoral fin rays, 1-5 cycloid scales in the predorsal midline confined to about the middle third of the nape, and a single row of 1-3 cycloid scales along the upper border of the opercle. Trimma trioculatum has a large (slightly greater than pupil diameter in width) round, black, ocellated spot in the first dorsal fin between spines 1 and 5, a second, much smaller black or dark red spot just posterior to the spine of the second dorsal fin and above the basal stripe, a yellow body with a dark purplish or gray head with two distinct red bars across the cheek, no round spots of any colour on the nape, opercle or cheek, a small dark (preserved) or white (alive) spot on the upper pectoral fin base, a narrow bony interorbital (<70% pupil diameter), no elongate spines in the first dorsal fin, 15-16 pectoral fin rays with the middle 4-8 rays branched, a fifth pelvic fin ray with a single dichotomous branch, and 16-17 total gill rakers on the first gill arch.

  16. Oreoglanis hponkanensis, a new sisorid catfish from north Myanmar (Actinopterygii, Sisoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Yong; Qin, Tao; Chen, Zhi-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During a survey of the Mali Hka River drainage in Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary in December 2015, a new species was collected and is described herein as Oreoglanis hponkanensis. It is a member of the Oreoglanis siamensis species group and can be distinguished from its congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: lower lip with median notch and posterior margin entire, caudal fin emarginate, nasal barbel reaching about half the distance to eye, tip of maxillary barbel rounded, posterior margin of maxillary barbel entire, absence of pale elliptical patches on sides of body below adipose fin, absence of patch on base of first dorsal fin ray, caudal fin brown with two round, bright orange patches in middle, branched dorsal fin rays 5, branched anal fin rays 2, vertebrae 40, pectoral fin surpassing pelvic fin origin, pelvic fin length 21–26% SL, caudal peduncle length 25–33% SL, caudal peduncle depth 3–5% SL, adipose fin base length 34–39% SL, and dorsal to adipose distance 12–16% SL. PMID:28228678

  17. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes: comparing populations of distinct environments

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    Fábio T. Mise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream and a lentic (Jaboti Lake. Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus, the proposed hypotheses were that the populations that occur in distinct environments present morphological differences. The morphological variables were obtained using morphometric measurements and the ecomorphological indexes. The data were summarized in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova was made to verify significant differences in morphology between the populations. Males and females showed similar ecomorphological patterns according to the environment they occur. In general the population from Maringá Stream had fins with major areas, and the Jaboti Lake population eyes located more dorsally. Additionally, others morphological differences such as wider mouth of the males from Maringá Stream, wider heads on Jaboti Lake females and more protractible mouths on males from Jaboti Lake suggest a set of environmental variables that can possibly influence the ecomorphological patterns of the populations, as the water current, availability of food resources and predation. In summary, the initial hypotheses could be confirmed, evidencing the occurrence of distinct ecomorphotypes in the same species according to the environment type.

  18. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

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    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North African freshwater fish fauna is scarce compared to other regions of the world, probably due to historical and climatic factors. The western part of North Africa is more diverse than central or eastern areas. Populations of freshwater blennids that have been traditionally ascribed to the species Salaria fluviatilis nowadays inhabit the Sebou basin in Morocco. In this study we demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that these Moroccan populations constitute a new species, for which we provide a formal description. The following diagnostic characters distinguish the newly described species from other freshwater blennids: head without diagonal rows of dark dots or blotches on cheeks; supra-ocular tentacle thick and simple (not branched; 13-15 teeth on the upper jaw and 14-16 on the lower jaw; 16-17 soft anal fin rays; short pre-orbital distance (cephalic index: 2.9-3.8; height of the anterior (spiny part of the dorsal fin short (dorsal fin index: 0.8-1.3 and 34 vertebrae. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic distances between the new Salaria species and either S. economidisi or S. fluviatilis are high, especially in the mitochondrial control region (18%, while these genetic distances range from 2 to 3% when the nuclear S7 marker is compared. These morphological and molecular characters differentiate the new species from the remaining freshwater species of the genus (Salaria economidisi and S. fluviatilis. The new species is confined to a small restricted area of the Sebou basin in Morocco and should be considered endangered (EN according to the IUCN Red List.La fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África es escasa comparada con otras regiones del mundo debido fundamentalmente a factores históricos y climáticos. El oeste del norte de África es más diverso que las regiones del centro y del este. En la cuenca del río Sebou habitan actualmente poblaciones de blenios de agua dulce que han sido tradicionalmente adscritas a la especie Salaria fluviatilis. En este estudio demostramos morfológica y molecularmente que estas poblaciones marroquíes constituyen una nueva especie, para la cual proveemos una descripción formal. Los siguientes caracteres diagnósticos distinguen a la nueva especie descrita del resto de especies de blenios de agua dulce: cabeza sin una fila diagonal de puntos oscuros o manchas en las mejillas; tentáculo supraocular grueso y simple (no ramificado; 13-15 dientes en la mandíbula superior y 14-16 en la inferior; 16-17 radios blandos en la aleta anal; distancia preorbital corta (índice cefálico: 2.9-3.8; altura de la region anterior de la aleta dorsal corta (índice dorsal: 0.8-1.3 y 34 vértebras. Las distancias genéticas mitocondriales y nuclear entre la nueva especie de Salaria y las otras dos especies son altas, especialmente en la región control (18%, mientras que estas distancias genéticas variaron entre 2-3% para el gen nuclear S7. Estos caracteres morfológicos y moleculares diferencian a la nueva especie del resto de blenios de agua dulce del género (Salaria fluviatilis y S. economidisi. La nueva especie está confinada a la cuenca del río Sebou en Marruecos y debería ser considerada como En Peligro (EN de acuerdo a las categorías de la lista roja.

  19. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts play an important role in the Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 replication cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Adamek, Mikołaj; Proepsting, Marcus J; Ulrich, Reiner; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2015-09-30

    The Cyprinus herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the new Alloherpesviridae virus family in the Herpesvirales order. CyHV-3 has been implicated in a large number of disease outbreaks in carp populations causing up to 100% mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the requirement of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in CyHV-3 entry and replication in carp cells. Plasma membrane cholesterol was depleted from common carp brain (CCB) cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Treated and non-treated cells were infected with CyHV-3 and virus binding and infection parameters were assessed using RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and virus titration. The effect of cholesterol reduction severely stunted virus entry in vitro, however after cholesterol replenishment virus entry and subsequent replication rates were similar to the control infection. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion did not significantly influence virus binding and the subsequent post-entry replication stage, however had an impact on virus egress. Comparative analysis of the lipid compositions of CyHV-3 and CCB membrane fractions revealed strong similarities between the lipid composition of the CyHV-3 and CCB lipid rafts. The results presented here show that cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are important for the CyHV-3 replication cycle especially during entry and egress.

  20. Comparative genomics in cyprinids: Common carp EST's help the annotation of the zebrafish genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, A.; Bartfai, R.; Srinivasan, H.; Komen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequenc

  1. Several Growth Characteristics of an Invasive Cyprinid Fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

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    Sait BULUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length-weight relationships, growth, and condition factors of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 were determined using specimens collected from Seyitler Reservoir between July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 149 gibel carp were observed and examined. The age composition of the samples ranged between I and VII years of age. It has been determined than 82.55% of the obtained samples are comprised of females, 16.11% is comprised of males and 1.34% is comprised of immature. The population is dominated by females able to reproduce gynogenetically. The mean fork lengths and mean weights of the population were 14.8-32.5 cm and 43.1-807.3 g respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as W = 0.0696 L2.132, r=0.838 for females, for males W = 0.2942 L2.6417 r=0.784 and W = 0.0274 L2.9382, r=0.813 for all samples. The mean Fulton Condition Factor was calculated as 2.342 for females, 2.064 for males and 2.276 for all samples. Age-length and age-weight relations were determined according to von Bertalanffy growth equation formula. Growth parameters of the population were Lt = 48.09 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29], and Wt=2323.62 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29]2.9382. The growth performance index value (Ø´ was computed as 5.37 for all specimens.

  2. On the occurrence of the Asiatic cyprinid Pseudorasbora parva in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Korosi, A.

    2006-01-01

    A large scale inventory along the Meuse River (the Netherlands), showed that floodplain lakes function as spawning, nursery and adult habitats, while the main river channel merely serves as a dispersal corridor for adult Pseudorasbora parva, one of the most successful invasive fish species that have

  3. Hybridisation between two cyprinid fishes in a novel habitat: genetics, morphology and life-history traits

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    Caffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and bream (Abramis brama L. is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed.

  4. Morphological variability of the Asiatic cyprinid, topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva, in its introduced European range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhorská, E; Kovác, V; Falka, I; Beyer, K; Katina, S; Copp, G H; Gozlan, R E

    2009-01-01

    To assess the spatial variability in external morphology of non-native populations of topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva within an ontogenetic context, triple regression analysis (distance-based measurements) was applied to data from eight European populations (two Slovak, four Romanian, one English and one French). The data from Slovakia were also subjected to geometrical analysis (co-ordinates-based measurements) to obtain a more complex picture of the species' overall morphology. Great phenotypic variability was observed, being expressed not only in the formation of different definite phenotypes but also in the manner by which the phenotypes are achieved. Thus, both the definite phenotype and the patterns of development in invasive P. parva may be highly influenced by environmental conditions. Such great morphological (phenotypic) variability is likely to be one of the attributes that make this species such a successful invader.

  5. LENGTH–WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP OF SIX CYPRINID FISH IN THE RIVER VARDAR (REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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    Simo Georgiev

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the length–weight relationship of six out of eight most commonly found fish species inhabiting the Vardar River biotope, the largest riverine system in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula: Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782; Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758, Barbus macedonicus Karaman, 1928; Barbus peloponnesius Valenciennes, 1842; Chondrostoma vardarense Karaman, 1928 and Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758, two of which are endemic. Satisfactory results for all the length groups have been determined only for B. peloponnesius whereas for the other fish species exceptions were noted for some of the length classes. The rational behind this can be sought in two reasons: insufficient number of individuals in a concrete length class or sexual maturation causing the prespawning or postspawning influence on the change of the weight of the fish.

  6. Condition-dependent individual decision-making determines cyprinid partial migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.; Hansson, L.A.;

    2008-01-01

    migration. Hence, our main conclusion is that individual decision-making is based on assessment of own condition which offers a mechanistic explanation to partial migration. Moreover, this may be of high importance for understanding population responses to environmental variation as well as ecosystem......Partial migration is a common phenomenon among many animals and occurs in many types of ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms behind partial migration is of major importance for the understanding of population dynamics and, eventually, ecosystem processes. We studied the effects of food...

  7. Diet of the cyprinid fish Barbus aeneus (Burchell) in the P .K. Ie Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    length and mass of the fIsh were measured to the nearest 1 mm and 0,1 g respectively. ... 2 h, the deep-water fIsh were considered only in the qualitative .... changes in diet were minimized by recording the contents of each section of the gut .... S. AfT. J. Zoo!. 1986,21(3). 261. Table 2 Relative importance of factors in multiple ...

  8. Early Development of Four Cyprinids Native to the Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 1 -- Notes on the Translation and Use of "A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China" By Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang Chapter 2 -- A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China By Bolu Yi, Zhishen Liang, Zhitang Yu, Randuan Lin, and Mingjue HeTranslated by Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang The document A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China (Chapter 2 of this volume) was translated from the Chinese with the approval and assistance of the living authors of that study. It contains the most detailed description available, and approximately 200 drawings, of the early development of the subject fishes. Chapter 1 provides important instructions on the use of the translation, including a description of the Chinese morphometric conventions, which differ from those used by North American scientists. Chapter 1 also provides the historical context in which Chapter 2 was developed, and information on how the larvae of the subject fishes, which have invaded the Mississippi River basin, may be distinguished from other fishes present in the basin.

  9. An important developmental role for oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkers, J; Semino, C E; Stroband, H; Kijne, J W; Robbins, P W; Spaink, H P

    1997-07-22

    Derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides have been shown to play a role in plant organogenesis at nanomolar concentrations. Here we present data which indicate that chitin oligosaccharides are important for embryogenesis in vertebrates. We characterize chitin oligosaccharides synthesized in vitro by zebrafish and carp embryos in the late gastrulation stage by incorporation of radiolabeled N-acetyl-D-[U14C]glucosamine and by HPLC in combination with enzymatic conversion using the Bradyrhizobium NodZ alpha-1, 6-fucosyltransferase and chitinases. A rapid and sensitive bioassay for chitin oligosaccharides was also used employing suspension-cultured plant cells of Catharanthus roseus. We show that chitin oligosaccharide synthase activity is apparent only during late gastrulation and can be inhibited by antiserum raised against the Xenopus DG42 protein. The DG42 protein, a glycosyltransferase, is transiently expressed between midblastula and neurulation in Xenopus and zebrafish embryogenesis. Microinjection of the DG42 antiserum or the Bradyrhizobium NodZ enzyme in fertilized eggs of zebrafish led to severe defects in trunk and tail development.

  10. Morphodynamic effects on the habitat of juvenile cyprinids (Chondrostoma nasus) in a restored Austrian lowland river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Christoph; Unfer, Günther; Schmutz, Stefan; Habersack, Helmut

    2008-08-01

    At the Sulm River, an Austrian lowland river, an ecologically orientated flood protection project was carried out from 1998-2000. Habitat modeling over a subsequent 3-year monitoring program (2001-2003) helped assess the effects of river bed embankment and of initiating a new meander by constructing a side channel and allowing self-developing side erosion. Hydrodynamic and physical habitat models were combined with fish-ecological methods. The results show a strong influence of riverbed dynamics on the habitat quality and quantity for the juvenile age classes (0+, 1+, 2+) of nase (Chondrostoma nasus), a key fish species of the Sulm River. The morphological conditions modified by floods changed significantly and decreased the amount of weighted usable areas. The primary factor was river bed aggradation, especially along the inner bend of the meander. This was a consequence of the reduced sediment transport capacity due to channel widening in the modeling area. The higher flow velocities and shallower depths, combined with the steeper bank angle, reduced the Weighted Useable Areas (WUAs) of habitats for juvenile nase. The modeling results were evaluated by combining results of mesohabitat-fishing surveys and habitat quality assessments. Both, the modeling and the fishing results demonstrated a reduced suitability of the habitats after the morphological modifications, but the situation was still improved compared to the pre-restoration conditions at the Sulm River.

  11. Pool-type fishways: two different morpho-ecological cyprinid species facing plunging and streaming flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei-bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus-water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes-plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found.

  12. Excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption is independent from lactate accumulation in two cyprinid fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genz, J.; Jyde, M.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2013-01-01

    the increase in oxygen consumption in fish required following strenuous exercise or low environmental oxygen availability has been frequently considered, the primary contributing mechanism remains unknown. This study utilized the close relationship but strongly divergent physiology between C. carpio and C....... carassius to examine the possible correlation between excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption (EPHOC) and lactate accumulation. No difference in the EPHOC:O2 deficit ratio was observed between the two species after 2.5 h anoxia, with ratios of 2.0 ± 0.6 (C. carpio) and 1.3 ± 0.3 (C. carassius). As predicted...

  13. Lacustrine spawning: is this a new reproductive strategy among 'large' African cyprinid fishes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Nentwich, E.D.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the gonadosomatic index and abundance of the different Labeobarbus species in the mouths of four major afferent rivers of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, were monitored monthly during 1999 and 2000. Riverine spawning was characteristic for seven of Lake Tana's 15 contemporary Labeobarbus species. Th

  14. Cellular responses in the cyprinid Leuciscus cephalus from a contaminated freshwater ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzilli, G; Falleni, A; Scarcelli, V; Del Barga, I; Pellegrini, S; Savarino, G; Mariotti, V; Benedetti, M; Fattorini, D; Regoli, F; Nigro, M

    2008-09-17

    The response of wild chubs (Leuciscus cephalus) to chemical pollution was assessed in a metal contaminated river (Cecina River, Italy) through a wide battery of biomarkers which included: Comet assay detecting DNA strand breaks; diffusion assay for apoptosis induction; micronucleus test assessing chromosomal alterations; ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity for the induction of cytochrome P 4501A; acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity responsive to pesticide exposure; vitellogenin gene expression in males revealing estrogenic effects. Bioaccumulation of mercury, chromium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was also determined. Levels of mercury and PAHs were higher in tissues of chubs sampled from the most downstream station, reflecting an anthropogenic pollution of industrial origin. Otherwise, accumulation of Cr was quite similar in fish along the entire course of Cecina River confirming a natural origin due to local geochemical features. Biomarker responses revealed a significant increase of apoptotic cells, DNA stand breaks and micronucleus frequency in chubs from the more impacted sites. A slight EROD induction and AChE inhibition were only seen at the most downstream station demonstrating a limited impact due to PAHs and pesticides. On the other hand, the induction of vitellogenin gene in male chubs was measured in all the sites, suggesting a diffuse estrogenic effect. This study confirmed the utility of large batteries of biomarkers in biomonitoring studies and the suitability of wild chub as bioindicator organism for river basins.

  15. A new species of barb Puntius nigripinnis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D Marcus Knight

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Puntius ticto, a widely distributed barb, was long believed to have many variants. Recent research has shown that what was earlier known as P. ticto in different regions of India comprised of many similar looking species such as P. manipurensis, P. muvattupuzhaensis, P. pookodensis, among others. As yet another addition to this complex, we describe Puntius nigripinnis sp. nov. from the Nilgiris and Wyanad area of the southern Western Ghats. Puntius nigripinnis, sp. nov., is distinguished from all other congeners by lacking barbels and having the last unbranched dorsal ray serrated; 20-21 lateral line scales; lateral line incomplete, piercing 3-5 scales; dorsal, anal, pelvic and pectoral fins black in adult males; body pattern consisting of a humeral mark on the 3rd or 4th lateral-line scale and a second larger, band-like spot on the 18th and 19th scale, forming a ring around the caudal peduncle, and only two scales between the second spot and the root of the caudal fin.

  16. Age and growth of Labeo gonius (Cyprinidae) in Kali river, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Asian_Fish_Sci_5_257.pdf.txt stream_source_info Asian_Fish_Sci_5_257.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Segura, Lilian; Cárdenas-Reygadas, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH) in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH) and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the com...

  18. A new species of barb Puntius nigripinnis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D Marcus Knight

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Puntius ticto, a widely distributed barb, was long believed to have many variants. Recent research has shown that what was earlier known as P. ticto in different regions of India comprised of many similar looking species such as P. manipurensis, P. muvattupuzhaensis, P. pookodensis, among others. As yet another addition to this complex, we describe Puntius nigripinnis sp. nov. from the Nilgiris and Wyanad area of the southern Western Ghats. Puntius nigripinnis, sp. nov., is distinguished from all other congeners by lacking barbels and having the last unbranched dorsal ray serrated; 20-21 lateral line scales; lateral line incomplete, piercing 3-5 scales; dorsal, anal, pelvic and pectoral fins black in adult males; body pattern consisting of a humeral mark on the 3rd or 4th lateral-line scale and a second larger, band-like spot on the 18th and 19th scale, forming a ring around the caudal peduncle, and only two scales between the second spot and the root of the caudal fin.

  19. The most important Romanian researches on species Pseudorasbora parva(Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel-Claudiu Gavriloaie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present shortly some data regarding the origin and occurrence of species Pseudorasbora parva, then they realise an analysis of the most important papers written by Romanian authors, both in our country and abroad, concerning this species.

  20. Bayesian mixed models and divergence time estimation of Chinese cavefishes (Cyprinidae: Sinocyclocheilus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ZhiQiang; GUO BaoCheng; LI JunBing; HE ShunPing; CHEN YiYu

    2008-01-01

    The genus Sinocyclocheilus is distributed in Yun-Gui Plateau and its surrounding region only, within more than 10 cave species showing different degrees of degeneration of eyes and pigmentation with wonderful adaptations. To present, published morphological and molecular phylogenetic hypotheses of Sinocyclocheilus from prior works are very different and the relationships within the genus are still far from clear. We obtained the sequences of cytochrome b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) of 34 species within Sinocyclocheilus, which represent the most dense taxon sampling to date. We performed Bayesian mixed models analyses with this data set. Under this phylogenetic framework, we estimated the divergence times of recovered clades using different methods under relaxed molecular clock. Our phyloegentic results supported the monophyly of Sinocyclocheilus and showed that this genus could be subdivided into 6 major clades. In addition, an earlier finding demonstrating the polyphyletic of cave species and the most basal position of S. jii was corroborated. Relaxed divergence-time estimation suggested that Sinocyclocheilus originated at the late Miocene, about 11 million years ago (Ma), which is older than what have been assumed.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), in comparison with A. kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Chang, Chia-Hao; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-04-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti, which is known as an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,617 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with most vertebrates. We compared the mitochondrial genome of A. moltrechti with that of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii, which had been considered closely related to A. moltrechti within a same genus. Nucleotide sequence divergence (K2P distance) between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 11.62%. The detailed comparison between the mitochondrial genomes of two species was done.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow Aphyocypris kikuchii (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919), which is an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,601 bp in size, containing 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The sequence information could play an important role in resolving the conflict on its current taxonomic position and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA variability to explore the relationship complexity of Schizothoracine (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the taxonomy of a highly complex group of schizothoracine (snow trouts), with over five recognized species from Kashmir, India (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax curvifrons and Schizothorax labiatus) based on traditional morphological data, the relationships between these species is poorly understood and the taxonomic validity is still under debate. To resolve the evolutionary relationships among these species, we sequenced mitochondrial fragments, including 16Sr RNA, Cytb and the D-loop. Separate analyses of 16S and Cytb showed intermixing of the species and 16S was found more conserved than Cytb. The D-loop was found highly variable and showed length variation between and within species. Length variation was observed in di-nucleotide (TA)n microsatellite repeats with a variable number of repeat units (n = 7-14) that did not show heteroplasmy. Central conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in D-loop sequences were found comparable to other vertebrate species. All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the focal taxa as a monophyletic clade within the schizothoracines. Analyses with combined mitochondrial data sets showed close genetic relationships of all the five species. In addition to a close relationship between S. niger and S. curvifrons, two distinct groupings of S. ecoscinus and S. plagiostomus were supported by all the analyses. This study gives an insight into molecular phylogeny of the species and improves our understanding of historical and taxonomic relationships derived from morphological and ecological studies.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boroń, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species.

  5. Molecular organization of 5S rDNA in bitterlings (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Mika; Inafuku, Junya; Takeda, Akiko; Watanabe, Akiko; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kohno, Sei-Ichi; Kubota, Souichirou

    2009-04-01

    Molecular organization and nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNA gene and NTS were investigated in freshwater fish, bitterlings (Acheilognathinae), including 10 species/subspecies of four genera, Acheilognathus, Pseudoperilampus, Rhodeus, and Tanakia, to understand the evolutionary trait of 5S rDNA arrays. Southern hybridization analysis revealed a general trend with tandem repeats of 5S rDNA in all the examined bitterlings. Sequence analysis demonstrated a conserved 120 bp sequence of the 5S rRNA gene and a short NTS of 56-67 bp with two distinct portions, a conserved (5'-flanking portion; at positions -1 to -38) and a variable part (3'-flanking portion), in 6 of 10 species/subspecies examined. The conserved NTS region was most likely an external promoter so far observed in various vertebrates, whereas the variable NTS region could be divided into two types due to its nucleotide polymorphisms. Molecular phylogeny using the 5S rRNA gene and NTS sequences suggested the occurrence of 5S rDNA duplication before speciation and a concerted evolution for the gene and conserved NTS regions, but a birth-and-death process to maintain the variable NTS region. Thus, the 5S rDNA in the examined bitterlings might have evolved under a mixed process of evolution.

  6. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  7. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric "small barbs" (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae) in Lake Tana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  8. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  9. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas entre cada inyección. Con la dosis de 0.5 mg/ml/kg, se encontró un aumento en el número de gonadotrofas de 382% y de 123% en el volumen, en comparación con los controles. La dosis de 1.0 mg/ml/kg presentó un aumento de 704% en el número de células y de 152% en el volumen celular. Con 1.5 mg/ml/kg se causó que las gonadotrofas aumentarán 171% en número y 106% en volumen. En general, las gónadas de los grupos experimentales presentaron estadios más avanzados de espermatogénesis. Nuestros resultados demuestran que ocho aplicaciones de reserpina provocan el incremento, tanto del número como del volumen, de células gonadotropas

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp Procypris rabaudi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Jiang, Wanxiang; Song, Zhaobin

    2009-05-01

    Rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang), is an endemic fish species in China. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of it by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction with conserved primers and primer walking sequencing method. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp is 16595 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region, with an identical order to that of most other vertebrates. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) in rock carp mitochondrion is located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY region) with 35 nucleotides in length. The control region is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 943 bp in length. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB), an extended termination associated sequence (ETAS), an AT-repeat microsatellite sequence and a putative promoter sequence for H-strand transcription (HSP) were identified within this region. The microsatellite sequence has a very low variation, with only one repeat alteration in 50 checked individuals (from 12 to 13 repeats). The phylogenetic analysis for rock carp was performed with Bayesian and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the concatenated nucleotide sequence of 12 protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. The result suggested that traditional taxonomic barbines possibly originated more early than cyprininaes; rock carp was placed at the position between barbines and cyprininaes, while has a closer relationship with cyprininaes than barbines.

  11. Gill ectoparasites of Barbus martorelli (Teleostean: Cyprinidae) from a tropical watercourse (Cameroon, Africa): conflict or coexistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombi, J; Bilong Bilong, C F; Morand, S

    2011-02-01

    The structure and stability of parasite communities have been mainly explained by high diversity and strong interactions among parasite species. During 16 months, 558 Barbus martorelli gill infracommunities were studied in a tropical zone to determine whether parasite infrapopulations interact. Three levels were retained: the infracommunity level, the gill filament level, and the filament fraction level. Single species infections in Barbus martorelli were very rare and only concerned the core species: Dactylogyrus bopeleti, D. insolitus, D. simplex and Myxobolus barbi. Mixed infections appeared as a general rule in this fish species. Interspecific interactions at all three levels were statistically non significant. Our results suggest that Barbus martorelli gill parasites are non interactive (isolationist).

  12. [Fauna of monogeneans (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) of gudgeons (Gobioninae, Cyprinidae). 1. Composition, structure, and characteristics of distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, P I

    2008-01-01

    Monogeneans parasitize 31 gudgeon species of 130, and 13 gudgeon genera of 30 known. Monogenea from gudgeon comprise 48 species of the genus Dactylogyrus, 1 Bivaginogyrus (Dactylogyridae), 18 Ancyrocephalus s. l. (Ancyrocephalidae), 6 Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylidae), 3 Paradiplozoon, and 1 species of the genus Sindiplozoon (Diplozoidae). The following characters were used in the morphological analysis: (1) structure of the copulatory organ, (2) morphology of the anchors, marginal hooks and bars, (3) characteristic of attachment on gills. Among the Dactylogyrus species parasitizing gudgeon, 30 monophyletic species groups and 13 levels of morphological organization were established. The first level comprises dactylogyrids without the additional ventral bar of haptor. It includes species with the copulatory organ of pro-cryptomeres type. This type is ancestral for dactylogyrids of the Amur/China fauna. Levels II-IV; VI, etc. are derivates of level I. Levels VII-VIII can be characterized by the jamming type of attachment characteristic for Dactylogyrus sphyrna or D. anchoratus, when marginal hooks penetrate gill filaments towards the anchors. Levels IX-XII include species with the attachment by clasping, when the anchors directed towards each other. Some species groups of Dactylogyrus (V, XIII) switched onto gudgeons from other fishes (Cultrinae, Xenocyprininae, Hypophthalmichthinae). Species of the genus Ancyrocephalus s. l. form two levels of morphological organization and 8 monophyletic groups. Repeated switches of ancyrocephalids from freshwater gobies to gudgeons and their switches from gudgeons to other fishes were shown. Species of the genus Hemibarbus serve as hosts for morphologically peculiar species groups of Dactylogyrus and Ancyrocephalus s. l. We can conclude that gyrodactylids from gudgeons do not form a natural monophyletic group. This parasite fauna originated as a result of multiple switches from phylogenetically distant but ecologically similar hosts, for example sticklebacks, bitterlings, chars, spined loaches, etc. Species of the family Diplozoidae parasitizing gudgeons may invade also many species from other fish taxa.

  13. [THE DESCRIPTION OF MYXOBOLUS PELECICOLA SP. NOV. (MYXOZOA: MYXOBOLIDAE) FROM PELECUS CULTRATUS (CYPRINIFORMES, CYPRINIDAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, V N; Dudin, A S

    2015-01-01

    Morphological study of myxosporean parasites Myxobolus pelecicola sp. n. from Pele- cus cultratus (L., 1758), is presented. Presporogenic stage not observed. Polysporous, el- lipsoidal. plasmodia up to 1.2 mm in length and 0.1 to 0.4 mm in width develop in the ske- letal musculature. Mature spores elongate oval or oval form in frontal view, lens-shaped in sutural view. Length of spores 16.5 ± 0.83 (14.9-18.0), width 12.1 ± 0.63 (11.6-13.3) (n = 50), thickness 7.8 ± 0.3 (7.4-8.3) µm (n = 10). Polar capsules pyriform, unequal, length of large 8.0 ± 0.44 (7.5-8.8), small 7.6 ± 0.26 (7.2-7.8), width of large 4.5 ± 0.22 (4.2-4.7), small 4.0 ± 0.21 (3.8-4.3) µm. Five to 6 distinct filament coils oriented obli- quely to capsule length, found in polar capsule. The length of extruded (in water) filament up to 130 µm. Large, but indistinct triangular intercapsular appendix present in spores. Single rodlet inclusion is very often observed in the posterior part of spore. Mucous enve- lope is absent. The type host of Myxobolus pelecicola sp. n. is sabrefish Pelecus cultratus (L., 1758). Type locality: Finnish Bay (60°05' N 29°55' E) and Ladoga lake (60°07' N 32°19' E), Russia.

