Sample records for cyp4 isozymes implications

  1. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

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    James P. Hardwick


    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  2. Association between CYP4F2 genotype and circulating plasma vitamin K concentration in children on chronic warfarin therapy: Possible long-term implications for bone development and vascular health. (United States)

    Kampouraki, Emmanouela; Avery, Peter J; Biss, Tina; Kamali, Farhad


    Vitamin K is essential, for the activation of clotting proteins, as well as the biosynthesis of osteocalcin in bones and the activation of matrix-Gla protein needed in maintaining vasculature health. Cytochrome p450 4F2 (CYP4F2) enzyme is involved in vitamin K catabolism. Genetic polymorphism in CYP4F2 is thus likely to affect vitamin K systemic availability. We show that children on chronic warfarin therapy have low levels of vitamin K and vitamin K levels are linked to CYP4F2 genotype. Long-term low levels of vitamin K, influenced by CYP4F2 genotype, might affect bone development and vascular health in children on chronic warfarin therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications

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    Kai Wang


    Full Text Available The development of human benign or malignant prostatic diseases is closely associated with androgens, primarily testosterone (T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. T is converted to DHT by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR isozymes. Differential expression of 5-AR isozymes is observed in both human benign and malignant prostatic tissues. 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARI are commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and were once promoted as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer (PCa. This review discusses the role of the differential expression of 5-AR in the normal development of the human prostate and in the pathogenesis and progression of BPH and PCa.

  4. Effect of Genetic Variability in the CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 Genes on Liver mRNA Levels and Warfarin Response

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    J. E. Zhang


    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP 4F2, a vitamin K oxidase, affect stable warfarin dose requirements and time to therapeutic INR. CYP4F2 is part of the CYP4F gene cluster, which is highly polymorphic and exhibits a high degree of linkage disequilibrium, making it difficult to define causal variants. Our objective was to examine the effect of genetic variability in the CYP4F gene cluster on expression of the individual CYP4F genes and warfarin response. mRNA levels of the CYP4F gene cluster were quantified in human liver samples (n = 149 obtained from a well-characterized liver bank and fine mapping of the CYP4F gene cluster encompassing CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 was performed. Genome-wide association study (GWAS data from a prospective cohort of warfarin-treated patients (n = 711 was also analyzed for genetic variations across the CYP4F gene cluster. In addition, SNP-gene expression in human liver tissues and interactions between CYP4F genes were explored in silico using publicly available data repositories. We found that SNPs in CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and CYP4F12 were associated with mRNA expression in the CYP4F gene cluster. In particular, CYP4F2 rs2108622 was associated with increased CYP4F2 expression while CYP4F11 rs1060467 was associated with decreased CYP4F2 expression. Interestingly, these CYP4F2 and CYP4F11 SNPs showed similar effects with warfarin stable dose where CYP4F11 rs1060467 was associated with a reduction in daily warfarin dose requirement (∼1 mg/day, Pc = 0.017, an effect opposite to that previously reported with CYP4F2 (rs2108622. However, inclusion of either or both of these SNPs in a pharmacogenetic algorithm consisting of age, body mass index (BMI, gender, baseline clotting factor II level, CYP2C9∗2 rs1799853, CYP2C9∗3 rs1057910, and VKORC1 rs9923231 improved warfarin dose variability only by 0.5–0.7% with an improvement in dose prediction accuracy of ∼1–2%. Although there is complex

  5. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

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    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing


    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  6. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

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    Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)


    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  7. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

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    Rachel Vaivoda


    Full Text Available CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01. This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  8. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

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    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)


    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  9. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.


    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  10. Level of CYP4G19 Expression Is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Blattella germanica

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    Guang-zhou Guo


    Full Text Available German cockroaches have become a large problem in the Shenzhen area because of their pesticide resistance, especially to pyrethroid. A pyrethroid called “Jia Chong Qing” to prevent pests for a long time were found to be resistant to “Jia Chong Qing” with resistance index of 3.88 measured using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that both CYP4G19 mRNA and CYP4G19 protein expression levels in the wild strain were substantially higher than that of a sensitive strain. dsRNA segments derived from the target gene CYP4G19 were prepared using in vitro transcription and were microinjected into abdomens of the wild strain. Two to eight days after injection, the result showed that CYP4G19 mRNA expressions were significantly reduced in the groups injected with dsRNAs.

  11. Altered Protein Expression of Cardiac CYP2J and Hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F in a Mouse Model of Type II Diabetes—A Link in the Onset and Development of Cardiovascular Disease?

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    Benoit Drolet


    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid can be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450 enzymes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner to generate vasoactive products such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs-cardioprotective and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs-cardiotoxic. Type II diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. A mouse model of Type II diabetes (C57BLKS/J-db/db was used. After sacrifice, livers and hearts were collected, washed, and snap frozen. Total proteins were extracted. Western blots were performed to assess cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F protein expression, respectively. Significant decreases in relative protein expression of cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C were observed in Type II diabetes animals compared to controls (CYP2J: 0.80 ± 0.03 vs. 1.05 ± 0.06, n = 20, p < 0.001; (CYP2C: 1.56 ± 0.17 vs. 2.21 ± 0.19, n = 19, p < 0.01. In contrast, significant increases in relative protein expression of both hepatic CYP4A and CYP4F were noted in Type II diabetes mice compared to controls (CYP4A: 1.06 ± 0.09 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, n = 19, p < 0.001; (CYP4F: 2.53 ± 0.22 vs. 1.10 ± 0.07, n = 19, p < 0.001. These alterations induced by Type II diabetes in the endogenous pathway (CYP450 of arachidonic acid metabolism may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease by disrupting the fine equilibrium between cardioprotective (CYP2J/CYP2C-generated and cardiotoxic (CYP4A/CYP4F-generated metabolites of arachidonic acid.

  12. A Novel Polymorphism in the Promoter of the CYP4A11 Gene Is Associated with Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease (United States)

    Sirotina, Svetlana; Ponomarenko, Irina; Kharchenko, Alexander; Bykanova, Marina; Bocharova, Anna; Vagaytseva, Kseniya; Solodilova, Maria


    Enzymes CYP4A11 and CYP4F2 are involved in biosynthesis of vasoactive 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and may contribute to pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated whether polymorphisms of the CYP4A11 and CYP4F2 genes are associated with the risk of CAD in Russian population. DNA samples from 1323 unrelated subjects (637 angiographically confirmed CAD patients and 686 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals) were genotyped for polymorphisms rs3890011, rs9332978, and rs9333029 of CYP4A11 and rs3093098 and rs1558139 of CYP4F2 by using the Mass-ARRAY 4 system. SNPs rs3890011 and rs9332978 of CYP4A11 were associated with increased risk of CAD in women: OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.02–1.57, P = 0.004, and Q = 0.01 and OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.13–1.87, P = 0.004, and Q = 0.01, respectively. Haplotype G-C-A of CYP4A11 was associated with increased risk of CAD (adjusted OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.12–1.78, and P = 0.0036). Epistatic interactions were found between rs9332978 of CYP4A11 and rs1558139 of CYP4F2 (P interaction = 0.025). In silico analysis allowed identifying that SNP rs9332978 is located at a binding site for multiple transcription factors; many of them are known to regulate the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CAD. This is the first study in Europeans that reported association between polymorphism rs9332978 of CYP4A11 and susceptibility to coronary artery disease. PMID:29484037

  13. Isozyme variation in wild and cultivated pineapple (United States)

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  14. Disruption of Mouse Cytochrome P450 4f14 (Cyp4f14 Gene) Causes Severe Perturbations in Vitamin E Metabolism* (United States)

    Bardowell, Sabrina A.; Duan, Faping; Manor, Danny; Swanson, Joy E.; Parker, Robert S.


    Vitamin E is a family of naturally occurring and structurally related lipophilic antioxidants, one of which, α-tocopherol (α-TOH), selectively accumulates in vertebrate tissues. The ω-hydroxylase cytochrome P450–4F2 (CYP4F2) is the only human enzyme shown to metabolize vitamin E. Using cDNA cloning, cell culture expression, and activity assays, we identified Cyp4f14 as a functional murine ortholog of CYP4F2. We then investigated the effect of Cyp4f14 deletion on vitamin E metabolism and status in vivo. Cyp4f14-null mice exhibited substrate-specific reductions in liver microsomal vitamin E-ω-hydroxylase activity ranging from 93% (γ-TOH) to 48% (γ-tocotrienol). In vivo data obtained from metabolic cage studies showed whole-body reductions in metabolism of γ-TOH of 90% and of 68% for δ- and α-TOH. This metabolic deficit in Cyp4f14−/− mice was partially offset by increased fecal excretion of nonmetabolized tocopherols and of novel ω-1- and ω-2-hydroxytocopherols. 12′-OH-γ-TOH represented 41% of whole-body production of γ-TOH metabolites in Cyp4f14−/− mice fed a soybean oil diet. Despite these counterbalancing mechanisms, Cyp4f14-null mice fed this diet for 6 weeks hyper-accumulated γ-TOH (2-fold increase over wild-type littermates) in all tissues and appeared normal. We conclude that CYP4F14 is the major but not the only vitamin E-ω-hydroxylase in mice. Its disruption significantly impairs whole-body vitamin E metabolism and alters the widely conserved phenotype of preferential tissue deposition of α-TOH. This model animal and its derivatives will be valuable in determining the biological actions of specific tocopherols and tocotrienols in vivo. PMID:22665481

  15. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

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    Johnson M.


    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  16. Isozymes and the genetic resources of forest trees (United States)

    A. H. D. Brown; G. F. Moran


    Genetic data are an essential prerequisite for analysing the genetic structure of tree populations. The isozyme technique is the best currently available method for obtaining such data. Despite several shortcomings, isozyme data directly evaluate the genetic resources of forest trees, and can thus be used to monitor and manipulate these resources. For example,...

  17. Pharmacologic modulation of protein kinase C isozymes: the role of RACKs and subcellular localisation. (United States)

    Csukai, M; Mochly-Rosen, D


    Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are highly homologous kinases and several different isozymes can be present in a cell. Each isozyme is likely to mediate unique functions, but pharmacological tools to explore their isozyme-specific roles have not been available until recently. In this review, we describe the development and application of isozyme-selective inhibitors of PKC. The identification of these inhibitors stems from the observation that PKC isozymes are each localised to unique subcellular locations following activation. Inhibitors of this isozyme-unique localisation have been shown to act as selective inhibitors of the functions of individual isozymes. The identification of isozyme-specific inhibitors should allow the exploration of individual PKC isozyme function in a wide range of cell systems. Copyright 1999 The Italian Pharmacological Society.

  18. Studies of peroxidase isozyme profile in mungbean mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auti, S.G.; Apparao, B.J.


    Peroxidase is an important oxygen-scavenging enzyme. The activity of peroxidase is often correlated with growth, development and hormonal activity. Traditional methods of cultivar identification usually involve observation and recording of morphological characters or description such as yield, height, weight, earliness etc. which vary with environmental conditions and often misleading. So molecular markers like protein and isozymes profiles, RFLP, RAPDs markers etc. are widely employed in varietal identification of cultivars. It plays important role in respiration and is an indicator of oxidative status of plants. Electrophoretic techniques have been used to group species and identify cultivars. Such identification has various advantages including the unique pattern of protein or isozymes bands for each pure cultivar under any set of environmental conditions. Peroxidase isozyme serves as very good marker for any mutational studies. In the present investigation, peroxidase isozyme profiles of various mutants of mungbean was studied employing the technique of electrophoresis

  19. Double-stranded RNA uptake through topical application, mediates silencing of five CYP4 genes and suppresses insecticide resistance in Diaphorina citri. (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Hajeri, Subhas; Tiwari, Siddharth; Gowda, Siddarame; Stelinski, Lukasz L


    Silencing of genes through RNA interference (RNAi) in insects has gained momentum during the past few years. RNAi has been used to cause insect mortality, inhibit insect growth, increase insecticide susceptibility, and prevent the development of insecticide resistance. We investigated the efficacy of topically applied dsRNA to induce RNAi for five Cytochrome P450 genes family 4 (CYP4) in Diaphorina citri. We previously reported that these CYP4 genes are associated with the development of insecticide resistance in D. citri. We targeted five CYP4 genes that share a consensus sequence with one dsRNA construct. Quantitative PCR confirmed suppressed expression of the five CYP4 genes as a result of dsRNA topically applied to the thoracic region of D. citri when compared to the expression levels in a control group. Western blot analysis indicated a reduced signal of cytochrome P450 proteins (45 kDa) in adult D. citri treated with the dsRNA. In addition, oxidase activity and insecticide resistance were reduced for D. citri treated with dsRNA that targeted specific CYP4 genes. Mortality was significantly higher in adults treated with dsRNA than in adults treated with water. Our results indicate that topically applied dsRNA can penetrate the cuticle of D. citri and induce RNAi. These results broaden the scope of RNAi as a mechanism to manage pests by targeting a broad range of genes. The results also support the application of RNAi as a viable tool to overcome insecticide resistance development in D. citri populations. However, further research is needed to develop grower-friendly delivery systems for the application of dsRNA under field conditions. Considering the high specificity of dsRNA, this tool can also be used for management of D. citri by targeting physiologically critical genes involved in growth and development.