  14. Long-term persistence, density dependence and effects of climate change on rosyside dace (Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Gary Sundin; Robert E. Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    SummaryWe used long-term population data for rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides), a numerically dominant member of a stochastically organised fish assemblage, to evaluate the relative importance of density-dependent and density-independent processes to population...

  15. Goblet cell types in intestine of tiger barb and black tetra (Cyprinidae, Characidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, I L

    2014-10-01

    Histochemical properties of goblet cells in intestine of a stomach-less teleost, tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), and a stomach-containing teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. The intestine goblet cells were mostly wide in both species, but in tiger barb, some of them were markedly thinner. In black tetra, all the intestine goblet cells displayed magenta colour after PAS, whereas in the tiger barb, only the thinner goblet cells displayed such affinity. The latter cell type was coloured strongly magenta when the tissue was treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) followed by PAS, whereas the wide goblet cells in tiger barb and all goblet cells in black tetra displayed mainly a blue colour after such treatment. Further, the goblet cells in both species were coloured cleanly blue after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). The intestine goblet cells in both species displayed a moderate affinity to WGA and concanavalin A lectins and no affinity to DBA. Most of the goblet cells displayed no affinity to PNA, but some of them in the tiger barb displayed a moderate or strong affinity to this lectin. The affinity to WGA was somewhat strengthened after pre-treatment with neuraminidase. These results suggest that tiger barb contains two types or variants of intestinal goblet cells: high numbers of wide cells filled by acidic, non-sulphated mucin and some thinner cells filled by neutral mucin. The intestine goblet cells in black tetra were filled by variable amounts of neutral and acidic mucin, but the total number of such cells is much less than in tiger barb. The present lectin and neuraminidase results suggest that the intestinal mucins in both species contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and glucose/mannose, but seem to lack N-acetylgalactosamine. However, some of these cells in tiger barb contain moderate to large amounts of galactose. Together, these results suggest significant species-specific features of the intestine goblet cells and mucin types in tiger barb and black tetra. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the diet and feeding habits in stomach-less teleosts compared with stomach-containing teleosts, greatly influence the number of intestine goblet cells and type of mucin in these cells. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Solute carriers (SLCs) identified and characterized from kidney transcriptome of golden mahseer (Tor putitora) (Fam: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Ashoktaru; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari; Kumar, Rohit; Pande, Veena

    2016-10-01

    The solute carriers (SLC) are trans-membrane proteins, those regulate the transport of various substances (sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, inorganic cations/anions, metals, drugs etc.) across the cell membrane. There are more than 338 solute carriers (slc) reported in fishes that play crucial role in cellular influx and efflux. The study of solute carrier families may reveal many answers regarding the function of transporter genes in the species and their effect in the existing environment. Therefore, we performed RNA sequencing of kidney tissue of the golden mahseer (Tor putitora) using Illumina platform to identify the solute carrier families and characterized 24 putative functional genes under 15 solute carrier families. Out of 24 putative functional genes, 11 genes were differentially expressed in different tissues (head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, liver, gill, muscle, intestine and brain) using qRT-PCR assay. The slc5a1, slc5a12, slc12a3, slc13a3, slc22a13 and slc26a6 were highly expressed in kidney. The slc15a2, slc25a47, slc33a1 and slc38a2 were highly expressed in brain and slc30a5 was over-expressed in gill. The unrooted phylogenetic trees of slc2, slc5, slc13 and slc33 were constructed using amino acid sequences of Homo sapiens, Salmo salar, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio and Tor putitora. It appears that all the putative solute carrier families are very much conserved in human and fish species including the present fish, golden mahseer. This study provides the first hand database of solute carrier families particularly transporter encoding proteins in the species.

  17. Reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae from Lake Tana, Ethiopia

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    Akewake Geremew

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana was investigated by collecting monthly samples (January to December 2006 from the southern Gulf of Lake Tana, where these species are endemic.  Garra regressus has an extended breeding time from April to October while G. tana breeds throughout the year with a peak from March to July.  The mean size at maturity in both the species was not significantly different between the sexes, but G. tana had a significantly lower mean size at maturity than G. regressus in female specimens.  Absolute fecundity estimates for G. regressus ranged from 580.8–1800, while those for G. tana ranged from 538.9–2968.  Egg size frequency distribution revealed that G. regressus is a multiple spawner, while G. tana is a single spawner.  The sex ratio in the total catch of G. regressus was found to be skewed in favour of females (Chi-square, P< 0.05, while those for G. tana was not significantly different from 1:1. The mean size at maturity was not significantly different between the sexes for G. tana. 

  18. A contribution to the data on tench (Tinca tinca L., Cyprinidae, pisces distribution in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Goran S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the ichthyofauna of Serbia that have been conducted so far indicate the sporadic tench (Tinca tinca L. presence in typical habitats. The hydroenvironmental conditions necessary for the survival of this fish species are highly variable and, generally, are more favourable in the northern part of the country (the Vojvodina Province. Although the tench presence has been registered at over 30 sites, there is a tendency of a decrease in population abundance. This is due to the reduction of the surface area of the macrophyte-covered flood zones induced by the damming and regulation of rivers, high water level fluctuations, and water amount reduction in the majority of watercourses, a massive increase in the number of allochthonous phytofagous species, reservoir sediment deposition, water quality deterioration and other factors. The tench conservation status in Serbia is officially designated as Low Risk - Least Concern. It may be transferred to a higher category if the tendency towards deterioration of survival conditions for the species should continue.

  19. Labeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenberge, M; Gajdzik, L; Chilala, A; Snoeks, J; Vreven, E

    2014-11-01

    Labeo rosae, a species with a native range in Southern Africa, was discovered in the Congo basin by re-identification of two museum specimens previously identified as Labeo mesops. The occurrence of this species in the upper Congo implies a range extension of the species of more than 1000 km. Although the species' distribution is mirrored by that of some other Cypriniformes, its occurrence in the Congo might be due to introduction by humans.

  20. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  1. Introgressive hybridization as a promoter of genome reshuffling in natural homoploid fish hybrids (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S A; Aboim, M A; Ráb, P; Collares-Pereira, M J

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and speciation by introgressive hybridization is currently one of the major challenges in evolutionary biology. Here, the analysis of hybridization between two pairs of Iberian Leuciscinae provided new data on independent hybrid zones involving Achondrostoma oligolepis (AOL) and Pseudochondrostoma duriense (PDU), and confirmed the occurrence of hybrids between AOL and Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (PPO). A multilevel survey combining morphological, genetic and cytogenomic markers on a vast population screening successfully sorted the selected fishes as admixed. Results were similar in both AOL × PDU and AOL × PPO systems. Overall, hybrid morphotypes, cytogenomic data and genetic profiling indicated preferential backcrossing and suggested AOL as a major genomic contributor. Moreover, results implied AOL as more permissive to introgression than PDU or PPO. Although PDU- and PPO-like individuals appeared more resilient to genome modifications, AOL appeared to be more involved and affected by the ongoing hybridization events, as chromosomal translocations were only found in AOL-like individuals. All hybrids analysed evidenced extensive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphism that was not found in parental species, but usually seen falling within the range of possible parental combinations. Yet, transgressive phenotypes that cannot be explained by normal recombination, including more rDNA clusters than expected or the occurrence of syntenic rDNAs, were also detected. Present results proved rapid genomic evolution providing the genetic novelty for species to persist. In addition, although the ultimate consequences of such apparently extensive and recurrent events remain unknown, modern genome-wide methodologies are of great promise towards answering questions concerning the causes, dynamics and impacts of hybridization.

  2. THREATENED FISHES OF THE WORLD: Squalius svallize (HECKEL & KNER, 1858 (CYPRINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Šprem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neretva chub Squalius svallize is an endemic vulnerable species, strictly protected in Croatia but not protected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Populations are declining due to environmental degradation, dams, predators and poaching. A detailed study of current population status, biology and ecology of S. svalize is required.

  3. Genetic differentiation between cave and surface-dwelling populations of Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae in Oman

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    Seemann Robert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic similarities among cave-dwelling animals displaying troglomorphic characters (e.g. reduced eyes and lack of pigmentation have induced a long-term discussion about the forces driving convergent evolution. Here we introduce Garra barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956, as an interesting system to study the evolution of troglomorphic characters. The only hitherto known troglomorphic population of this species lives in Al Hoota Cave (Sultanate of Oman close to a surface population. As a first approach, we assessed the genetic differentiation between the two morphotypes of G. barreimiae to determine whether gene flow still occurs. Results We analysed the mitochondrial control region (CR. In G. barreimiae the CR starts immediately downstream of the tRNA-Thr gene, while the tRNA-Pro gene is missing at this genomic location. Interestingly, a putative tRNA-Pro sequence is found within the CR. The phylogenetic analyses of the CR sequences yielded a tree divided into three clades: Clade 1 has a high genetic distance to the other clades and contains the individuals of three populations which are separated by a watershed from all the others. Clade 2 comprises the individuals from Wadi Bani Khalid, the geographically most remote population. Clade 3 comprises all other populations investigated including that of Al Hoota Cave. The latter forms a haplogroup which also includes individuals from the adjacent surface population. Conclusions Our data indicates that the troglomorphic cave population is of quite recent origin supporting the hypothesis that selection drives the fast evolution of troglomorphic traits. In this context pleiotropic effects might play an important role as it has been shown for Astyanax. There seems to be some gene flow from the cave population into the adjacent surface populations. One blind individual, found at a surface locality geographically distinct from Al Hoota Cave, is genetically differentiated from the other blind specimens indicating the probable existence of another cave population of G. barreimiae. The phylogeographic analyses show that while some of the surface populations are either still in contact or have been until recently, the population Wadi Bani Khalid is genetically separated. One group consisting of three populations is genetically highly differentiated questioning the conspecifity with G. barreimiae.

  4. Detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria isolated from fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Gowhar H; Dar, Shoaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, Mohammad Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria from fish silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Assessment of clinical, microbiological, pathological and biochemical characteristics of A. sobria were taken into account in order to understand the epidemiology, frequency and occurrence of this infection. Clinically the infected fish (H. molitrix) was observed for various types of symptoms. A total of 33 colonies of A. sobria strain were isolated from 20 cultured H. molitrix, collected from controlled fish pond. Microscopic examination revealed that the strains were rod-shaped, Gram negative bacteria. The revealed percent probability identification of A. sobria from the biochemical characterization in VITEK system was 93% with gram negative (GN) card. The histopathology of Gills caused by this bacterium, A. sobria indicate haemorrhagic gill epithelia and epithelial hyperplasia. Lamelar epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia with degenerative changes of the epithelium and hypertrophic epitheliocystis infected cells on gills of H. molitrix were observed during the present study.

  5. Conservation, status, and life history of the endangered White River spinedace, Lepidomeda albivallis (Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Harvey, J.E.; Heinrich, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lepidomeda albivallis (White River spinedace), a fish species endemic to the White River, Nevada, appeared headed toward extinction. In 1991 only 1 population remained, and it comprised fewer than 50 individuals in a 70-m stream reach. We monitored population recruitment and distribution and studied life history and habitat use from 1993 through 1998. We determined that L. albivallis was not reproducing and was continuing to decline, and as an emergency measure we relocated the population (14 in spring 1995 and 6 in spring 1996) downstream 200 m to a secure habitat that we judged more favorable for reproduction. The relocated population reproduced, and by September 1998 it had increased to 396 individuals that inhabited more than 1 km of stream including both pond and stream habitats. In streams they oriented near the bottom but frequently moved up in the water column to strike at drift items. Gut analysis of museum specimens indicated L. albivallis is omnivorous but feeds primarily upon aquatic invertebrates. Conservation of L. albivallis will require reestablishing additional populations within its former range.

  6. Review of the current status of systematics of gudgeons (Gobioninae, Cyprinidae) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzimierz Popek; Ján Koščo; Michał Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Systematic of the gudgeons (Gobioninae) is one of the most dynamically evolving branches of the modern ichthyology. Newly implemented methods of molecular biology, modern species concepts (i.e. phylogenetic and evolutionary) and thorough investigations in the field of internal and external morphology caused in better understand of diversity of this group of fishes. Despite some new species of gudgeons were described, diversity of gobionins still seems much underestimated. It is a serious obst...

  7. Physical changes in specimens of five species of Cyprinidae preserved in ethanol and frozen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwin-Kossakowski, M

    2014-09-01

    Preservation in 30% ethanol and freezing to a temperature of -20 ± 2° C is an appropriate method for measurement of fish eggs, larvae and juveniles. Egg diameter of the common carp Cyprinus carpio increased insignificantly by 1·32% after preservation compared with live size. The total length (LT ) of 1 day post-hatching (dph) larvae as well as the standard length (LS) of 16 dph larvae of C. carpio increased significantly (2·95 and 1·50%, respectively) after preservation. Egg diameter as well as the LT of 1 dph larvae of barbel Barbus barbus increased significantly after preservation, by 1·74 and 1·96%, respectively over their original size. The standard length (LS ) of 14 dph larvae of B. barbus as well as juveniles of B. barbus, crucian carp Carassius carassius, common nase Chondrostoma nasus and tench Tinca tinca decreased significantly after preservation (-0·56 to -5·54%), whereas their body mass increased significantly (11·46-18·57%). Preserved eggs of C. carpio and B. barbus were hard, round and transparent. The larvae and juveniles of examined fishes, preserved in frozen ethanol, were straight, flexible and easily measurable after 60 days. Integrity of body surface and fins, as well as preservation of colours were much better in larvae or juveniles frozen and thawed only once than in specimens frozen and thawed thrice. Cooling in 30% ethanol to a temperature of 6 ± 2° C and freezing in water to a temperature of -20 ± 2° C are not appropriate preservation methods for eggs and larvae of C. carpio (1 and 16 dph).

  8. Insights on the Reproduction and Embryonic Development of Garra rufa (Cyprinidae

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    Mónica R S Gomes

    2015-11-01

    In a total of 28 postures, only 17 resulted in newly born fish. This was mostly due to fungal development around the eggs that caused the embryos to degenerate. There was a hatching success of 60%. The eggs showed no adhesive properties, being deposited on the bottom. The most prominent structures of the embryos were noticeable after: 3h - tail bud; 6h - optic primordium; 10h - heart beating; 15h - pectoral fins buds. They hatched between 24 to 48h and the larvae consumed the yolk sac in 48h.

  9. Population genetic of Petroleuciscus esfahani (Teleostei: Cyprinidae in Zayandeh Rood River, Iran

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    Neda Shojaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Population genetics of Petroleuciscus esfahani in Zayandeh Rood River, Iran were analysed using 120 samples of adult fish from four stations of the river Cheshmeh Dimeh (CHD, Khersoonak (KH, Chamgordan (CH and Safaeye Bridge (SB and 5 pairs of microsatellite primers. All loci showed polymorphism. A total number of 54 alleles were recorded across loci ranging from 6 at CnaB-030 to 17 at Ca3. The mean number of alleles per populations ranged from 9.6 in CHD to 8.6 in others. Mean observed heterozygosity at the five loci detected ranged from 0.92 to 1.00 which showed high level of genetic diversity in each population. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was obvious in most combinations (locus × population, mainly due to heterozygosity excess. The lowest and highest genetic distances were calculated between CHD-KH and CHD-CH populations, respectively. The results showed low but significant FST values between each pair of the populations. This investigation represented at least four separate populations of P. esfahani in the river which showed the effects of river landscape fragmentation on population genetic structure of P. esfahani.

  10. Spawning seasons of Rasbora tawarensis (Pisces: Cyprinidae in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia

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    Musman Musri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rasbora tawarensis is an endemic freshwater fish in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Unfortunately, its status is regarded as critical endangered with populations decreasing in recent years. To date no information on the spawning activities of the fish are available. Therefore, this study provides a contribution to the knowledge on reproductive biology of R. tawarensis especially on spawning seasons as well as basic information for conservation of the species. Methods Monthly sampling was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 by using selective gillnets. The gonadosomatic index, size composition and sex ratio were assessed. The gonadal development was evaluated based on macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the gonads. Results The gonadosomatic index (GSI varied between 6.65 to 18.16 in female and 4.94 to 8.56 for male. GSI of the female R. tawarensis was higher in March, September and December indicating the onset of reproductive seasons, the GSI and oocyte size being directly correlated with gonadal development stages. Although, a greater proportion of mature male than female was detected during the study, the sex ratio showed that the overall number of female was higher than male. The ovaries had multiple oocyte size classes at every stage of gonadal development, thus R. tawarensis can be classified as a group synchronous spawner or a fractional multiple spawner. Conclusion The spawning seasons of R. tawarensis were three times a year and September being the peak of the reproductive season and the female was the predominant sex. This species is classified as a group synchronous spawner.

  11. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

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    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  12. Relação preliminar das espécies de peixes (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii ameaçadas no Brasil Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii in Brazil

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    Ricardo S Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are presently listed as endangered by federal legislation. Based on a literature search and a survey directed to the Neotropical ichthyologists, we present an unofficial list including a total of 78 threatened fish species (12 elasmobranchs and 66 actinopterygians. Of these, sixteen actinopterygian species are listed as endangered, three elasmobranchs and nine actinopterygians as vulnerable, and seven actinopterygians as rare; 40 species either have indeterminate status or are data deficient to yield an adequate assessment, and three species are listed as extinct or possibly extinct.

  13. A new species of Cottus from the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin (Actinopterygii: Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideleva, Valentina G; Naseka, Alexander M; Zhidkov, Zakhar V

    2015-04-29

    Cottus gratzianowi, a new cottid species, is described from material collected in the Ukhtomitsa River in the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin. It differs from its congeners in Europe east of the Meuse except C. koshewnikowi by having no transverse dark bands on the pelvic fin, a single chin canal pore, an incomplete lateral line not reaching behind the anal-fin insertion, and the position of the lateral line which is located considerably above the mid-line of the flank. From C. koshewnikowi distributed in the Volga (Caspian basin), Pechora, and Northern Dvina rivers (Arctic basin), C. gratzianowi sp. nov. can be distinguished by a combination of character states, the most differentiating are as follows: a larger eye (horizontal diameter 23-28% HL, equal to or exceeding snout length vs. 16-25% HL, less than snout length), a rounded caudal fin (vs. commonly truncated), frequent presence of one to three branched rays in median part of the pectoral fin (vs. usual absence), an interrupted supratemporal canal commissure with 4 pores (vs. non-interrupted, with 3 pores), abdominal vertebrae commonly 10 (vs. 11), and contrasting black blotches on all fins including pelvic and anal fins (vs. no blotches on pelvic and anal fins).

  14. New species of Saurichthys(Actinopterygii:Saurichthyidae)from Middle Triassic(Anisian)of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feixiang; SUN Yuanlin; HAO Weicheng; JIANG Dayong; XU Guanghui; SUN Zuoyu; Andrea TINTORI

    2009-01-01

    Saurichthys dawaziensis sp.nov.,from the third member of the Gejiu Formation (Anisian of Middle Triassic)in the vicinity of Luoping,Yunnan Province,is a small to medium-sized saurichthyid fish.It is characterized by the efferent pseudobranchial arteries penetrating on the parasphenoid and the mandible sensory canal with a branch in the angular.The new species is more derived than the Lower Triassic species in having a relatively narrow postorbitai region,short preopercular,single ossification of the sclerotic ring,small haemal arches between the pelvic fins and the anal fin without ossified spines,and in the absence of quadratujugal.It is more primitive than the Middle and Upper Triassic Saurichthys in having fringing fulcra and numerous segments in the unpaired fins,and the the vertebral column and unpaired fins of the genus are also discussed.

  15. Morphometric variation between two morphotypes within the Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Characidae) genus, from a Mexican tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-García, Claudia P; Bastir, Markus; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic variation is important for evolutionary processes because it can allow local adaptation, promote genetic segregation, and ultimately give rise to speciation. Lacustrine systems provide a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which sister species can co-occur by means of ecological segregation. The fish genus Astyanax is characterized by high levels of phenotypic variability, providing an excellent model for the study of local specialization. Here, we analyze the morphological specializations through geometric morphometrics of two sympatric species described as different genera: Bramocharax caballeroi endemic to Lake Catemaco, and the widely distributed Astyanax aeneus. Additionally, we assess the correlation between phenotypic and genetic structure, and the phylogenetic signal of morphological variation. We examined body size and shape variation in 196 individuals and analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in 298 individuals. Our results confirm the striking morphological divergence among the sympatric characids. Differences between them were mainly found in the body depth and profile and orientation of the head, where B. caballeroi in contrast with the A. aeneus, presented a fusiform body and an upward mouth. Moreover, different growth trajectories were observed among morphotypes, suggesting that a heterochronic process could be involved in the diversification of our study system. Morphological differences did not correspond with the molecular differentiation, suggesting high levels of homoplasy among the lineages of B. caballeroi morphs.

  16. A practical approach to phylogenomics: the phylogeny of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii as a case study

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    Zhang Gong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular systematics occupies one of the central stages in biology in the genomic era, ushered in by unprecedented progress in DNA technology. The inference of organismal phylogeny is now based on many independent genetic loci, a widely accepted approach to assemble the tree of life. Surprisingly, this approach is hindered by lack of appropriate nuclear gene markers for many taxonomic groups especially at high taxonomic level, partially due to the lack of tools for efficiently developing new phylogenetic makers. We report here a genome-comparison strategy to identifying nuclear gene markers for phylogenetic inference and apply it to the ray-finned fishes – the largest vertebrate clade in need of phylogenetic resolution. Results A total of 154 candidate molecular markers – relatively well conserved, putatively single-copy gene fragments with long, uninterrupted exons – were obtained by comparing whole genome sequences of two model organisms, Danio rerio and Takifugu rubripes. Experimental tests of 15 of these (randomly picked markers on 36 taxa (representing two-thirds of the ray-finned fish orders demonstrate the feasibility of amplifying by PCR and directly sequencing most of these candidates from whole genomic DNA in a vast diversity of fish species. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of sequence data obtained for 14 taxa and 10 markers (total of 7,872 bp for each species are encouraging, suggesting that the markers obtained will make significant contributions to future fish phylogenetic studies. Conclusion We present a practical approach that systematically compares whole genome sequences to identify single-copy nuclear gene markers for inferring phylogeny. Our method is an improvement over traditional approaches (e.g., manually picking genes for testing because it uses genomic information and automates the process to identify large numbers of candidate makers. This approach is shown here to be successful for fishes, but also could be applied to other groups of organisms for which two or more complete genome sequences exist, which has important implications for assembling the tree of life.

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) based on RAG1 and S7 nuclear DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    Most molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for North American (NA) phoxinins are based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and the resulting hypotheses are rather variable, though there is general support for three major lineages of NA phoxinins: western, creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), and open posterior myodome (OPM) clades. Support for a monophyletic NA phoxinin group has varied among studies. This study utilizes nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences from the RAG1 (exon 3) and S7 (intron 1) gene regions to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships and monophyly of NA phoxinins. Results from the nDNA analyses provide overall support for the western, CC-P, and OPM clades. The CC-P clade had the best overall resolution and support in the individual and combined analyses of the nDNA data. Resolution of the western clade was fairly good, with most analyses recovering a monophyletic Gila clade. The OPM clade demonstrated the highest degree of topological variability among the analyses. The RAG1 analyses failed to recover a monophyletic NA phoxinin group by resolving the European leuciscins, inclusive Notemigonus crysoleucas, within the NA phoxinin topology. Most analyses recovered a strongly supported shiner clade though, similar to several mtDNA studies; there was a high degree of topological variability among the results.

  18. New tools (DNA barcoding), old hypothesis: the case of the taxonomic identity of the Argentine hakes (Actinopterygii: Merluccius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli Antoni, M Y; González-Castro, M; Díaz de Astarloa, J M

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluated the possible occurrence of cryptic species among Merluccidae from Argentina by examining sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) mtDNA. This approach can discriminate Merluccius hubbsi and Merluccius australis; specimens with morphological diagnostic characters of Merluccius patagonicus formed a cohesive cluster with M. hubbsi specimens. BIN analysis confirmed the effectiveness of barcoding within a global context.

  19. A new grenadier of the genus Hymenocephalus from Tosa Bay, southern Japan (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Macrouridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Naohide; Endo, Hiromitsu; Schwarzhans, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Hymenocephalus yamasakiorum, a new species of grenadier fishes, is described from a single specimen collected from Tosa Bay off Aki, Kochi, Japan, at a depth of 320–400 m. The species is distinguished from its 26 known congeners in having the following combination of features: pelvic-fin rays nine...

  20. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as “snakeheads”, are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  1. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes.

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    Marcelo de Bello Cioffi

    Full Text Available Channid fishes, commonly referred to as "snakeheads", are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes.

  2. Rocinela signata (Isopoda: Aegidae parasitizing the gills of the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Mullidae in Northeastern Brazil

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    LUCAS CARDOSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parasitic isopods of fishes usually show wide distribution and low host specificity. This study investigated the occurrence of gill parasites in 120 specimens of spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus, marine fish of great economic importance for fishery community. The fish were captured monthly in the Coast of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, between October 2012 and September 2013. Eleven isopods were found and identified as Rocinela signata. We observed lower infections in the gills of P. maculatus (prevalence 8.3%, mean intensity 1.6±0.3 and mean abundance 0.1±0.3 when compared to other studies of different host fishes from geographically close locations. This parasite has been reported from a wide variety of fish species, not only in Brazil, but also in the eastern Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. This is the first report of R. signata in spotted goatfish.

  3. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

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    Azad Teimori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to A. sophiae from the Kor River and that A. farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to A. arakensis plus A. sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Cuban genus Girardinus Poey, 1854 and relationships within the tribe Girardinini (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doadrio, Ignacio; Perea, Silvia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Hernandez, Natividad

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among members of the freshwater fish tribe Girardinini were inferred to test existing colonization and diversification hypotheses for this group in the Caribbean. The genetic material examined was mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 1140 bp) and nuclear (RAG-1 and beta-actin, 2450 bp) DNA from 161 specimens representing 44 ingroup and three outgroup taxa. Our mtDNA and combined data matrix (mtDNA+nuclear DNA) results rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the tribe Girardinini and suggest the need to review the group's current taxonomy. From the data presented here, it may be inferred that the Girardinini diverged from other poeciliid fishes approximately 62 Mya ago in the Palaeocene period. This estimate, however, conflicts with the hypothesis that today's vertebrate fauna is the result of the more recent colonization of the Antillean islands during the Early Oligocene (35-33 Mya ago). The isolation of western, central and eastern Cuba during the Miocene and that of the Juventud Island and Guanahacabibes Peninsula during the Pliocene, are the main geologic events that could have promoted speciation in this group.

  5. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

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    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  6. Nematodes of Astyanax fasciatus (Actinopterygii: Characidae and their parasitic indices in the São Francisco river, Brazil

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    Flavia Guerra Vieira-Menezes

    Full Text Available Abstract The endoparasite fauna of Astyanax fasciatus from the upper São Francisco river was investigated and ecological parameters and morphological and morphometric data on the parasites are presented. A total of 74 specimens of banded astyanax were collected downstream from the Três Marias dam, municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais (18°12’32”S, 45°15’41”W in January 2011 and January 2012. Eleven taxa of Nematoda were found: Contracaecum sp.; Hysterothylacium sp.; Goezia sp.; Brevimulticaecum sp.; Procamallanus sp.; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus saofranciscencis; Cystidicoloides sp.; Spinitectus rodolphiheringi; Rhabdochona sp.; Spiroxys sp.; and Eustrongylides sp.. The fauna of A. fasciatus consisted of by larval specimens of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Cystidicoloides sp., and Spiroxys sp., and by adult specimens of P. saofranciscencis, whose prevalence was greater than 10%. Thus, this fish acts as an intermediate host of some species of larval nematodes especially, Anisakidae and Acanthocheilidae (Brevimulticaecum sp., new host record and new locality. It participates in transmitting species such Rhabdochona sp. to carnivorous fish and also acts as a definitive host for P. saofranciscencis and S. rodolphiheringi in the upper São Francisco river.

  7. Spot the difference: Two cryptic species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting Astyanax aeneus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Over the course of one year, undescribed specimens of Gyrodactylus were recovered from banded tetra, Astyanax aeneus collected in the La Antigua and Nautla river basins in central Veracruz, Mexico. Parasites were processed for morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphometrically, Gyrodactylus samples collected in the La Antigua river had slightly smaller haptoral structures than those collected from the Nautla river. During the 12month-collection of samples, however, water temperature varied considerably (ca. 20°C to 30°C), and this abiotic factor is known to affect the size of gyrodactylid attachment structures. Moreover, no clear discrimination was possible between individual parasites collected from the two rivers based on the morphology of the marginal hook, which is recognised as a very informative character to discriminate between species. The morphology of the ventral bar, however, differed between specimens from both rivers: worms from Nautla all had long, rounded processes on the ventral bar, which formed a relatively closed angle with the dorsal edge of the bar proper, while most - but not all - specimens from La Antigua had comparatively slender processes forming a more open angle with respect to the ventral bar. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2 of gyrodactylids indicated the existence of two distinct, well-supported lineages whose sequences differ by >4%, one of which was only found in the Nautla basin, while the other was collected in both river systems. A posteriori, principal component analysis (PCA) of the morphometric data of sequenced specimens indicated that features of the dorsal bar, the hamuli and the ventral bar enable discrimination between the two phylogenetic lineages. Based on these independent sources of information (morphometric and molecular data), two new species of Gyrodactylus are described: Gyrodactyluspakan n. sp. and Gyrodactylusteken n. sp. The phylogenetic relationships of both new species to other gyrodactylids infecting characiformes (for which molecular data are available) are presented, which suggests that their closest relative is Gyrodactylus carolinae, a parasite of Characidium lanei in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854) (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya), which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya). PMID:19102731

  9. Spatial structure of helminth communities in the golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae), from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Pardo-Carranza, Trinidad V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Ecological investigations regarding the parasite fauna of grey mullets are scarce. The present study provides a detailed description of the helminth communities of Liza aurata in the Spanish western Mediterranean and analyzes the role of spatial, temporal, and host variables in shaping the infracommunities. In total, 204 fish were collected in 2 localities, situated ca. 290 km apart, in spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to visualize an ordination of the infracommunities according to their relative similarities in parasite abundances. The relationship between infracommunity composition and explanatory variables (host size, locality, year, and season of harvest) was examined by permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) applied to species abundances. Permutational tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersion were used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in dispersion among groups formed by the factors whose effects were significant in PERMANOVA. A total of 33,241 helminth parasites, belonging to 18 species, was collected, i.e., 12 species of adult digeneans (23% of the parasite specimens), 3 digeneans as metacercariae (68%), 1 acanthocephalan (2.1%), and 2 monogeneans (6.5%). An important part of this helminth fauna is specialized to grey mullets, with a sizable portion of the component community restricted to the Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic. The NMDS ordination indicated high heterogeneity among infrapopulations. However, most differences at both the component and infracommunity level were related to geographic locality. In fact, the PERMANOVA showed that, among the explanatory variables considered, sampling locality accounted for the largest share of variation. The geographical differences observed may be related to local environmental characteristics or to the limited spatial dispersal of the species forming the component community. The latter was supported by the significant portion of variation explained by a 3-way interaction term. Thus, the spatial structure of our helminth infracommunities seems to be determined by a combination of differences in local environmental conditions and the transmission ability of each species at small local and time scales.

  10. Buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract dimensions associated to the diet of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Centropomidae, Actinopterygii

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    Isabela M. S Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare the buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, and relate them to its diet. A total of 190 individuals collected with a channel net in the Catuama estuary (07º40'9.9''S, 34º50'36.7''W, northern coast of the state of Pernambuco, were examined. Morphometrical and meristic data were analyzed for the two initial developmental periods (larval and juvenile. Their digestive tube was morphologically characterized and its content identified. The longest transverse axis of food items was measured, and compared to the standard length (SL and mouth gape size (D of the individuals. Body measurement regressions differed significantly (p<0.001 between larvae and juveniles. The stomachs with food content (n=118 individuals presented a proportion of 62% full and 30% empty (being 8% damaged. They differed in relation to the fullness level and presented a coiled shape when empty. The number of food items in relation to SL and D did not present an evident correlation. Larvae (SL<10 mm feed on small copepods, while juveniles (SL=11.1 to 64.7 mm ingest larvae of various decapod species, showing a distinct diet between these initial developmental stages.

  11. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

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    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecologia Reprodutiva e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, ES (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  12. Local ecological and taxonomic knowledge of snapper fish (Teleostei: Actinopterygii held by fishermen in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Camilla Fahning Ferreira Caló

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Local Ecological and Taxonomic Knowledge (LEK of fish held by fishermen in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, known as the snapper ("vermelho" was examined from August 2005 to November 2006. Semi-structured interviews and tests were made with fishermen selected under the criteria of "specialists". The data analysis followed the union model of the different individual competences. Grouping analysis was performed on data referring to the localities of the occurrence of these fish, depth, coloration, and morphological characteristics of the species using the Pearson correlation coefficient (UPGMA. A total of 19 species were named within the snapper group, although three of them could not be scientifically identified. The Lutjanidae family presented the greatest numbers of species (n = 9. Other families mentioned were: the Serranidae (n = 3, Holocentridae (n = 2, Priacanthidae (n = 1, Mullidae (n = 1. The 1:1 correspondence between fishermen's local names and scientific species observed in this study indicates the richness of local fishermen knowledge. Analysis of the LEK related to the feeding habits of these fish and indicated that most were considered as being carnivorous, which agrees with the specialized literature consulted. In terms of their spatial distribution, two categories were detected: locality of occurrence (rivers/sea, coast, and offshore and depth (surface, mid-depth, mid-depth/deep, deep. The fish were considered locally to be "winter fish", based on harvested yields. Most of the interviewees knew little about the reproductive aspects of these fish. The main criteria used to identify, name, and classify the species were based on color and morphological aspects. Much of the information gathered in this study agreed with the published literature, which strengthens the importance of including LEK in planning and decision-making processes.

  13. First record of a self-sustaining population of Alpine charr Salvelinus umbla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii, Salmonidae in Spain

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    Aparicio, Enric

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports for the first time in Spain the presence of the non-native salmonid Alpine charr, usually included into Salvelinus alpinus, but recently revised to Salvelinus umbla. The species was found in a high mountain lake in the Pyrenees belonging to the Garonne catchment (Lake Obago, Val d’Aran, province of Lleida. This is probably not a recent introduction since the presence of one species of Salvelinus in some lakes of the Val d’Aran has been known among anglers for a long time, but the species identification was lacking. The distribution of S. umbla in the Val d’Aran appear to be restricted to a very few lakes and it has not spread downstream.En este trabajo se cita por primera vez en España la presencia del salvelino alpino, generalmente incluido en Salvelinus alpinus, pero recientemente revisado como Salvelinus umbla. La especie fue encontrada en un lago de alta montaña de los Pirineos perteneciente a la cuenca del Garona (Estany Obago, Val d’Aran, Lleida. Probablemente no se trata de una introducción reciente ya que la presencia de una especie de Salvelinus en algunos lagos del Valle de Arán ya era conocida entre los pescadores durante mucho tiempo, pero la identificación de la especie no se había realizado. La distribución de S. umbla en el Valle de Arán parece estar restringida a unos pocos lagos y no se ha extendido a los tramos de río aguas abajo.

  14. Molecular and phenotypic evidence of a new species of genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): the southern pike, Esox flaviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation.

  15. FUYUANPERLEIDUS DENGI GENG ET AL., 2012 (OSTEICHTHYES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN PROVINCE, SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUOYU SUN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two well preserved specimens of Fuyuanperleidus dengi Geng et al., 2012 are described from the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation (Pelsonian, Anisian, Middle Triassic in Luoping County, Yunnan Province, South China. The attribution  to Perleidiformes is confirmed according to a combination of features such as the general skull pattern, with the large preoperculum showing a prominent infraorbital process, the maxilla with deep posterior region and a dentition made of  long and stout peg-like teeth with an acuminate apex, the deep mid-lateral flank scales and the caudal fin with epaxial fin rays. However, this taxon shows an unique arrangement of the squamation (here considered as autapomorphy given by the insertion of several scales in each vertical row posterior to the pelvic fin, just below the scales carrying the lateral line, when their depth decreases abruptly. Owing to this unique character, and  in spite of the very recent description of this genus, the authors considered necessary the erection of a new family, Fuyuanperleididae offering also new insights on the evolutionary trends and morphological specializations of the “subholosteans”. A cladistic analysis of the well known perleidiformes, with this taxon included, supports a possible monophyly of the order, and matches well the paleobiogeographic relationships of the Gondwana fresh-water taxa. The specialized deep-bodied Gondwana and Tethyan perleidiformes are independently evolved, ascertained by the parsimony analysis. 

  16. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854) (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-22

    Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (approximately 8 Mya), which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (approximately 3.3 Mya).

  17. Fine structure and Ca-ATPase activity of the stratum intermedium cells during odontogenesis in gars, Lepisosteus, Actinopterygii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Ishiyama, Mikio

    2002-01-01

    This is the first report on the stratum intermedium in vertebrates other than mammals. The aim of this study is to elucidate the fine structure and cytochemical features of the stratum intermedium during the stages of enameloid formation in Lepisosteus. Inner dental epithelium, stratum intermedium, stellate reticulum, and outer dental epithelium are consistently present in the tooth germs of Lepisosteus. The stratum intermedium cells are oval in shape, contain elliptical nuclei, and extend many small processes. It is implied that the structure of the enamel organ is different among actinopterygians, and that constitution of the enamel organ in Lepisosteus resembles that in higher vertebrates. Marked Ca-ATPase activity is observed at the cell membrane of the stratum intermedium cells, suggesting that the cells are involved in calcium transport during the stages of enameloid formation.

  18. Reproduction of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Gadidae), in the Gotland Basin: Causes of annual variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plikshs, Maris; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Elferts, D.

    2015-01-01

    ‰ isohaline is above the 2 mL· L–1 isooxygen. In such situation the water volume between the isolines is called the “suitable reproduction volume”. When the position of the isolines is reversed, the salinity and the oxygen level of the water layer demarcated by them are below the required thresholds...... and as such the water is unsuitable for the cod development. We refer to it as the “unsuitable reproduction volume”. The main aim of the presently reported study was to examine whether variations in suitable and unsuitable reproduction habitat estimates could explain the fl uctuations in cod recruitment. Material...... and methods. The suitable and unsuitable reproduction volumes in the Gotland Basin were estimated based on single point observations at three oceanographic monitoring stations using the contouring software Balthypsograph. To test the spatial hydrological heterogeneity in the Gotland Basin we used 15...

  19. SCARDINIUS GENUS IN MOLECULAR STUDIES – A REVIEW

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    Ovidiu Popescul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scardinius is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family commonly called rudds. The common rudd(Scardinius erithrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish that occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetatedlowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes and it is widespread in Europe and middle Asia. It has a mediumlength of 20-30 cm, but it can reach 50 cm. The classification of cyprinids has always been controversial the morphologicaltraits have an unclear homology this led to the idea that the recognized monophyletic groups are surely misinterpreted. Thispaper aims to assess the current level of molecular data regarding Scardinius genera. Some of the molecular data obtainedfor Scardinius genus is from DNA barcoding studies on fresh water fishes, but studies regarding this genus and Cyprinidaefamily used mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (cyt b and cytochrome oxidase (CO, but nuclear genes or nuclearmicrosatellites were also used. We found that molecular data exists for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but this genuswasn’t studied separately and as many of the researchers suggest more taxonomic studies are required in order to solve theuncertainties within it.

  20. Transcriptome analysis reveals positive selection on the divergent between topmouth culter and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Tan, Xing-Jun; Xiong, Ya-Feng; Xu, Kang; Zhou, Yi; Zhong, Huan; Liu, Yun; Hong, Yun-Han; Liu, Shao-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis) is a predatory cyprinid fish that distributes widely in the East Asia. Here we report the liver transcriptome in this organism as a model of predatory fish. Sequencing of 5 Gb raw reads led to 27,741 unigenes and produced 11,131 annotatable genes. A total of 7093 (63.7%) genes were found to have putative functions by gene ontology analysis. Importantly, a blast search revealed 4033 culter genes that were orthologous to the zebrafish. Extracted from 38 candidate positive selection genes, 4 genes exhibit strong positive selection based on the ratio of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous substitutions (Ks). In addition, the four genes also indicated the strong positive selection by comparing them between blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) and zebrafish. These genes were involved in activator of gene expression, metabolic processes and development. The transcriptome variation may be reflective of natural selection in the early life history of Cyprinidae. Based on Ks ratios, date of the separation between topmouth culter and zebrafish is approximately 64 million years ago. We conclude that natural selection acts in diversifying the genomes between topmouth culter and zebrafish.

  1. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  2. Lotic cyprinid communities can be structured as nest webs and predicted by the stress-gradient hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Brandon K; Blanc, Lori A; Frimpong, Emmanuel A

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how positive biotic interactions structure animal communities. Nest association is a common reproductive facilitation in which associate species spawn in nests constructed by host species. Nest-associative behaviour is nearly obligate for some species, but facultative for others; this can complicate interaction network topology. Nest web diagrams can be used to depict interactions in nesting-structured communities and generate predictions about those interactions, but have thus far only been applied to cavity-nesting vertebrate communities. Likewise, the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that prevalent biotic interactions shift from competition to facilitation as abiotic and biotic stress increase; this model has been hardly applied to animal communities. Here, both of these models were applied to nest-associative fish communities and extended in novel ways to broaden their applicability. A nest web was constructed using spawning observations over 3 years in several streams in south-western Virginia, USA. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was then implemented through an information-theoretic framework to identify the most plausible nest web topology in stream fish communities at 45 sites in the New River basin of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA. To test the SGH, the per-nest reproductive success of 'strong' (nearly obligate) nest associates was used to represent interaction importance. Eigenvectors were extracted from a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of proportional species abundances to represent community structure. Both of these metrics were regressed on physical stress, a combination of catchment-scale agricultural land use and stream size (representing spatiotemporal habitat variability). Seventy-one per cent of SEM model evidence supported a parsimonious interaction topology in which strong associates rely on a single host (Nocomis), but not other species. PCoA identified a gradient of community structure dominated by Nocomis and associates, to communities dominated by other reproductive groups. Both metrics of interaction importance responded positively to physical stress. This study demonstrates that nest webs can be useful in a variety of systems and that SEM can be a quantitative extension of this framework. Likewise, the SGH can be used to understand positive interactions in animal communities and can be extended to predict proportional representation of facilitating and beneficiary species in communities.

  3. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post‐mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen...... anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized...... by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed...

  4. PENGEMBANGAN METODE ELISA DAN TEKNIK DETEKSI CEPAT DENGAN IMUNOSTIK TERHADAP ANTIBODI ANTI Aeromonas hydrophila PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinid carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Mufidah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan metode ELISA untuk deteksi antibodi anti Aeromonas hydrophila dan membuat alat deteksi cepat terhadap antibodi anti A. hydrophila dengan menggunakan imunostik. Sebanyak enam ekor ikan mas digunakan sebagai hewan uji untuk memproduksi serum seronegatif (baseline dan seropositif. Hewan uji tersebut divaksinasi dengan antigen A. hydrophila dan dikoleksi serumnya tiap minggu. Optimasi metode ELISA dilakukan hingga mendapatkan rasio serum seronegatif dan seropositif yang terbaik. Hasil optimasi metode ELISA kemudian digunakan untuk merakit imunostik dan kemudian mengaplikasikannya pada serum ikan mas. Hasil uji optimasi metode ELISA didapatkan hasil bahwa metode ELISA yang dikembangkan dapat mendeteksi antibodi anti A. hydrophila pada semua serum positif dan menyatakan negatif pada serum seronegatif. Hasil yang sama juga ditunjukkan oleh uji imunostik yang telah dirakit.

  5. Long Term Effect of Cyprinid Fishes on Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Communities in a Shallow Water Protection Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátyás, Kálmán; Korponai, János; Tátrai, István; Paulovits, Gábor

    2004-01-01

    The effects of fish kill and different fish stocks on the phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics were studied in a shallow hypertrophic reservoir system. When fish stock was below 100 kg ha-1, nutrient availability was not the main limiting factor for growth of phytoplankton. Consequently top-down forces controlled phytoplankton. In the years with high fish stock (>100 kg ha-1) the bottom-up forces dominated as nutrient availability was the main limiting factor for growth of phytoplankton. We can conclude that significant water quality improvement can be achieved in the reservoir system by decreasing fish stock below 100 kg ha-1. Although clear-water phase could be stabilised temporary by macrophytes, stabilisation of good water quality requires continuous regulation of fish community. (

  6. Gonadogenesis and annual reproductive cycles of an endangered cyprinid fish, the lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hliwa, Piotr; Król, Jarosław; Sikorska, Justyna; Wolnicki, Jacek; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Kamiński, Rafał; Stabińska, Agnieszka; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    In this study, gonadogenesis, the effect of temperature (15, 20 and 25°C) on sex differentiation, and annual changes in the gonads of mature lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814) were determined. The lake minnow was found to be a primary gonochoristic fish species, where gonads are formed directly in the ovaries or testes. The morphological differentiation of gonads was initiated 35days post hatch (DPH) when two types of gonadal anlages were visible: a pear-shaped gonad attached by a single mesentery string and a spindle-shaped gonad attached on both sides to the peritoneum. Gonadogenesis occurred faster in females than in males, with the first previtellogenic oocytes and ovarian lamellae being already observed in 45 DPH fish. In males, cytological differentiation occurred approximately 85 DPH, when the fish reached an average body weight of more than 400mg. No significant effect of rearing temperature on sex ratio in lake minnow juveniles was observed. The proportion of males and females was similar (close to 1:1) in all of the thermal-treated groups, although there were effects of temperature on the final sizes of fish. Histological examination of wild, mature lake minnow ovaries during the annual cycle (from May to February the following year) showed asynchronous oocyte maturation. The testes were characteristic of multi-batch spawning fish. Quantitative dominance of spermatids and mature spermatozoa in May was observed, while the presence of primary and secondary spermatocytes in all other periods was confirmed. These changes were also reflected in the seasonal variation in the gonado-somatic index in both sexes, with the highest mean values of 11.2% (females) and 4.0% (males) in May, which were found to be significantly different to all other periods. The data presented in this study provide an important contribution to our understanding of the biology and reproductive strategy of the endangered lake minnow.

  7. Efecto del anabólico acetato de trembolona sobre el crecimiento de Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae Anabolic effect induced by trenbolone acetate steroid on the Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Marañón Herrera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia anabólica del esteroide acetato de trembolona en juveniles de Carassius auratus de 60 días de edad, expuestos durante 120 días a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento. Cada dos semanas se registraron las siguientes biometrías: longitud total, longitud patrón, altura y peso. El beneficio del esteroide se caracterizó con un modelo que relacionó el peso en función del tiempo, acoplado a otros dos modelos: uno en donde se relaciona la talla con el tiempo y otro alométrico, que relacionó el peso con la talla. Los modelos estimados mostraron que el crecimiento de los peces tratados con el anabólico fue superior al de los peces del testigo y difieren significativamente (p0.05. El análisis de la variabilidad de los tres modelos demostró que las estimaciones describieron en forma adecuada el crecimiento, así lo confirma el coeficiente de determinación (r² que fluctúa entre el 72.9 y 93.5% y el análisis de la distribución de la talla y el peso con diagramas de caja. Se concluye que la aplicación del acetato de trembolona en Carassius auratus fue exitosa, al registrarse una sobrevivencia del 100% y funcionar como un eficiente agente anabólico, ya que se obtuvo una ganancia de biomasa del 48.0% y de talla del 41.3%, con respecto al testigo.The anabolic efficiency of steroid trenbolone acetate was evaluated in 60 days old juveniles of Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed during 120 days to steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg food. Total length, standard length, height and weight were registered every two weeks. The benefit of the steroid was characterized with a model that relates the weight as a function of time, coupled to other two models: one where size is related with time and an alometric one which correlates weight with size. The models showed that growth of steroid treated fish was superior to that of untreated (control fish, differing significantly (p 0.05. Analysis of the variability of the three models demonstrated that the estimates adequately described the growth. This was further confirmed by the determination coefficient (r² that fluctuated between 72.9 and 93.5% and by the distribution analysis of size and weight by means of box plots. It was concluded that application of the steroid trenbolone acetate to Carassius auratus was successful. A survival rate of 100% was registered coupled to an efficient anabolic effect, since a 48.0% gain of biomass and 41.3% increase in size were obtained as compared to the control group.

  8. Establishment and characterization of a fibroblast-like cell line from Anabarilius grahami (Cypriniformes:Cyprinidae)%Establishment and characterization of a fibroblast-like cell line from Anabarilius grahami (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoai WANG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN; Xiaofu PAN

    2012-01-01

    Though Yunnan province contains some 562 known species of fish,no cell lines from any of these have been made available to date.To protect germplasm resources and provide an effective tool in solving problems at cellular level of Anabarilius grahami,a fish endemic to Fuxian Lake,Yunnan,China,we established and characterized the major features of a continuous cell line (AGF Ⅱ) from the caudal fin tissue of A.grahami.This AGF Ⅱ cell line consists of fibroblast-like cells and has been subcultured more than 60 times over the course of a year.The cell line was maintained in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% FBS,with a cellular doubling time of 51.1 h.We continued with more experiments to optimize the culture and storage conditions,and found a variety of interesting results: cells could grow at temperature between 24 ℃ and 28 ℃,with the optimal temperature of 28 ℃.Likewise,the growth rate ofA.grahami fin cells increased when the FBS proportion increased from 5% to 20%,with the optimal growth at the concentrations of 20% FBS; cells were able to grow in L-15 and DMEM/F12 with optimal growth at L-15; DMSO is a better cryoprotectant than Glycerol,EG and MeOH for AGFⅡ cells with optimal concentration of 5% DMSO.Chromosome analysis also showed that the distribution of chromosome number varies from 38 to 52,with a modal peak at 48 chromosomes,accounting for 39.8% of all cells.Using the same primer pairs specific to mtDNA,the AGF Ⅱ cell sequences obtained by PCR were identical to those from muscle tissues ofA.grahami.Both chromosome analysis and PCR amplification confirmed the AGF Ⅱ cells were from A.grahami,also indicating that that current long-term artificial propagation ofA.grahami has been successful.Finally,we noted that when cells were transfected with pEYFP-N1 and pECFP-N1 plasmid,bright fluorescent signals were observed,suggesting that this cell line may be suitable for use in transfection and future gene expression studies.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), and repetitive sequences in the D-loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingzhan; Wu, Bo; Li, Jiuxuan; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi was sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,842 bp in length. Similar with most teleosts, it has two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop) region. Conserved sequence blocks, including ETAS, CSB-B, D, E, F, and CSB1-3, were identified in the D-loop, which is similar to other species in Cypriniformes. Nevertheless, a 55 bp tandem repeat array was also identified at 3' end of the D-loop, which is the first finding in Schizothoracinae. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the species of Ptychobarbus (P. dipogon and P. kaznakovi) formed a monophyletic group and represented close relationship to the species without scales in Schizothoracinae.

  10. Feeding behavior of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) on fry of other fish species and trematode transmitting snail species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; The, Dang Tat; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Fish raised in aquaculture ponds may get infected with fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) during the nursing stage. Freshwater snails serve as intermediate hosts for FZT and we wanted to explore the possibility of controlling snails by stocking nursery ponds with a few juvenile specimens...... offered snails as food; the odds of survival of fry from tanks with medium sized and large black carp was 5.6% and 39.9%, respectively of that of fry in tanks with small sized black carp. Since the large black carp also consumed fewer snails than medium sized fish, we believe that large specimens were...... stressed in the experimental aquaria. Under semi-field conditions, presence of the black carp had no effect on survival of fry of Oreochromis niloticus and C. carpio both in the absence and presence of snails as alternative food. The black carp consumed most snails offered with the exception of some...

  11. Comparative molecular cytogenetic analysis of three Leuciscus species (Pisces, Cyprinidae) using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech

    2009-03-01

    A comparative molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed on three species of the genus Leuciscus viz. ide L. idus, chub L. cephalus and dace L. leuciscus distributed in Poland, using C-, Ag- and chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3))-stainings and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5.8S + 28S rDNA as a probe. Although the three species examined shared 2n = 50 chromosomes and the largest acrocentric chromosome pair in the complement, they were characterized with karyotypic differences in terms of the number of uni- and biarmed chromosomes and the localization of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) revealed by Ag-staining and FISH. L. idus and L. cephalus showed the rDNA sites on the long arms of one submetacentric (SM) chromosome pair and on the short arms of one subtelocentric (ST) chromosome pair, respectively. These NORs were CMA(3)-positive, GC-rich and C-positive heterochromatic sites in both species. Such chromosome banding features were also true for four NORs localizing on one of each SM and ST pair in L. leuciscus, but considerable numerical NOR polymorphism became apparent with Ag-staining and FISH due to a different combination of these NOR-bearing SMs and STs in this dace. The present results indicate that the molecular cytogenetic analysis applied herein may become useful to elucidate the karyotype evolution and phylogenetic relationships among the species in the genus Leuciscus and other related groups.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal load in chub liver (Cyprinidae – Leuciscus cephalus from the Nišava River (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nišava River plays an important role as the source for both drinking water and agricultural irrigation due to its hydrological and geomorphological characteristics as the largest river in the region of southeast Serbia. In this study we used the liver of the chub (Leiciscus cephalus as a tool for biomonitoring heavy metal accumulation along the river. Chub specimens were sampled from two localities (one at the border with Bulgaria and a second in the city of Niš. Concentrations were estimated for six heavy metals (iron, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and manganese in chub liver. Low bioconcentration level was observed for most of the metals and the concentrations corresponded to the nominal concentration in livers of fish inhabiting metal unpolluted streams and rivers. However, cadmium concentration in the chub liver exceeded 0.5 mg kg-1, a several hundred folds increase from nominal concentration indicating a potential toxic exposure of the fish and of the stream ecosystem to this heavy metal. Hepatosomatic indices were calculated and tested for the impact of metal concentrations on liver size. A decrease of the hepatic index was observed in fish with higher cadmium concentration, suggesting a possible impact on the health of the chub population in the Nišava River.

  13. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric 'small barbs'(Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae)in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  14. Phylogenetic studies of Chinese labeonine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae) based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junbing; WANG Xuzhen; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene is sequenced from 24 ingroups taxa, including 18 species from Labeoninae grouped in 13 genera. Phylogenetic analyses are subjected to neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Labeoninae is basically a monophyletic assemblage and can be divided into 2 major clades: one comprising the genera Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus and Garra; and the other consisting of the genera Labeo, Sinilabeo, Osteochilus, Pseudoorossocheilus, Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Semilabeo, Pseudogyricheilus, Rectori and Discogobio. According to our present analysis,the features such as the presence of the adhesive disc on the chin and the pharyngeal teeth in 2 rows used in the traditional taxonomy of Labeoninae provide scarce information for phylogeny of labeonine fishes.

  15. Induction of spawning in Capoeta aculeata, (Valenciennes in Cuv. & Val., 1844 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, using carp pituitary extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kamali-Far

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Capoeta aculeata is a benthopelagic fresh-water fish that lives in subtropical climates and has awidely distribution in Iranian river basins. Hatchery production of fish for stocking is an important means oftemporarily supplementing insufficient natural reproduction, thus help to maintain or restore eroded fishpopulation. This study was done in May and June 2007 on captured brood fish from Zayandeh-Rood River,Iran in order to reach a suitable technique of artificial reproduction of C. aculeata. Caught brood fish wereinjected with carp pituitary extract at doses of 0.75 and 1.5 milligram per kilogram body weight of fish.Brood fish were tested for ovulation each 12 hours from final injection for 3 days, but no sing of readinessfor spawning was observed. To gain confidence of experiment, the study was repeated after one monthfrom the first try with new fish. The result, however, was the same and didn’t attain to any success.Inadequate information about reproduction biology of this species is one of the most important reasons ofthe negative result. Furthermore, unsuitable hormone and dosages as well as inappropriate injection timescan be probable causes of this failure that should be evaluated in later studies.

  16. Distribution of Phoxinus eos, Phoxinus neogaeus, and their asexually-reproducing hybrids (Pisces: Cyprinidae in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Mee

    Full Text Available Hybrid Phoxinus are one of the few asexually reproducing vertebrates species. The distribution of hybrid Phoxinus among lakes in Algonquin Park, Ontario, was evaluated relative to the distribution of parental species and relative to physiochemical lake characteristics. No association between the distribution of hybrids and the distribution of parental species was found, suggesting that the hybrids can successfully coexist with either parental species. In addition, we found no association between hybrid distribution and the physiochemical characteristics of lakes, suggesting that the hybrids are generalists with respect to the ecological niches available in Algonquin Park. There was a difference between the physiochemical characteristics of lakes with and without the parental species P. neogaeus. The lakes containing P. neogaeus were lower elevation than the lakes containing the other parental species, P. eos. The difference in distribution between the parental species may therefore be due to different dispersal abilities, to later arrival following post-glacial dispersal, or to differences in ecology. These results suggest that asexual reproduction is a successful strategy for hybrid Phoxinus in Algonquin Park because these sperm-dependent asexual hybrids are able to survive and persist regardless of which parental species is present, and regardless of the physiochemical characteristics of their habitat.

  17. Reproductive Strategy of Labeobarbus batesii (Boulenger, 1903 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae in the Mbô Floodplain Rivers of Cameroon

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    Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the reproductive strategy of African carp, Labeobarbus batesii, were investigated from May 2008 to October 2009 in the Mbô Floodplain of Cameroon. Samples were collected monthly from artisanal fishermen. The total length and total body mass of each specimen were measured to the nearest mm and 0.01 g, respectively. Sex was determined by macroscopic examination of the gonads after dissection. The sex ratio was female skewed (overall sex ratio: 1 : 1.42. Females reach sexual maturity at a larger size (213 mm than the males (203 mm. The mean gonadosomatic index ranges from 0.32±0.17% to 1.91±1.15%, whereas the mean K factor ranges from 0.90±1.09 to 1.10±0.13. These two parameters are negatively correlated. The reproduction cycle begins in mid-September and ends in July of the next year, and they are reproductively quiescent for the rest of the year. Labeobarbus batesii is a group-synchronous spawner with pulses of synchronised reproduction spread over a long period. The mean absolute, potential, and relative fecundities are 2898±2837 oocytes, 1016±963 oocytes, and 9071±7184 oocytes/kg, respectively. The fecundity is higher and positively correlated with the gonad mass than with body size. Its reproductive biology suggests that L. batesii is suitable for pond culture.

  18. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE DeKui; CHEN YiFeng

    2007-01-01

    We recovered the phylogenetic relationships among 23 species and subspecies of the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes distributing at 36 geographical sites in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions by analyzing sequences of cytochrome b genes. Furthermore, we estimated the possible divergent times among lineages based on a historical geological isolation event in the Tibetan Plateau. The molecular data revealed that the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes were not a monophyletic group, but were the same as genera Gymnocypris and Schizogypsis. Our results indicated that the molecular phylogenetic relationships apparently reflected their geographical and historical associations with drainages, namely species from the same and adjacent drainages clustered together and had close relationships. The divergence times of different lineages were well consistent with the rapid uplift phases of the Tibetan Plateau in the late Cenozoic, suggesting that the origin and evolution of schizothoracine fishes were strongly influenced by environment changes resulting from the upheaval of the Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Characterization and physical mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes in Indian major carps (Pisces, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Nagpure, Naresh S

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of the major (18S) and minor (5S) ribosomal RNA genes were carried out in three commercially important Indian major carp (IMC) species, viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. The diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. The 18S rDNA signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in C. catla and L. rohita, and two pairs in C. mrigala. The 5S rDNA signal was found on single pair of chromosome in all the species with variation in their position on chromosomes. The sequencing of 18S rDNA generated 1804, 1805 and 1805 bp long fragments, respectively, in C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala with more than 98% sequence identity among them. Similarly, sequencing of 5S rDNA generated 191 bp long fragments in the three species with 100% identity in coding region and 23.2% overall variability in non-transcribed spacer region. Thus, these molecular markers could be used as species-specific markers for taxonomic identification and might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and karyotype evolution of these species.