  20. Double-stranded RNA uptake through topical application, mediates silencing of five CYP4 genes and suppresses insecticide resistance in Diaphorina citri.

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    Nabil Killiny

    Full Text Available Silencing of genes through RNA interference (RNAi in insects has gained momentum during the past few years. RNAi has been used to cause insect mortality, inhibit insect growth, increase insecticide susceptibility, and prevent the development of insecticide resistance. We investigated the efficacy of topically applied dsRNA to induce RNAi for five Cytochrome P450 genes family 4 (CYP4 in Diaphorina citri. We previously reported that these CYP4 genes are associated with the development of insecticide resistance in D. citri. We targeted five CYP4 genes that share a consensus sequence with one dsRNA construct. Quantitative PCR confirmed suppressed expression of the five CYP4 genes as a result of dsRNA topically applied to the thoracic region of D. citri when compared to the expression levels in a control group. Western blot analysis indicated a reduced signal of cytochrome P450 proteins (45 kDa in adult D. citri treated with the dsRNA. In addition, oxidase activity and insecticide resistance were reduced for D. citri treated with dsRNA that targeted specific CYP4 genes. Mortality was significantly higher in adults treated with dsRNA than in adults treated with water. Our results indicate that topically applied dsRNA can penetrate the cuticle of D. citri and induce RNAi. These results broaden the scope of RNAi as a mechanism to manage pests by targeting a broad range of genes. The results also support the application of RNAi as a viable tool to overcome insecticide resistance development in D. citri populations. However, further research is needed to develop grower-friendly delivery systems for the application of dsRNA under field conditions. Considering the high specificity of dsRNA, this tool can also be used for management of D. citri by targeting physiologically critical genes involved in growth and development.

  1. Exome sequencing identifies compound heterozygous mutations in CYP4V2 in a pedigree with retinitis pigmentosa.

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    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a heterogeneous group of progressive retinal degenerations characterized by pigmentation and atrophy in the mid-periphery of the retina. Twenty two subjects from a four-generation Chinese family with RP and thin cornea, congenital cataract and high myopia is reported in this study. All family members underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Patients of the family presented with bone spicule-shaped pigment deposits in retina, retinal vascular attenuation, retinal and choroidal dystrophy, as well as punctate opacity of the lens, reduced cornea thickness and high myopia. Peripheral venous blood was obtained from all patients and their family members for genetic analysis. After mutation analysis in a few known RP candidate genes, exome sequencing was used to analyze the exomes of 3 patients III2, III4, III6 and the unaffected mother II2. A total of 34,693 variations shared by 3 patients were subjected to several filtering steps against existing variation databases. Identified variations were verified in the rest family members by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Compound heterozygous c.802-8_810del17insGC and c.1091-2A>G mutations of the CYP4V2 gene, known as genetic defects for Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy, were identified as causative mutations for RP of this family.

  2. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

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    Fei Mo


    Full Text Available Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments, seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB, beta-2 microglobulin (B2M, embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, alpha tubulin (TUBA, ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species.

  3. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

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    Saw Yu-Ting


    with specific cell types in ovarian tumor tissues and vary according to cell states. Elucidating the function of the ALDH isozymes in lineage differentiation and pathogenesis may have significant implications for ovarian cancer pathophysiology.

  4. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Yu-Ting; Thompson, David; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Berkowitz, Ross S; Ng, Shu-Wing; Yang, Junzheng; Ng, Shu-Kay; Liu, Shubai; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Margit; Welch, William R; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Fong, Wing-Ping


    cell states. Elucidating the function of the ALDH isozymes in lineage differentiation and pathogenesis may have significant implications for ovarian cancer pathophysiology

  5. Association of Neuroantibodies(NAB) with Glutathione-S-Tranferase(GST) Isozyme Polymorphisms(SNP) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposure (United States)

    Polymorphisms in GST isozymes have implications in heavy metal accumulation, neurodegeneration, and immune-mediated disease. Blood cell DNA and sera from 131 African-American children were used to determine GST Pi [rs947895 (C>A), rs17593068 (G>T), rs6591256 (A>G), rs187...

  6. Creatine kinase isozyme expression in embryonic chicken heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Geerts, W. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Dottin, R. P.


    The distribution pattern of creatine kinase (EC isozymes in developing chicken heart was studied by immunohistochemistry. Creatine kinase M, which is absent from adult heart, is transiently expressed between 4 and 11 days of incubation. During that period, numerous muscular cells in the

  7. Large allozyme variation within populations and isozyme differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant pair-wise contingency chi-square differences, one isozyme and another fixed allele difference at LDH, were found between the species. Nevertheless, a relatively small genetic distance value (D = 0.134) between the species supports recent morphological and DNA results by other researchers, confirming the ...

  8. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji


    Jun 22, 1973 ... Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp. Efisue, A. A.. Development of Crop & Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 29:10:13, Accepted 20:12:13). Abstract. Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in ...

  9. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng


    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  10. Purification and characterization of three laccase isozymes from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 17, 2012 ... improve wine quality by removing fermentation inhibitors so as to increase yield of ethanol (Baldrian, 2006). They have also been used .... Summary of purification of laccase isozymes from Trametes sp. HS-03a. Purification .... and kinetics of a thermostable laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus. (SCC 108).

  11. Acrolein-detoxifying isozymes of glutathione transferase in plants. (United States)

    Mano, Jun'ichi; Ishibashi, Asami; Muneuchi, Hitoshi; Morita, Chihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Biswas, Md Sanaullah; Koeduka, Takao; Kitajima, Sakihito


    Acrolein is a lipid-derived highly reactive aldehyde, mediating oxidative signal and damage in plants. We found acrolein-scavenging glutathione transferase activity in plants and purified a low K M isozyme from spinach. Various environmental stressors on plants cause the generation of acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde produced from lipid peroxides, via the promotion of the formation of reactive oxygen species, which oxidize membrane lipids. In mammals, acrolein is scavenged by glutathione transferase (GST; EC isozymes of Alpha, Pi, and Mu classes, but plants lack these GST classes. We detected the acrolein-scavenging GST activity in four species of plants, and purified an isozyme showing this activity from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. The isozyme (GST-Acr), obtained after an affinity chromatography and two ion exchange chromatography steps, showed the K M value for acrolein 93 μM, the smallest value known for acrolein-detoxifying enzymes in plants. Peptide sequence homology search revealed that GST-Acr belongs to the GST Tau, a plant-specific class. The Arabidopsis thaliana GST Tau19, which has the closest sequence similar to spinach GST-Acr, also showed a high catalytic efficiency for acrolein. These results suggest that GST plays as a scavenger for acrolein in plants.

  12. Cytochrome P450 CYP4DE1 and CYP6CW3v2 contribute to ethiprole resistance in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén). (United States)

    Elzaki, M E A; Zhang, W; Han, Z


    Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a destructive pest of rice, has developed high resistance to multiple insecticides, threatening the success of pest management programmes. The present study investigated ethiprole resistance mechanisms in a field population that is highly resistant to ethiprole. That population was used to establish a laboratory population that was subjected to further selection to produce a resistant strain. Target genes were cloned and compared between the resistant and the susceptible strains, the role of detoxification enzymes was examined, and the relative expression levels of 71 detoxification enzyme genes were tested using quantitative real time (RT)-PCR. The laboratory selection enhanced the resistance from 107-fold to 180-fold. The Rdl-type target site mutation seldom occurred in the resistant strain and is unlikely to represent the major mechanism underlying the observed resistance. Of the three important detoxification enzymes, only P450 monooxygenase was found to be associated with ethiprole resistance. Moreover, two genes, CYP4DE1 and CYP6CW3v2, were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strain. Furthermore, gene-silencing via a double-stranded RNA feeding test was carried out, and the results showed that the mRNA levels of CYP4DE1 and CYP6CW3v2 were reduced in the resistant strain, whereas ethiprole susceptibility was increased. These results suggest that CYP4DE1 and CYP6CW3v2 play an important role in ethiprole resistance in L. striatellus. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Yuzhong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Yue, Jiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)


    Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr{sup 458}), phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}) and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE{sub 2}, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin induces anoikis and suppresses

  14. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.


    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  15. Characterizing Isozymes of Chlorite Dismutase for Water Treatment


    Mobilia, Kellen C.; Hutchison, Justin M.; Zilles, Julie L.


    This work investigated the potential for biocatalytic degradation of micropollutants, focusing on chlorine oxyanions as model contaminants, by mining biology to identify promising biocatalysts. Existing isozymes of chlorite dismutase (Cld) were characterized with respect to parameters relevant to this high volume, low-value product application: kinetic parameters, resistance to catalytic inactivation, and stability. Maximum reaction velocities (V max) were typically on the order of 104 μmol m...

  16. Comparative analysis of peroxidase profiles in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.): evaluation of leaf growth related isozymes. (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Wang, Chenchen; Huang, Jiabao; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Wang, Haiou


    Plant peroxidases (EC with different isoforms catalyze various reactions in plant growth and development. However, it is difficult to elucidate the function of each isozyme in one plant. Here, we compared profiles of entire isozyme in young seedling and mature leaves of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) on zymogram and ion exchange chromatography in order to investigate leaf growth related peroxidase isozymes. The results showed that four isozymes were constitutively expressed in kale leaves, whereas other two isozymes were induced in the mature leaves. The Mono Q ion exchange chromatography separated the six isozymes into two major groups due to the difference in their isoelectric points. The results suggested that although there were several isozymes in the leaves of Chinese kale, one isozyme functioned mainly through the leaf development. Two anionic isozymes with molecular weights lower than 32 kDa were considered mature related. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. List of isozyme loci - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP gmap98 List of isozyme loci Data detail Data name List of isozyme loci DOI 10.18908/lsdb...he present high-density linkage map, and that were putatively identified as isozyme genes. Data file File name: rgp_gmap98_iso...gmap98/LATEST/ File size: 611 B Simple search URL were considered as functionally identical clones. And we have selected the ones that hit the isozyme ge...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us List of isozyme loci - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Purification and characterization of creatine kinase isozymes from the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum. (United States)

    Gray, K A; Grossman, S H; Summers, D D


    Creatine kinase from nurse shark brain and muscle has been purified to apparent homogeneity. In contrast to creatine kinases from most other vertebrate species, the muscle isozyme and the brain isozyme from nurse shark migrate closely in electrophoresis and, unusually, the muscle isozyme is anodal to the brain isozyme. The isoelectric points are 5.3 and 6.2 for the muscle and brain isozymes, respectively. The purified brain preparation also contains a second active protein with pI 6.0. The amino acid content of the muscle isozyme is compared with other isozymes of creatine kinase using the Metzger Difference Index as an estimation of compositional relatedness. All comparisons show a high degree of compositional similarity including arginine kinase from lobster muscle. The muscle isozyme is marginally more resistant to temperature inactivation than the brain isozyme; the muscle protein does not exhibit unusual stability towards high concentrations of urea. Kinetic analysis of the muscle isozyme reveals Michaelis constants of 1.6 mM MgATP, 12 mM creatine, 1.2 mM MgADP and 50 mM creatine phosphate. Dissociation constants for the same substrate from the binary and ternary enzyme-substrate complex do not differ significantly, indicating limited cooperatively in substrate binding. Enzyme activity is inhibited by small planar anions, most severely by nitrate. Shark muscle creatine kinase hybridizes in vitro with rabbit muscle or monkey brain creatine kinase; shark brain isozyme hybridizes with monkey brain or rabbit brain creatine kinase. Shark muscle and shark brain isozymes, under a wide range of conditions, failed to produce a detectable hybrid.

  19. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.


    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K


    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0....

  20. Characterisation of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Trimanto, Sajidan, Sugiyarto. 2011. Characterization of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers. Nusantara Bioscience: 7-14. The aims of this research were to find out: (i the variety of Colocasia esculenta based on the morphological characteristics; (ii the variety of C. esculenta based on the isozymic banding pattern; and (iii the correlation of genetic distance based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern. Survey research conducted in the Karanganyar district, which include high, medium and low altitude. The sample was taken using random purposive sampling technique, including 9 sampling points. The morphological data was elaborated descriptively and then made dendogram. The data on isozymic banding pattern was analyzed quantitatively based on the presence or absence of bands appeared on the gel, and then made dendogram. The correlation based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern were analyzed based on the product-moment correlation coefficient with goodness of fit criterion. The result showed : (i in Karanganyar was founded 10 variety of C. esculenta; (ii morphological characteristics are not affected by altitude; (iii isozymic banding pattern of peroxides forms 14 banding patterns, esterase forms 11 banding patterns and shikimic dehydrogenase forms 15 banding patterns; (iv the correlation of morphological data and the isozymic banding pattern of peroxidase has good correlation (0.893542288 while esterase and shikimic dehydrogenase isozymes have very good correlation (0.917557716 and 0.9121985446; (v isozymic banding pattern of data supports the morphological character data.