  20. Natural habitats uncovered? – Genetic structure of known and newly found localities of the endangered bitterling Pseudorhodeus tanago (Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Saitoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Overuse of natural resources by humans is a major threat to biodiversity. Overuse often involves species of economic or esthetic value, and fish are a typical example for a group that is exploited both for economic reasons (for human consumption and for esthetic reasons (e.g. by aquarists. Pseudorhodeus tanago (Tanaka, 1909 (formerly known as Tanakia tanago is a small colorful but legally protected (fishing, keeping and transfer are banned bitterling fish distributed around Tokyo, Japan. Whereas it is critically endangered and more and more habitat loss has occurred, at least four stocks have been newly found during the last decade. To explore whether emergence of these newly found habitats is a consequence of incomplete survey, we genotyped mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence of P. tanago from 17 localities and an illegal home aquarium. Populations known by the past extensive survey (13 localities showed geographically structured population genetic characteristics. Population-specific haplotypes were common indicating past divergence and bottleneck events. Four (north, {center + west}, south_1, south_2 or five (north, center, west, south_1, south_2 geographic groups were detectable as for these known localities. On the other hand, newly found stocks were polymorphic and showed identical haplotypes from distant known localities. If we assume historical basis of distribution and genetic characteristics of these newly found stocks, it must be a series of unlikely geological events and haplotype sorting. We discuss potential issues posed by these questionable stocks.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of threatened mahseer Tor tor (Hamilton 1822) and its phylogenetic relationship within Cyprinidae family

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. PAVAN-KUMAR; SUDHANSHU RAMAN; PRAKASH G. KORINGA; NAMRATA PATEL; TEJAS SHAH; RAJEEV K. SINGH; GOPAL KRISHNA; C. G. JOSHI; P. GIREESH-BABU; APARNA CHAUDHARI

    2016-12-01

    The mahseers (Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor) are an important group of fishes endemic to Asia with the conservation status of most species evaluated as threatened. Conservation plans to revive these declining wild populations are hindered by unstable taxonomy. Molecular phylogeny studies with mitochondrial genome have been successfully used to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree and to resolve taxonomic ambiguity. In the present study, complete mitochondrial genome of Tor tor has been sequenced using ion torrent next-generation sequencing platform with coverage of more than 1000×. Comparative mitogenome analysis shows higher divergence value at ND1 gene than COI gene. Further, occurrence of a distinct genetic lineage of T. tor is revealed. The phylogenetic relationship among mahseer group has been defined as Neolissochilus hexagonolepis ((T. sinensis (T. putitora, T. tor), (T. khudree, T. tambroides)).

  2. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Küçük

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  3. Incidence of Neascus rhinichthysi (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) on longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae (Pisces: Cyprinidae), related to fish size and capture location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    Longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae, collected from the Tongue River and Goose Creek near Sheridan, Wyoming, were analyzed for the incidence of the trematode parasite, Neascus rhinichthysi, based upon fish size and sample location. Both incidence and mean number of metacercarial cysts were significantly greater in the fish collected from Goose Creek. Greater nutrient loads in Goose Creek compared to the Tongue River, resulting in greater biotic community productivity with accompanying macrophytic growth, were concluded responsible. Incidence and mean number of cysts were greater on the dace from the Tongue River site downstream of the Goose Creek-Tongue River confluence compared to the Tongue River site upstream of the confluence. Nutrient inputs from Goose Creek increasing Tongue River productivity below the confluence were deemed responsible. Though there was a statistically significant difference in parasite burdens between sites, within site comparisons of log weight-log length relationships of parasitized and nonparasitized dace indicate that Neascus rhinichthysi burdens had no apparent effect upon the fish.

  4. Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

  5. The analysis of the pharyngeal-sieve mechanism and the efficiency of food intake in the bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanism and the selectivity of food intake in bream ( Abramis brama ). It is a compilation of six articles which have been published (or will soon be published) in international journals.

    In the first chapter, diets and feeding modes in

  6. Diazinon toxicity: effect on protein and nucleic acid metabolism in the liver of zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, B A; Kumar, K

    1988-09-15

    Four-month old adult siblings of zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of diazinon for up to 168 h. DNA, RNA, protein and total free amino acid content were monitored in the liver. The DNA, RNA and protein contents were significantly reduced, whereas the amino acid content was significantly enhanced. All these changes showed dose- as well as time-dependent response.

  7. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  8. [Characterization of the intestinal digestive glycosidases in plankton- and benthos-feeding species of the fish genus Ballerus (Cyprinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanova, I L; Filippov, A A; Bolotovskiĭ, A A; Levin, B A

    2015-01-01

    The activity of hydrolases (maltase, saccharase, amylolytic activity) in the intestinal mucosa of the plankton-feeding zope Ballerus ballerus and the benthos-feeding white-eye bream Ballerus sapa was investigated. The temperature characteristics of maltase hydrolysis (T(opt) and E(act)) are similar in both species. The lower K(m) of maltase hydrolysis in the white-eye bream reflects a higher enzyme/substrate affinity and indicates a more effective carbohydrate hydrolysis in the benthos-versus plankton-feeding species. The glycosidase activity in the white-eye bream is twice as high as in the zope. This may be due not only to different feeding spectra and biochemical food contents but also to the differences in thyroid status of species under consideration.

  9. Fecundity and spawning frequency of Rasbora tawarensis (Pisces: Cyprinidae an endemic species from Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal A. Muchlisin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is contributing the additional importance information on the reproductive biology ofRasbora tawarensis in relation to provide comprehensive our understanding on the reproductive biologyof this species. Monthly sampling was conducted from April 2008 to July 2009. The highest absolutefecundity was observed in December, but it was not significantly different (p>0.05 from January, May,July, August, October and November. The highest relative fecundity was observed in July but it was notdifferent significantly (p>0.05 from January, May, June, August, September, November and December.The average absolute fecundity was 3715.4±893.6 eggs, while the average relative fecundity was518±95.64 eggs.g-1 body weight. The spawning frequency of the female was 2 to 11 days and fish wasfrequent spawned during the reproductive seasons in March, September and December.

  10. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Nabais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA probe protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping

    2007-01-01

    , and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial...... genome of O. bidens reveals an alternative pattern of vertebrate mitochondrial evolution. For the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, the most frequently used codon generally ends with either A or C, with C preferred over A for most fourfold degenerate codon families; the relative synonymous codon...

  12. EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE OCCURRENCE AND THE ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATION OF GIANT MOTTLED EEL, ANGUILLA MARMORATA (ACTINOPTERYGII: ANGUILLIFORMES: ANGUILLIDAE), FROM SABAH, BORNEO ISLAND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Lian Wong; Siti Raudah Abdul Kadir; Rabi Atun Adawiah Abdullah; Charlie Albert Lasuin; Kok Onn Kwong; Takaomi Arai

    2017-01-01

    .... Two anguillid eels found in Sabah, Borneo Island, were firstly identified as Anguilla marmorata Quoy et Gaimard, 1824 using morphological analysis and further analysis of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA...

  13. Diet and feeding strategy of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario V. Condini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper (Mycteroperca marginata is a marine species usually associated with rocky bottoms and reefs. The present work investigated the diet and feeding strategy of a dusky grouper population inhabiting a 4.5 km long pair of rocky jetties located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon estuary. No prior research has been conducted in such man-made habitat and the current study provides a basis for comparative studies on the diet of the dusky grouper populations inhabiting natural vs. man-made rocky habitats. Similarly with previous studies on natural substrates, crabs and fishes were the main food categories consumed (%IRI = 85.1 and %IRI = 12.6, respectively, whereas shrimps and mollusks had lower importance in the diet (%IRI = 1.9 and 0.4, respectively. As previously reported for dusky grouper populations inhabiting reefs and rocky bottoms, the present work revealed conspicuous size related dietary shifts. Blue crabs and fishes become increasingly important food items in the diet of larger individuals (> 500 mm, TL. Finally, it was found that the studied dusky population has a generalist feeding strategy with a high between-individual variation in prey consumption. Such strategy remained similar across the size increment of the species. Our findings suggest that man-made rocky substrates provide suitable feeding grounds for the dusky grouper in southern Brazil and could be used as an additional tool in the conservation efforts of this endangered species.A garoupa-verdadeira (Mycteroperca marginata é uma espécie marinha geralmente associada a fundos rochosos e recifes. O presente trabalho investiga a dieta e estratégia alimentar de uma população da garoupa-verdadeira que habita um longo (4,5 km par de molhes de pedra na desembocadura do estuário da laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil. Não há trabalhos anteriores realizados nesse tipo de habitat construído pelo homem e este trabalho fornece uma base de comparação com estudos de dieta de outras populações da garoupa-verdadeira ocorrendo em habitats naturais. De modo similar ao encontrado em estudos prévios realizados em substratos naturais, caranguejos e peixes foram as principais categorias de alimento consumidas (%IRI = 85,1 e %IRI = 12,6, respectivamente, enquanto camarões e moluscos tiveram menor importância na dieta (%IRI = 1,9 e %IRI = 0,4, respectivamente. Como reportado anteriormente para populações de garoupa-verdadeira que habitam recifes e fundos rochosos, o presente trabalho revelou marcadas mudanças na dieta em função do tamanho da espécie. Siri-azul e peixes tornam-se gradativamente mais importantes na dieta de indivíduos maiores (> 500 mm de comprimento total, CT. Finalmente, foi observado que a população de garoupa-verdadeira teve uma estratégia alimentar generalista com uma elevada variação entre indivíduos no consumo de presas. Essa estratégia permaneceu similar ao longo do aumento em tamanho da espécie. Os resultados do presente trabalho sugerem que substratos rochosos estabelecidos pelo homem propiciam locais de alimentação adequados para a garoupa-verdadeira no sul do Brasil e que poderiam ser usados como ferramentas adicionais nos esforços de conservação dessa espécie ameaçada.

  14. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  15. Gene trees, species trees, and morphology converge on a similar phylogeny of living gars (Actinopterygii: Holostei: Lepisosteidae), an ancient clade of ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy J; David, Solomon R; Near, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Extant gars represent the remaining members of a formerly diverse assemblage of ancient ray-finned fishes and have been the subject of multiple phylogenetic analyses using morphological data. Here, we present the first hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among living gar species based on molecular data, through the examination of gene tree heterogeneity and coalescent species tree analyses of a portion of one mitochondrial (COI) and seven nuclear (ENC1, myh6, plagl2, S7 ribosomal protein intron 1, sreb2, tbr1, and zic1) genes. Individual gene trees displayed varying degrees of resolution with regards to species-level relationships, and the gene trees inferred from COI and the S7 intron were the only two that were completely resolved. Coalescent species tree analyses of nuclear genes resulted in a well-resolved and strongly supported phylogenetic tree of living gar species, for which Bayesian posterior node support was further improved by the inclusion of the mitochondrial gene. Species-level relationships among gars inferred from our molecular data set were highly congruent with previously published morphological phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of two species, Lepisosteus osseus and L. platostomus. Re-examination of the character coding used by previous authors provided partial resolution of this topological discordance, resulting in broad concordance in the phylogenies inferred from individual genes, the coalescent species tree analysis, and morphology. The completely resolved phylogeny inferred from the molecular data set with strong Bayesian posterior support at all nodes provided insights into the potential for introgressive hybridization and patterns of allopatric speciation in the evolutionary history of living gars, as well as a solid foundation for future examinations of functional diversification and evolutionary stasis in a "living fossil" lineage.

  16. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  17. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  18. The description and histopathology of Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from sturgeons, Acipenser spp. (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae) in the Caspian Sea, Iran, with emendation of the generic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; El-Naggar, Atif M; Tavakol, Sareh

    2013-11-01

    Of the three known species of Leptorhynchoides Kostylew 1924, two are reported from North American fishes: Leptorhynchoides aphredoderi Buckner and Buckner 1976 and Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Linton 1891) Kostylew 1924. The third species, Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Westrumb 1821) Kostylew 1924, is commonly found in the Caspian and Black Sea from at least four species of sturgeons including Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771 and the Acipenser nudiventris Lovetzsky 1828 from which Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. was found. No taxonomic work has been reported for L. plagicephalus for the last 90 years. L. polycristatus n. sp. can be readily confused with L. plagicephalus because of many superficial similarities. Such similarities include the general shape of the trunk, proboscis, and organ systems. However, L. polycristatus is clearly distinguished from the other three species primarily by having (1) 19-20 proboscis hooks per row; (2) the shortest hooks are anterior and the longest at the middle; the opposite is true in L. plagicephalus; (3) with a cuticular collar enveloping the base of the proboscis hooks; (4) the surface of its proboscis hooks is ribbed; (5) with a broad collar of multiple rectangular cuticular crests encircling the anterior end of the trunk; this is the only member of Leptorhynchoides with such a structure; (6) with many large ovoid uninucleated cells in the subcuticular layer of the trunk; (7) with paired glandular clusters near the male reproductive opening and of suction cup-like sensory structures on the bursa; (8) with dorsoventral ligament across the vagina; (9) cement glands are in a cluster of eight arranged in two horizontal tiers of four glands each; (10) with female gonopore near terminal; (11) with structures interpreted as possible microtriches on the surface of the trunk; (12) and with thinner eggs. L. polycristatus caused extensive histopathological damage to host intestinal layers. The armed proboscis invades and attaches to the host mucosa causing villi compression and necrosis of the epithelial lining with subsequent hemorrhaging and granulocyte migration. No encapsulation of the acanthocephalan is visible, and the worm can migrate deep into the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis extrema. The presence of L. polycristatus in the lumen of the host intestine obstructs and damages the absorbing surface of the host affecting the nutritional potential. Dead, necrotic host epithelial tissue and remnants of villi and crypts are visible.

  19. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  20. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A.; Warnau, Michel; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Markich, Scott J. [Aquatic Solutions International, Level 1, 467 Miller St, Cammeray, NSW 2062 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ({sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38%%, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 {sup o}C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for {sup 51}Cr and 2.5 for {sup 65}Zn and {sup 134}Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for {sup 51}Cr and {sup 241}Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of {sup 134}Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for {sup 241}Am and {sup 65}Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, {sup 134}Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co and {sup 65}Zn. However {sup 65}Zn was also distinctive from {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of {sup 65}Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of {sup 134}Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution among its tissues compared to {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co, but every tissue of turbot had a higher concentration of {sup 134}Cs, compared to dogfish, particularly the muscle and liver. The elevated uptake rates and higher CFs for most radioisotopes indicate that S. canicula is more susceptible than P. maxima to exposure and contamination by these metals and radionuclides in seawater. These experimentally-determined differences between dogfish and turbot in their bioaccumulation characteristics were assessed against a set of criteria erected to evaluate the working hypothesis that they were taxonomically based. The outcomes of this initial assessment were supportive of this hypothesis that warrants further investigation. (author)

  1. Age, growth, and reproductive aspects of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Seyboth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper, Mycteroperca marginata, is an important commercial marine fish that is currently considered an endangered species worldwide and listed as overexploited in Brazil. Although its reproductive biology has been studied elsewhere, no information is available for populations in its southernmost distribution limit on the Brazilian coast. The present work investigates age structure, growth and reproduction of individuals inhabiting a pair of rocky jetties, about 4.5 km long each, located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon in the municipality of Rio Grande, in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 130 individuals obtained between February 2007 and May 2009 were analyzed, with total length ranging from 260 to 800 mm. The growth coefficient found in the present study (K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087 and southeast Africa (0.09. This difference could be related to higher average water temperatures in these regions compared to the current study site or due to poorer habitat quality in terms of the shelters available for dusky grouper individuals to establish their territories. Microscopic ovarian analyses of individuals during three years of sampling revealed only the occurrence of immature and resting females. The absence of ripe or post-spawning individuals, associated with low GSI values (A garoupa-verdadeira, Mycteroperca marginata, é uma espécie de importância comercial que atualmente é considerada como ameaçada mundialmente e sobre-explotada no Brasil. Embora sua biologia reprodutiva tenha sido estudada em outras regiões, nenhuma informação está disponível sobre populações que habitam o extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho investiga a estrutura de idade, crescimento e reprodução de indivíduos que habitam dois molhes de pedra, com cerca de 4,5 km de extensão cada, localizados na desembocadura da laguna dos Patos no município de Rio Grande, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados 130 indivíduos obtidos entre fevereiro de 2007 e maio de 2009, com comprimento total entre 260 e 800 mm. O coeficiente de crescimento no presente estudo (K: 0,069 foi inferior aos valores reportados para oMediterrâneo (0,087 e sudeste da África (0,09. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada a temperaturas médias maiores nessas regiões comparadas ao presente local de estudo ou devido a menor qualidade de habitat em termo de abrigos para os indivíduos de garoupa-verdadeira estabelecerem seus territórios. Análises microscópicas dos ovários dos indivíduos durante esses três anos de amostragens revelaram somente a ocorrência de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas em repouso. A ausência de indivíduos ovados ou em pós-desova, associada com baixos valores do IGS (<0,2, ao longo de todos os meses de coleta, indica que a garoupa-verdadeira não utiliza esse substrato rochoso construído pelo homem como um local de desova. A estimativa de um L50 de 451,3 mm indica que a maioria dos indivíduos capturados nessa região é imatura. Pressão de pesca sobre indivíduos imaturos, associada com a sua lenta taxa de crescimento e complexo modo reprodutivo, ameaça a sustentabilidade da atual pesca da garoupa-verdadeira na área de estudo.

  2. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Milisenda

    Full Text Available In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily. A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  3. Combining Morphology and Genetics in Resolving Taxonomy–A Systematic Revision of Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii) in the Adriatic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Šanda, Radek; Marčić, Zoran; Ćaleta, Marko; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small. PMID:24918426

  4. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.

  5. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii) in the Adriatic watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Sanda, Radek; Marčić, Zoran; Caleta, Marko; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  6. Jellyfish as Prey: Frequency of Predation and Selective Foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Veronica L.; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  7. A revision of the Australian species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae), with descriptions of six new species and redescriptions of twenty-three valid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard; Hoese, Douglass F

    2015-03-17

    The gobiid genus Trimma currently contains 75 valid species, with another 20-30 known but undescribed species. There are 29 species in Australian waters (six undescribed). This paper describes the six new species, and provides redescriptions of most of the 23 previously described species known from the region, as well as a key for all the species. The six new species are: T. insularum (endemic to Cocos (Keeling) Islands), T. kitrinum (Fiji to Great Barrier Reef), T. meristum (Cape York to the Bismark Archipelago and Fiji), T. pentherum (Great Barrier Reef to Fiji and the South-West Islands of Palau), T. readerae (Australia to Japan), and T. xanthum (Palau to Fiji, Great Barrier Reef to Christmas Island). The following 23 species have been recorded from Australian waters, and most are redescribed here: T. anaima (Comores to Fiji), T. annosum (Maldives to the Phoenix Islands, Taiwan to the southern Great Barrier Reef), T. benjamini (southern Vietnam to the Marshall Islands, Samoa and southern Barrier Reef), T. caesiura (Ryukyus through the Marshall Islands to Samoa and Elizabeth Reef on the Lord Howe Rise), T. capostriatum (New Caledonia to eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea), T. maiandros (Java to the Ryukyus, Marshalls to Great Barrier Reef), T. emeryi (Comores to Ryukyus and Samoa), T. fangi (western South China Sea through to the Solomons), T. flavatrum (Ryukyu Islands to Western Australia and Samoa), T. hoesei (Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean to Palau and Solomons), T. lantana (Australia, Solomons, northern New Guinea, South-West Islands of Palau), T. macrophthalmus (Ryukyu Islands to Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Samoa), T. milta (Taiwan to Western Australia, Society Islands and Hawaii), T. nasa (Sumbawa, Indonesia to Fiji), T. necopinum (northern tip of Cape York to Sydney), T. nomurai (Japan to northern Australia and New Caledonia), T. okinawae (western Thailand to Japan and the Phoenix Islands, north-west Australia to the Great Barrier Reef), T. preclarum (Palau to Fiji, Great Barrier Reef), T. stobbsi (Maldives to New Caledonia), T. striatum (Maldives to Palau, to northern Australia), T. taylori (Red Sea to Hawaii and Society Islands), T. tevegae (Red Sea to Ryukyu Islands, Marshall Islands to Samoa), and T. unisquame (Comores to Hawaii and Easter Island).

  8. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  9. First record of the silver-cheeked toad fish Lagocephalus scleratus (Gmelin, 1789 (Actinopterygii: Tetraodontidae from Chennai coastal waters, Southeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Silambarasan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The silver-cheeked toad fish, Lagocephalus scleratus, was recorded for the first time on 25 September 2014. Two specimens of this fish species were collected from the by-catch landed by a commercial deep-sea trawler at Kasimedu Fishing Harbour, Chennai coast, Southeast India. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed. The specimen was compared with earlier reports.

  10. The phylogenetic intrarelationships of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei, Actinopterygii: fossil taxa increase the congruence of morphology with molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davesne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acanthomorpha (spiny-rayed fishes is a clade of teleosts that includes more than 15 000 extant species. Their deep phylogenetic intrarelationships, first reconstructed using morphological characters, have been extensively revised with molecular data. Moreover, the deep branches of the acanthomorph tree are still largely unresolved, with strong disagreement between studies. Here, we review the historical propositions for acanthomorph deep intrarelationships and attempt to resolve their earliest branching patterns using a new morphological data matrix compiling and revising characters from previous studies. The taxon sampling we use constitutes a first attempt to test all previous hypotheses (molecular and morphological alike with morphological data only. Our sampling also includes Late Cretaceous fossil taxa, which yield new character state combinations that are absent in extant taxa. Analysis of the complete morphological data matrix yields a new topology that shows remarkable congruence with the well-supported molecular results. Lampridiformes (oarfishes and allies are the sister to all other acanthomorphs. Gadiformes (cods and allies and Zeiformes (dories form a clade with Percopsiformes (trout-perches and the enigmatic Polymixia (beardfish and Stylephorus (tube-eye. Ophidiiformes (cusk-eels and allies and Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes are nested within Percomorpha, the clade that includes most of modern acanthomorph diversity. These results provide morphological synapomorphies and independent corroboration of clades previously only recovered from molecular data, thereby suggesting the emergence of a congruent picture of acanthomorph deep intrarelationships. Fossil taxa play a critical role in achieving this congruence, since a very different topology is found when they are excluded from the analysis.

  11. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p ANVISA).

  12. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  13. EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE OCCURRENCE AND THE ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATION OF GIANT MOTTLED EEL, ANGUILLA MARMORATA (ACTINOPTERYGII: ANGUILLIFORMES: ANGUILLIDAE), FROM SABAH, BORNEO ISLAND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Lian Wong; Siti Raudah Abdul Kadir; Rabi Atun Adawiah Abdullah; Charlie Albert Lasuin; Kok Onn Kwong; Takaomi Arai

    2017-01-01

      Although tropical anguillid eels account for two-thirds of all species in the genus Anguilla, the information on the species diversity, geographic distribution, and life histories of the tropical eels is very limited...

  14. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

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    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.

  15. Two new species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Yooyen, Thanapon

    2011-09-01

    Two new species ofrhabdochonid nematodes are described from the intestine of freshwater fishes in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) pseudomysti sp. n. from the catfish Pseudomystus siamensis (Regan) (Bagridae, Siluriformes) in the Fang Brook, a tributary of the Kok River (the Mekong River basin), Fang District and Rhabdochona (Globochona) thaiensis sp. n. from the cyprinid Mystacoleucus marginatus (Valenciennes) (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) in the Ping River (the Chao Phraya River basin), Muang District. Rhabdochona pseudomysti is mainly characterized by simple, leaf-like oval deirids (a unique feature among Rhabdochona spp.), a prostom with 14 anterior teeth, the presence of basal prostomal teeth, the length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:2.1-2.6), an unusually long left spicule (1.10-1.22 mm), length ratio of spicules (1:11.5-14.7), arrangement of genital papillae, and conspicuously elevated vulval lips. Rhabdochona thaiensis differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 possessing caudal projections on the tail tip in that it has only 2 claw-shaped projections located ventrally on the tail tip of both males and females; the species is mainly characterized by the presence of distinct pseudolabia, 8 anterior prostomal teeth, absence of basal teeth, bifurcated deirids, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:11.3-11.9), conspicuously short (135-141 microm) left spicule, arrangement of genital papillae, and somewhat elevated vulval lips. Fully developed eggs of R. pseudomysti and R. thaiensis remain unknown. These are the first nominal species of Rhabdochona reported from Thailand.

  16. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping

    2009-01-01

    Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened the hypotheses containing the slippage model for initiation of reverse transcription, retropositional parasitism of SINEs on LINEs, the formation of the stem loop structure in 3'tail region of some SINEs and LINEs and the mechanism of template switching in generating new SINE family. PMID:19224649

  17. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Baocheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened the hypotheses containing the slippage model for initiation of reverse transcription, retropositional parasitism of SINEs on LINEs, the formation of the stem loop structure in 3'tail region of some SINEs and LINEs and the mechanism of template switching in generating new SINE family.

  18. Coexistence of fish species in a large lowland river: food niche partitioning between small-sized percids, cyprinids and sticklebacks in submersed macrophytes.

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    Małgorzata Dukowska

    Full Text Available In the spring and summer of each year, large patches of submersed aquatic macrophytes overgrow the bottom of the alluvial Warta River downstream of a large dam reservoir owing to water management practices. Environmental variables, macroinvertebrates (zoobenthos and epiphytic fauna, zooplankton and fish abundance and biomass were assessed at this biologically productive habitat to learn intraseasonal dynamics of food types, and their occurrence in the gut contents of small-sized roach, dace, perch, ruffe and three-spined stickleback. Gut fullness coefficient, niche breadth and niche overlap indicated how the fishes coexist in the macrophytes. Chironomidae dominated in the diet of the percids. However, ruffe consumed mostly benthic chironomids, while perch epiphytic chironomids and zooplankton. The diet of dace resembled that in fast flowing water although this rheophilic species occurred at unusual density there. The generalist roach displayed the lowest gut fullness coefficient values and widest niche breadth; consequently, intraspecific rather than interspecific competition decided the fate of roach. Three-spined stickleback differed from the other fishes by consuming epiphytic simuliids and fish eggs. The diet overlap between fishes reaching higher gut fullness coefficient values was rather low when the food associated with the submersed aquatic macrophytes was most abundant; this is congruent with the niche overlap hypothesis that maximal tolerable niche overlap can be higher in less intensely competitive conditions.

  19. Coexistence of fish species in a large lowland river: food niche partitioning between small-sized percids, cyprinids and sticklebacks in submersed macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukowska, Małgorzata; Grzybkowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the spring and summer of each year, large patches of submersed aquatic macrophytes overgrow the bottom of the alluvial Warta River downstream of a large dam reservoir owing to water management practices. Environmental variables, macroinvertebrates (zoobenthos and epiphytic fauna, zooplankton) and fish abundance and biomass were assessed at this biologically productive habitat to learn intraseasonal dynamics of food types, and their occurrence in the gut contents of small-sized roach, dace, perch, ruffe and three-spined stickleback. Gut fullness coefficient, niche breadth and niche overlap indicated how the fishes coexist in the macrophytes. Chironomidae dominated in the diet of the percids. However, ruffe consumed mostly benthic chironomids, while perch epiphytic chironomids and zooplankton. The diet of dace resembled that in fast flowing water although this rheophilic species occurred at unusual density there. The generalist roach displayed the lowest gut fullness coefficient values and widest niche breadth; consequently, intraspecific rather than interspecific competition decided the fate of roach. Three-spined stickleback differed from the other fishes by consuming epiphytic simuliids and fish eggs. The diet overlap between fishes reaching higher gut fullness coefficient values was rather low when the food associated with the submersed aquatic macrophytes was most abundant; this is congruent with the niche overlap hypothesis that maximal tolerable niche overlap can be higher in less intensely competitive conditions.

  20. Myxobolus chushi n. sp. (Myxozoa:Myxosporea) parasitizing Schizothorax niger (Heckel), a native cyprinid fish from Wullar Lake in Kashmir Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z

    2017-06-01

    In the study, a new species, Myxobolus chushi n. sp. infecting gills of wild specimens of Schizothorax niger (Heckel) inhabiting Wullar Lake in Kashmir Himalayas, (J&K) India has been described based on morphology of the myxospore and using partial 18S rDNA sequencing. Pathological changes in the gills have been studied with the help of histological sections stained with Luna's method. Twenty fish specimens were examined, out of which four had oval, white plasmodia in gills measuring 2.0×0.5mm. The myxospores were spherical to ovoidal in shape with slightly attenuated posterior end, measuring 11.17±0.23 (10.60-11.40)μm in length and 9.14±0.06 (8.80-9.20)μm in width, having a prominent pore at the anterior end. The polar capsules were pyriform in shape, measuring 4.25±0.15 (4.00-4.40)μm in length and 2.38±0.27 (2.00-2.65)μm in width having polar filaments forming coils up to 5 in number. Parietal folds 9 in number present on the posterior part of the shell. The intensity of infection was recorded to be moderate as indicated by gill plasmodial index (GPI=2). The plasmodium was located in the vascular network occupying whole of the gill lamella therefore typed as intralamellar vascular type, LV3. Analysis of 18S small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequence of the isolate demonstrated 90% homogeneity with M. sp. KLT-2014 infecting scales of Labeo rohita from Myanmar and 89% with M. dermiscalis infecting scales of Labeo rohita from India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. First record of protozoan parasites in cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from Dal lake in Kashmir Himalayas with study on their pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Irfan ur Rauf; Dar, Gowhar Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 obtained from gills during a parasitological survey conducted for the protozoan parasitic fauna of Schizothorax niger a snow trout in Dal Lake, Kashmir, India during the period October 2013 and March 2015. Thirty out of 180 fish were found infected with protozoan parasites. During the study of their pathogenecity the most common deteriorating signs observed in gill tissue were necrosis, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and fusion of secondary lamellae. Prevalence of infection was found to be 16.66%. This is the first record of the protozoan fauna of the schizothoracines from Kashmir valley, India.

  2. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a Carassius female with 206 chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knytl, M; Kalous, L; Symonová, R; Rylková, K; Ráb, P

    2013-01-01

    A single female with 206 chromosomes and another 26 females with 156 chromosomes identified as Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio, and 5 individuals with 100 chromosomes identified as crucian carp, C. carassius, were sampled during field survey in one locality in the upper Elbe River. To identify the origin of females with high chromosome numbers, comparative karyotype analysis, GISH, with whole C. carassius DNA as probe and phylogenetic positions of sampled individuals revealed by cytochrome b mitochondrial marker were performed. GISH showed consistently bright labeling of 50 chromosomal elements out of 206, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of C. carassius. The position of these females with high chromosome numbers in a reconstructed phylogenetic tree was within the clade of C. gibelio, documenting its affiliation to C. gibelio mitochondrial, i.e. maternal lineage. Our findings indicated that the mother of the female with high chromosome numbers was a gynogenetically reproducing 156-chromosome C. gibelio female and the father a bisexually reproducing C. carassius male. We, therefore, hypothesized that the C. gibelio × C. carassius allopolyploid female with 206 chromosomes arose by a mechanism of sperm genome addition to an unreduced egg of the mother.

  3. Nuevo registro de Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae en la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, Coahuayana, Michoacán, México New record of Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae in the mouth of Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Raúl Sandoval-Huerta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, al noroeste del estado de Michoacán fue registrada la presencia del plecostoma rayado, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae. Se describe e ilustra un ejemplar adulto de sexo indeterminado, con longitud total de 386 mm, recolectado el 4 de julio de 2010.Vermiculated Salifin Catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae, is reported at the mouth of the river Coahuayana, northwest of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. On July 4, 2010, an adult specimen of this species was collected. The specimen measured 386 mm and sex was not determined. The specimen is described and illustrated.

  4. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific interactions, territorial and reproductive behaviour. In general, these fish from Fernando de Noronha occurs in intertidal zone, are gregarious, with small home ranges of near 2 x 2 m², and show low agressivity towards other fish. Occasionally, some chasing was recorded between individuals of the same or distinct species. Low agressivity is probably associated to the occupation of small areas (e.g. tide pools, as a high degree of agressivity may represent an unnecessary [excessive] waste of energy. Most of the studied species presents cryptic coloration, associated to the avoidance of predators, but some males showed conspicuous coloration and intense aggressive behaviour, mainly during the reproductive season. It was only during this occasion that territorial behaviour, chasing and bites were recorded.

  5. Estratégia trófica dos linguados Citharichthys spilopterus Günther e Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Trophic strategy of the flatfishes Citharichthys spilopterus Günther and Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Paula Penha Guedes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as mudanças espaciais e ontogenéticas na dieta dos linguados Citharichthys spilopterus Günther, 1862 e Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 na Baía de Sepetiba. A área de estudos foi dividida em três zonas (interna, central e externa, onde foram realizados arrastos de fundo diurnos no período entre outubro/1998 a setembro/1999. C. spilopterus apresentou os maiores Índices de Importância Relativa (IIR para Mysidacea (0.3359 e Amphipoda (0.0805, enquanto S. tessellatus apresentou maiores IIR para Amphipoda (0.7515 e Polychaeta (0.2586. A elevada porcentagem (67,61% de estômagos vazios em S. tessellatus sugere atividade alimentar noturna. Os espécimes de menor tamanho (CT 115 mm de Polychaeta na zona interna, Gobiidae na central e Decapoda na externa. Os menores espécimes (CT 155 mm de Polychaeta na zona interna, e de Amphipoda e Polychaeta na zona externa. Citharichthys spilopterus apresentou maior tamanho de boca e olho, e se alimentou de organismos associados à coluna da água próxima, tendendo a uma dieta mais especialista quando comparado com S. tessellatus que se alimentou de organismos sobre fundo. Apesar das duas espécies terem se alimentado basicamente de Crustacea, apresentaram baixa sobreposição alimentar com 0,1972, provavelmente podendo ser esta a estratégia de separação trófica desenvolvida para permitir a coexistência destas duas espécies relacionadas na Baía.The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and ontogenetic changes in diet of the flatfishes Citharichthys spilopterus Günther, 1862 and Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 in the Sepetiba Bay. The studied area was divided in three zones (inner, central e outer, where bottom trawls were performed during the day, from October 1998 to September 1999. Citharichthys spilopterus showed higher Indices of Relative Importance (IRI for Mysidacea (0.3359 and Amphipoda (0.0805, while S. tessellatus showed the highest IRI for Amphipoda (0.7515 and Polychaeta (0.2586. The high percentage (67.61% of empty guts in S. tessellatus suggests nocturnal feeding activity. Smaller sized individuals (TL 115 mm fed on Polychaeta the inner zone, Gobiidae in the central and Decapoda in the outer. The smaller individuals (TL 155 mm fed on Polychaeta in the inner zone, and Amphipoda and Polychaeta in the outer zone. Citharichthys spilopterus, shows comparatively larger mouth and eye, and feed on organisms in the water column nearby, with a more specialized feeding habit, compared with S. tessellatus, which feed on organism on the substrate. Although the two species feed basically on Crustacea, they present low overlaping in the diet (0.197, and this is probably the trophic strategy developed to allow the coexistence of these two closely related species in the Bay.

  6. Territorial hypothesis predicts the trade-off between reproductive opportunities and parental care in three species of damselfishes (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii La hipótesis territorial predice la compensación entre las oportunidades reproductivas y el cuidado parental en tres especies de peces damisela (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii

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    Eduardo Bessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paternal care is rare in most animals, but common in fishes, including Pomacentridae. One way of explaining it is through the territorial hypothesis, which predicts that paternal care may evolve when caring for a territory with eggs will not cost more than territories without eggs. Here we describe the reproductive behavior of three pomacentrids from São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluate if the territorial hypothesis explains their behavioral variation through five predictions. We checked if females have multiple spawns (prediction 1, if they forage more (prediction 2 and if territory defence demands more when eggs are present (prediction 3. We also described how visible eggs are (prediction 4 and how available nesting sites are (prediction 5. Chromis multilineata differed from Abudefduf saxatilis and Stegastes fuscus by not guarding the eggs, spending less time with territoriality and fanning eggs; and more time feeding and foraging. Females of the three species are iteroparous. Females' A. saxatilis and S. fuscus foraged more than males, which spent the same amount of time in territorial defence before and after eggs were delivered. These two species also have very conspicuous egg clutches on clean rock surfaces defended by them. On the other hand, males and females of C. multilineata spent the same time foraging, while territoriality took more effort after eggs were present and it spawns cryptic eggs amid Sargassum, a common and disperse micro-environment in São Paulo rocky shores. Territorial hypothesis explains why paternal care by A. saxatilis and S. fuscus lasts longer than by C. multilineata.El cuidado paterno es raro en la mayoría de los animales, pero común en los peces, incluyendo los Pomacentridae. Una forma de explicar este fenómeno es la hipótesis territorial, que predice que el cuidado paterno puede evolucionar cuando la protección de un territorio con huevos no cuesta más que la de territorios sin huevos. Aquí se describe el comportamiento reproductivo de tres pomacentrídios de São Paulo, Brasil, y se evalúa si la hipótesis territorial explica la variación de su comportamiento a través de cinco predicciones. Se analizó si las hembras tienen múltiples desoves (predicción 1, si forrajean más (predicción 2 y si la defensa del territorio es mayor cuando los huevos están presentes (predicción 3. También se evaluó si los huevos eran visibles (predicción 4 y cuán disponibles eran los sitios de anidación (predicción 5. Chromis multilineata difería de Abudefduf saxatilis y Stegastes fuscus por no proteger a sus huevos, dedicar menos tiempo a la territorialidad y ventilación de sus huevos, y más tiempo para la alimentación y forrajeo. Las hembras de las tres especies son iteróparas. Las hembras de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus forrajean más que los machos, que gastan la misma cantidad de tiempo en la defensa territorial antes y después de liberar los huevos. Estas dos especies también defienden a desoves muy conspicuos adheridos en superficies de roca limpia. Por otra parte, las hembras y machos de C. multilineata pasaron el mismo tiempo forrajeando, mientras la territorialidad tomó más esfuerzo después, con los huevos presentes, y los desoves estaban escondidos en medio de Sargassum, un ambiente común y disperso en micro-ambientes de las costas rocosas de São Paulo. La hipótesis territorial explica el motivo por el cual el cuidado paterno de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus es más prolongado que el de C. multilineata.

  7. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic. [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Zainal A. Muchlisin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg-1 (control, 5 ml kg-1, 10 ml kg-1 and 15 ml kg-1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic to 10 ml kg-1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg-1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg-1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg-1 of feed.

  8. Feeding behavior of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) on fry of other fish species and trematode transmitting snail species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; The, Dang Tat; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Fish raised in aquaculture ponds may get infected with fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) during the nursing stage. Freshwater snails serve as intermediate hosts for FZT and we wanted to explore the possibility of controlling snails by stocking nursery ponds with a few juvenile specimens...

  9. Combining geometric morphometrics with molecular genetics to investigate a putative hybrid complex: a case study with barbels Barbus spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, M F; Schreiner, C; Delmastro, G B; Herder, F

    2016-03-01

    This integrative study examined the morphological and genetic affinities of three endemic barbel species from Italy (brook barbel Barbus caninus, Italian barbel Barbus plebejus and horse barbel Barbus tyberinus) and of putative hybrid specimens to their species of origin. Two of the species frequently occur together with the non-native barbel Barbus barbus. DNA barcoding indicates that mitochondrial (mt) haplotypes often do not match the species expected from morphology. Linear distance measurements and meristics are not informative for discrimination of the species and putative hybrids, but a discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) of geometric landmark data produces reassignments largely in congruence with mt and nuclear genetic data. Cyto-nuclear conflicts confirm the presence of hybridization in B. plebejus and B. tyberinus and identify additional introgressed specimens. A comparison between mixed genotypes and their morphology-based assignment reveals no predictable pattern. The finding that most individuals of the morphologically similar B. plebejus and B. tyberinus have very high assignment probabilities to their respective species suggests that the presented approach may serve as a valuable tool to distinguish morphologically very similar taxa.

  10. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  11. Phylogenetic position and osteology of Pethia setnai (Chhapgar and Sane, 1992, an endemic barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, India, with notes on its distribution and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pethia setnai is an endemic and threatened freshwater fish of the Western Ghats of India. It has a restricted distribution in the west flowing rivers in the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We clarify the phylogenetic position of Pethia setnai, provide osteological details of topotypic material, and morphometric data of specimens from Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We also provide details on micro-level distribution, habitat and threats to the species in its native range.

  12. Pethia lutea, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae and new records of P. punctata from northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of barb Pethia lutea is described from the Kundalika River in the northern part of the Western Ghats. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in India based on a combination of characters including a distinct humped nape, absence of barbels, complete lateral line, lips thick, lateral fold on snout, 19-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 14-15 preanal scales, 4-4.5 transverse scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 2.5-3 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base, 6-9 pair of serrae on the distal half of the dorsal fin spine, 13-15 branched pectoral fin rays, 7 branched pelvic fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body with one vertical humeral and one caudal blotch and dorsal fin without any bands or blotches. Additionally, we provide new records of Pethia punctata from the rivers of Maharashtra State along with a description of its osteology.

  13. [Phylogenetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae), based on the analysis of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (Co-1) sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishcheva, N M; Kartavtsev, Iu F; Bogutskaia, N G

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus from two different parts of the range was carried out. In this study, based on the mitochondrial Co-1 gene sequence, a total of 25 fish specimens belonging to four genera were examined: (1) O. humilis, 2 specimens; O. potanini, 13 specimens; (2) Pseudaspius leptocephalus, 1 specimen; (3) Tribolodon brandtii, T. hakonensis, and T. sachalinensis from the GenBank database, 8 speciens; and (4) Leuciscus waleckii, 1 specimen (used as an outgroup). The p-distances were very low both within and between the species: (1) 0.20 +/- 0.03%; (2) 0.40 +/- 0.12%; and (1-2) 0.80 +/- 0.04%. To visualize the relationships among all of the species examined, the neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), Bayesian (BA), and maximum likelihood (ML) trees were constructed. The results obtained using these methods were very similar. It was demonstrated that species assignment of the individuals (barcoding) with the help Co-1 gene was effective, despite of very low divergence of the two osman taxa, which was comparable with typical intraspecific values in other animal groups. Taxonomic status of O. potanini and O. humilis requires further investigation with paying attention to low genetic distances between these species along with the lack of material from sympatric parts of the ranges.

  14. Phylogenetic position and osteology of Pethia setnai (Chhapgar and Sane, 1992, an endemic barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, India, with notes on its distribution and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pethia setnai is an endemic and threatened freshwater fish of the Western Ghats of India. It has a restricted distribution in the west flowing rivers in the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We clarify the phylogenetic position of Pethia setnai, provide osteological details of topotypic material, and morphometric data of specimens from Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We also provide details on micro-level distribution, habitat and threats to the species in its native range.

  15. A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids

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    Luis Boto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new microsatellite locus (SAS1 for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.

  16. A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose..

  17. An identification in fish of the genus Puntius Hamilton 1822 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) of some wetlands in northeast Thailand with the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champasri, T; Rapley, R; Duangjinda, M; Suksri, A

    2008-02-15

    The experiment was carried out during the 2003 to 2006 at the Department of Fisheries, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand in collaboration with the Department of Biosciences, the University of Hertfordshire, College Land, Hatfield, Herts, UK. Molecular RAPD technique was used for the determinations of DNA patterns of the fish genus Puntius Hamilton 1822. The fish samples of 1,500 individual fish were collected from fifteen wetlands in Northeast Thailand and they were used for DNA extraction. Before the experiment was carried out the fish samples were morphologically identified and it was found that the collected fish consisted of 9 species i.e., Puntius altus, P. aurotaeniatus, P. binotatus, P. gonionotus, (e) P. leiacanthus, P. orphoides, P. partipentazona, P. schwanenfeldi and P. wetmorei. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 5 mg of muscle tissues (skeleton muscles) with the use of PUREGENE DNA Isolation Kit for Laboratory Use, Gentra Systems, USA. Eighty decamer primers from four kits were subjected to a preliminary test. It was found that only 10 decamer primers were most suited for this PCR amplification. The results showed that genetic distant values being established among and between pairs of the fishes of the 9 fish species ranged from 0.191 to 0.456 for a pair between Puntius gonionotus and Puntius altus and a pair between Puntius schwanenfeldi and Puntius leiacanthus, respectively. Similarity coefficient values within the 9 fish species ranged from 0.109 to 0.231. The results on a Dendrogram of clusters showed that there were 5 minor groups of the 9 fish species but the 9 species could not be split or shifted into other genera of the fish due to small differences found within the values of similarity coefficients.

  18. Age and growth of European barbel Barbus barbus (Cyprinidae in the small, mesotrophic River Lee and relative to other populations in England

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    Vilizzi L.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspected of being in decline, the European barbel Barbus barbus population of the River Lee, a heavily-modified river in South East England, has been the subject of investigations to identify factors associated with perceived population decreases. Population surveys between 1995 and 1999 captured a total of 912 individuals, and standard length (SL frequency analyses between years suggested that the population decline was not related to juvenile recruitment but rather to a recruitment bottleneck in fish 300–340 mm SL. This bottleneck probably results from insufficient available habitat suitable to this size class. Of the sampled fish, scales were removed from 764 and were used in a scale ageing exercise among three researchers. Analyses of their independent age estimates revealed variable interpretations, which arose from uncertainties relating to the difficulty of analysing scale patterns from relatively large, slow-growing fish. Nevertheless, error was within published acceptable margins, and age estimates revealed B. barbus in the river to age 10 years, lower than in many UK rivers. The SL-at-age growth curve was characterised by very fast growth in the initial years of life. Thus, the causal factors in the decline of this B. barbus population appear to have been in the adult life-stage habitat and were likely related to the loss of longitudinal connectivity, mainly due to the presence of water retention structures. River and aquatic ecosystem remediation strategies should therefore focus on enhancing longitudinal connectivity in conjunction with the ongoing improvement of water quality and ecosystem integrity.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors act at different spatial and temporal scales to shape population structure, distribution and speciation in Italian Barbus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonerba, Luca; Zaccara, Serena; Delmastro, Giovanni B; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Salzburger, Walter; Gante, Hugo F

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have given substantial attention to external factors that affect the distribution and diversification of freshwater fish in Europe and North America, in particular Pleistocene and Holocene glacial cycles. In the present paper we examine sequence variation at one mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (over 3 kbp) from populations sampled across several drainages of all species of Barbus known to inhabit Italian freshwaters (introduced B. barbus and native B. balcanicus, B. caninus, B. plebejus and B. tyberinus). By comparing species with distinct ecological preferences (rheophilic and fluvio-lacustrine) and using a fossil-calibrated phylogeny we gained considerable insight about the intrinsic and extrinsic processes shaping barbel distribution, population structure and speciation. We found that timescales of Italian barbel diversification are older than previously thought, starting in the Early Miocene, and involving local and regional tectonism and basin paleo-evolution rather than Pleistocene glacial cycles. Conversely, more recent environmental factors associated with glaciation-deglaciation cycles have influenced species distributions. These events had a more marked impact on fluvio-lacustrine than on rheophilic species by means of river confluence at low sea levels. We show that genetic structure is influenced by species ecology: populations of small rheophilic species inhabiting upper river stretches of large basins are less connected and more differentiated than large fluvio-lacustrine species that inhabit lower river courses. We report the existence of both natural and human-induced interspecific gene flow, which could have great impacts on the evolution and persistence of species involved. In addition, we provide evidence that B. tyberinus is genetically distinguishable from all other Italian taxa and that its morphological similarity to B. plebejus and intermediacy with B. caninus are best explained by recent common ancestry and similar ecology with the former, rather than by hybrid origin involving these two species as previously hypothesized.

  20. Microsatellite-based genetic variability and differentiation of hatchery and feral common carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes populations in Croatia

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    Tomljanović Tea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp production has an important status in Croatian aquaculture. In addition, the sport fishing of common carp in open waters is very popular, but it is often based on stocking from fish farms. Using fifteen microsatellites, 243 individuals from 5 hatchery and 5 feral populations have been analyzed. A total number of 148 alleles were recorded. However, the mean number of alleles per locus was remarkably low. Pairwise FST values (0.026-0.130 were significant (P<0.01, demonstrating differentiation among populations. The Markov chain method test showed that all the populations deviated from HWE (P <0.05. After sequential Bonferroni correction only the Vrana lake was in HWE in all the loci but MFW20. The factors that may result in genetic divergence and significant reduction of the observed heterozygosity are discussed. AMOVA results for 10 populations indicate that the percentage of the variation among populations was 6.26%, which is lower than the variation within populations (91.04%.

  1. Induction of spawning in Capoeta aculeata, (Valenciennes in Cuv. & Val., 1844) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using carp pituitary extract

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Kamali-Far; Jamshid Amiri-Moghaddam; Fateme Maniei

    2009-01-01

    Capoeta aculeata is a benthopelagic fresh-water fish that lives in subtropical climates and has awidely distribution in Iranian river basins. Hatchery production of fish for stocking is an important means oftemporarily supplementing insufficient natural reproduction, thus help to maintain or restore eroded fishpopulation. This study was done in May and June 2007 on captured brood fish from Zayandeh-Rood River,Iran in order to reach a suitable technique of artificial reproduction of C. aculeat...

  2. Genetic variation of wild and hatchery populations of the catla Indian major carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae revealed by RAPD markers

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    S.M. Zakiur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822 in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 departure from homogeneity and the F ST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.

  3. Effects of temperature on auditory sensitivity in eurythermal fishes: common carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae versus Wels catfish Silurus glanis (family Siluridae.

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    Isabelle Pia Maiditsch

    Full Text Available In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders.Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C. Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average.The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical species.

  4. Genetic Structure and Preliminary Findings of Cryptic Diversity of the Malaysian Mahseer (Tor tambroides Valenciennes: Cyprinidae Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Analyses

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    Yuzine Esa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the population genetic structure of Tor tambroides, an important freshwater fish species in Malaysia, using fifteen polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequencing of 464 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. A total of 152 mahseer samples were collected from eight populations throughout the Malaysia river system. Microsatellites results found high levels of intrapopulation variations, but mitochondrial COI results found high levels of interpopulations differentiation. The possible reasons for their discrepancies might be the varying influence of genetic drift on each marker or the small sample sizes used in most of the populations. The Kelantan population showed very low levels of genetic variations using both mitochondrial and microsatellite analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene found a unique haplotype (ER8*, possibly representing a cryptic lineage of T. douronensis, from the Endau-Rompin population. Nevertheless, the inclusion of nuclear microsatellite analyses could not fully resolve the genetic identity of haplotype ER8* in the present study. Overall, the findings showed a serious need for more comprehensive and larger scale samplings, especially in remote river systems, in combination with molecular analyses using multiple markers, in order to discover more cryptic lineages or undescribed “genetic species” of mahseer.

  5. Pethia lutea, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae and new records of P. punctata from northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of barb Pethia lutea is described from the Kundalika River in the northern part of the Western Ghats. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in India based on a combination of characters including a distinct humped nape, absence of barbels, complete lateral line, lips thick, lateral fold on snout, 19-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 14-15 preanal scales, 4-4.5 transverse scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 2.5-3 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base, 6-9 pair of serrae on the distal half of the dorsal fin spine, 13-15 branched pectoral fin rays, 7 branched pelvic fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body with one vertical humeral and one caudal blotch and dorsal fin without any bands or blotches. Additionally, we provide new records of Pethia punctata from the rivers of Maharashtra State along with a description of its osteology.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the specialized schizothoracine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae),with their implications for the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dekui; CHEN Yifeng; CHEN Yiyu; CHEN Ziming

    2004-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny of three genera containing nine species and subspecies of the specialized schizothoracine fishes are investigated based on the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Meantime relationships between the main cladogenetic events of the specialized schizothoracine fishes and the stepwise uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are also conducted using the molecular clock, which is calibrated by geological isolated events between the upper reaches of the Yellow River and the Qinghai Lake. Results indicated that the specialized schizothoracine fishes are not a monophyly. Five species and subspecies of Ptychobarbus form a monophyly. But three species of Gymnodiptychus do not form a monophyly. Gd. integrigymnatus is a sister taxon of the highly specialized schizothoracine fishes while Gd. pachycheilus has a close relation with Gd. dybowskii, and both of them are as a sister group of Diptychus maculatus. The specialized schizothoracines fishes might have originated during the Miocene (about 10 MaBP), and then the divergence of three genera happened during late Miocene (about 8 MaBP). Their main specialization occurred during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene (3.54-0.42 MaBP). The main cladogenetic events of the specialized schizothoracine fishes are mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shift happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5 and 1.7 MaBP of the late Cenozoic. Molecular clock data do not support the hypothesis that the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplifted to near present or even higher elevations during the Oligocene or Miocene, and neither in agreement with the view that the plateau uplifting reached only to an altitude of 2000 m during the late Pliocene (about 2.6 MaBP).

  7. Cambios morfológicos en gametos del barbo tigre Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae e implementación de la fertilización in vitro

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    Omar Domínguez-Castanedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las características de los gametos de Puntius tetrazona (n=240, los cambios morfológicos a partir de su activación mediante espermogramas cásicos y por otro lado, se evaluó la implementación de la fertilización in vitro a partir de la tasa ovulatoria, el % de fertilización y eclosión y el número de larvas vivas a las 72h. El volumen promedio de semen fue de 3.0±0.7µL. La concentración espermática mínima, máxima y promedio fue 44.48x10(6spz/mL, 52.3x10(6spz/mL y 48.1±5.9x10(6spz/mL, respectivamente. La viabilidad promedio fue de 84.68±3.27%. La motilidad promedio fue 81.53±2.28%. El diámetro de los espermatozoides fluctuó entre 2.16±0.2 y 2.79±0.3µm; 3.84±0.3 y 4.86±0.31µm sin y con contacto con el agua respectivamente, con diferencias significativas. El diámetro mayor fue a los 30s en contacto con el agua. Los ovocitos de menor y mayor diámetro se registraron a los diez y 30s sin y con contacto con el agua respectivamente. Los diámetros de los ovocitos en diez y 30s en contacto con el agua fluctuaron entre 1.11 y 1.55mm respectivamente. La mayor tasa ovulatoria fue en la fertilización in vitro con 250±50 ovocitos frente a 28±09 de la natural, con diferencias significativas. Los porcentajes de fertilización y eclosión fueron más elevados en la fertilización natural con 80% y 60% respectivamente. Se registraron 75±18 larvas a las 72 horas en el grupo in vitro comparado con 13.4±12 larvas de la fertilización natural. Con lo anterior, la técnica que permitió mayor cantidad de larvas fue la de fertilización in vitro.

  8. Rapid rates of sperm DNA damage after activation in tench (Tinca tinca: Teleostei, Cyprinidae) measured using a sperm chromatin dispersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Carmen; Gage, Matthew J G; Arroyo, Francisca; Gosálbez, Altea; Larrán, Ana M; Fernández, José L; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2009-08-01

    Spermatozoal haplotypic DNA is prone to damage, leading to male fertility problems. So far, the assessment of sperm DNA breakage has been challenging because protamines render the nuclear chromatin highly compacted. Here, we report the application of a new test to quantify DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of an externally fertilizing teleost fish. The sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test uses a species-specific lysing solution to generate controlled protein depletion that, followed by DNA-specific fluorescent labelling, allows an easy morphological discrimination between nuclei affected by DNA damage. Using tench (Tinca tinca) as our model, we first trialled the test against established, but more technically demanding, assays employing in situ nick translation (ISNT) and the comet assay. The SCD test showed high concordance with ISNT, comet assay measures and a chromatin-swelling test, confirming the application of this straightforward SCD technique to various aspects of reproductive biology. Second, we examined between-male variation in DNA damage, and measured changes through time following spermatozoal activation. Between-male variation in the basal levels of average DNA damage ranged from 0 to 20% of sperm showing damage, and all showed increases in DNA fragmentation through time (0-60 min). The rates of DNA damage increase are the fastest so far recorded in sperm for a living organism, and may relate to the external fertilization mode. Our findings have relevance for broodstock selection and optimizing IVF protocols routinely used in modern aquaculture.

  9. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864 species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa

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    Albert Chakona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to P. afer across the species’ distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to P. afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the P. afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for P. afer s.s (Mandela lineage, revalidate P. senticeps (Krom lineage as a distinct species, and describe a new species P. swartzi (St Francis lineage. The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both P. afer and P. swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger scales (25–33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10–12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate P. senticeps from P. afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from P. swartzi sp. n. by possession of fewer scale rows along the lateral line (29–35, mode 32 vs 34–37, mode 36 in P. swartzi, fewer scales around the caudal peduncle (12–16, mode 12 vs 13–17, mode 16 in P. swartzi and a distinct mesh or net-like pigmentation pattern on latero-ventral scales.

  10. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

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    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  11. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nastilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número delinfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pigmanure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest values of total leukocyte count were observed in A and C from Blumenau and Ituporanga. Tilapia exposed to pig dung showed the highest number of lymphocyte in the circulating blood. Haematological values of carp did not show significant changes that were related to the environment.

  12. Revisão anatômica e posicionamento filogenético das espécies de Ionoscopiformes (Actinopterygii: Holostei) do Cretáceo do nordeste do Brasil e de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Ribeiro de Paula Machado

    2011-01-01

    Os gêneros de peixes fósseis Oshunia e Placidichthys são holósteos pertencentes à Ordem Ionoscopiformes e provenientes do Cretáceo Inferior do Brasil, das bacias do Araripe e de Tucano. No clado Ionoscopiformes sensu Grande & Bemis (1998) estão incluídas as famílias Ionoscopidae e Ophiopsidae, todavia as relações internas deste grupo ainda são duvidosas. Oshunia e Placidichthys fazem parte das famílias Ionoscopidae e Ophiopsidae, respectivamente, sendo o gênero Oshunia considerado como mono-e...

  13. La pénétration du Hotu, Chondrostoma nasus nasus (Poisson Cyprinidé, dans le réseau hydrographique français et ses conséquences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELVA A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La pénétration du Hotu dans le réseau hydrographique français à la fin du siècle dernier (vers 1860 s'est faite de façon spontanée, à partir du Rhin, par les nouveaux canaux du Nord-Est. En moins d'une quarantaine d'années, l'espèce s'est étendue au maximum des possibilités dans le bassin de la Seine, puis ceux de la Loire et du Rhône. Grâce à son adaptation buccale très spécialisée, l'espèce est originale par sa niche alimentaire de périlithophage exclusif, à régime principalement diatomivore. C'est aussi une espèce très grégaire, dont la structure en bancs est liée à la croissance et à l'âge, et qui effectue des migrations saisonnières indispensables à sa survie : elle occupe les moyens et grands cours d'eau, mais remonte dans certains petits affluents au moment de la reproduction, affectionnant les faciès lotiques. Depuis sa pénétration, et en raison de la réussite de sa naturalisation, l'espèce a été considérée à tort comme nuisible pour le frai de certaines espèces autochtones, en particulier de l'Ombre commun. Des pêches de destruction ont alors été autorisées pendant plusieurs dizaines d'années sur les sites de reproduction communs aux deux espèces, jusqu'à ce que soit récemment démontrée leur inutilité. En réalité, le Hotu n'est concurrentiel pour aucune espèce, pas même pour l'autre Chondrostome autochtone, le Toxostome. Sensible aux pollutions, mais encore davantage aux aménagements récents qui dégradent ou détruisent ses habitats, l'espèce est en nette régression depuis quelques années. Cette régression est d'autant plus regrettable que le Hotu présente des intérêts écologique (rôle épurateur et bioindicateur et halieutique certains.