  1. Genetic epidemiology of pharmacogenetic variations in CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1 genes associated with warfarin dosage in the Indian population. (United States)

    Giri, Anil K; Khan, Nazir M; Grover, Sandeep; Kaur, Ismeet; Basu, Analabha; Tandon, Nikhil; Scaria, Vinod; Kukreti, Ritushree; Brahmachari, Samir K; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan


    Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, exhibits large interindividual variability in dose requirements. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms in various ethnic groups have been extensively studied as genetic markers associated with variable drug response. However, allele frequencies of these variants have not been assessed in major ethnic groups in the Indian population. To study the functional variants known to affect warfarin dosing, we reanalyzed genotype microarray datasets generated as a part of genome-wide association studies as well as data from the Indian Genome Variation database. We examined data from 2680 individuals across 24 ethnically diverse Indian subpopulations. Allelic distribution of VKORC1 (-1639G>A) showed a greater degree of variation across Indian subpopulations, with frequencies as low as 6.5% in an out-group subpopulation to >70% in Tibeto-Burmans. Risk allele frequency of CYP4F2*3 (V433M) was higher in north Indians (0.30-0.44), as compared with other world populations, such as African-American (0.12), Caucasian (0.34) and Hispanic (0.23). TheVKORC1 variant (-1639A) was shown to be prevalent amongst Tibeto-Burmans, whereas CYP2C9 (R144C, I359L) and CYP4F2 (V433M) variants were observed in considerable variability amongst Indo-Europeans. The frequency of CYP2C9*3 (I359L) in north Indians was found to be higher than in most Asian populations. Furthermore, geographical distribution patterns of these variants in north India showed an increased trend of warfarin extensive metabolizers from the Himalayan to Gangetic region. Combined allele frequency (CYP2C9*3 and CYP4F2*3) data suggest that poor metabolizers varied in the range of 0.38-1.85% in Indo-Europeans. Based on genotypic distribution, the majority of the Indian subpopulation might require higher doses for stable anticoagulation, whereas careful assessment is required for Tibeto-Burmans who are expected to have intermediate dose requirement. This is the largest global genetic epidemiological

  2. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen. (United States)

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K


    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0.08, 0.12, and 0.17 M NaCl, whereas the two peaks of the variant, with 0.01 and 0.06 M NaCl. The pH optimum and thermal denaturation at 57 degrees C were the same in all enzyme peaks of both isozymes. Rabbit antiacid alpha-glucosidase antibodies produced against the common isozyme were found to cross-react with both peaks of the variant isozyme. The two isozymes shared antigenic identity and had similar Km's with maltose as substrate. Normal substrate saturation kinetics were observed with the common isozyme when glycogen was the substrate, but the variant produced an S-shaped saturation curve indicating a phase of negative and positive cooperativity at low and high glycogen concentrations, respectively. The activity of the variant was only 8.6% and 19.2% of the common isozyme when assayed with nonsaturating and saturating concentrations of glycogen, respectively. A similar rate of hydrolysis of isomaltose by both isozymes was found indicating that the reduced catalytic activity of the variant isozyme toward glycogen is not the result of a reduced ability of this enzyme to cleave the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. JUNIARTI and M. I. J. UMBOH


    Full Text Available The detection of genetic variability in natural or man-made populations/ plantations is useful in both basic and applied biology. In addition to the various facets of studies on Shorea javanica already initiated by Torquebiau (1984 and alongside with his recommendations on focus for future research, a study on the genetic aspects of the species should be given important considerations. As the trees are tapped for resin, an important forest product, the genetic basis of the production as well as the range of variation in amount of resin production among t he trees must be known. Coupled with this is a thorough investigation on the differences in pest resistance/susceptability among the trees and their genetic basis. While the assumption (Torquebiau 1984 that trees in natural forest areas are-rarely attacked by diseases because of mycorrhizal fungi is interesting, its confirmation is necessary. If this is true, problems would arise when plants are introduced into a new plantation site as experienced by the Forest Research Institute (Ardikoesuma 1954. Thus, we need to look for pest resistant plants i.e. those that can remain healthy even in the absence of mycorrhizae. The above studies on possible genetic variation could give vital information for development of forest plantations of the species and for breeding and tree improvement strategies. By knowing the extent of genetic variation in natural population or in plantations one could be guided to maintain or increase the genetic base in these areas. Biochemical characters such as isozyme banding patterns have been useful in several areas of plant biology, population genetics, evolution and breeding. Isozymes are detected by starch gel electrophoresis and when their genetic control is established, they could be genetic markers in analyzing variation in morphological or physiological characters. The present study is an attempt to detect the isozymes in leaves, seeds and cotyledons of Shorea

  4. Determination of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH Isozymes in Human Cancer Samples - Comparison of Kinetic and Immunochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Borecka


    Full Text Available A fluorimetric assay of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes, based on naphthaldehyde oxidation, is compared with Western Blotting analysis on several clinical samples obtained from surgery. The comparison reveals qualitatively good correlation of ALDH1A1 isozyme detection with two methods and somewhat worse on ALDH3A1 assay.

  5. Characterizing Isozymes of Chlorite Dismutase for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen C. Mobilia


    Full Text Available This work investigated the potential for biocatalytic degradation of micropollutants, focusing on chlorine oxyanions as model contaminants, by mining biology to identify promising biocatalysts. Existing isozymes of chlorite dismutase (Cld were characterized with respect to parameters relevant to this high volume, low-value product application: kinetic parameters, resistance to catalytic inactivation, and stability. Maximum reaction velocities (Vmax were typically on the order of 104 μmol min-1 (μmol heme-1. Substrate affinity (Km values were on the order of 100 μM, except for the Cld from Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii (NdCld, which showed a significantly lower affinity for chlorite. NdCld also had the highest susceptibility to catalytic inactivation. In contrast, the Cld from Ideonella dechloratans was least susceptible to catalytic inactivation, with a maximum turnover number of approximately 150,000, more than sevenfold higher than other tested isozymes. Under non-reactive conditions, Cld was quite stable, retaining over 50% of activity after 30 days, and most samples retained activity even after 90–100 days. Overall, Cld from I. dechloratans was the most promising candidate for environmental applications, having high affinity and activity, a relatively low propensity for catalytic inactivation, and excellent stability.

  6. Expression analysis of polyphenol oxidase isozymes by active staining method and tissue browning of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Akira


    Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce. By expression analysis of the PPO isozymes after wounding, PPO isozymes that correlated with time-course of tissue browning were detected. The wound-induced PPO may play a key role in enzymatic browning.

  7. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host (United States)

    Starr, J. L.; Tomaszewski, E. K.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Baldwin, J. G.


    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. PMID:19277175

  8. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host. (United States)

    Starr, J L; Tomaszewski, E K; Mundo-Ocampo, M; Baldwin, J G


    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

  9. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian


    transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant...... physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate.......Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...

  10. Discrimination of damages depending on the types of lactic dehydrogenase isozymes in electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Akishige; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Liu Xiaolan; Takizawa, Haruki.


    Lactate dehydrogenase (EC,LDH) was a tetrameric molecule. The five different combinations of two different polypeptide chains can be readily identified by electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. Injury patterns of LDH activity following electron-beam irradiation was investigated by assaying activities of three isozymes (pig heart LDH;M 4 , rabbit muscle LDH;H 4 , chicken heart LDH;M 3 H 1 ). Following results were obtained in the electron beam irradiation to three kinds of LDH isozymes: 1) Each isozyme has respective different reactivities to the electron beam irradiation. 2) Among the isozymes, M 4 enzyme was increased its enzymatic activity by the irradiations of low-level doses. 3) For the H 4 enzymes, an increasing phenomenon of -SH group was found in the low-level doses of electron beam irradiation. (author)

  11. Akt3 is a privileged first responder in isozyme-specific electrophile response. (United States)

    Long, Marcus J C; Parvez, Saba; Zhao, Yi; Surya, Sanjna L; Wang, Yiran; Zhang, Sheng; Aye, Yimon


    Isozyme-specific post-translational regulation fine tunes signaling events. However, redundancy in sequence or activity renders links between isozyme-specific modifications and downstream functions uncertain. Methods to study this phenomenon are underdeveloped. Here we use a redox-targeting screen to reveal that Akt3 is a first-responding isozyme sensing native electrophilic lipids. Electrophile modification of Akt3 modulated downstream pathway responses in cells and Danio rerio (zebrafish) and markedly differed from Akt2-specific oxidative regulation. Digest MS sequencing identified Akt3 C119 as the privileged cysteine that senses 4-hydroxynonenal. A C119S Akt3 mutant was hypomorphic for all downstream phenotypes shown by wild-type Akt3. This study documents isozyme-specific and chemical redox signal-personalized physiological responses.

  12. Isozymes variability in rice mutants induced by fast neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, J.L.; Alvarez, A.; Gutierrez, L.; Deus, J.E.


    The isozyme variability of a group of rice mutants induced through gamma and fast neutron (14 MeV) irradiation was studied. Polymorphisms were detected using esterase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase systems. The mean value of genetic similarity among the different cultivars, which arose from isozymes, was 0.75. The dendrogram was constructed based on genetic similarity matrices, designed with isozyme data using the unweighed pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) method. The efficiency of the UPGMA model for the estimation of genetic relationship among cultivars was supported by cophenetic correlation coefficients. Such values indicate that the distortion degree for the estimated similarities was minimal. It was found that both gamma rays and fast neutrons generated a wide range of variability which can be detected by means of isozyme patterns, even in closely related cultivars. (author)

  13. Isozymes variability in rice mutants induced by fast neutrons and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, J L; Alvarez, A [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Miramar, Playa, Havana (Cuba); Gutierrez, L; Deus, J E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz, Bauta, Havana (Cuba)


    The isozyme variability of a group of rice mutants induced through gamma and fast neutron (14 MeV) irradiation was studied. Polymorphisms were detected using esterase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase systems. The mean value of genetic similarity among the different cultivars, which arose from isozymes, was 0.75. The dendrogram was constructed based on genetic similarity matrices, designed with isozyme data using the unweighed pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) method. The efficiency of the UPGMA model for the estimation of genetic relationship among cultivars was supported by cophenetic correlation coefficients. Such values indicate that the distortion degree for the estimated similarities was minimal. It was found that both gamma rays and fast neutrons generated a wide range of variability which can be detected by means of isozyme patterns, even in closely related cultivars. (author)

  14. Gel-Based Purification and Biochemical Study of Laccase Isozymes from Ganoderma sp. and Its Role in Enhanced Cotton Callogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K. Sharma


    Full Text Available Basidiomycetous fungi, Ganoderma lucidum MDU-7 and Ganoderma sp. kk-02 secreted multiple laccase isozymes under diverse growth condition. Aromatic compounds and metal salts were also found to regulate the differential expression of laccase isozymes from both the Ganoderma sp. Laccase isozymes induced in the presence of copper from G. lucidum MDU-7 were purified by gel-based (native-PAGE purification method. The purity of laccase isozymes was checked by zymogram and SDS-PAGE. The SDS-PAGE of purified proteins confirmed the multimeric nature of laccase isozymes. The molecular mass of isozymes was found to be in the range of 40–66 kDa. Further, the purified laccase isozymes and their peptides were confirmed with the help of MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting. The biochemical characterization of laccase isozymes viz. Glac L2, Glac L3, Glac L4, and Glac L5 have shown the optimum temperature in the range of 30°–45°C and pH 3.0. The Km values of all the laccase isozymes determined for guaiacol were (96–281 μM, ABTS (15–83 μM and O-tolidine (78–724 μM. Further, laccase isozymes from G. lucidum whole genome were studied using bioinformatics tools. The molecular modeling and docking of laccase isozymes with different substrates showed a significant binding affinity, which further validates our experimental results. Interestingly, copper induced laccase of 40 U/ml in culture medium was found to significantly induce cotton callogenesis. Interestingly, all the laccase isozymes were found to have an antioxidative role and therefore capable in free radicals scavenging during callogenesis. This is the first detailed study on the biochemical characterization of all the laccase isozymes purified by a gel-based novel method.

  15. Enzymatic and thermodynamic profiles of a heterotetramer lactate dehydrogenase isozyme in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tatsufumi; Sugawara, Kotomi; Nakamura, Shigeyoshi; Kidokoro, Shun-Ichi; Wakui, Hideki; Nunomura, Wataru


    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the final step of glycolysis and produces NAD + . In somatic cells, LDH forms homotetramers and heterotetramers that are encoded by two different genes: LDHA (skeletal muscle type, M) and LDHB (heart type, H). Analysis of LDH isozymes is important for understanding the physiological role of homotetramers and heterotetramers and for optimizing inhibition of their enzymatic activity as it may result in distinct effects. Previously, we reported that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) inhibited LDH activity, but we did not examine isozyme specificity. In the present study, we isolated heterotetrameric LDH (H 2 M 2 ) from swine brain, determined its kinetic and thermodynamic properties, and examined the effect of HCQ on its activity compared to homotetrameric LDH isozymes. We show that: (1) the K m values for H 2 M 2 –mediated catalysis of pyruvate or lactate were intermediate compared to those for the homotetrameric isozymes, M 4 and H 4 whereas the V max values were similar; (2) the K m and V max values for H 2 M 2 –mediated catalysis of NADH were not significantly different among LDH isozymes; (3) the values for activation energy and van't Hoff enthalpy changes for pyruvate reduction of H 2 M 2 were intermediate compared to those for the homotetrameric isozymes; (4) the temperature for half residual activity of H 2 M 2 was closer to that for M 4 than for H 4 . We also show that HCQ had different affinities for various LDH isozymes. - Highlights: • Heterotetrameric (H 2 M 2 ) LDH isozyme was isolated from swine brain. • Kinetics of H 2 M 2 were intermediate between the two homotetramers. • Thermodynamics of H 2 M 2 were also intermediate between the two homotetramers. • Hydroxychloroquine inhibited more strongly H 2 M 2 than homotetramers.