  14. 棒花鱼(鲤形目,鲤科)全线粒体基因组测定与分析%THE COMPLETE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME OF ABBOTTINA RIVULARIS (CYPRINIFORMES,CYPRINIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺怀亚; 王佳; 尤平

    2013-01-01

    采用长聚合酶链式反应(L-PCR),以L-PCR扩增产物为模板,用30对短PCR引物进行2次PCR(Sub-PCR)扩增,测定并注释了棒花鱼全线粒体基因组.结果表明:棒花鱼线粒体基因组全长16 597 bp,A+T含量55.7%,基因组成及排列顺序与其它硬骨鱼类一致,包括13个蛋白质编码基因,22个tRNA基因,2个rRNA基因和1个控制区(D-loop).L链编码1个蛋白质编码基因(ND6)和8个tRNA基因(tRNA-Gln,tRNA-A1a,tRNA-Cys,tRNA-Asn,tRNA-Tyr,tRNA-Ser,tRNA-Glu,tRNA-Pro),其余基因由H链编码.棒花鱼线粒体基因排列紧密,基因间隔12处60 bp,间隔长度1~31bp不等;基因重叠区7处24bp,重叠区碱基覆盖数在1~7 bp之间.13个蛋白质编码基因中,除COⅠ的起始密码子为GTG外,其余均为ATG;8个蛋白质编码基因的3'端为完全终止密码子TAG(ND1、ND2、ND6)和TAA(COⅠ、ATP8、ATP6、ND4L、ND5),其余5个基因均为不完全终止密码子TA (ND3、ND4)和T(COⅡ、COⅢ、Cyb).除tRNA-Ser (AGY)基因外,其余21个tRNA基因二级结构均为典型的三叶草型.控制区(D-loop)位于tRNA-Pro和tRNA-Phe基因之间,长928 bp,控制区有3个结构区:终止序列区(TASs),中央保守区(CSBs)和保守序列区(CSB-1、CSB-2、CSB-3).

  15. Présence en France de deux parasites d'origine est-asiatique : Diplozoon nipponicum Goto, 1891 (Monogenea et Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda chez Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIS A.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Nous signalons pour la première fois en France la présence de Diplozoon nipponicum Goto, 1891 (Plathelminthe, Monogenea et de Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Plathelminthe, Cestoda tous deux récoltés chez Cyprinus carpio en élevage semi-intensif en Camargue. Ces deux parasites sont d'origine est-asiatique. Après avoir rappelé leur importance relative en pathologie de poissons, nous discutons des modalités de leur introduction en France.

  16. Incorporación de larvas de mosquito Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera:Culicidae en la dieta del pez cebra Brachidanio rerio (Pisces:Cyprinidae y su efecto en la reproducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luna-Figueroa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En la acuicultura, un aspecto de gran importancia es la nutrición. En especies potencialmente cultivables, como el pez cebra Brachidanio rerio, es importante conocer los requerimientos nutricionales para maximizar su reproducción. Las larvas de mosquito son una alternativa viable como alimento vivo en la dieta de peces. Por lo que, en la presente investigación, se evaluó el efecto de la incorporación de larvas de Culex stigmatosoma en la dieta del pez cebra mediante la producción de huevos y la sobrevivencia. Los resultados indican que la producción de huevos difirió 64.40% entre los peces nutridos con Cx. stigmatosoma (570.98 ± 179.16 y con alimento comercial (203.22 ± 32.88 (p 0.05. La máxima producción de huevos (908 se obtuvo en hembras con un peso húmedo promedio de 1,170 mg, alimentadas con larvas de Cx. stigmatosoma, mientras que la mínima producción (140 huevos en las hembras, con un peso húmedo promedio de 1,254 mg, utilizando alimento comercial. La sobrevivencia de los reproductores fue del 100%. En el caso de las crías, la mayor sobrevivencia (88.22% fue registrada en los peces alimentados con larvas de Cx. stigmatosoma (p < 0.001. Los resultados ponderan la relación entre las altas tasas de reproducción y sobrevivencia de B. rerio, así como el potencial económico del cultivo mediante la incorporación de larvas de Cx. stigmatosoma en su dieta.

  17. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Maia Yamashita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nas tilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número de linfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest values of total leukocyte count were observed in A and C from Blumenau and Ituporanga. Tilapia exposed to pig dung showed the highest number of lymphocyte in the circulating blood. Haematological values of carp did not show significant changes that were related to the environment.

  18. Evaluating stocking of YOY pike Esox lucius as a tool in the restoration of shallow lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Nilsson, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    1. Stocking of piscivores in shallow, eutrophicated lakes to reduce cyprinid densities is a common approach in lake restorations. Young-of-the-year (YOY) pike Esox lucius are frequently used to reduce cyprinid densities, but their effectiveness is equivocal. This study uses a simple model to assess...... the efficacy of pike stocking as a lake restoration tool. 2. The model evaluates YOY pike consumption in relation to different survival and growth patterns, timing of stocking, degree of piscivory of pike as well as YOY cyprinid growth patterns and productivity. The parameters used in the model are obtained...... from field surveys in eight study lakes stocked with YOY pike as well as from the literature. 3. Our model showed that all parameters studied were important for predicting the effects of pike stocking on cyprinids. In particular, body size at stocking, cyprinid production and pike survival were good...

  19. Aquatic Nuisance Sp[ecies Research Program. Ecological Impacts of Suckermouth Catfishes (Loricariidae) in North America: A Conceptual Model. Volume 14-1, March 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    de la Biodiversidad , Mexico 7: 2-5. Nico, L. 1999a. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi. Nonindigenous aquatic species fact sheet 766. United States...Actinopterygii: Loricariidae) in the mouth of the Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 83: 294

  20. The smaller your mouth, the longer your snout: predicting the snout length of Syngnathus acus, Centriscus scutatus and other pipette feeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussanet, M.H.E.; Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Like most ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), pipefishes (Syngnathoidei) feed by suction. Most pipefishes reach their prey by a rapid dorso-rotation of the head. In the present study, we analysed the feeding kinematics of the razor fish, Centriscus scutatus, and of the greater pipefish, Syngnathus a

  1. Células sangüíneas, eletrólitos séricos, relação hepato e esplenossomática de carpa-comum, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae na primeira maturação gonadal - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661 Blood cells, seric electrolyte and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae common carp hepatosomatic and splenosomatic relation in the first gonadal maturation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Campos Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em ambos os sexos de Cyprinus carpio o fator relativo de condição (Kn, a relação hepato (RHS e esplenossomática (RES, o eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma, a localização de glicogênio pelo método de PAS em trombócitos e leucócitos e os níveis séricos de proteína total e de eletrólitos. O Kn nas fêmeas foi maior que nos machos. Os valores médios da RES nas fêmeas foram inferiores aos dos machos, enquanto que o número de leucócitos, linfócitos e neutrófilos foram superiores; porém os níveis séricos de magnésio e de cloreto nos machos foram maiores quando comparados aos das fêmeas. Os valores médios da RHS, hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, número de eritrócitos, trombócitos, monócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos granular PAS-positivos (LG-PAS, níveis séricos de proteína total, sódio, potássio e cálcio não evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (P>0,05, entre machos e fêmeas. O método de PAS mostra grânulos de glicogênio no citoplasma de trombócitos, eosinófilos e neutrófilos. Entretanto, no citoplasma dos LG-PAS foram detectados grânulos de glicoproteínas neutras. Monócitos, linfócitos foram PAS negativos. Nos teleósteos o amadurecimento das gônadas apresenta forte relação com o fator de condição. Na fase de reprodução nem sempre é possível detectar os efeitos do sexo isoladamente no hemograma, pois muitas vezes esse pode não ser o único fator ocasionando dimorfismoThis research studied the condition (Kn relative factor, the hepatosomatic (HSR, the splenosomatic (SSR relation, the erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes number, the glicogen locality by PAS method in thrombocytes and leucocytes and the total protein and electrolytes serices levels in both Cyprinus carpio L. sex. The female Kn showed higher value than the males. The female HSR average values were lower than the ones observed in males, while the leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils percentage number were the highest. However, the males magnesium and choride serices levels were higher than the females. The HRS average values, hematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, average corspucular volume (ACV, average corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (ACHC, erythocytes number, trombocytes, monocytes, oesinophils, positive PAS leukocyte granular (PAS-LG, and total protein, sodium, potassium and calcium serices levels did not show significant statistics difference (p> 0.05 between males and females. The PAS method showed glicogen granules into the thronbocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils cytoplasm. Nevertheless, in the PAS-LG cytoplasm, neutral glicoprotein granules were also observed. Monocytes and lynfocytes showed negative reaction to PAS. In the teleosts, the gonodas matureness presents higher relation with the factor of condition. During the reprodution period it is unlikely to find the sexual effects isolated in the hemogram, because most of the time that is not the only factor to cause dimorphism

  2. INDUCTION,PURIFICATION AND ELECTROPHORETIC COMPARISON OF VITELLOGENIN FROM TWO CYPRINID FISH SPECIES:CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) AND WUCHANGFISH (MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA YIH)%鲤和团头鲂幼鱼卵黄蛋白原的诱导、纯化及电泳比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 徐盈; 杨方星; 王剑伟

    2002-01-01

    采用腹腔注射人工雌激素17α-乙炔基雌二醇(17α-ethinyloestradiol, EE2)的方法,在鲤幼鱼和团头鲂幼鱼体内诱导生成卵黄蛋白原;并结合利用阴离子交换介质 DEAE-Sephrarose CL-6B 和液相层析技术分离纯化了诱导后的鲤幼鱼和团头鲂幼鱼血浆中的卵黄蛋白原;SDS-PAGE 电泳结果表明所分离的两种鲤科鱼类卵黄蛋白原其亚基的分子量分别为170KD 和150KD.

  3. Preliminary studies over the experimentation and development of an early warning system using cyprinid fish to detect industrial; Estudios preliminares sobre la experimentacion y desarrollo de un sistema de alarma con peces ciprinidos para la deteccion de vertidos industriales y urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Sanchez, F.A.; Ariz Olaechea, M. de

    1996-06-01

    This technical paper is related with preliminary studies to develop an early warning system using fish to detect toxic spillages on freshwater fish species with different size, the model was designed and built according previous experiences. Although the system should be improved in further investigations, this kind of research is the first performed in Spain about monitoring systems to detect toxic wastes in aquatic freshwater systems. (Author) 39 refs.

  4. Phylogeny Relationship among Eleven Members in Cyprinidae in Ertix River Based on 12S rRNA and S7 Intron 1 Gene%利用12S rRNA与S7基因序列分析额尔齐斯河中11种鲤科鱼类的系统发育关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玮; 杨天燕; 海萨; 蔡林钢; 牛建功

    2015-01-01

    根据线粒体12S rRNA基因和S7核糖体蛋白基因内含子1序列,构建额尔齐斯河中11种鲤科鱼类的系统发育树.结果表明:12S基因AT含量与GC含量相当,而S7基因AT含量明显高于GC含量.12S基因保守区分散在整个序列中,而S7基因保守区均集中在前300bp内.12S rRNA和S7基因系统发育树中有三枝聚在一起,即贝加尔雅罗鱼Leuciscus baicalensis与高体雅罗鱼Leuciscus idus,尖鳍鮈Gobio gobio与麦穗鱼Pseudorasbora parva,金鲫Carassius carassius、银鲫Carassius auratus和鲤Cyprinus carpio.12S基因的聚类树中,丁鱥Tinca tinca与雅罗鱼亚科鱼类聚类,表明两者关系密切;而S7基因的聚类树中丁鱥以较高的支持率与尖鳍鮈、麦穗鱼聚在一起,与鮈亚科关系紧密;分子证据支持将丁鱥列入雅罗鱼系.12S基因构建的三种系统发育树拓扑结构有一定差异,而S7基因构建的三种系统发育树基本一致,支持率也高于前者,表明S7构建鲤科系统发育树的优势高于12S.

  5. 75 FR 35398 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Least...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... (Iotichthys phlegethontis) is an endemic minnow (Family Cyprinidae) of the Bonneville Basin in Utah..., large scales, and the absence of an incomplete lateral line (rarely with one or two pored scales... the environment, such as water levels and temperature, while biotic factors include interactions...

  6. Application of InterPro for the functional classification of the proteins of fish origin in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Margaret Biswas; Alex Kanapin; Rolf Apweiler

    2001-06-01

    InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and sites, developed initially as a means of rationalizing the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. It is a useful resource that aids the functional classification of proteins. Almost 90% of the actinopterygii protein sequences from SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL can be classified using InterPro. Over 30% of the actinopterygii protein sequences currently in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL are of mitochondrial origin, the majority of which belong to the cytochrome b/b6 family. InterPro also gives insights into the domain composition of the classified proteins and has applications in the functional classification of newly determined sequences lacking biochemical characterization, and in comparative genome analysis. A comparison of the actinopterygii protein sequences against the sequences of other eukaryotes confirms the high representation of eukaryotic protein kinase in the organisms studied. The comparisons also show that, based on InterPro families, the trans-species evolution of MHC class I and II molecules in mammals and teleost fish can be recognized.

  7. Capoeta damascina (Valenciennes, 1842), a new host of Contracaecum sp. and Capillaria sp. (Nematoda) from the Kor River Basin, southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeinab Gholami; Mohammad Taghi Rahimi; Eshrat Beigom Kia; Hamid Reza Esmaeili; Iraj Mobedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the parasitic infection status of cyprinid fish, Capoeta damascina in Gomban spring-stream, Kor River Basin, Fars Province, southwestern Iran.Methods:stream, Kor River Basin, Fars Province, southwestern Iran. The collected fish were dissected carefully and their internal organs such as liver, gonad, muscle, abdominal lobes, whole viscera and digestive tract were surveyed parasitologically.Results:One female cyprinid fish out of 12 fish was infected with three nematodes. Two A total of 12 cyprinid fish (7 females and 5 males) were collected from Gomban spring-nematodes (larvae) were identified as Contracaecum sp. which were attached firmly to the outer part of intestine and another adult helminth was recognized as Capillaria sp. which was recovered from digestive content.Conclusions:This study is the first record indicating that cyprinid fish acts as a new host for recovered nematodes. Further helminthological investigations are highly recommended in different parts of Iran in order to expand our knowledge about helmintic parasites of cyprinid fish and their role in transmission of diseases to human and animal.

  8. Fish diversity and assemblage structure in Ken River of Panna landscape, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Johnson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish diversity and assemblage structure in relation to habitat variables were studied in 15 sites in Panna landscape, central India. The sampling was performed between February-April 2009. Fifty species of fishes belonging to 32 genera, 15 families and four orders were recorded from the study area. Cyprinids were the dominant assemblage members in all study streams (abundance ranges from 56.6-94.5 %. The cyprinid Devario aequipinnatus and the snakehead Channa gachua had highest local dominance (80% each in Panna landscape. High Shannon and Margalef’s diversity was recorded in Madla region of Ken River. Similarity cluster analysis explained the study sites along Ken River (Gahrighat, Magradabri and Madla had similar faunal assemblage. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed to study the species association with a set of environmental variables. The CCA revealed that cyprinid abundance was associated with stream order, deeper habitat, flow and water temperature.

  9. SOME PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE TOTAL DNA CONTENT IN HYPOPHTHALMICHTHS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a comparative study between the total amount of DNA from five different types of tissues (gills, muscle, liver, spleen, kidneys in two cultured cyprinids species from the Ezreni accumulation, namely - silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis. The results obtained show that for both Asian cyprinids species the highest average value of the total amount of DNA is to be found in the spleeny tissue comparatively with the muscular tissue, which has the lowest average value, confirming that the spleeny tissue has a more

  10. Identification And Study Of Fish Species In Karkheh River (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Zahra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the investigation of fish from Karkheh River, sampling was performed in a six month period from August 2014 to January 2015. All sampled fish were measured for biometrical values (length and weight. General results of the sampling and identification of the fish showed the presence of 14 species from four fish families of Cyprinidae, Mugilidae, Siluridae and Macrostomidae, out of which the Cyprinidae family were the most frequent of the sampled fish. The most significant abundance belongs to Cyprinus carpio. The fish sampled in the present study were: Liza abu, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Barbel sp., Cyprinion macrostomum, Barbus sharpeyi, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Barbus esocinus, Barbus barbulus, Barbus luteus, Barbus grypus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus triostegus, Mastacembelus circumcinctus and Capoeta trutta. Shannon Index results showed that the fish biodiversity in the studyed area followed a uniform path and additionally that the considered area at the studied period has good fish biodiversity.

  11. Résultats ichthyologiques des voyages scientifiques de Monsieur le Professeur Dr. A. W. Nieuwenhuis dans le centre de Bornéo (1898 et 1900)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1905-01-01

    Dans quelques genres de Cyprinidae, c.-à-d. le Dangila, l’ Osteochilus et le Crossochilus famille des Cyprininae, qui appartiennent à la sousle nombre des écailles de la ligne latérale est plus petit dans les espèces spéciales que dans les espèces anciennes. Le Tylognathus a augmenté ce nombre de 2

  12. Résultats ichthyologiques des voyages scientifiques de Monsieur le Professeur Dr. A. W. Nieuwenhuis dans le centre de Bornéo (1898 et 1900)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1905-01-01

    Dans quelques genres de Cyprinidae, c.-à-d. le Dangila, l’ Osteochilus et le Crossochilus famille des Cyprininae, qui appartiennent à la sousle nombre des écailles de la ligne latérale est plus petit dans les espèces spéciales que dans les espèces anciennes. Le Tylognathus a augmenté ce nombre de 2

  13. Morphological Divergence of Snow Trout (Schizothorax Richardsonii, Gray 1932) from Rivers of Nepal with Insights from a Morphometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar Wagle; Neeta Pradhan; Madhav Kumar Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Asala or snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii, Cyprinidae), one of highly valued freshwater fish of Transhimalayan regions, is distributed in upper reaches of all major river systems of Nepal. Morphometric diversification between six river populations of S. richardsonii was examined to identify intraspecific unit for enabling better management of the resources. Significant differences were observed in 17 measured morphometric characters of 207 specimens among the six river populations. Multi...

  14. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, H.; Ghasemi, M.; Hosseini, S.M.; Haghighi Karsidani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collect...

  15. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Water Quality, Macroinvertebrates, Larval Fishes, and Fishes of the Lower Mississippi River - A Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    B5 Family Cyprinidae - Minnows .. .......... ........ B5 Family Catostomidae - Suckers ..... ................ . B6 Family Ictaluridae - Catfishes...Hydropsychidae) in the Ohio River: Changes in larval age structure and substrate colonization rates. Environmental Entomology 11:1154-1158. Beckett, D. C., C. R...abundance and age *;,. t structure of the burrowing mayfly Hexagenia limbata in an Ohio pond. Ohio Journal of Science 11:7-13. .\\ Sabol, B. M., L. E

  16. Analysis of Existing Information on Ichthyoplankton Drift through Dams on the Upper Mississippi River,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 65(2):391-425. Bur, M. T. 1976. Age , growth and food habits of the Catostomidae in Pool 8 of the upper Mississippi River. M.S...larvae collected in 1979, listed in order of decreasing abundance, included ApZodixotue grunniew, Pforone sp., Catostomidae , Cyprinidae, Dorooma sp...sp., ApZodinou gruniensa, Catostomidae , and Dorosoma sp. REFERENCE: Mclnerny, M. C. 1980. Impingement and entrainment of fishes at Dairyland Power

  17. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Report 8. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    fields, and revetted banks) in the Lower Mississippi River. Specific objectives were: a. To quantitatively define effects of the age , size, and...Eight families were collected: Clupeidae, Hiodontidae, Cyprinidae, Catostomidae , Percichthyidae, Centrarchidae, Percidae, and Sciaenidae. This was...the system was to provide for at least 10 to 15 ecologi- cal variables (e.g., trophic level, sexual condition, age , growth stage, etc.) for subsequent

  18. Environmental Effects of Dikes and Revetments on Large Riverine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Catostomidae , Percichthyidae, Centrarchidae, Percidae, Sciaenidae, Atherinidae, and Lepisosteidae. Taxa collected in lentic habitats of the river (abandoned...revetted banks in the Lower Missis- sippi River included members from the families Clupeidae, Hiodontidae, Cyprinidae, Catostomidae , Percicthyidae...Service, Project No. 2-291-R-3, Study C. Russell, T. R. 1965. " Age , Growth, and Food Habits of the Channel Cat- fish in Unchanneled and Channeled

  19. An outbreak of bucephalosis in fish of the Main river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R W; Körting, W; Fischer-Scherl, T; Schäfer, W

    1990-05-01

    High losses due to metacercaria of Bucephalus polymorphus especially in cyprinids were observed in summer 1984 during a period of a sudden increase in water temperature. Pathology of diseased fish is described. Factors, such as eutrophication of the water system and overcrowding of distinct fish species, are discussed to be the main causes provoking outbreak of the parasitosis.

  20. Migratory behaviour of ide: a comparison between the lowland rivers Elbe, Germany, and Vecht, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Frederich, F.

    2003-01-01

    Individual movement patterns of adult ide Leuciscus idus, a Eurasian riverdwelling cyprinid, in two lowland rivers were measured all yearround during 1997-2000 to assess migratory behaviour and variation between and within these populations. In the River Elbe, a 1091 km long lowland river with a fre

  1. Preliminary insight into the age and origin of the Labeobarbus fish species flock from Lake Tana (Ethiopia) using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Samallo, J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    The high diversity of Cyprinid fish in Ethiopia’s Lake Tana appears to be an example of ecological differentiation and assortative mating leading to rapid sympatric speciation. Lake Tana’s Labeobarbus species flock consists of 15 morphological and ecological distinct species. This is the first attem

  2. cDNA expression library screening and identification of two novel antigens, ubiquitin and receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) homologue, of the fish parasite Trypanosoma carassii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Joerink, M.; Guldenaar, C.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma carassii is a kinetoplastid parasite infecting cyprinid fish with a high prevalence in nature. Antibodies have been shown to play a protective role in the immune response against this parasite in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. To identify immunogenic and putative protective T. carassii an

  3. Experimental test of host specificity in a behaviour-modifying trematode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, R.N.; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    natural brain infections of Euhaplorchis sp. A metacercariae in three cyprinids in the shallow sublittoral zone. Of the three experimentally exposed species, Fundulus grandis and Poecilia latipinna acquired infections and displayed an elevated number of conspicuous behaviours in comparison with uninfected...

  4. Parasites modify sub-cellular partitioning of metals in the gut of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo-Okoth, E.; Admiraal, W.; Osano, O.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Gichuki, J.; Ogwai, C.

    2012-01-01

    Infestation of fish by parasites may influence metal accumulation patterns in the host. However, the subcellular mechanisms of these processes have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study determined how a cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) partitioned four metals (Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in the

  5. Rapid detection and identification of viral and bacterial fish pathogens using a DNA array‐based multiplex assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, B.; Frans, I.; Heusdens, C.

    2011-01-01

    for the simultaneous detection and identification of all cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV‐1, CyHV‐2 and CyHV‐3) and some of the most important fish pathogenic Flavobacterium species, including F. branchiophilum, F. columnare and F. psychrophilum. For virus identification, the DNA polymerase and helicase genes were...

  6. Suppression of invasive topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva by native pike Esox lucius in ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.; Mergeay, J.; Vanhove, T.; De Meester, L.; Declerck, S.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Asian topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva has been recognized as a highly invasive cyprinid fish species in Europe that can present risk to native fish communities. 2. The present study aimed to investigate whether a native piscivorous fish, pike Esox lucius, is able to reduce the establishment

  7. Filter-feeding in common bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and roach (Rutilus rutilus); structures, functions and ecological significance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den C.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the retention mechanism of the branchial sieve of three sympatric cyprinid fish species, the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the roach (Rutilus rutilus) , is studied. In eutrophic lakes zooplankton is an im

  8. Diel variation in feeding and vertical distribution of ten co- occurring fish species: consequences for resource partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.; Guruge, W.A.H.P.

    1997-01-01

    The diel variations in feeding behaviour and vertical distribution were determined for ten species of a tropical fish community in a shallow SE Sri Lankan reservoir. The fish community consisted of two introduced exotic tilapias and eight indigenous riverine species including five cyprinids, one cla

  9. Immune modulation by fish kinetoplastid parasites : a role for nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Groeneveld, A.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii are kinetoplastid parasites infecting cyprinid fish. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in immune modulation during T. borreli and T. carassii infection of carp. Phagocytic cells from different organs produced NO and serum nitrate levels incr

  10. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  11. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  12. Preferential accumulation of sex and Bs chromosomes in biarmed karyotypes by meiotic drive and rates of chromosomal changes in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Wagner F; Martinez, Pablo A; Bertollo, Luiz A C; Bidau, Claudio J

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms of accumulation based on typical centromeric drive or of chromosomes carrying pericentric inversions are adjusted to the general karyotype differentiation in the principal Actinopterygii orders. Here, we show that meiotic drive in fish is also supported by preferential establishment of sex chromosome systems and B chromosomes in orders with predominantly bi-brachial chromosomes. The mosaic of trends acting at an infra-familiar level in fish could be explained as the interaction of the directional process of meiotic drive as background, modulated on a smaller scale by adaptive factors or specific karyotypic properties of each group, as proposed for the orthoselection model.

  13. [Toxicity of nitrate-N to freshwater aquatic life and its water quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Song; Wang, Ye-Yao; Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Yu, Hai-Bin

    2013-08-01

    The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper. Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life. The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata, and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia > Amphibia > Actinopterygii. Moreover, the output of assessment factor method, species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different. Finally, criterias of 87.97 mg x L(-1) and 5.17 mg x L(-1) to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomin; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Shuai; Xu, Chunzhu

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) is determined using long PCR. The genome is 16,534 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (26.4%), C (30.1%), T (26.1%) and G (17.5%). The control region is 857 bp in length and the A + T content of the region is 61.5%. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Cherskii's sculpin. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 21 Actinopterygii species. It appears that no less than two major phyletic lineages were present in Actinopterygii. The main clades within the Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes supported are: a clade including the Scombridae, Kyphosidae and Percichthyidae; a clade (Cottidae) with the Trichodontidae as the sister taxon to Pholidae, Anarhichadidae and Zoarcidae, which was supported by bootstrap values of 92%. The five Cottus species formed a paraphyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) in all examinations.

  15. Suspension and optical properties of the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Ronald H H; Gustafsson, Ola S E; Tuminaite, Inga

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the apparatus suspending the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates. Data are presented for Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the actinopterygians Polypteriformes, Polyodontidae (Acipenseriformes), Lepisosteiformes, Amiiformes, and one teleost species, the banded archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix). We also studied the optical properties of the lens in Polypteriformes, Lepisosteiformes, and the archerfish. Together with previously published results, our findings show that there are three basic types of lens suspension in vertebrates. These are i) a rotationally symmetric suspension (Petromyzontida, lampreys; Ceratodontiformes, lungfishes; Tetrapoda), ii) a suspension with a dorso-ventral axis of symmetry and a ventral papilla (all Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes), and iii) an asymmetric suspension with a ventral muscle and a varying number of ligaments (all Actinopterygii except for Acipenseriformes). Large eyes with presumably high spatial resolution have evolved in all groups. Multifocal lenses creating well-focused color images are also present in all groups studied. Stable and exact positioning of the lens, in many cases in combination with accommodative changes in lens position or shape, is achieved by all three types of lens suspension. It is somewhat surprising that lens suspensions are strikingly similar in Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes (Actinopterygii), while the suspension apparatus in Polypteriformes, usually being regarded as an actinopterygian group more basal than Acipenseriformes, are considerably more teleostean-like. This study completes a series of investigations on lens suspensions in nontetrapod vertebrates, covering all major groups except for the rare and highly derived coelacanths.

  16. New Records for Distribution of Invasive Topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat YEĞEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva is described as most invasive fish in Europe. It’s a small cyprinid fish native to East Asia. In 1982, the existence of this species was first recorded from the Thrace region of Türkiye. Todays it is recorded from Thrace to Ceyhan region. In this study was carried out Afyonkarahisar, Bilecik, Burdur, Denizli, Eskişehir, Isparta, Konya, Kütahya and Uşak provinces between 2001 and 2013. Specimens collected from various localities in these provinces. Our results are shown P. parva has invaded many freshwater systems in Türkiye. This species has a potential threat to the diversity of the ichthyofauna of Anatolia and fish farms because of causing an increased mortality pressure on some salmonids and cyprinids, and totally inhibiting spawning of existing native fish.

  17. Prevalence and sequence comparison of Phyllodistomum folium from zebra mussel and from freshwater fish in the Ebro River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peribáñez, Miguel A; Ordovás, Laura; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; Gracia, María J; Rodellar, Clementina

    2011-01-01

    We utilised DNA analysis to detect the presence of the digenean Phyllodistomum folium in three cyprinid species, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Cyprinus carpio and Rutilus rutilus. DNA sequencing of the region containing the genes ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 revealed 100% sequence identity between DNA from the sporocysts found in zebra mussels and DNA from adults located in the urinary system of 29 cyprinid fish. A second genetically different (variation=1.6%) sequence was observed in two samples from R. rutilus. In our opinion, the existence of a complex of species reported as P. folium is supported by recent genetic studies, including our own results. The overall prevalence of P. folium in mussels from the Ebro River was 4.67% in 2006, although during the summer months the rates frequently exceeded 10%.

  18. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus.

  19. Potravní konkurence mezi plůdkem kapra (Cyprinus carpio) a střevličkou východní (Pseudorasbora parva)

    OpenAIRE

    Němec, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Small cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Schlegel, 1842) is considered as an undesirable fish species because it represents an important food competitor for commercial non-predatory fishes. This study was performed under pond conditions (four ponds in South Moravia and two ponds in South Bohemia) during the growing seasons in 2006 {--} 2007. The purpose of my work was to determinate the level of food competition between topmouth gudgeon and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) ...