  16. Effects of ultraviolet light irradiation on several isozymes in Helicoverpa armigera adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Jianyu; Zhang Changyu; Lei Chaoliang


    The effects of ultraviolet (UV)light stress on esterase, peroxidases (POX ), and catalase (CAT) isozymes in Helicoverpa armigera (Hiiber) adults were studied by isozyme eleetrophoresis. When exposed to UV light irradiation, zymogram of esterase isozyme changed mainly in number and activity of isozyme. After 30 min and 60 min exposure, the intensity of isozyme bands E4, E9 and El0 were enhanced, E2 and E8 were weakened. The bands E1, E5, E7 and Ell disappeared after UV light irradiation, while E3 and E6 newly emerged. At the longest exposure time (90 min), the intensity of isozyme bands E4 and E9 was enhanced, while the intensity of E2 and E8 was weakened. The bands E1, E5 and E7 disappeared after UV light irradiation, whereas E3 and E6 newly emerged. The intensity of POX band P5 was enhanced in adults following the exposure to UV light for 30, 60, 90 minutes. The intensity of CAT band C1 was enhanced in adults following the exposure to UV light for 30, 60, 90 minutes, but that of band C2 was weakened after 30 min and 90 min exposure in comparison with the control

  17. Detailed functional and structural phenotype of Bietti crystalline dystrophy associated with mutations in CYP4V2 complicated by choroidal neovascularization. (United States)

    Fuerst, Nicole M; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I W; Maguire, Albert M; Leroy, Bart P; Kim, Benjamin J; Aleman, Tomas S


    To describe in detail the phenotype of a patient with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the response to intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin ® ; Genentech/Roche). A 34-year-old woman with BCD and mutations in CYP4V2 (c.802-8_806del13/p.H331P:c992A>C) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG), kinetic and two-color dark-adapted perimetry, and dark-adaptometry. Imaging was performed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near infrared (NIR) and short wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and fluorescein angiography (FA). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 and 20/60 for the right and left eye, respectively. There were corneal paralimbal crystal-like deposits. Kinetic fields were normal in the peripheral extent. Retinal crystals were most obvious on NIR-reflectance and corresponded with hyperreflectivities within the RPE on SD-OCT. There was parafoveal/perifoveal hypofluorescence on SW-FAF and NIR-FAF. Rod > cone sensitivity loss surrounded fixation and extended to ~10° of eccentricity corresponding to regions of photoreceptor outer segment-retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) interdigitation abnormalities. The outer nuclear layer was normal in thickness. Recovery of sensitivity following a ~76% rhodopsin bleach was normal. ERGs were normal. A subretinal hemorrhage in the left eye co-localized with elevation of the RPE on SD-OCT and leakage on FA, suggestive of CNV. Three monthly intravitreal injections of Bevacizumab led to restoration of BCVA to baseline (20/25). crystals in BCD were predominantly located within the RPE. Photoreceptor outer segment and apical RPE abnormalities underlie the relatively extensive retinal dysfunction observed in relatively early-stage BCD. Intravitreal Bevacizumab was effective in treating CNV in this setting.

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Activation Decreases Mean Arterial Pressure, Plasma Interleukin-6, and COX-2 While Increasing Renal CYP4A Expression in an Acute Model of DOCA-Salt Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter L. Lee


    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α activation by fenofibrate reduces blood pressure and sodium retention during DOCA-salt hypertension. PPAR-α activation reduces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6. Fenofibrate also induces cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A and increases 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE production. This study tested whether the administration of fenofibrate would reduce blood pressure by attenuating plasma IL-6 and renal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, while increasing expression of renal CYP4A during 7 days of DOCA-salt hypertension. We performed uni-nephrectomy on 12–14 week old male Swiss Webster mice and implanted biotelemetry devices in control, DOCA-salt (1.5 mg/g treated mice with or without fenofibrate (500 mg/kg/day in corn oil, intragastrically. Fenofibrate significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and plasma IL-6. In kidney homogenates, fenofibrate increased CYP4A and decreased COX-2 expression. There were no differences in renal cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily c, polypeptide 23 (CYP2C23 and soluble expoxide hydrolase (sEH expression between the groups. Our results suggest that the blood pressure lowering effect of PPAR-α activation by fenofibrate involves the reduction of plasma IL-6 and COX-2, while increasing CYP4A expression during DOCA-salt hypertension. Our results may also suggest that PPAR-α activation protects the kidney against renal injury via decreased COX-2 expression.

  19. Kimpul (Xanthosoma spp. characterization based on morphological characteristic and isozymic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nurmiyati, Sugiyarto, Sajidan. 2009. Kimpul (Xanthosoma spp. characterization based on morphological characteristic and isozymic analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 138-145. This research is aimed: (i to know the variety of kimpul (Xanthosoma spp. based on morphological characteristics and isozymes analysis; (ii to know the correlation between its genetic space based on morphological characteristics and its genetic resemblance based on isozymes-banding pattern. This research results were analyzed and described by descriptive qualitative methods. Morphological observation was carried out in sub-District of Galur, Lendah and Girimulyo, Kulonprogo District, Yogyakarta. Morphological data of the kimpul plant was explored descriptively and then made dendogram. Data of isozymic banding pattern were analyzed quantitatively based on the appearance of the band on the gel, and qualitatively based on the thickness of the band formed, and then made dendogram. The correlation, between its genetic distance based on morphological characteristics and its genetic resemblance based on isozymes-banding pattern, were then analyzed grounded on coefficient correlation between product-moment and goodness of it criteria based on correlation. The results pointed out that morphologically, on eight observed samples which were consist of four different types (species, each Xanthosoma from different locations did not indicate obvious differences. Esterase was formed four different banding-patterns, Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase indicated eight different banding-patterns, and Peroxidase indicated seven different banding-patterns. Correlation between morphological data and data from EST and GOT isozymic banding pattern were very good (0.967918 and 0.937113, While, the correlations between morphological data and POD isozymes were good (0.892721.

  20. AMP deaminase histochemical activity and immunofluorescent isozyme localization in rat skeletal muscle (United States)

    Thompson, J. L.; Sabina, R. L.; Ogasawara, N.; Riley, D. A.


    The cellular distribution of AMP deaminase (AMPda) isozymes was documented for rat soleus and plantaris muscles, utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation methods. AMPda is a ubiquitous enzyme existing as three distinct isozymes, A, B and C, which were initially purified from skeletal muscle, liver (and kidney), and heart, respectively. AMPda-A is primarily concentrated subsarcolemmally and intermyofibrillarly within muscle cells, while isozymes B and C are concentrated within non-myofiber elements of muscle tissue. AMPda-B is principally associated with connective tissues surrounding neural elements and the muscle spindle capsule, and AMPda-C is predominantly associated with circulatory elements, such as arterial and venous walls, capillary endothelium, and red blood cells. These specific localizations, combined with documented differences in kinetic properties, suggest multiple functional roles for the AMPda isozymes or temporal segregation of similar AMPda functions. Linkage of the AMPda substrate with adenosine production pathways at the AMP level and the localization of isozyme-C in vascular tissue suggest a regulatory role in the microcirculation.

  1. Na,K-ATPase isozymes in colorectal cancer and liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBaker Bechmann


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to define Na,K-ATPase α and β subunit isoform expression and isozyme composition in colorectal cancer cells and liver metastases. The α1, α3 and β1 isoforms were the most highly expressed in tumor cells and metastases; in the plasma membrane of non-neoplastic cells and mainly in a cytoplasmic location in tumor cells. α1β1 and α3β1 isozymes found in tumor and metastatic cells exhibit the highest and lowest Na+ affinity respectively and the highest K+ affinity. Mesenchymal cell isozymes possess an intermediate Na+ affinity and a low K+ affinity. In cancer, these ions are likely to favor optimal conditions for the function of nuclear enzymes involved in mitosis, especially a high intra-nuclear K+ concentration. A major and striking finding of this study was that in liver, metastasized CRC cells express the α3β1 isozyme. Thus, the α3β1 isozyme could potentially serve as a novel exploratory biomarker of CRC metastatic cells in liver.

  2. Characterization of Boerhavia diffusa L. mutant lines by RAPD and isozyme, selected for agronomically valuable traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, N.; Sangwan, N.S.; Misra, H.O.; Sangwan, R.S.


    Boerhavia diffusa is a medicinally important plant and finds extensive uses in traditional herbal drug preparations. For the development of improved varieties in terms of superior yield and quality of herb/root of B. diffusa, mutation breeding was attempted. Mutants generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments were screened for yield and quality parameters of the root/herb up to three consecutive generations. The selected-screened lines generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments on two selected genotypes I and II were molecularly analyzed using eight isozymes and eleven RAPD primers producing good amplification. Mutants from BD10 (selected genotype I) were distinct, while, in case of BD22 (selected genotype II), only one mutant BDMu7 was recorded distinct by isozyme analysis. The wild mutant (BDMu16, with maximum height and mouve coloured flower) was distinct in RAPD banding pattern. Isozymes differentiated the mutants from their respective controls, whereas RAPD differentiated the mutants and controls and also distinguished the mutants. The RAPD analysis was found to be better suited than isozymes for detecting genetic differences among controls and their mutants. However, both RAPD and isozyme analyses gave similar patterns of genetic relationships [it

  3. Structure of the horseradish peroxidase isozyme C genes. (United States)

    Fujiyama, K; Takemura, H; Shibayama, S; Kobayashi, K; Choi, J K; Shinmyo, A; Takano, M; Yamada, Y; Okada, H


    We have isolated, cloned and characterized three cDNAs and two genomic DNAs corresponding to the mRNAs and genes for the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase isoenzyme C (HPR C). The amino acid sequence of HRP C1, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of one of the cDNA clone, pSK1, contained the same primary sequence as that of the purified enzyme established by Welinder [FEBS Lett. 72, 19-23 (1976)] with additional sequences at the N and C terminal. All three inserts in the cDNA clones, pSK1, pSK2 and pSK3, coded the same size of peptide (308 amino acid residues) if these are processed in the same way, and the amino acid sequence were homologous to each other by 91-94%. Functional amino acids, including His40, His170, Tyr185 and Arg183 and S-S-bond-forming Cys, were conserved in the three isozymes, but a few N-glycosylation sites were not the same. Two HRP C isoenzyme genomic genes, prxC1 and prxC2, were tandem on the chromosomal DNA and each gene consisted of four exons and three introns. The positions in the exons interrupted by introns were the same in two genes. We observed a putative promoter sequence 5' upstream and a poly(A) signal 3' downstream in both genes. The gene product of prxC1 might be processed with a signal sequence of 30 amino acid residues at the N terminus and a peptide consisting of 15 amino acid residues at the C terminus.

  4. Effect of heavy metal stress on the catalase activity and expression of isozymes in the leaves of rice seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Cailin; Yang Xiaoyong; Zhu Hongxia; Wang Zegang; Luo Shishi; Ma Fei; Sun Jinhe


    The effect of heavy metal stress on the catalase (CAT) activity and expression of isozymes in the leaves of rice (Wuyujing, Yangdao 6, Shanyou 818) seedling was measured and analyzed. The results showed as follows. (1) When the concentration of Cu, Cd and Hg was in the range of 0.05-2.0 mM, the CAT activity decreased continuously with the concentration of Cu and Cd increasing. However, with the concentration of Hg increasing the CAT activity rapidly decreased first, and then increased slightly, and again decreased obviously, indicating that the Cu, Cd and Hg of 0.05-2.0 mM inhibited the CAT activity in the leaves of rice seedling. (2) The results by using polyacrylamide concentration gradient gel electrophoresis technique to analyze the CAT isozymes indicated that, on the normal condition, there were 1 to 2 CAT isozymes being expressed in the rice leaves (2 CAT isozymes being expressed in Wuyujing leaves, 1 CAT isozymes in Yangdao 6 and Shanyou 818 leaves). 0.1 mM Cd stress induced Wuyujing leaves to express 1 new CAT isozymes, 0.1 mM Cd and Hg stress also induced Yangdao 6 leaves to express 1 new CAT isozymes, but the expression of CAT isozymes, which were expressed in normal condition, were inhibited by Cu, Cd and Hg stress

  5. Aspects of gene structure and functional regulation of the isozymes of Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, P.L.


    genomes, the genes of four alpha-subunit and at least three beta-subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase are identified and two gamma-subunits are expressed in kidney. The isoforms combine in a number of Na,K-ATPase isozymes that are expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner. Models of the molecular...... mechanism of regulation of these isozymes have become more reliable due to progress in understanding the three-dimensional protein structure and conformational transitions mediating transfer of energy from the P-domain to intramembrane Na+ and K+ binding sites....

  6. Direct detection of rutin-degrading isozymes with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Deng, Dandan; Zhang, Xuebin; Zhang, Haina; Wang, Cong; Chen, Peng


    Rutin-degrading enzymes (RDEs) specifically hydrolyze the glycosidic linkages of rutin, producing quercetin and rutinose. Here we report a reliable and sensitive polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and staining method for the detection of RDE isozymes, which is based on the aqueous solubility difference between rutin and quercetin, as well as the ultraviolet absorbance of quercetin. With this novel method, we achieved a detection limit of 12 ng with 107 U of RDE activity, enabling us to detect at least five RDE isozymes in tartary buckwheat seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorescent Water Soluble Polymers for Isozyme-Selective Interactions with Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (United States)

    Dutta, Rinku; Scott, Michael D.; Haldar, Manas K.; Ganguly, Bratati; Srivastava, D. K.; Friesner, Daniel L.; Mallik, Sanku


    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in various pathological conditions, including various cancers. Although these isozymes have similar active sites, the patterns of exposed amino acids on their surfaces are different. Herein, we report the synthesis and molecular interactions of two water-soluble, fluorescent polymers which demonstrate selective interactions with MMP-9 compared to MMP-7 and -10. PMID:21367603

  8. Isozyme modifications and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.). (United States)

    Cavalcante Alves, J M; Sihachakr, D; Allot, M; Tizroutine, S; Mussio, I; Servaes, A; Ducreux, G


    The potential of somatic embryogenesis was evaluated for 10 cultivars of sweet potato through extensive embryogenic response and isozyme analysis. Embryogenic callus was induced by incubating lateral buds on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for 6-8 weeks. The frequency of embryogenic response was low, and varied with genotypes, ranging from 0 to 17%. Embryo to plantlet formation could be enhanced by the use of the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with kinetin, both used at 0.01 μM. Embryogenic callus with its potential of plantlet formation has constantly been maintained for over two years. However, after several subcultures, 0.5 to 12% of embryogenic callus reverted irreversibly into friable fast-growing non-embryogenic callus whose ability to regenerate shoots was then definitively lost. The isozymes of esterase, peroxidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and acid phosphatase investigated in this study were found appropriate to distinguish compact embryogenic from friable non-embryogenic callus in sweet potato. In fact, the callus reversion was associated with a loss of bands or a decline in isozyme activity. On the contrary, very small changes in isozyme activity or no specific changes at all were observed during the differentiation of embryogenic callus into globular embryos.

  9. Interactions of barley alpha-amylase isozymes with Ca2+, substrates and proteinaceous inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou Hachem, Maher; Bozonnet, Sophie; Willemoes, Martin


    discovered 'sugar tongs' site in domain C of AMY1 is thus critical for binding to starch granules. Furthermore, mutations of binding sites mostly reduced the degree of multiple attack in amylose hydrolysis. AMY1 has higher substrate affinity than AMY2, but isozyme chimeras with AMY2 domain C and other...

  10. Organellar and cytosolic localization of four phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase isozymes in spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne


    Four cDNAs encoding phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase were isolated from a spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cDNA library by complementation of an Escherichia coli Δprs mutation. The four gene products produced PRPP in vitro from ATP and ribose-5-phosphate. Two of the enzymes (isozymes 1 and 2...

  11. Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population. (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Beaune, Philippe; Balachander, Jayaraman; Sai Chandran, B V; Adithan, Chandrasekaran


    To determine the influence of genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and to explicate an algorithm using the pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to determine the maintenance and/or starting dose of warfarin in South Indian patients receiving warfarin therapy. Patients receiving stabilized warfarin therapy (n=257) were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C9 (rs1799853 and rs1057910), VKORC1 (rs9923231, rs7196161, rs2884737, rs9934438, rs8050894, rs2359612 and rs7294), CYP4F2 (rs2108622) and GGCX (rs11676382) were genotyped by the quantitative real time-PCR method. The mean daily maintenance dose of warfarin was found to be 4.7 ± 2.1 mg/day. Patients with the CYP2C9*1/*2, *1/*3 and *2/*3 variant genotypes required a 51.0 (2.8 mg), 60.9 (2.3 mg) and 62.2 % (2.2 mg) lower daily maintenance dose of warfarin, respectively, than those patients with the CYP2C9*1/*1 wild-type genotype (5.2 mg) (pmaintenance dose. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX are important predictive factors of warfarin maintenance dose, and the developed algorithm will be useful to predict the required maintenance and/or starting warfarin dose in South Indian populations.

  12. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of two barley thioredoxin h isozymes, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof


    -dependent fluorescence, and the barley isozymes, reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties were readily determined. The reaction constants were 60% higher for HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2, while their redox potentials were very similar. The primary nucleophile, Cys(N), of the active site Trp-Cys(N)-Gly-Pro-Cys......Barley thioredoxin h isozymes 1 (HvTrxh1) and barley thioredoxin h isozymes 2 (HvTrxh2) show distinct spatiotemporal distribution in germinating seeds. Using a novel approach involving measurement of bidirectional electron transfer rates between Escherichia coli thioredoxin, which exhibits redox...

  13. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M.


    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by 14 C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from [ 14 C]glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored

  14. Protein kinase C isozymes, novel phorbol ester receptors and cancer chemotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, O P


    Recent years have seen extensive growth in the understanding of the role(s) of the various PKC isozymes and novel receptors for the phorbol ester tumor promoters. The PKC family of serine-threonine kinases is an important regulator of signaling cascades that control cell proliferation and death, and therefore represent targets for cancer therapy. While past interests have focused on PKC-selective inhibitors, more recently, intensive research has been underway for selective activators and inhibitors for each individual PKC isozyme. In the past few years a large number of PKC activators and inhibitors with potential as anticancer agents have been developed. A number of these compounds are already in Phase II clinical testing. As a new generation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents are designed, developed and put through a series of rigorous clinical trials, we can anticipate achieving exquisite control over PKC-mediated regulatory pathways, leading ultimately to a greater understanding of different cancers.

  15. Analysis of TGM1, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, NIPAL4 and CYP4F22 in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis from Galicia (NW Spain): evidence of founder effects. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pazos, L; Ginarte, M; Fachal, L; Toribio, J; Carracedo, A; Vega, A


      Mutations in six genes have been identified in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). To date, few studies have analysed the spectrum of these mutations in specific populations. We have studied the characteristics of patients with ARCI in Galicia (NW Spain). Methods  We recruited patients by contacting all dermatology departments of Galicia and the Spanish patient organization for ichthyosis. TGM1, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, NIPAL4 and CYP4F22 were analysed in the patients and their relatives. We identified 23 patients with ARCI and estimated a prevalence of 1 : 122 000. Twenty of the patients were studied. Seventeen of them were clinically categorized as having lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and three as having congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). TGM1 and ALOXE3 mutations were identified in 12/16 (75%) probands whereas no ALOX12B, NIPAL4 and CYP4F22 mutations were found. TGM1 mutations were found in 11/13 (85%) of LI probands. ALOXE3 mutations were identified in a single patient with CIE. Remarkably, mutations p.Arg760X, p.Asp408ValfsX21 and c.984+1G>A of TGM1 were present in six, four and two families, accounting for 41%, 23% and 14% of all TGM1 mutant alleles, respectively. The high percentage of patients with the same TGM1 mutations, together with the high number of homozygous probands (64%), indicates the existence of a strong founder effect in our population. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  16. Isozyme-specific ligands for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, a novel antibiotic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Spyrakis

    Full Text Available The last step of cysteine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants is catalyzed by O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. In bacteria, two isozymes, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B, have been identified that share similar binding sites, although the respective specific functions are still debated. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase plays a key role in the adaptation of bacteria to the host environment, in the defense mechanisms to oxidative stress and in antibiotic resistance. Because mammals synthesize cysteine from methionine and lack O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, the enzyme is a potential target for antimicrobials. With this aim, we first identified potential inhibitors of the two isozymes via a ligand- and structure-based in silico screening of a subset of the ZINC library using FLAP. The binding affinities of the most promising candidates were measured in vitro on purified O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B from Salmonella typhimurium by a direct method that exploits the change in the cofactor fluorescence. Two molecules were identified with dissociation constants of 3.7 and 33 µM for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B, respectively. Because GRID analysis of the two isoenzymes indicates the presence of a few common pharmacophoric features, cross binding titrations were carried out. It was found that the best binder for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B exhibits a dissociation constant of 29 µM for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A, thus displaying a limited selectivity, whereas the best binder for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A exhibits a dissociation constant of 50 µM for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B and is thus 8-fold selective towards the former isozyme. Therefore, isoform-specific and isoform-independent ligands allow to either selectively target the isozyme that predominantly supports bacteria during infection and long-term survival or to completely block

  17. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Kawamura


    Full Text Available Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD. We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5 levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI, and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG responders (n=89 and nonresponders (n=31 with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4±4.8 IU/L, P<0.05 and UTI patients (66.0±8.0 IU/L, P<0.01 than in VI patients (17.0±6.2 IU/L. In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1±4.7 IU/L, P<0.05, especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P<0.05, than IVIG responders (32.0±2.8 IU/L. KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.

  18. Conversion of crude Jatropha curcas seed oil into biodiesel using liquid recombinant Candida rugosa lipase isozymes. (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Chun; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Lee, Guan-Chiun


    The versatile Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) has been widely used in biotechnological applications. However, there have not been feasibility reports on the transesterification of non-edible oils to produce biodiesel using the commercial CRL preparations, mixtures of isozymes. In the present study, four liquid recombinant CRL isozymes (CRL1-CRL4) were investigated to convert various non-edible oils into biodiesel. The results showed that recombinant CRL2 and CRL4 exhibited superior catalytic efficiencies for producing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Jatropha curcas seed oil. A maximum 95.3% FAME yield was achieved using CRL2 under the optimal conditions (50 wt% water, an initial 1 equivalent of methanol feeding, and an additional 0.5 equivalents of methanol feeding at 24h for a total reaction time of 48 h at 37 °C). We concluded that specific recombinant CRL isozymes could be excellent biocatalysts for the biodiesel production from low-cost crude Jatropha oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Jorge L; Alvarez, Alba [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Deus, Juan E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz. Bauta, La Habana (Cuba); Duque, Miriam C [Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali (Colombia); Cornide, Maria T [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba)


    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed.

  20. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Jorge L.; Alvarez, Alba; Deus, Juan E.; Duque, Miriam C.; Cornide, Maria T.


    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

  1. Erythrocyte isozymes of phosphofructokinase in genetically high- and low-2,3-diphosphoglycerate rats. (United States)

    Noble, N A; Kuwashima, L H; Togioka, T T; Tanaka, K R


    A major locus (Dpg) with two alleles (d and D) controls erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels in Long-Evans rats and is closely linked to a locus (Hbb) determining a hemoglobin electrophoretic polymorphism. Glycolytic intermediate levels and phosphofructokinase (PFK) kinetic studies suggest that in vivo PFK activity differences underlie the differences in DPG levels. We report here chromatographic and immunologic evidence that rat erythrocyte PFK is composed of two isozymes which elute from DEAE-Sephadex at positions identical to those of the isozymes in platelets and liver, respectively. The percentage of platelet-type PFK is significantly (P less than 0.05) smaller in low-DPG (dd) hemolysates than in DD hemolysates regardless of hemoglobin phenotype. When hemolysates were prepared in a stabilizing buffer, PFK specific activity was significantly (P less than 0.005) higher in DD rats. These data suggest that the PFK kinetic differences may result from alterations in the isozyme composition of active PFK.

  2. Crystal Structures of Two Isozymes of Citrate Synthase from Sulfolobus tokodaii Strain 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Murakami


    Full Text Available Thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has two citrate synthase genes (ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS in the genome with 45% sequence identity. Because they exhibit similar optimal temperatures of catalytic activity and thermal inactivation profiles, we performed structural comparisons between these isozymes to elucidate adaptation mechanisms to high temperatures in thermophilic CSs. The crystal structures of ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS were determined at 2.0 Å and 2.7 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural comparison reveals that both of them are dimeric enzymes composed of two identical subunits, and these dimeric structures are quite similar to those of citrate synthases from archaea and eubacteria. ST0587-CS has, however, 55 ion pairs within whole dimer structure, while having only 36 in ST1805-CS. Although the number and distributions of ion pairs are distinct from each other, intersubunit ion pairs between two domains of each isozyme are identical especially in interterminal region. Because the location and number of ion pairs are in a trend with other CSs from thermophilic microorganisms, the factors responsible for thermal adaptation of ST-CS isozymes are characterized by ion pairs in interterminal region.