  20. Development of the Zebra Danio Model: Carcinogenesis and Gene Transfer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    determined by HPLC. Values are normalized to 100. Figure 4 26 300 - n Females 250 - Males SI 200. ’-• 150 - 100 - 50 - 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 AFB 1 Dose...developed (i.e. guppy , platyfish, Poeciliopsis, Rivulus), we believed the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio), a small cyprinid fish, held exceptional promise...Supply Co. (Burlington, NC). Culture Conditions Fish were reared in the well water normally used for salmonid culture at the FTNL, but this water had

  1. [A catalog of fish specimens preserved within Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Na; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2013-08-01

    As of 2013, some 178 fish type species and 2131 type specimens belonging to 4 orders and 11 families were currently being preserved at the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, located as art of the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. These specimens were collected from across western China, includingYunnan, Sicuan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Chongqi, Gansu and Xinjiang. In general, most species are Cyprinidae (71 species and 1103 specimens), followed by Nemacheilidae (52 species and 556 specimens). For the convenience of research and communication, the present paper presents a detailed list of fish type species preserved in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology.

  2. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  3. Three new species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) infecting the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) in the River Danube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Gábor; Borzák, Réka; Molnár, Kálmán; Székely, Csaba

    2015-10-01

    The common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) is a frequent cyprinid fish in the River Danube. In a survey on its infection with myxosporeans, eight different Myxobolus spp. spore types were found in the gills, swim bladder, fins and intestinal wall. Of these, spore types representing three species were studied in detail by morphological and molecular methods. Based on the differences in 18S rDNA sequences, two new species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 from the gills and one from the swim bladder are described: M. arrabonensis n. sp., M. szentendrensis n. sp. and M. paksensis n. sp. The new species resembled M. muelleri Bütschli, 1882, M. intimus Zaika, 1965 and M. cycloides Gurley, 1893, all parasitic in leuciscine cyprinids, in spore size and location in the host, but exhibited differences in partial 18S rDNA sequences as follows: M. arrabonensis - M. muelleri (1.4%), M. szentendrensis - M. intimus (2.8%), M. paksensis - M. cycloides (2.4%). Based on the significant differences in rDNA sequences, the three forms are considered to represent new, hitherto undescribed species in spite of their morphological similarities to some Myxobolus spp. forming spores in identical locations in genetically closely related cyprinids of the subfamily Leuciscinae.

  4. Danionella dracula, an escape from the cypriniform Bauplan via developmental truncation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W

    2016-02-01

    We provide a detailed account of the osteology of the miniature Asian freshwater cyprinid fish Danionella dracula. The skeleton of D. dracula shows a high degree of developmental truncation when compared to most other cyprinids, including its close relative the zebrafish Danio rerio. Sixty-one bones, parts thereof or cartilages present in most other cyprinids are missing in D. dracula. This impressive organism-wide case of progenesis renders it one of the most developmentally truncated bony fishes or even vertebrates. Danionella dracula lacks six of the eight unique synapomorphies that define the order Cypriniformes and has, thus, departed from the cypriniform Bauplan more dramatically than any other member of this group. This escape from one of the most successful Baupläne among bony fishes may have been facilitated by the organism-wide progenesis encountered in D. dracula. By returning in its skeletal structure to the early developmental condition of other cypriniforms, D. dracula may have managed to overcome the evolutionary constraints associated with this Bauplan and opened up new evolutionary avenues that enabled it to evolve a number of striking morphological novelties, including its tooth-like odontoid processes and a complex drumming apparatus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Observations on the radiation of lobe-finned fishes, ray-finned fishes, and cartilaginous fishes: phylogeny of the opioid/orphanin gene family and the 2R hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Robert M; Majeed, Qais; Komorowski, Leanne

    2011-01-15

    At the close of the Devonian Period the rapid decline in the diversity of the lobe-finned fishes was countered by the emergence and diversification of the ray-finned fishes and the cartilaginous fishes that now dominate marine and freshwater ecosystems. All of these jawed vertebrates were derived from the ancestral gnathostomes; a chordate lineage that had experienced two genome duplication events during the evolution of the phylum. This review analyzes trends in the phylogeny of the opioid/orphanin gene family (four prohormone/neuropeptide precursor-coding genes) in the major classes of gnathostomes that survived the extinction events at the close of the Devonian Period and focuses on some features of this gene family that appear to set the cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes) apart from class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods) and class Actinopterygii (the ray-finned fishes).

  6. Composição ictiofaunística da área de manguezal da Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Fish faunal composition of the mangrove area of the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guaratuba Bay (25o52'S, 48o39'W is the second largest estuarine system of the State of Parana, Brazil. It extended inside of the continent for about 15 km and is surrounded by mangroves. Water depth can reach up to six meters. The fish faunal composition of this area was evaluated with a bottom trawl and, occasionally, casting and gill nets. One species of Chondrichthyes and 59 of the Actinopterygii (50 genera and 28 families were reported from the Bay. The results were not significantly different from those of the Paranagua Bay, except by the lower number of species. These differences appear related to distinct collection efforts and the extension of surveyed areas. No species can be considered endemic to the region. Tipically freshwater species were not collected.

  7. The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran, a check list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Sareh; Amin, Omar M; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Halajian, Ali

    2015-10-22

    The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran is reported for the first time since the report of Pomphorhynchus perforator (von Linstow, 1908) Meyer, 1932 in 1964. The knowledge of the acanthocephalan biodiversity of Iran, with parasite-host and host-parasite checklists, is presented. The species of Acanthocephala are presented in alphabetical order, followed by the species of hosts, localities and references. A total of 30 known species of Acanthocephala from 21 genera, 12 families and 7 orders are reported from 80 species of different vertebrates of Iran. One species, Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser, 1811) Travassos, 1915 was recorded from humans. The group of hosts with the largest number of reported species of acanthocephalan is Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes).

  8. Land, lake, and fish: Investigation of fish remains from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (paleo-Lake Hula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Irit; Biton, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    The question of whether or not pre-modern hominins were responsible for the accumulation of fish remains is discussed through analyses of remains recovered from two lacustrine facies (I-4 and I-5) from Area A of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. The fish remains provide the first glimpse into the naturally accumulated fish assemblage from the fluctuating shores of a lake that had been continually exploited by early hominins some 780,000 years ago. Preliminary analysis of the remains show that thirteen of the seventeen species native to Lake Hula were identified at GBY. These represent three of the five freshwater fish families native to the lake: Cyprinidae (carps), Cichlidae (tilapini, St. Peter's fish), and Clariidae (catfish). From a taphonomical perspective, a significant difference is found between the two lithofacies (Layers I-4 and I-5) in terms of species composition, richness, diversity, and skeleton completeness. It appears that the fish remains recovered from Layer I-4 (clay) are better preserved than those from Layer I-5 (coquina). In both lithofacies, Cyprinidae are highly abundant while Cichlidae and Clariidae are rare and under-represented, especially when compared to the Lake Hula fishery report from the 1950s. All of these identified species may have contributed significantly to the diet of GBY hominins.

  9. Evolution and differential expression of a vertebrate vitellogenin gene cluster

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    Kongshaug Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multiplicity or loss of the vitellogenin (vtg gene family in vertebrates has been argued to have broad implications for the mode of reproduction (placental or non-placental, cleavage pattern (meroblastic or holoblastic and character of the egg (pelagic or benthic. Earlier proposals for the existence of three forms of vertebrate vtgs present conflicting models for their origin and subsequent duplication. Results By integrating phylogenetics of novel vtg transcripts from old and modern teleosts with syntenic analyses of all available genomic variants of non-metatherian vertebrates we identify the gene orthologies between the Sarcopterygii (tetrapod branch and Actinopterygii (fish branch. We argue that the vertebrate vtg gene cluster originated in proto-chromosome m, but that vtg genes have subsequently duplicated and rearranged following whole genome duplications. Sequencing of a novel fourth vtg transcript in labrid species, and the presence of duplicated paralogs in certain model organisms supports the notion that lineage-specific gene duplications frequently occur in teleosts. The data show that the vtg gene cluster is more conserved between acanthomorph teleosts and tetrapods, than in ostariophysan teleosts such as the zebrafish. The differential expression of the labrid vtg genes are further consistent with the notion that neofunctionalized Aa-type vtgs are important determinants of the pelagic or benthic character of the eggs in acanthomorph teleosts. Conclusion The vertebrate vtg gene cluster existed prior to the separation of Sarcopterygii from Actinopterygii >450 million years ago, a period associated with the second round of whole genome duplication. The presence of higher copy numbers in a more highly expressed subcluster is particularly prevalent in teleosts. The differential expression and latent neofunctionalization of vtg genes in acanthomorph teleosts is an adaptive feature associated with oocyte hydration

  10. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  11. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Anders; Bignert, Anders; Höglund, Johan; Lundström, Karl; Strömberg, Annika; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9%) examined from 2002–2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2%) than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2%) and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted. PMID:27755567

  12. Mitochondrial d-loop sequence variation and phylogeny of gobiobotine fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control region is amplified and sequenced from 8 genera and 10 species of gobiobotine fishes. The phylogenetic tree of Gobiobotinae and some representative species of other Cyprinid subfamilies obtained by the method of neighborhood joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony with Danio rerio as an outgroup indicates that Gobiobotinae fishes are a monophyletic group which is close to Gobioninae subfamily. Gobiobotinae should be included into subfamily Gobioninae in terms of phylogenetic analysis. The research result supports that Gobiobotinae can be divided into genus Xenophysogobio and Gobiobotia. Xenophysogobio is the most primitive genera in the subfamily.

  13. Topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva: a side effect of fish stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available he topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva is an eastern-Asian cyprinid species, which inrelatively short time has colonised nearly the whole Europe. In some regions it has become a notablereproduction success and significantly disrupted native ecosystems. Such a fast expansion is mostprobably caused by uncontrolled transfers of stocking fish, mainly Asian carps, i.e., Ctenopharyngodonidella, and Hypophthalmichthys spp. The case of P. parva invasion demonstrates the risk oftranslocations of fish, as well as urgent need of more caution and prevention in order to avoid furthersuch unexpected guests.

  14. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Joseph C; Carim, Kellie J; Paroz, Yvette M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur.

  15. Cestoda, Bothriocephalidae, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934; Nematoda, Rhabdochonidae, Rhabdochona canadensis Moravec and Arai, 1971: New records for the state of Puebla, Mexico, and a new fish host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Aguilar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to the knowledge on helminth parasites of freshwater fishes in Mexico, the helminth faunaof the cyprinid fish Notropis moralesi was studied. The helminth species Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Rhabdochonacanadensis were recovered from 20 examined hosts. Values of prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each infectionare provided. Present work represents the first helminthological study for N. moralesi. Therefore, both helminth speciesrecorded are new host records. This is the second report of B. acheilognathi and the first of R. canadensis for the state ofPuebla.

  16. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Report 6. Larval Fish Studies-Pilot Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    TI .9 Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (WI... Dae Xnterec)__________________ READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTAT AGE BEFORE...were collected at the sandbar habitat (Lakeport Towhead) from 20 April to 23 August. No taxa were abundant. Only two families were common: Catostomidae ...NC 0.2 0.2 ɘ.01 Unidentified cyprinids 0.9 0.6 2.8 0.8 0.4 5.5 0.01 Catostomidae Carpiodes spp. 5.9 2.8 10.0 11.6 6.4 36.7 0.09 Unidentified

  17. The use of PCR applications for assessment of Clostridium botulinum presence in the culture environment and fish samples in the conditions of open system production from Romanian fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mihociu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid expansion in world aquaculture has taken place in recent years due to its highestpotential to answer to the consumers demands on healthy food products. The application of biosecurityin aquaculture production systems and the safety of fish and fish products, in the context of climatechanges, requires investigations of the production systems and solutions for processing andpreservation technologies of fish products. PCR methods will be developed using the procedure ofgenes fragments amplification for Clostridium botulinum van Ermengem, 1896 species producingtoxins A, B, E and F from isolates of C. botulinum using extract broth TGPY (culture medium used forproteolytic strains and TPGYT (culture medium used for non-proteolytic strains of C. botulinum. Theresults will contribute to the integral development of food safety management and the quality of fishon the fish chain focused on the Cyprinidae for humans consumption.

  18. Bile salts of the lungfishes Lepidosiren, Neoceratodus and Protopterus and those of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, B; Anderson, I G; Haslewood, G A; Tökes, L

    1977-02-01

    1. Bile salts of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Smith (five specimens) and of the three living genera of lungfish (Dipnoi) were examined as completely as possible and compared. 2. The small 'bile acid' fractions include no more than traces of well-known C27 or C24 acids (free or conjugated) and the functioning bile salts must be regarded as alcohol sulphates. 3. Comparison of the alcohols suggest that (a) Latimeria stands biochemically outside the animal group which includes the Dipnoi, (b) Protopterus and Lepidosiren are more closely related to one another than either is to Neoceratodus, (c) all four primitive osteiychtheans have some amphibian affinities, (d) there are affinities between Latimeria and Dipnoi and ostariophysan families (especially Cyprinidae and Catostomidae) and (e) there are biochemical links between Dipnoi and lampreys.

  19. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in this lake. With these new records, the relict fish fauna currently known in lakes and gueltas of the Borkou plateaus comprises six species. In the Ennedi Mountains, where the specific status of Barbus populations was unclear, B. macrops was collected in Bachikere guelta. The toad Amietophrynus regularis was collected in Ounianga Kebir.

  20. Efeitos da exposição aguda a nicotina sobre a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em cérebro do Peixe-Zebra (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    O peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) é um pequeno peixe teleósteo de água doce, pertencente à família Cyprinidae, que pode ser facilmente mantido dentro de aquários em laboratórios. A maioria dos seus genes já é conhecida, e o seu genoma tem uma relação de similaridade com o genoma humano. A nicotina é um alcalóide que está presente nas folhas do tabaco, atua nos receptores colinérgicos nicotínicos centrais e periféricos que são ativados e depois inibidos pela própria droga. A nicotina estimula a libe...

  1. Development and characterization of two cell lines PDF and PDH from Puntius denisonii (Day 1865).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Wazir S; Goswami, M; Yadav, Kamalendra; Gopalakrishnan, A; Patiyal, R S; Singh, M

    2011-02-01

    The Puntius denisonii colloquially and more popularly referred to as Miss Kerala is a subtropical fish belonging to the genus Puntius (Barb) and family Cyprinidae. Two cell lines PDF and PDH were developed from the caudal fin and heart of P. denisonii, respectively. The cell lines were optimally maintained at 26°C in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. A diploid count of 50 chromosomes at passage 50 was observed in both the cell lines. The high growth potential of the cell lines was reflected from the cell doubling time of 28 and 30 h of PDF and PDH cell lines, respectively. The viability of the PDF and PDH cell lines was 70% and 76%, respectively, after 4 mo of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 653 bp fragments of cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA genes.

  2. A survey on osmoregulatory potential of Bream, Abramis brama (Berg, 1949 fry for restocking management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Asgari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama, Berg, 1949; Family: Cyprinidae is commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea fishing industry. Iranian Fisheries Organization annually produces and release up to 19 million Bream fries size for recruiting of this species. Its fries are mostly released into the Anzali wetland with 4 ppt salinity. Meanwhile, they sometimes are released into Sefidrood River (0.5 ppt, Sefidrood River estuary (8 ppt and directly into the Caspian Sea (12 ppt. To determine whether these alternative locations are suitable for release, sixty fingerling size Bream (0.5±0.13 g b.w. were exposed to four salinity levels of these locations i.e. 0.5, 4, 8 and 12 ppt, for 120 hrs. The results displayed that accumulated mortality rate was significantly lower in exposed fish to 4 ppt (PPP

  3. CHARACTERISTICS AND NEW DATA OF RIVER ILOVA ICHTHYOFAUNA (CENTRAL CROATIA

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    Dušan Jelić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During the research 28 species of freshwater fish were found, belonging to 10 families. Most numerous family was Cyprinidae (18 species, followed by Percidae (3 species and Cobitidae (2 species. Results showed that the most abundant in species were spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus (17.4%, common roach (Rutilus rutilus (15.7% and prussian carp (Carassius gibelio (12.8%. And in the terms of total fish weight, highest represented were asp (Aspius aspius (28.9%, bream (Abramis brama (18.7% and pike (Esox lucius (11.4%. Presence of four new fish species has been confirmed in Ilova River: bullhead (Cottus gobio, trout (Salmo trutta, danube whitefinned gudgeon (Romanogobio vladykovi and tench (Tinca tinca.

  4. Check-list of bony fish collected from the Upper Halda River, Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Alam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Halda River of Bangladesh gains its importance as natural spawning ground of major carpfishes. A check-list of bony fish in the Halda River was carried out. It appeared that the fish fauna in thisriver is dominated by the family of Cyprinidae (28.57 % represented by 18 species, followed byGobiidae (9.52 % represented by 6 species and Schibeidae (7.94 % with 5 species, than Bagridae andChannidae (6.35 % with 4 species each, Siluridae (4.76 % with 3 species. Among the listed families,there are 14 families represented by a single species and 4 families by 2 species. The total number ofspecies is 63 belonging to 51 genera pertaining to 24 families and 9 orders. The present study reported 5migrant species from the Bay of Bengal and 3 species as exotic species.

  5. Rhabdochona kharani sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 from Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatullah, Kakar; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Kakar, Juma Khan

    2006-01-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona kharani sp. nov., has been isolated from the intestine, stomach and swim bladder of the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 (Fam. Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from spring water at Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan. The new species is characterized largely by the presence of eight anterior teeth in the prostom, inconspicuous deirids, by the shape and length of unequal spicules (0.08 - 0.09 and 2.9 - 3.1 mm), and by 17-18 pairs of caudal papillae including 6-7 postanal, one adanal, and 10 -11 preanal. Other characteristics include a pointed tail tip, non filamented eggs, a bulbous, voluminous, vaginal complex that is directed backward, and a vulva that is post-equatorial with a triangular large anterior lip and a smaller posterior lip.

  6. The Key Role of Epigenetics in the Persistence of Asexual Lineages

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    Emilie Castonguay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asexual organisms, often perceived as evolutionary dead ends, can be long-lived and geographically widespread. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms could play a crucial role in the evolutionary persistence of these lineages. Genetically identical organisms could rely on phenotypic plasticity to face environmental variation. Epigenetic modifications could be the molecular mechanism enabling such phenotypic plasticity; they can be influenced by the environment and act at shorter timescales than mutation. Recent work on the asexual vertebrate Chrosomus eos-neogaeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae provides broad insights into the contribution of epigenetics in genetically identical individuals. We discuss the extension of these results to other asexual organisms, in particular those resulting from interspecific hybridizations. We finally develop on the evolutionary relevance of epigenetic variation in the context of heritability.

  7. Keragaman ikan di Danau Cala, Kabupaten Musi Banyuasin Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifi Abu Ammar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his studi was to evaluate the fish fauna in Danau Cala in dry season, transition season, and the tide season. The survey was conducted 3 times on July 2013, October 2013 and January 2014 as representative of dry, transition and tide seasons. The fish sampling was conducted by gillnets and fish traps. A total of 35 fish species were recorded during the study; 23 species in dry season, it was dominated by tembakang fish (Helostoma temminckii from family Helosmatidae, Sepat siam fish(Trichogaster pectoralis from Belontiidae family, and snakehead fish (Channa striata of Channidae family. A total of 16 species were recorded on transitional seasons where baung fish (Hemibagrus nemurus of the family Bagridae, and seluang fish (Rasbora sp of the family Cyprinidae were predominant. In addition, 15 fish species were recorded on tide season which was dominated by baung fish (Hemibagrus nemurus and tendon fish (Mystus sabanus of family Bagridae

  8. Keragaman ikan di Danau Cala, Kabupaten Musi Banyuasin Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifi Abu Ammar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his studi was to evaluate the fish fauna in Danau Cala in dry season, transition season, and the tide season. The survey was conducted 3 times on July 2013, October 2013 and January 2014 as representative of dry, transition and tide seasons. The fish sampling was conducted by gillnets and fish traps. A total of 35 fish species were recorded during the study; 23 species in dry season, it was dominated by tembakang fish (Helostoma temminckii from family Helosmatidae, Sepat siam fish(Trichogaster pectoralis from Belontiidae family, and snakehead fish (Channa striata of Channidae family. A total of 16 species were recorded on transitional seasons where baung fish (Hemibagrus nemurus of the family Bagridae, and seluang fish (Rasbora sp of the family Cyprinidae were predominant. In addition, 15 fish species were recorded on tide season which was dominated by baung fish (Hemibagrus nemurus and tendon fish (Mystus sabanus of family Bagridae.

  9. “Porţile de Fier/Iron Gates” Gorges Area (Danube Fish Fauna

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    Bănăduc Doru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important fisheries sector of the Danube, the “Iron Gates” area, was studied by famous naturalists along the history like Marsigli, Haeckel, Kner, Antipa and Bănărescu. After more than half a century after the last main publication in this area, the “Iron Gates” Danube sector suffered significant human impact, and an assessment of the fish fauna was needed. The paper summarizes the trend of fish species along the XIX to XXIst centuries, and reveals the appearance of new species. The study includes data from about 65 fish species, belonging to: Acipenseridae, Polyodontidae, Clupeidae, Salmonidae, Esocidae, Cyprinidae, Cobitidae, Siluridae, Ictaluridae, Anguillidae, Lotidae, Gasterosteidae, Syngnathidae, Centrarchidae, Percidae, Gobiidae, Odontobutidae, and Cottidae. The major hidrotechnical works along with pollution, overexploitation and poachery, induced major changes in the ichthyofauna structure.

  10. Comparative scale morphologies in common freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah-Ayuni, F.; Muse, A. O.; Samat, A.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Hard plates covering fish body or scales, do not only serve as external protection, but are also important as one of the tools for species identification. This study was designed to recognise morphological characters of fish scales that can be used for identification and to comprehend the inter-specific variations of scales from different species by using selected indices from scale measurements; L1/1, L2/L, L1/L2, and W/L. Sixteen species of common freshwater fishes were sampled from a few localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Examinations were based on photographs to determine the scale morphologies. Basic distinguishable characteristics that were identified are type of scale, the overall shape, the position and shape of the focus, distribution of radii, and the circuli appearance. It was found that scale type and radii arrangement at the anterior field are two significant morphological features that could distinguish between Cyprinidae and other families. Main characters used to identify scales at species level are radii cover, structure of inter radial tongue, and radii arrangement. Meanwhile, multiple comparison tests to reveal inter-specific variations suggested that there are significant differences among 16 species of common freshwater fishes studied. Two indices were found to be suitable to highlight the significant differences (P<0.05) for all species which are index L1/L2 and index W/L. For all indices, species that showed significantly different with most of other species are Osteochilus vittatus, Pristolepis fasciata, Rasbora sumatrana, and Labeo rohita. The scales of Osteochilus vittatus showed significant values with most of other species in more than one index; index L1/L and index L2/L. The distinctive morphological character that distinguished it from other Cyprinidae species is having clearly formed serrations in the middle of the inter-radial tongue at the anterior region.

  11. Opisthorchis viverrini infection in the snail and fish intermediate hosts in Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Ha Thanh Thi; Dermauw, Veronique; Gabriël, Sarah; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn; Nguyen, Giang Thanh Thi; Dorny, Pierre

    2017-02-24

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic fish borne fluke, requires freshwater snails and fish as intermediate hosts. Opisthorchiasis is endemic in parts of Southeast Asia, including Central and South Vietnam. In this region the transmission by intermediate hosts has received little attention. Therefore, freshwater snails and wild fish from Bau My Tho, an opisthorchiasis endemic area in Binh Dinh Province were collected for examination of O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae, respectively. A total of 12,000 snails belonging to six families, of which 1616 Bithynia snails representing Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Bithynia funiculata; as well as 754 fish representing 12 species were examined. Shedding of O. viverrini cercariae was observed only in B. s. goniomphalos and B. funiculata, at infection rates of 0.86% and 0.14%, respectively. O. viverrini infection in Bithynia spp. was significantly associated with the habitat but not with the species and the shell size of Bithynia spp. O. viverrini metacercariae were found in 10 fish species representing both Cyprinidae and non-Cyprinidae families. The prevalence of O. viverrini infection in fish was significantly associated with species. Carassius auratus, a fish species commonly eaten raw, Rasbora aurotaenia and Puntius brevis had the highest prevalence of 74.0%, 55.8% and 31.6%, respectively. Sharing of the same snail and fish intermediate host species was found for O. viverrini and a O. viverrini duck-genotype that are sympatric in the study region. This study is the first to report on the intermediate host species of O. viverrini in Central Vietnam and indicates a high risk of acquiring opistorchiasis when eating raw fish dishes.

  12. Two new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting Indian freshwater fishes in Punjab Wetlands (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2011-05-01

    A survey of parasites of freshwater fishes in Harike and Ropar Wetlands of Punjab (India) revealed the presence of two new myxosporean species belonging to the genus Myxobolus Butschli 1882. Spores of the first species, M. duodenalis sp. nov. parasitize the inner wall of the duodenum of Wallago attu (Bloch and Schneider) (Cypriniformis: Cyprinidae) vern. mulli are characterized by a broad, pyriform shape with a blunt anterior end and measures 9.0 × 3.20 μm. Spore valves are thin, smooth, and symmetrical with no parietal folds. There are two polar capsules, prominently unequal and pyriform in shape, with a narrow anterior end and a rounded posterior end. The larger polar capsule measures 4.70 × 1.76 μm and the smaller 2.76 × 1.06 μm. The larger polar capsule occupies more than half, while the smaller one occupies one third of the spore body cavity. An intercapsular process is absent. Spores of the second species, Myxobolus patialensis sp. nov. parasitize the caudal fin of Labeo rohita (Ham. 1822) (Cypriniformis: Cyprinidae) vern. rohu are pyriform in valvular view, measuring 11.28 × 6.67 μm. The two shell valves are asymmetrical and contain five parietal folds along the posterior end of the spore. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules, elongated and oval in shape are prominently unequal in size. The larger polar capsule measures 4.8 × 3.1 μm and smaller one 1.70 × 1.51 μm. The larger polar capsule lies obliquely to the spore axis and the smaller one is at the same level but pointing outward anteriolaterally. An intercapsular process is absent. This species is characterized by having a prominent ridge on the shell surface anteriolaterally on the side of the smaller polar capsule.

  13. Iktiofauna Sungai Sangkir Kabupaten Rokan Hulu Provinsi Riau (Ichthyofauna of Sangkir River, Rokan Hulu District Riau Province

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    Nunuk Dian Pranata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri river Sangkir village, Rokan Hulu district, Riau Province from May of July 2016. The aim of this study was to inventory the fish species in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri River with direct observation (survey. Five sampling locations were determined purposely based on the environmental condition that could be represented by the river condition. A total of 288 individuals of fish belonging to 3 orders, 7 families, 13 genera and 16 species were recorded in this study, namely Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis, Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus and Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae was the most abundance fish in this study. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di sungai Sangkir, anak sungai Rokan Kiri, desa Sangkir, Kabupaten Rokan Hulu, Provinsi Riau pada bulan Mei sampai Juli 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis ikan di sungai Sangkir anak Sungai Rokan Kiri dengan metode pengamatan langsung (survei dengan penetapan stasiun pengambilan sampel secara purposive sampling. Penetapan stasiun berdasarkan kondisi lingkungan yang terdiri dari 5 stasiun penelitian. Hasil penelitian  didapatkan sebanyak 288 individu ikan yang terdiri dari 3 ordo, 7 famili 13 genus dan 16 spesies. Spesies yang didapatkan yaitu Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus dan Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae merupakan kelompok ikan yang paling banyak dalam penelitian ini.

  14. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  15. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  16. River basin-related genetic structuring in an endangered fish species, Chondrostoma lusitanicum, based on mtDNA sequencing and RFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, N; Carvalho, G; Shaw, P; Crespo, E; Coelho, M M

    2001-03-01

    Chondrostoma lusitanicum is a Portuguese endemic cyprinid with a restricted distribution and reduced numbers in some basins, justifying its status as a threatened species. We examined genetic population structure using samples from throughout its geographical range in Portugal, using sequencing of b cytochrome and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the NADH subunits 5 and 6. There was reduced within-population genetic variability but considerable among-population differentiation, particularly marked between both the Mira and Arade basins in the extreme south and other populations. These results confirm phylogeographic relationships suggested by previous fragmentary allozyme studies for C. lusitanicum, and are in accordance with allozyme and mitochondrial DNA data on phylogeography of coexisting cyprinid species of the genus Leuciscus. The levels of genetic divergence revealed by sequence and RFLP data showed strongly concordant patterns: geographical genetic structuring, with the definition of three distinct groups, was observed. The high values of nucleotide divergence and pairwise sequence divergence of the Mira and Arade groups, when compared with all other samples, support a distinct taxonomic status probably at the species level. Results are also discussed in relation to conservation of this highly fragmented species, in terms of Evolutionary Significant Units and Management Units.

  17. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Long term changes in the status of coastal fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, L.; Heikinheimo, O.; Svirgsden, R.; Kruze, E.; Ložys, L.; Lappalainen, A.; Saks, L.; Minde, A.; Dainys, J.; Jakubavičiūtė, E.; Ådjers, K.; Olsson, J.

    2016-02-01

    Management for sustainable coastal ecosystems is benefited by coherent large scale status assessments to support the identification of measures, but these efforts may be challenged by both data availability and natural biogeographical variation. Coastal fish are a resource for commercial and recreational fisheries as well as significant contributors to coastal ecosystem functioning, by linking lower and higher levels of the food web. This study addresses long term changes in coastal fish communities at Baltic Sea regional scale, in order to identify overall trends and support the operationalization of large scale status assessments of marine biota. The study was focused on two indicators representing the functional groups of Piscivores, which are attributed to changes in food web processes including predation/fisheries, and Cyprinids, which are associated with eutrophication. The indicators were assessed for trends within ten-year intervals, using data combined from national monitoring programs during 1991-2013. The results showed predominantly declining trends in Piscivores and of increases in Cyprinids during the studied three decades, both indicative of a deteriorating status. The pattern was however reversed in the most recent years. Similar results among adjacent areas were identified in some cases, but overall differences at local scale were high, indicating strong influence of local processes. The results suggest that coordinated local measures in order to abate cumulative effects are a preferred way of improving the overall status of coastal fish. The latest studied time intervals were the overall most stable and could be considered as potential baseline years for upcoming regional assessments.