  3. Effects of Pristane on Cytochrome P450 Isozyme Expression in Rat Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin A. Cuchens


    Full Text Available Chemical carcinogenesis studies are powerful tools to obtain information on potential mechanisms of chemical factors for malignancies. In this study Western blot analyses, using monoclonal antibodies specific for three different cytochrome P450 (CYP isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B, were employed to examine the effect(s of 3-methylcholanthrene and/or pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane on the basal and inducible levels of expression of CYP proteins within Copenhagen rat tissues. Pristane exposure led to tissue specific differences in the CYP isozymes expressed and elicited increased CYP protein expression over 3-methylcholanthrene induced levels in microsomes isolated from liver, Peyer's Patches, and thymus. Within the context of the chemical carcinogenesis model employed in this study, these observations correlated with the induction of B-cell malignancies by low doses of 3-methylcholanthrene and of thymic lymphomas by a high 3-methylcholanthrene dose. The data suggest that pristane treatment affects CYP isozyme expression. This pristane-mediated effect clearly could be a contributing factor in the chemical carcinogenesis of the previously observed lymphoid malignancies, and a possible basis for the tumor enhancing effects of pristane.

  4. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessega Cecilia


    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  5. Protein kinase C isozymes as regulators of sensitivity to and self-administration of drugs of abuse-studies with genetically modified mice. (United States)

    Olive, Michael Foster; Newton, Philip M


    Studies using targeted gene deletion in mice have revealed distinct roles for individual isozymes of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of enzymes in regulating sensitivity to various drugs of abuse. These changes in drug sensitivity are associated with altered patterns of drug self-administration. The purpose of this review is to summarize behavioral studies conducted on mice carrying targeted deletions of genes encoding specific PKC isozymes (namely the beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon isozymes), and to critically evaluate the possibility of using pharmacological inhibitors of specific PKC isozymes as modulators of the sensitivity to various drugs of abuse, as well as potential aids in the treatment of substance use disorders.

  6. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.


    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from [ 35 S]methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root

  7. Studies on esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of ganoderma lucidum carried by Shenzhou spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianjun; Chen Xiangdong; Lan Jin


    The esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of four Ganoderma lucidum strains carried by Shenzhou spaceship were studied. The results showed that different effects occurred to esterase and mycelium growth speed. The SX, S3 esterase band had changed compared with their control CX, C3, respectively, but there were no differences between SH and CH, S4 and C4. The growth speed of S4 strain was faster than its control C4, SX strain lower than its control CX, and there were no difference between SH and CH, S3 and C3

  8. Mechanism of Folding and Activation of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P). (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Cendron, Laura; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan


    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) is implicated in lipid homeostasis, the unfolded protein response, and lysosome biogenesis. The protease is further hijacked by highly pathogenic emerging viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P requires removal of an N-terminal prodomain, by a multistep process, generating the mature enzyme. Here, we uncover a modular structure of the human SKI-1/S1P prodomain and define its function in folding and activation. We provide evidence that the N-terminal AB fragment of the prodomain represents an autonomous structural and functional unit that is necessary and sufficient for folding and partial activation. In contrast, the C-terminal BC fragment lacks a defined structure but is crucial for autoprocessing and full catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence of the AB domain is highly conserved, whereas the BC fragment shows considerable variation and seems even absent in some species. Notably, SKI-1/S1P of arthropods, like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, contains a shorter prodomain comprised of full-length AB and truncated BC regions. Swapping the prodomain fragments between fly and human resulted in a fully mature and active SKI-1/S1P chimera. Our study suggests that primordial SKI-1/S1P likely contained a simpler prodomain consisting of the highly conserved AB fragment that represents an independent folding unit. The BC region appears as a later evolutionary acquisition, possibly allowing more subtle fine-tuning of the maturation process. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Mechanism of Folding and Activation of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P)* (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Cendron, Laura; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan


    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) is implicated in lipid homeostasis, the unfolded protein response, and lysosome biogenesis. The protease is further hijacked by highly pathogenic emerging viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P requires removal of an N-terminal prodomain, by a multistep process, generating the mature enzyme. Here, we uncover a modular structure of the human SKI-1/S1P prodomain and define its function in folding and activation. We provide evidence that the N-terminal AB fragment of the prodomain represents an autonomous structural and functional unit that is necessary and sufficient for folding and partial activation. In contrast, the C-terminal BC fragment lacks a defined structure but is crucial for autoprocessing and full catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence of the AB domain is highly conserved, whereas the BC fragment shows considerable variation and seems even absent in some species. Notably, SKI-1/S1P of arthropods, like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, contains a shorter prodomain comprised of full-length AB and truncated BC regions. Swapping the prodomain fragments between fly and human resulted in a fully mature and active SKI-1/S1P chimera. Our study suggests that primordial SKI-1/S1P likely contained a simpler prodomain consisting of the highly conserved AB fragment that represents an independent folding unit. The BC region appears as a later evolutionary acquisition, possibly allowing more subtle fine-tuning of the maturation process. PMID:26645686

  10. Dextromethorphan and debrisoquine metabolism and polymorphism of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 in Thoroughbreds. (United States)

    Corado, Carley R; McKemie, Daniel S; Knych, Heather K


    OBJECTIVE To characterize polymorphisms of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 (CYP2D50) and the disposition of 2 CYP2D50 probe drugs, dextromethorphan and debrisoquine, in horses. ANIMALS 23 healthy horses (22 Thoroughbreds and 1 Standardbred). PROCEDURES Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2D50 were identified. Disposition of dextromethorphan (2 mg/kg) and debrisoquine (0.2 mg/kg) were determined after oral (dextromethorphan) or nasogastric (debrisoquine) administration to the horses. Metabolic ratios of plasma dextromethorphan and total dextrorphan (dextrorphan plus dextrorphan-O-β-glucuronide) and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine concentrations were calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity for the parent drug divided by that for the corresponding metabolite. Pharmacokinetic data were used to categorize horses into the phenotypic drug-metabolism categories poor, extensive, and ultrarapid. Disposition patterns were compared among categories, and relationships between SNPs and metabolism categories were explored. RESULTS Gene sequencing identified 51 SNPs, including 27 nonsynonymous SNPs. Debrisoquine was minimally detected after oral administration. Disposition of dextromethorphan varied markedly among horses. Metabolic ratios for dextromethorphan ranged from 0.03 to 0.46 (mean, 0.12). On the basis of these data, 1 horse was characterized as a poor metabolizer, 18 were characterized as extensive metabolizers, and 3 were characterized as ultrarapid metabolizers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that CYP2D50 is polymorphic and that the disposition of the probe drug varies markedly in horses. The polymorphisms may be related to rates of drug metabolism. Additional research involving more horses of various breeds is needed to fully explore the functional implication of polymorphisms in CYP2D50.

  11. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.


    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, [ 35 S] methionine labelling shows no de novo synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root

  12. Distinct physiological roles for the two L-asparaginase isozymes of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikhanta, Yogitha N. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Atack, John M.; Beacham, Ifor R. [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222 (Australia); Jennings, Michael P., E-mail: [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222 (Australia)


    Highlights: •Escherichia coli contains two L-asparaginase isozymes with distinct localization, kinetics and regulation. •Mutant strains were used to examine the roles of these enzymes in L-asparagine utilization. •We report that L-asparaginase II permits growth on asparagine and glycerol under anaerobic conditions. •We propose that this enzyme is the first step in a co-regulated pathway leading to fumarate. •The pathway is regulated by anaerobiosis and cAMP and provides a terminal elector acceptor. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli expresses two L-asparaginase (EC isozymes: L-asparaginse I, which is a low affinity, cytoplasmic enzyme that is expressed constitutively, and L-asparaginase II, a high affinity periplasmic enzyme that is under complex co-transcriptional regulation by both Fnr and Crp. The distinct localisation and regulation of these enzymes suggest different roles. To define these roles, a set of isogenic mutants was constructed that lacked either or both enzymes. Evidence is provided that L-asparaginase II, in contrast to L-asparaginase I, can be used in the provision of an anaerobic electron acceptor when using a non-fermentable carbon source in the presence of excess nitrogen.

  13. In vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in Trichoderma harzianum. (United States)

    Asran-Amal, A; Moustafa-Mahmoud, S M; Sabet, K K; El Banna, O H


    The antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. T. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. In vitro screening of 5 isolates of T. harzinum, one isolate of Chaetomium globosum and one isolate of Conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani on PDA medium, significantly. The inhibition percentage ranged from 77.9 % to 55.9% for M. phaseolina and 59.2% to 40.4% for R. solani by T. harzinum and C. mentance, respectively. Inhibition for F. solani ranged from 76.5% to 55.7% by T. harzinum and C. globosum, respectively. Isozyme gel electrophoresis was used to assess chitinase activity secreted by selected isolates of T. harzinum under different pH degrees and temperatures. Obtained results indicated that activity of chitinase isozyme produced at 30 °C was higher than 15-20 °C for all tested isolates and activity of chitinase produced by isolates No. 4 and 5 of T. harzinum at pH (7-7.5) was higher than at pH 6, respectively.

  14. Applications of β-gal-III isozyme from Bacillus coagulans RCS3, in lactose hydrolysis. (United States)

    Batra, Navneet; Singh, Jagtar; Joshi, Amit; Bhatia, Sonu


    Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from hot water springs secreted five isozymes i.e. β-gal I-V of β-galactosidase. β-gal III isozyme was purified using DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G 100 column chromatography. Its molecular weight characterization showed a single band at 315kD in Native PAGE, while two subunits of 50.1 and 53.7 kD in SDS PAGE. β-Gal III had pH optima in the range of 6-7 and temperature optima at 65°C. It preferred nitro-aryl-β-d-galactoside as substrate having K(m) of 4.16 mM with ONPG. More than 85% and 80% hydrolysis of lactose (1-5%, w/v) was recorded within 48 h of incubation at 55°C and 50°C respectively and pH range of 6-7. About 78-86% hydrolysis of lactose in various brands of standardized milk was recorded at incubation temperature of 50°C. These results marked the applications of β-gal III in processing of milk/whey industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The cytology, isozyme, HPLC fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization studies of genus epimedium (berberidaceae). (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin


    104 samples from 27 accessions belonging to 12 species of genus Epimedium were studied on the basis of cytology observation, POD (i.e., peroxide) isozyme, high performance liquid chromatography (i.e., HPLC) fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization. The cytology observation showed karyotypes of twelve species studied; all are 2A symmetry type of Stebbins standard and similar to each other, and except for karyotype of E. leptorrhizum which is 2n = 2x = 8m (2SAT) + 4sm, the rest are 2n = 2x = 6m (2SAT) + 6sm. Chromosomes C-banding of barrenwort species varies, with 15 to 22 bands, consisting of centromeric bands, intercalary bands, terminal bands, and middle satellite bands. Results of POD isozyme showed that the zymographs vary greatly and sixteen bands were detected in the eleven species, and each species has its own characteristic bands different from the others. Studies on the HPLC fingerprint showed that the HPLC fingerprint of different species has characteristic peaks, divided into two regions (retention time 10 min). Results of interspecific hybridization showed that crosses of any combination among seven species studied are successful and the rates of grain set vary greatly. Based on these results, the system and phylogeny of this genus were inferred.

  16. Analysis of esterase isozyme and SSR for mutagenic progenies induced by space mutation in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jinjuan; Liu Yihua; Zhang Zhaorong; Ran Guangkui; Zhao Shouzhong; Xiao Li


    Seeds of five mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) varieties were carried into outer space by 'Shijian No.8' satellite. After five years' consecutive planting and selection, ten relatively stable mutant lines were obtained, which had significant variation in agronomic and economic characters. The mutant lines and their original varieties without space mutation treatment as control were studied by esterase isozyme and SSR analyses. Electrophoresis analysis of esterase isozymes indicated that there were differences between mutant lines and their controls in enzyme types and enzyme activity. Different mustard varieties had different enzymographs, and so did the mutants induced by space mutation, which shows different sensitivity among different mustard varieties. The SSR analysis showed that large differences were found in the SSR loci between mutant lines and their original variety, the variation frequency was between 9.52% and 57.14% with an average frequency of 26.19% for all the mutant lines. Among the mutant SSR loci, about 56.36% showed changes in band number and 43.64% in molecular weight. These results indicated that the ten mutant lines had large genetic difference in phenotype, genomic sequence and gene expression, and the outer space mutation would be an effective method to develop new mustard germplasm and variety. (authors)

  17. Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos. (United States)

    Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson


    To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology.

  18. Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and XII in the female mouse reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eija


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. The twelve active CA isozymes are thought to regulate a variety of cellular functions including several processes in the reproductive systems. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the expression of transmembrane CAs, CA IX and XII, in the mouse uterus, ovary and placenta. The expression of CA IX and XII was examined by immunoperoxidase staining method and western blotting. CA II and XIII served as positive controls since they are known to be present in the mouse reproductive tract. Results The data of our study indicated that CA XII is expressed in the mouse endometrium. Only very faint signal was observed in the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta remained mainly negative. CA IX showed weak reaction in the endometrial epithelium, while it was completely absent in the ovary and placenta. Conclusion The conservation of CA XII expression in both mouse and human endometrium suggests a role for this isozyme in reproductive physiology.