  19. Localization of the cystogenous glands of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunsan, Patpicha; Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Oopachitakul, Songpol; Tesana, Smarn

    2014-03-01

    Opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand is an important etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. To form the infectious stage, free swimming cercariae penetrate cyprinid fish, shed their tails, and then secret a cystic substance to cover their larval stage to form metacercariae in the fish body. We determined the location of the cystogenous glands in Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae. The cercariae and metacercariae were obtained from the naturally infected snail host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and from cyprinid fish, respectively. The cyst walls of the metacercariae were separated and used to immunize inbred male BALB/c mice to obtain cyst wall antibodies. The general characteristics of the O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae were studied by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of sections. The location and ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands of cercariae were studied by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The structures and organelles of cercariae and metacercariae could be identified, but the cystogenous glands could not be detected in H&E sections. The immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence sections revealed positive reactions for cystogenous glands predominanted in the lateral part of the cercariae and were clearly seen in the cyst wall of the metacercariae. The ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands contained semitranslucent electron dense oval shaped granules. If interference occurs during the formation of the cysts by fish immune response, the metacercariae may not develop to maturity. It may be easily digested or degraded by human stomach acid and pepsin. This may be an efficient method for control of O. viverrini infection which requires further detailed study.

  20. A new pathogen, Myxobolus holzerae (Myxosporea: Myxozoa) causing severe gill disease in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita in a cold water wetland, Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya; Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-09-01

    The Indian major carp, Labeo rohita Hamilton, 1822 is a tropical freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland waters in Asia. Herein, we describe a novel myxozoan forming plasmodia in the gill lamellae of L. rohita from Ranjit Sagar Wetland in Punjab, India. Myxospores were consistent with the genus Myxobolus, round to elliptical in valvular view, lemon shaped in side view with a characteristic protrusion at the anterior end and a round posterior end; length 7.65 ± 0.07 μm, width 4.62 ± 0.09 μm. There were two polar capsules of equal length, pear shaped, length of polar capsule 2.54 ± 0.05 μm, width 1.60 ± 0.02 μm, with 5-6 turns of the polar filament. The 890 bp 18S rDNA sequence was up to 97% similar to M. catlae from other cyprinid fishes in India. In having, unique myxospore morphology and 18S rDNA sequence, we propose Myxobolus holzerae as new to science. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A novel myxosporean parasite Myxobolus klamathellus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from native blue chub (Gila coerulea) in Klamath Lake, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Stephen Douglas; Banner, Craig Randall

    2017-01-01

    Blue chub, Gila coerulea Girard, 1856 is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland drainages of western North America. It has not previously been recorded as a host of any myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), despite myxosporeans being cosmopolitan in freshwater and marine fishes worldwide and sympatric with this host. Herein, we describe a novel myxosporean from subcutaneous cysts in native blue chub from Klamath Lake, Oregon. Myxospores were consistent with genus Myxobolus, being obovoid but compressed in thickness, length 14.3 ± 0.4 (13-15) μm, width 9.7 ± 0.4 (9-10) μm, thickness 7.7 ± 0.3 (7-8) μm; two polar capsules ovoid slightly dissimilar in size, length 6.4 ± 0.4 (6-7) μm, width 3.8 ± 0.3 (3-4) μm, with four (3-5) turns of the polar filament (tubule); capsule openings apical, one in each valve cell. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence was up to 97 % similar to Myxobolus spp. from other cyprinids from North America and Europe. Given the novel host, unique myxospore morphometrics, and DNA sequence, we describe this as Myxobolus klamathellus n. sp.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Farless, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The Moore egg collector (MEC) was developed for quantitative and nondestructive capture of semibuoyant fish eggs. Previous studies have indicated that capture efficiency of the MEC was low and the use of one device did not adequately represent the spatial distribution within the water column of egg surrogates (gellan beads) of pelagic broadcast-spawning cyprinids. The objective of this study was to assess whether use of multiple MECs showed differences in spatial and temporal distribution of bead catches. Capture efficiency of three MECs was tested at four 500-m sites on the South Canadian River, a Great Plains river in Oklahoma. For each trial, approximately 100,000 beads were released and mean capture efficiency was 0.47–2.16%. Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests indicated the spatial distributions of bead catches were different among multiple MECs at three of four sites. Temporal variability in timing of peak catches of gellan beads was also evident between MECs. We concluded that the use of multiple MECs is necessary to properly sample eggs of pelagic broadcast-spawning cyprinids.

  3. Fish genomes provide novel insights into the evolution of vertebrate secretin receptors and their ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Trindade, Marlene; Power, Deborah M

    2014-12-01

    The secretin receptor (SCTR) is a member of Class 2 subfamily B1 GPCRs and part of the PAC1/VPAC receptor subfamily. This receptor has long been known in mammals but has only recently been identified in other vertebrates including teleosts, from which it was previously considered to be absent. The ligand for SCTR in mammals is secretin (SCT), an important gastrointestinal peptide, which in teleosts has not yet been isolated, or the gene identified. This study revises the evolutionary model previously proposed for the secretin-GPCRs in metazoan by analysing in detail the fishes, the most successful of the extant vertebrates. All the Actinopterygii genomes analysed and the Chondrichthyes and Sarcopterygii fish possess a SCTR gene that shares conserved sequence, structure and synteny with the tetrapod homologue. Phylogenetic clustering and gene environment comparisons revealed that fish and tetrapod SCTR shared a common origin and diverged early from the PAC1/VPAC subfamily group. In teleosts SCTR duplicated as a result of the fish specific whole genome duplication but in all the teleost genomes analysed, with the exception of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the duplicates was lost. The function of SCTR in teleosts is unknown but quantitative PCR revealed that in both sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) transcript abundance is high in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting it may intervene in similar processes to those in mammals. In contrast, no gene encoding the ligand SCT was identified in the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) although it was present in the coelacanth (lobe finned fish, Sarcopterygii) and in the elephant shark (holocephalian). The genes in linkage with SCT in tetrapods and coelacanth were also identified in ray-finned fishes supporting the idea that it was lost from their genome. At present SCTR remains an orphan receptor in ray-finned fishes and it will be of interest in the future to establish why SCT was

  4. Base composition, selection, and phylogenetic significance of indels in the recombination activating gene-1 in vertebrates

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    Vences Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recombination Activating Proteins, RAG1 and RAG2, play a crucial role in the immune response in vertebrates. Among the nuclear markers currently used for phylogenetic purposes, Rag1 has especially enjoyed enormous popularity, since it successfully contributed to elucidating the relationships among and within a large variety of vertebrate lineages. We here report on a comparative investigation of the genetic variation, base composition, presence of indels, and selection in Rag1 in different vertebrate lineages (Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Aves, Chondrichthyes, Crocodylia, Lepidosauria, Mammalia, and Testudines through the analysis of 582 sequences obtained from Genbank. We also analyze possible differences between distinct parts of the gene with different type of protein functions. Results In the vertebrate lineages studied, Rag1 is over 3 kb long. We observed a high level of heterogeneity in base composition at the 3rd codon position in some of the studied vertebrate lineages and in some specific taxa. This result is also paralleled by taxonomic differences in the GC content at the same codon position. Moreover, positive selection occurs at some sites in Aves, Lepidosauria and Testudines. Indels, which are often used as phylogenetic characters, are more informative across vertebrates in the 5' than in the 3'-end of the gene. When the entire gene is considered, the use of indels as phylogenetic character only recovers one major vertebrate clade, the Actinopterygii. However, in numerous cases insertions or deletions are specific to a monophyletic group. Conclusions Rag1 is a phylogenetic marker of undoubted quality. Our study points to the need of carrying out a preliminary investigation on the base composition and the possible existence of sites under selection of this gene within the groups studied to avoid misleading resolution. The gene shows highly heterogeneous base composition, which affects some taxa in particular and

  5. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  6. The fish tail as a derivation from axial musculoskeletal anatomy: an integrative analysis of functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, B E

    2014-02-01

    The adult morphology of the tail varies greatly among extant fishes despite sharing both ontogenetic similarities and the functional need to propel the body through a fluid medium. Both sharks (Chondrichthyes) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) control caudal fin musculature independently of axial body myomere activity to modify the stiffness and shape of their tails. For example, sharks and bony fishes possess different structural elements and muscles and move their tails in different ways, resulting in different locomotory hydrodynamic effects and a range of performance variables including speed and maneuverability. The stiffness of the heterocercal, lobate tail of the shark can be modulated during the tail beat resulting in nearly continuous thrust production. In contrast, the highly flexible tail of ray-finned fishes can be manipulated into many different shape conformations enabling increased maneuverability for these fishes. Consequently, the developmental, morphological, and functional derivation of the tail from the axial trunk has resulted in a diversity of form, the attributes of which may be of ecological and evolutionary significance.

  7. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

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    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  8. Close tetrapod relationships of the coelacanth Latimeria indicated by haemoglobin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorr, T; Kleinschmidt, T; Fricke, H

    1991-05-30

    The origin of tetrapods has been debated for many years. In traditional systematics, the extinct lobe-finned bony fish (Rhipidistia) are regarded as the closest relatives of tetrapods. Among living fish, the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), which is the only recent representative of the Crossopterygii (Actinistia and Rhipidistia), the lungfish (Dipnoi) and ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii), have each been considered as sister-groups of the tetrapods. We have now determined the sequence of the alpha- and beta-globin chains of coelacanth haemoglobin and compared them with all known haemoglobins of bony and cartilaginous fish as well as those of tadpoles and adult amphibians. Haemoglobins of bony fish match more closely those of larval than adult amphibians. The beta chains of Latimeria match those of tadpoles more closely (54%) than do those of any other fish, whereas the alpha chains of Latimeria (45.4%), and especially of teleosts (49.2%), are closer to those of larval amphibians than are those of lungfish (39.8%). If only synapomorphous sequence matches (those at derived positions shared by one bony fish and tadpoles but not by any other bony fish) are considered, both Latimeria globin chains have distinctly more identities with phase of tadpoles than do those of any bony fish. Thus the primary structure of Latimeria haemoglobin indicates that the coelacanth is the closest living relative of tetrapods.

  9. Hoxc8 early enhancer of the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikant, Cooduvalli; Bolanowski, Stacey A; Danke, Joshua; Amemiya, Chris T

    2004-11-15

    Hoxc8 early enhancer controls the initiation and establishment phase of Hoxc8 expression in the mouse. Comparative studies indicate the presence of Hoxc8 early enhancer sequences in different vertebrate clades including mammals, birds and fish. Previous studies have shown differences between teleost and mammalian Hoxc8 early enhancers with respect to sequence and organization of protein binding elements. This raises the question of when the Hoxc8 early enhancer arose and how it has become modified in different vertebrate lineages. Here, we describe Hoxc8 early enhancer from the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis. Coelacanths are the only extant lobefinned fish whose genome is tractable to genome analysis. The Latimeria Hoxc8 early enhancer sequence more closely resembles that of the mouse than that of Fugu or zebrafish. When assayed for enhancer activity by reporter gene analysis in transgenic mouse embryos, Latimeria Hoxc8 early enhancer directs expression to the posterior neural tube and mesoderm similar to that of the mouse enhancer. These observations support a close relationship between coelacanths and tetrapods and place the origin of a common Hoxc8 early enhancer sequence within the sarcopterygian lineage. The divergence of teleost (actinopterygii) Hoxc8 early enhancer may reflect a case of relaxed selection or other forms of instability induced by genome duplication events.

  10. Coelacanths as 'almost living fossils’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eCavin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its usage by Darwin in 1859, the concept of ‘living fossil’ has undergone multiple definitions and has been much discussed and criticized. Soon after its discovery in 1938, the coelacanth Latimeria was regarded as the iconic example of a ‘living fossil’. Several morphological studies have shown that the coelacanth lineage (Actinistia has not displayed critical morphological transformation during its evolutionary history and molecular studies have revealed a low substitution rate for Latimeria, indicating a slow genetic evolution. This statement, however, has been recently questioned by arguing that the low substitution rate was not real, and that the slow morphological evolution of actinistians was not supported by paleontological evidence. The assessment of morphological transformation among three vertebrate lineages during a time interval of circa 400 million years shows that the morphological disparity of coelacanths is much more reduced than the morphological disparity of Actinopterygii and Tetrapoda. These results support the idea that living coelacanths are singular organisms among the living world.

  11. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution.

  12. The smaller your mouth, the longer your snout: predicting the snout length of Syngnathus acus, Centriscus scutatus and other pipette feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lussanet, Marc H E; Muller, M

    2007-06-22

    Like most ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), pipefishes (Syngnathoidei) feed by suction. Most pipefishes reach their prey by a rapid dorso-rotation of the head. In the present study, we analysed the feeding kinematics of the razor fish, Centriscus scutatus, and of the greater pipefish, Syngnathus acus in detail. We found capture times of as little as 4-6ms for C. scutatus and 6-8ms for S. acus. We then hypothesized that the long snout of pipefishes is optimal for such fast feeding. To test this, we implemented in a mathematical model the following considerations. To reach the prey as fast as possible, a low moment of inertia increases the head's angular speed, whereas a long snout decreases the angle over which the head must be turned. The model accurately predicted the snout lengths of a number of pipefishes. We found that the optimal snout length, with which a prey will be reached fastest, is inversely related to its cross-section. In spite of the small cross-section, the development of a long snout can be an evolutionary advantage because this reduces the time to approach the prey.

  13. Chromosome evolution in fishes: a new challenging proposal from Neotropical species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a database containing cytogenetic data of Neotropical actinopterygian fishes from Venezuela obtained in a single laboratory for the first time. The results of this study include 103 species belonging to 74 genera assigned to 45 families and 17 out of the 40 teleost orders. In the group of marine fishes, the modal diploid number was 2n=48 represented in 60% of the studied species, while in the freshwater fish group the modal diploid complement was 2n=54, represented in 21.21 % of the studied species. The average number of chromosomes and the mean FN were statistically higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish. The degree of diversification and karyotype variation was also higher in freshwater fish in contrast to a more conserved cytogenetic pattern in marine fish. In contrast to the assumption according to which 48 acrocentric chromosomes was basal chromosome number in fish, data here presented show that there is an obvious trend towards the reduction of the diploid number of chromosomes from values near 2n=60 with high number of biarmed chromosomes in more basal species to 2n=48 acrocentric elements in more derived Actinopterygii.

  14. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous−Paleogene mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Elizabeth C.; Norris, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous−Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern “age of fishes.” PMID:26124114

  15. Evolution of melanocortin receptors in cartilaginous fish: melanocortin receptors and the stress axis in elasmobranches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Reinick, Christina; Angleson, Joseph K; Dores, Robert M

    2013-01-15

    There is general agreement that the presence of five melanocortin receptor genes in tetrapods is the result of two genome duplications that occurred prior to the emergence of the gnathostomes, and at least one local gene duplication that occurred early in the radiation of the ancestral gnathostomes. Hence, it is assumed that representatives from the extant classes of gnathostomes (i.e., Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii, Sarcopterygii) should also have five paralogous melanocortin genes. Current studies on cartilaginous fishes indicate that while there is evidence for five paralogous melanocortin receptor genes in this class, to date all five paralogs have not been detected in the genome of a single species. This mini-review will discuss the ligand selectivity properties of the melanocortin-3 receptor of the elephant shark (subclass Holocephali) and the ligand selectivity properties of the melanocortin-3 receptor, melanocortin-4 receptor, and the melanocortin-5 receptor of the dogfish (subclass Elasmobranchii). The potential relationship of these melanocortin receptors to the hypothalamus/pituitary/interrenal axis will be discussed.

  16. [Species selection methods in deriving water quality criteria for aquatic life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Song; Wang, Ye-Yao; Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Yu, Hai-Bin

    2014-10-01

    The Mann-Whitney U test method was used to analyze the species sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. And based on the analysis, the relationship between species selection method and WQC deriving method was studied by using toxicology, biological taxonomy and sampling-inference theory. Results showed that vertebrate species, especially the Actinopterygii, accounted for the vast majority in the toxicity test species. And the species composition of toxicity test species was inconsistent with the species composition of the ecosystem. Sensitivity to ammonia toxicity among different taxa varied significantly for most species except some species in individual taxa, especially the less sensitive species. The variable coefficient of interspecies decreased with the reduction of biological classification level. To a certain extent, it showed that the species sensitivities in the same taxa to toxicant were more similar than those in different taxa. According to sampling-inference theory, the WQC for aquatic life deriving method belonged to the design-based inference. And taxonomic groups could be used as auxiliary variables to conduct a stratifactory sampling for species selection in WQC deriving which could improve the sampling efficiency and precision.

  17. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus): cDNA cloning, sites of expression and transcript abundance in corticosteroidogenic tissue after an acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Makoto; Zuccarelli, Micah D; Nakamura, Ikumi; Young, Graham

    2009-06-01

    The white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, is a primitive bony fish that is recognized as an important emerging species for aquaculture. However, many aspects of its stress and reproductive physiology remain unclear. These processes are controlled by various steroid hormones. In order to investigate the regulation of steroidogenesis associated with acute stress in sturgeon, a cDNA-encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) was isolated from white sturgeon. The putative amino acid sequence of sturgeon StAR shares high homology (over 60%) with other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped sturgeon StAR within Actinopterygii, but it was clearly segregated from teleost StARs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcripts were most abundant in yellow corpuscles found throughout the kidney and weaker signals were detected in gonad and kidney. Very weak signals were also detected in brain and spleen by quantitative real-time PCR. In situ hybridization revealed that StAR is expressed in the cells of yellow corpuscles. No significant changes in StAR gene expression were detected in response to an acute handling stress. These results suggest that StAR is highly conserved throughout vertebrates, but the expression of the functional protein during the stress response may be partially regulated post-transcriptionally.

  18. Cloning a Chymotrypsin-Like 1 (CTRL-1 Protease cDNA from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwi Heo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme in a nematocyst extract of the Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, caught off the coast of the Republic of Korea, catalyzed the cleavage of chymotrypsin substrate in an amidolytic kinetic assay, and this activity was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. We isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of this enzyme, which contains 850 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 801 encoding 266 amino acids. A blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41% identity with human chymotrypsin-like (CTRL and the CTRL-1 precursor. Therefore, we designated this enzyme N. nomurai CTRL-1. The primary structure of N. nomurai CTRL-1 includes a leader peptide and a highly conserved catalytic triad of His69, Asp117, and Ser216. The disulfide bonds of chymotrypsin and the substrate-binding sites are highly conserved compared with the CTRLs of other species, including mammalian species. Nemopilema nomurai CTRL-1 is evolutionarily more closely related to Actinopterygii than to Scyphozoan (Aurelia aurita or Hydrozoan (Hydra vulgaris. The N. nomurai CTRL1 was amplified from the genomic DNA with PCR using specific primers designed based on the full-length cDNA, and then sequenced. The N. nomurai CTRL1 gene contains 2434 nucleotides and four distinct exons. The 5′ donor splice (GT and 3′ acceptor splice sequences (AG are wholly conserved. This is the first report of the CTRL1 gene and cDNA structures in the jellyfish N. nomurai.

  19. The Oldest Actinopterygian Highlights the Cryptic Early History of the Hyperdiverse Ray-Finned Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Giles, Sam; Friedman, Matt; den Blaauwen, Jan L; Zhu, Min

    2016-06-20

    Osteichthyans comprise two divisions, each containing over 32,000 living species [1]: Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods) and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). Recent discoveries from China highlight the morphological disparity of early sarcopterygians and extend their origin into the late Silurian [2-4]. By contrast, the oldest unambiguous actinopterygians are roughly 30 million years younger, leaving a long temporal gap populated by fragments and rare body fossils of controversial phylogenetic placement [5-10]. Here we reinvestigate the enigmatic osteichthyan Meemannia from the Early Devonian (∼415 million years ago) of China, previously identified as an exceptionally primitive lobe-finned fish [3, 7, 11, 12]. Meemannia combines "cosmine"-like tissues taken as evidence of sarcopterygian affinity with actinopterygian-like skull roof and braincase geometry, including endoskeletal enclosure of the spiracle and a lateral cranial canal. We report comparable histological structures in undoubted ray-finned fishes and conclude that they are general osteichthyan features. Phylogenetic analysis places Meemannia as an early-diverging ray-finned fish, resolving it as the sister lineage of Cheirolepis [13] plus all younger actinopterygians. This brings the first appearance of ray-fins more in line with that of lobe-fins and fills a conspicuous faunal gap in the otherwise diverse late Silurian-earliest Devonian vertebrate faunas of the South China Block [4]. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Elizabeth C; Norris, Richard D

    2015-07-14

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern "age of fishes."

  1. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  2. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  3. Seasonal and Spatial Environmental Influence on Opisthorchis viverrini Intermediate Hosts, Abundance, and Distribution: Insights on Transmission Dynamics and Sustainable Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina Sunyoung; Echaubard, Pierre; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Wilcox, Bruce A.; Sripa, Banchob

    2016-01-01

    Background Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a complex-life-cycle trematode affecting 10 million people in SEA (Southeast Asia). Human infection occurs when infected cyprinid fish are consumed raw or undercooked. Ov requires three hosts and presents two free-living parasitic stages. As a consequence Ov transmission and infection in intermediate and human hosts are strongly mediated by environmental factors and understanding how environmental variability influences intermediate host abundance is critical. The objectives of this study were 1) to document water parameters, intermediate hosts abundance and infection spatio-temporal variation, 2) to assess their causal relationships and identify windows of transmission risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Fish and snails were collected monthly for one year at 12 sites in Lawa Lake, an Ov-endemic region of Khon Kaen Province in Northeast Thailand. Physicochemical water parameters [pH, temperature (Tp), dissolved oxygen (DO), Salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), lead (Pb), total coliform bacteria (TCB) and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB)] were measured. Multivariate analyses, linear models and kriging were used to characterize water parameter variation and its influence on host abundance and infection prevalence. We found that sampling sites could be grouped in three clusters and discriminated along a nitrogen-salinity gradient where higher levels in the lake’s southern region predicted higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05) and lower snail and fish species diversity (P<0.05). Highest Bithynia abundance occurred during rainy season (P<0.001), independently of site influence. Cyprinids were the most abundant fish family and higher cyprinid relative abundance was found in areas with higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05). Ov infection in snails was anecdotal while Ov infection in fish was higher in the southern region (P<0.001) at sites showing high FCB

  4. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sousa-Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary

  5. Seasonal and Spatial Environmental Influence on Opisthorchis viverrini Intermediate Hosts, Abundance, and Distribution: Insights on Transmission Dynamics and Sustainable Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sunyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov is a complex-life-cycle trematode affecting 10 million people in SEA (Southeast Asia. Human infection occurs when infected cyprinid fish are consumed raw or undercooked. Ov requires three hosts and presents two free-living parasitic stages. As a consequence Ov transmission and infection in intermediate and human hosts are strongly mediated by environmental factors and understanding how environmental variability influences intermediate host abundance is critical. The objectives of this study were 1 to document water parameters, intermediate hosts abundance and infection spatio-temporal variation, 2 to assess their causal relationships and identify windows of transmission risk.Fish and snails were collected monthly for one year at 12 sites in Lawa Lake, an Ov-endemic region of Khon Kaen Province in Northeast Thailand. Physicochemical water parameters [pH, temperature (Tp, dissolved oxygen (DO, Salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, lead (Pb, total coliform bacteria (TCB and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB] were measured. Multivariate analyses, linear models and kriging were used to characterize water parameter variation and its influence on host abundance and infection prevalence. We found that sampling sites could be grouped in three clusters and discriminated along a nitrogen-salinity gradient where higher levels in the lake's southern region predicted higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05 and lower snail and fish species diversity (P<0.05. Highest Bithynia abundance occurred during rainy season (P<0.001, independently of site influence. Cyprinids were the most abundant fish family and higher cyprinid relative abundance was found in areas with higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05. Ov infection in snails was anecdotal while Ov infection in fish was higher in the southern region (P<0.001 at sites showing high FCB.Our results indicate that water contamination

  6. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana I; Pereira, Ana M; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  7. 唇[鱼骨]肌间小骨的骨化过程%The ossificational process of the intermuscular bones in Hemibarbus labeo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕耀平; 陈洁; 鲍宝龙; 黄佩佩

    2012-01-01

    To further understand the ossificational process of intermuscular bones in fishes from Cyprinidae, an important farming fish Hemibarbus labeo was investigated in this study. Intermuscular bones of H. labeo at different developmental stages were stained with alizarin red. Before 35 dpf (days post fertilization) , all bones in H. labeo were ossified except for intermusclar bones. Since 35 dpf, intermuscular bones in tail area begun ossification in 23.67 cm standard length H. labeo. The ossified epineurals were observed in the myoseptums from 37thto 41th myotome, and the ossified epipleurals was only found between 39th to 40th myotome. As H. labeo was developping, ossified intermuscular bones were gradually observed in the myoseptums close to the head. Till to 62 dpf, all intermuscular bones were found ossified in 11. labeo with 30.03 cm standard length. In addition, the primary morphology of intermuscular bone was type I, and ossified intermuscular bones with more complicated morphology were gradually forming from the type I during ossifing process. On the whole, the timing of intermucular bone initial ossification and the forming process of complex morphology in H. labeo were very similar to that in other species in Cyprinidae, indicating conserved genetic mechanism control of ossification of intermuscular bones might exist in Cyprinidae.%利用整体骨骼染色的方法,对唇[鱼骨](Hemibarbuslabeo)早期发育阶段肌间小骨的形态发生进行观察,结果表明:在受精后35 d(dpf)之前,除了肌间小骨,唇[鱼骨]所有其它骨骼均已骨化完成。肌间小骨在35 dpf(相应的体长为23.67 cm)开始在尾部区域骨化,髓弓小骨首先出现在尾部的第37~41肌节之间,脉弓小骨首先出现在尾部的39~40肌节之间,然后依次往前;到62 dpf(相应的体长为30.03cm)肌间小骨骨化全部完成。骨化过程中,唇[鱼骨]肌间小骨是从简单的I型,到卜型,再到Y型,再分化为各种复

  8. CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis AND DAMAGES ON FISH STOCK CAUSED BY CORMORANT HYPER POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Pažur

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent foreign and domestic investigations on the damages found on the fish stock of cyprinid ponds and rivers caused by hyper population of cormorants are presented. Cormorant has been for almost 30 years a protected bird species in Europe. As a species which was imported to Europe, they have no any natural enemies in European area to keep bioecological balance, thus their protection resulted in increasing their populations by 25 times from 1970. Therefore, it is questionable how opportune it is to protect the bird imported in Europe from China in the 17th century by the Dutch to catch fish in England and France while the damages it caused on the fish stock of the northern Europe were known already at the beginning of the 19th century, as reported by B r e hm (1892.

  9. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  10. Rapid Ecological Shift Following Piscivorous Fish Introduction to Increasingly Eutrophic and Warmer Lake Furnas (Azores Archipelago, Portugal): A Paleoecological Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchaca, Teresa; Skov, Tue; Amsinck, Susanne Lildal;

    2011-01-01

    , meteorological forcing, and fish species introduction for recent lake ecosystem development in Lake Furnas on the island of Sa˜o Miguel, the Azores. The lake was stocked with cyprinids in the late nineteenth century and recently also with piscivorous fish, and has been affected by increasing agricultural...... activities in its catchment. We analyzed marker pigments, cladoceran remains, and subfossil diatoms in a 46-cm core epresenting the last 40 years. Remains of large-bodied cladocerans were virtually absent until the introductions of piscivorous pike and pikeperch in 1980 and 1982, respectively, after which...... production apparently did not respond strongly to specific changes in temperature, food-web structure, or nutrient input, but rather to the combined effects of all the three forcing mechanisms, emphasizing the role of multi-stressors in lake ecosystem functioning. Our study demonstrates the sensitivity...

  11. Suckers (Fish, Catostomidae) from the Eocene of China ac-count for the family's current disjunct distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Unequivocal Eocene suckers from China are for the first time reported here. This discovery demonstrates that catostomids of the Eocene Epoch (some 55-35 Ma ago) are scattered widely on mainland Asia as well as western North America. The present day disjunct distribution pattern of catostomids, with 68 extant species widespread in North America and the northern part of Middle America and only two in the restricted areas of Asia, is the result of their post-Eocene decline in Asia due to the competitive pressure from cyprinids, their Late Cenozoic radiation in North America, and the vicariant and dispersal events triggered by the changed biogeographic landscape. All of these prove to be a historical product of the geological, biological, and climatic changes throughout the Cenozoic.

  12. Review on the Caspian Shemaya, Alburnus chalcoides (Güldenstädt, 1772

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Falahatkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alburnus chalcoides, Caspian Shemaya, is found in the river systems of the Aral, Black and Caspian sea basins and is an economically valuable cyprinid from the southern Caspian Sea. This species has been reported as near threatened species in this basin due to damming, over and illegal fishing, destruction of its spawning grounds and water pollution. The Caspian Shemaya is an important species ecologically and economically, but information about its biology and ecology is widely scattered. Hence, in this review, its taxonomy, general characteristics and morphology, distribution, habitat and ecology, age and growth, reproduction, conservation status and threats in the southern Caspian Sea is summarized, and a bibliography on this fish is provided.

  13. Seasonal migration determined by a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brönmark, C.; Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    that this is an adaptive behaviour in response to seasonal changes in predation (P) and growth (G) and that migrating fish change habitat so as to minimise the ratio between predation mortality and growth rate (P/G). Estimates from bioenergetic modelling showed that seasonal changes in the ratio between predator...... on commercially important fish species, such as salmon and trout. However, seasonal mass-migrations may occur also among other freshwater fish, e.g. in cyprinids that leave lakes and migrate into streams and wetlands in the fall and return back to the lake in spring. In a conceptual model, we hypothesized...... consumption rate and prey growth rate followed the predictions from the conceptual model and also gave more