  19. Analysis of morphology, DNA and isozyme of leaf mutation in Brassica napus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhen; Hu Dongwei; Li Xiaobai


    This paper aims to study the rule of irradiating effects, provide the effective way of analyzing mutant, and discuss the production application of mutant. By irradiating the 040B of Brassica napus L with . 0Co γ- ray, an obvious leaf mutation (ML) with large leaf area was found. The ML which has been inherited stably after three generations was compared with wide-type (CK) on the morphologic, DNA and isozymic levels. Results showed that S 4 and S17 from RAPD were two molecular markers which can express good polymorphism and have close relationships with leaf mutation sites. And in the analysis of EST and POD between ML and CK, the polymorphisms also proved that many discrepancies exist between ML and CK on the protein level. In addition, the research results in question can be applied to the breeding and genetic research of Brassica napus L

  20. Chitooligosaccharides--preparation with the aid of pectinase isozyme from Aspergillus niger and their antibacterial activity. (United States)

    Kittur, Farooqahamed S; Vishu Kumar, Acharya B; Varadaraj, Mandyam C; Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N


    An isozyme of pectinase from Aspergillus niger with polygalacturonase activity caused chitosanolysis at pH 3.5, resulting in low-molecular weight chitosan (86%), chitooligosaccharides (COs, 4.8%) and monomers (2.2%). HPLC showed the presence of COs with DP ranging from 2 to 6. Charcoal-Celite chromatography and re-N-acetylation of the COs followed by CD, IR, MALDI-TOF-MS and FAB-MS analyses revealed an abundance of chitobiose, chitotriose and chitotetraose. The COs-monomeric mixture showed a bactericidal effect towards Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli more efficiently than native chitosan. Among the chitooligomers, the hexamer showed maximum antibacterial effect followed by the penta-, tetra-, tri- and dimers. Of the two monomers, only GlcN showed slight bacterial growth inhibition. SEM revealed bactericidal action patterns of COs-monomeric mixture towards B. cereus and E. coli.

  1. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  2. Curcumin Prevents Aflatoxin B1 Hepatoxicity by Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isozymes in Chick Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni-Ya Zhang


    Full Text Available This study was designed to establish if Curcumin (CM alleviates Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine whether alteration of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450 isozymes is involved in the regulation of these effects in chick liver. One-day-old male broilers (n = 120 were divided into four groups and used in a two by two factorial trial in which the main factors included supplementing AFB1 (< 5 vs. 100 μg/kg and CM (0 vs. 150 mg/kg in a corn/soybean-based diet. Administration of AFB1 induced liver injury, significantly decreasing albumin and total protein concentrations and increasing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, and induced hepatic histological lesions at week 2. AFB1 also significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, while increasing malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO-DNA concentrations. In addition, the mRNA and/or activity of enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of AFB1 into AFBO—including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4—were significantly induced in liver microsomes after 2-week exposure to AFB1. These alterations induced by AFB1 were prevented by CM supplementation. Conclusively, dietary CM protected chicks from AFB1-induced liver injury, potentially through the synergistic actions of increased antioxidant capacities and inhibition of the pivotal CYP450 isozyme-mediated activation of AFB1 to toxic AFBO.

  3. Evidence that steroid 5alpha-reductase isozyme genes are differentially methylated in human lymphocytes. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorantes, M; Lizano-Soberón, M; Camacho-Arroyo, I; Calzada-León, R; Morimoto, S; Téllez-Ascencio, N; Cerbón, M A


    The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is catalyzed by steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes 1 and 2, and this function determines the development of the male phenotype during embriogenesis and the growth of androgen sensitive tissues during puberty. The aim of this study was to determine the cytosine methylation status of 5alpha-reductase isozymes types 1 and 2 genes in normal and in 5alpha-reductase deficient men. Genomic DNA was obtained from lymphocytes of both normal subjects and patients with primary 5alpha-reductase deficiency due to point mutations in 5alpha-reductase 2 gene. Southern blot analysis of 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 genes from DNA samples digested with HpaII presented a different cytosine methylation pattern compared to that observed with its isoschizomer MspI, indicating that both genes are methylated in CCGG sequences. The analysis of 5alpha-reductase 1 gene from DNA samples digested with Sau3AI and its isoschizomer MboI which recognize methylation in GATC sequences showed an identical methylation pattern. In contrast, 5alpha-reductase 2 gene digested with Sau3AI presented a different methylation pattern to that of the samples digested with MboI, indicating that steroid 5alpha-reductase 2 gene possess methylated cytosines in GATC sequences. Analysis of exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene after metabisulfite PCR showed that normal and deficient subjects present a different methylation pattern, being more methylated in patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 mutated gene. The overall results suggest that 5alpha-reductase genes 1 and 2 are differentially methylated in lymphocytes from normal and 5alpha-reductase deficient patients. Moreover, the extensive cytosine methylation pattern observed in exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene in deficient patients, points out to an increased rate of mutations in this gene.

  4. Effect of thyroid hormone on the levels of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isozymes and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in rabbits. (United States)

    Kondo, T; Taniguchi, N; Ishikawa, N; Ide, H; Takakuwa, E; Murao, M


    Levels of rabbit erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase B and C isozymes were determined in experimental hyperthyroidism using a quantitative immunologic technique. Levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and protein binding iodine were simultaneously determined. Thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine were administered to rabbits orally for 30 days. A significant decrease in carbonic anhydrase B type was observed after 30 days, although no significant change was observed in carbonic anhydrase C type. These findings suggest that the steady state level of carbonic anhydrase B type in red cells is affected by thyroid hormone more readily than that of carbonic anhydrase C type. The level of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate increased markedly after 10 days of treatment, corresponding to the increase of protein binding iodine. The clinical or pathologic significances were discussed in relation to the changes in the levels of these isozymes and 2,3-diphosphglycerate in red cells.

  5. Phosphate or phosphite addition promotes the proteolytic turnover of phosphate-starvation inducible tomato purple acid phosphatase isozymes. (United States)

    Bozzo, Gale G; Singh, Vinay K; Plaxton, William C


    Within 48 h of the addition of 2.5 mM phosphate (HPO42-, Pi) or phosphite (H2PO3-, Phi) to 8-day-old Pi-starved (-Pi) tomato suspension cells: (i) secreted and intracellular purple acid phosphatase (PAP) activities decreased by about 12- and 6-fold, respectively and (ii) immunoreactive PAP polypeptides either disappeared (secreted PAPs) or were substantially reduced (intracellular PAP). The degradation of both secreted PAP isozymes was correlated with the de novo synthesis of two extracellular serine proteases having M(r)s of 137 and 121 kDa. In vitro proteolysis of purified secreted tomato PAP isozymes occurred following their 24 h incubation with culture filtrate from Pi-resupplied cells. The results indicate that Pi or Phi addition to -Pi tomato cells induces serine proteases that degrade Pi-starvation inducible extracellular proteins.

  6. Effect of injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of GAD isozymes into rat ventromedial hypothalamus on food intake and locomotor activity. (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M


    In the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in regulating feeding and running behaviors. The GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), consists of two isozymes, GAD65 and GAD67. In the present study, the phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of each GAD isozyme were injected bilaterally into the VMH of male rats, and food intake, body weight and locomotor activity were monitored. ODNs were incorporated in the water-absorbent polymer (WAP, 0.2 nmol/microliter) so that ODNs were retained at the injection site. Each antisense ODN of GAD65 or GAD67 tended to reduce food intake on day 1 (day of injection=day 0) though not significantly. An injection combining both antisense ODNs significantly decreased food intake only on day 1, but body weight remained significantly lower than the control for 5 days. This suppression of body weight gain could be attributed to a significant increase in locomotor activity between days 3 and 5. Individual treatment with either ODNs did not change locomotor activity. The increase in daily locomotor activity in the group receiving the combined antisense ODNs occurred mainly during the light phase. Neither vehicle (WAP) nor control ODN affected food intake, body weight and locomotor activity. Histological studies indicated that antisense ODN distributed within 800 micron from the edge of the area where WAP was located 24 h after the injection gradually disappeared within days, but still remained within 300 micron m distance even 7 days after the injection. Antisense ODN was effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias. Further, HPLC analysis revealed that antisense ODNs of GAD isozymes, either alone or combined, decreased the content of GABA by 50% in VMH 24 h after the injection. These results indicate that suppression of GABA synthesis by either of the GAD isozymes is synergistically involved in suppressing food

  7. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kawashima


    Full Text Available Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1 and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2, in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa and SmeChiB (56 kDa, were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α8–fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases.

  8. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide. (United States)

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi


    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (H o ) and expected (H e ) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  9. Modulation of cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase isozyme expression associated with activation of a macrophage cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justement, L.B.; Aldrich, W.A.; Wenger, G.D.; O'Dorisio, M.S.; Zwilling, B.S.


    The RAW 264.7 macrophage (MO) cell line was used to study cAMPdPK isozymes during activation by lymphokine (LK) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Untreated cells were found to have two isozymes of cAMPdPK in their cytosol. PKI and PKII were differentiated based on the M/sub r/ of their regulatory subunits (RI, 45,500; and RII, 52,000, respectively) as determined by photoactivated incorporation of the cAMP analog 8-N 3 -[ 32 P]cAMP. Loss of the RI subunit of PKI occurred in association with activation of the cell line by suboptimal concentrations of LK and LPS. No modulation of the RII subunit of PKII was observed under these conditions. The addition of a suboptimal concentration of LPS after LK or a high dose of LPS alone was required for acquisition of cytolytic activity and loss of RI. The antitumor activity of the RAW 264.7 cell line was transiently expressed after activation. Cells no longer exhibited tumoricidal activity 48 hr after the removal of activating agents. It was observed that the loss of cytolytic function was accompanied by the reexpression of RI in the cytosol. This study provides evidence that modulation of cAMPdPK isozymes occurs during activation, suggesting a potential mechanism for controlling the effects of cAMP on the MO

  10. Bisphenol A Modifies the Regulation Exerted by Testosterone on 5α-Reductase Isozymes in Ventral Prostate of Adult Rats

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    Pilar Sánchez


    Full Text Available The development, growth, and function of the prostate gland depend on androgen stimulation. The primary androgen in prostate is 5-dihydrotestosterone (DHT which is synthesized from circulating testosterone (T through the action of 5-reductase (5-R. Although 5-R occurs as five isozymes, only 5-R1 and 5-R2 are physiologically involved in steroidogenesis. The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA alters sexual organs, including the prostate. Our previous findings indicated that BPA decreased the expression of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in rat prostate but also circulating T. Thus, it is unclear whether BPA exerts this effect on 5-R isozymes by reducing circulating T or by any other mechanism. In this study, we examine the effects of short-term exposure to BPA at doses below 25 g/Kg/d and above 300 g/Kg/d of the TDI on mRNA levels of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in prostate of adult castrated rats supplemented with T to achieve constant circulating T levels. mRNA levels were measured by absolute quantitative RT-PCR, T levels by RIA, and DHT levels by ELISA. Our results indicated that in castrated rats treated with T BPA at the two doses studied significantly decreased the mRNA levels of both 5-R isozymes in a dose-dependent manner without modifications in circulating T.

  11. A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)


    We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Selective inhibition by chloramphenicol of pregnenolone-16 α-carbonitrile-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, P.E.; Kaminsky, L.S.; Halpert, J.


    Pregnenolone-16 α-carbonitrile (PCN) has been shown to induce, in male rats, cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the formation of R-10-hydroxywarfarin and R-dehydrowarfarin. Antibodies to the major PCN-inducible isozyme (PB/PCN-E) inhibit both activities in microsomal preparations. Recently the authors have shown that PCN treatment of female rats also induces the formation of both R-warfarin metabolites. However, in both sexes chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment selectively inhibits only the rate of formation of the R-dehydrowarfarin. A decrease in microsomal P-450 content occurs after in vivo administration of CAP to PCN-treated rats of both sexes. This is in contrast to the lack of effect of CAP on P-450 levels in phenobarbital-treated rats. Covalent binding of 14 C-CAP to microsomal protein in vitro was increased 3 to 4-fold following PCN treatment. Chromatographic evidences suggests the presence of at least two PCN-induced isozymes of similar molecular weights in both male and female rat liver microsomes. These data are consistent with the multiplicity of PCN-inducible P-450 in rat liver

  13. Isozyme, ISSR and RAPD profiling of genotypes in marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum). (United States)

    Saxena, Raghvendra; Chandra, Amaresh


    Genetic analysis of 30 accessions of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum Forsk.), a tropical range grass collected from grasslands and open fields of drier regions, was carried out with the objectives of identifying unique materials that could be used in developing the core germplasm for such regions as well as to explore gene (s) for drought tolerance. Five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers [(CA)4, (AGAC), (GACA) 4; 27 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and four enzyme systems were employed in the present study. In total, ISSR yielded 61 (52 polymorphic), RAPD 269 (253 polymorphic) and enzyme 55 isozymes (44 polymorphic) bands. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) across all polymorphic bands of 3 markers systems ranged from 0.419 to 0.480 and 4.34 to 5.25 respectively Dendrogram analysis revealed three main clusters with all three markers. Four enzymes namely esterase (EST), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PRX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) revealed 55 alleles from a total of 16 enzyme-coding loci. Of these, 14 loci and 44 alleles were polymorphic. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.43. Mean heterozygosity observed among the polymorphic loci ranged from 0.406 (SOD) to 0.836 (EST) and accession wise from 0.679 (1G3108) to 0.743 (IGKMD-10). Though there was intermixing of few accessions of one agro-climatic region to another largely groupings of accessions were with their regions of collections. Bootstrap analysis at 1000 iterations also showed large numbers of nodes (11 to 17) having strong clustering (> 50 bootstrap values) in all three marker systems. The accessions of the arid and drier regions forming one cluster are assigned as distinct core collection of Dichanthium and can be targeted for isolation of gene (s) for drought tolerance. Variations in isozyme allele numbers and high PIC (0.48) and MI (4.98) as observed with ISSR markers indicated their usefulness for germplasm characterization.

  14. Characterization and immunological identification of cDNA clones encoding two human DNA topoisomerase II isozymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.D.Y.; Drake, F.H.; Tan, K.B.; Per, S.R.; Crooke, S.T.; Mirabelli, C.K.


    Several DNA topoisomerase II partial cDNA clones obtained from a human Raji-HN2 cDNA library were sequenced and two classes of nucleotide sequences were found. One member of the first class, SP1, was identical to an internal fragment of human HeLa cell Topo II cDNA described earlier. A member of the second class, SP11, shared extensive nucleotide (75%) and predicted peptide (92%) sequence similarities with the first two-thirds of HeLa Topo II. Each class of cDNAs hybridized to unique, nonoverlapping restriction enzyme fragments of genomic DNA from several human cell lines. Synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide probes specific for each cDNA class hybridized to 6.5-kilobase mRNAs; furthermore, hybridization of probe specific for one class was not blocked by probe specific for the other. Antibodies raised against a synthetic SP1-encoded dodecapeptide specifically recognized the 170-kDa form of Topo II, while antibodies raised against the corresponding SP11-encoded dodecapeptide, or a second unique SP11-encoded tridecapeptide, selectively recognized the 180-kDa form of Topo II. These data provide genetic and immunochemical evidence for two Topo II isozymes

  15. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo


    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  16. Simultaneous production of fatty acid methyl esters and diglycerides by four recombinant Candida rugosa lipase's isozymes. (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Myron; Hsieh, Yu-Hsun; Luo, Ying-Ting; Wu, Tsung-Ta; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Shaw, Jei-Fu


    In this study, the catalytic efficiency of four recombinant CRL (Candida rugosa lipase) isozymes (LIP1-LIP4) towards the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was compared and evaluated as an alternative green method for industrial applications. The results indicated that the recombinant C. rugosa LIP1 enzyme exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency for FAME production compared to the recombinant C. rugosa LIP2-LIP4 enzymes. The optimal conditions were as follows: pH 7.0, methanol/soybean oil molar ratio: 3/1, enzyme amount: 2U (1.6 μL), reaction temperature: 20°C, 22 h of reaction time, and 3 times of methanol addition (1 mol/6h), and resulted in 61.5 ± 1.5 wt.% of FAME conversion. The reaction product contained also 10 wt.% of DAG with a ratio of 1,3-DAG to 1,2-DAG of approximately 4:6, and can be potentially used in industrial applications as a food emulsifier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic relatedness among Solanum L. species assayed by seed morphology and isozyme markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.M.; Fadl, M.A.


    In spite of their economic and medicinal value, no adequate attention has been paid to the diversity, characterization and taxonomical identification of Solanum L. species in Saudi Arabia. In this study, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of seed coat morphology and isozyme electrophoresis were employed for studying the genetic variability and relationships among seven Solanum L. species namely; S. incanum L., S. nigrum L., S. villosum L., S. schemprianum Hochst, S. galabratum Dunal, S. lycopersicum L. and S. melongena L. collected from Taif highlands. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigation of seed coat sculpturing showed three basic patterns namely; rugulate, reticulate and levigate. The analyses on six enzymes were coded by 19 loci. The number of alleles ranged from one to three with a mean of 1.58 alleles per locus. The proportion of polymorphic loci for Solanum L. species ranged from 0.87 for S. nigrum L. and S. villosum L. to 0.80 for S. lycopersicum L. The mean observed heterozygosity varied from 0.00 to 1.00, while mean expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00 and 0.5. The UPGMA phenogram confirmed the extensive genetic diversity existed in the studied Solanum L. species and showed the close relationship between S. incanum L. and S. melongena L. (author)

  18. Zymogen Activation and Subcellular Activity of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1/Site 1 Protease* (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Burri, Dominique Julien; Oppliger, Joël; Salamina, Marco; Cendron, Laura; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella


    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) plays crucial roles in cellular homeostatic functions and is hijacked by pathogenic viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P involves sequential autocatalytic processing of its N-terminal prodomain at sites B′/B followed by the herein newly identified C′/C sites. We found that SKI-1/S1P autoprocessing results in intermediates whose catalytic domain remains associated with prodomain fragments of different lengths. In contrast to other zymogen proprotein convertases, all incompletely matured intermediates of SKI-1/S1P showed full catalytic activity toward cellular substrates, whereas optimal cleavage of viral glycoproteins depended on B′/B processing. Incompletely matured forms of SKI-1/S1P further process cellular and viral substrates in distinct subcellular compartments. Using a cell-based sensor for SKI-1/S1P activity, we found that 9 amino acid residues at the cleavage site (P1–P8) and P1′ are necessary and sufficient to define the subcellular location of processing and to determine to what extent processing of a substrate depends on SKI-1/S1P maturation. In sum, our study reveals novel and unexpected features of SKI-1/S1P zymogen activation and subcellular specificity of activity toward cellular and pathogen-derived substrates. PMID:25378398

  19. The B isozyme creatine kinase is active as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsky, A.P.; Traxler, B.A.


    A cDNA encoding the B isozyme of creatine kinase CK B has been expressed in Escherichia coli from a fusion with lacZ carried by λgtll. Western blots indicate that a stable polypeptide with the appropriate mobility for the Β-galactosidase-creatine kinase Β-gal-CK B ) fusion protein cross-reacts with both Β-gal and CK B antiserum. No significant CK activity is detected in control E. coli; however, extracts from cells containing the λgtll-CK B construct have a CK activity of 1.54j0.07 μmol/min per mg protein. The fusion protein appears to provide this activity bacause immunoprecipitation of protein with Β-gal antiserum leads to a loss of CK activity from extracts. That the enzyme is active in vivo was demonstrated by detection of a phosphocreatine (PCr) peak in the 31 P NMR spectrum from E. coli grown on medium supplemented with creatine. As in mammalian brain and muscle, the PCr peak detected was sensitive to the energy status of the E. coli. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Morphological and isozymic banding pattern study of white grubs (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae as pest of bark crop in mounth Merapi’s slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available White grub (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae is a group of soil pest at any agrosystem., especially at Salak pondoh (Salacca zalacca (Gaert. Voss. crop. The characteristics of this specimen were very crucial to be studied in order to find the exact biocontrol. The aim of this research was to know the characteristics of white grubs (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera based on morphological and isozyme banding patterns. This research was conducted on August - November 2007 at Sleman and Magelang districts for the morphological purposes, while for the isozyme data were conducted at Sub Laboratory Biology, Central Laboratory of Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Sample was taken by using stratified random sampling method, on five stations. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE using the vertical type was taken to isozyme analysis. The enzyme used in this research were peroxidase and esterase to detect the isozyme banding patterns. The results showed that there was no morphological variation of white grubs (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera at salak pondoh agroecosystem in Mounth Merapi’s slope. Based on this character, there was one species of white grub found, i.e. Holotrichia javana. There was a genetic variation based on the variation of isozyme banding patterns.

  1. Tissue-specific Role of the Na,K-ATPase α2 Isozyme in Skeletal Muscle* (United States)

    Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Neumann, Jonathon C.; Rindler, Tara N.; Oshiro, Naomi; Goldhamer, David J.; Lingrel, Jerry B.; Heiny, Judith A.


    The Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme is the major Na,K-ATPase of mammalian skeletal muscle. This distribution is unique compared with most other cells, which express mainly the Na,K-ATPase α1 isoform, but its functional significance is not known. We developed a gene-targeted mouse (skα2−/−) in which the α2 gene (Atp1a2) is knocked out in the skeletal muscles, and examined the consequences for exercise performance, membrane potentials, contractility, and muscle fatigue. Targeted knockout was confirmed by genotyping, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Skeletal muscle cells of skα2−/− mice completely lack α2 protein and have no α2 in the transverse tubules, where its expression is normally enhanced. The α1 isoform, which is normally enhanced on the outer sarcolemma, is up-regulated 2.5-fold without change in subcellular targeting. skα2−/− mice are apparently normal under basal conditions but show significantly reduced exercise capacity when challenged to run. Their skeletal muscles produce less force, are unable to increase force to match demand, and show significantly increased susceptibility to fatigue. The impairments affect both fast and slow muscle types. The subcellular targeting of α2 to the transverse tubules is important for this role. Increasing Na,K-ATPase α1 content cannot fully compensate for the loss of α2. The increased fatigability of skα2−/− muscles is reproduced in control extensor digitorum longus muscles by selectively inhibiting α2 enzyme activity with ouabain. These results demonstrate that the Na,K-ATPase α2 isoform performs an acute, isoform-specific role in skeletal muscle. Its activity is regulated by muscle use and enables working muscles to maintain contraction and resist fatigue. PMID:23192345

  2. Synthesis of total protein (TP) and myosin heavy chain (HC) isozymes in pressure overloaded rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, R.; Martin, B.J.; Pritzl, N.; Zak, R.; Low, R.B.; Stirewalt, W.S.; Alpert, N.R.; Litten, R.Z.


    Pulmonary artery banding (PO) leads to a rapid increase in right ventricular (RV) weight as well as a shift toward β myosin isozyme. They determined: (1) the contributions of changes in the capacity (RNA content) and efficiency of total protein synthesis to the increase in RV weight; and (2) the relative contributions of translational and pretranslational mechanisms to the shift in myosin HC isotypes. The rates of synthesis in vivo of TP, α- and β-HC were measured by a constant infusion technique using 3 H-leucine. TP synthesis was 7 +/- 2(SD) mg/day in control (RV:367 +/- 70 mg) and was increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 2.9 fold at day 4 following PO (p < 0.01). RV RNA content was increased by 83% at day 2 and 103% at day 4 PO (p < 0.05). The efficiency of synthesis (rate/RNA) was also significantly higher at these time points (1.4- and 1.3-fold). β-HC synthesis was 0.6 +/- 0.2 mg/day in control and increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 3.5 fold at day 4 following PO. In contrast, the rate of synthesis of α-HC was unchanged. The relative rates of β-HC to total HC synthesis was correlated linearly with the relative levels of β-myosin mRNA as measured by S1 nuclease mapping. They conclude that increases in the proportion of β-HC myosin following PO is due to increases in the relative amount of β-myosin mRNA and therefore involves modulation of a pretranslational mechanism

  3. Investigation of structure and function of mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III from Komagataella phaffii GS115. (United States)

    Zhang, Huaidong; Li, Qin; Wang, Lina; Chen, Yan


    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohol using NAD + or NADP + as cofactor. Three ADH homologues have been identified in Komagataella phaffii GS115 (also named Pichia pastoris GS115), ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, among which adh3 is the only gene responsible for consumption of ethanol in Komagataella phaffii GS115. However, the relationship between structure and function of mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III from Komagataella phaffii GS115 (KpADH3) is still not clear yet. KpADH3 was purified, identified and characterized by multiple biophysical techniques (Nano LC-MS/MS, Enzymatic activity assay, X-ray crystallography). The crystal structure of KpADH3, which was the first ADH structure from Komagataella phaffii GS115, was solved at 1.745 Å resolution. Structural analysis indicated that KpADH3 was the sole dimeric ADH structure with face-to-face orientation quaternary structure from yeast. The major structural different conformations located on residues 100-114 (the structural zinc binding loop) and residues 337-344 (the loop between α12 and β15 which covered the catalytic domain). In addition, three channels were observed in KpADH3 crystal structure, channel 2 and channel 3 may be essential for substrate specific recognition, ingress and egress, channel 1 may be the pass-through for cofactor. KpADH3 plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohols in Komagataella phaffii GS115, and its crystal structure is the only dimeric medium-chain ADH from yeast described so far. Knowledge of the relationship between structure and function of KpADH3 is crucial for understanding the role of KpADH3 in Komagataella phaffii GS115 mitochondrial metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The impact of CPO (Crude Palm Oil dock activity in Mentaya River of Central Borneo caused degradation of ecosystem, particularly on both mangrove and macrozoobenthos community. One of methods used for monitoring of ecosystem degradation was to determine species that were still survive under the polluted conditions. These survival species were assumed to synthesize alloenzyme that can be used as indicator. Alloenzyme was synthesized as an effort of adaptation processes toward environmental pressures caused by CPO spill on Mentaya River. Alloenzyme would be expressed as phenotypic and genotypic adaptation processes or phenotypic plasticity. Research was carried out, consisted of field research included collecting sample and environmental data (oil content, temperature, pH, electric conductivity and redox potential, and laboratory research included series analysis of water quality (DO, BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and also alloenzyme content of Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. The alloenzyme of root and leaves mangrove and prawn’s hepatopancreas was analyzed using Spencer starch gel electrophoresis modified method of exposed on sucrose solution. Separated components of alloenzyme were detected by special staining for Esterase isozyme. The results revealed that Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man were bioindicator organisms for the polluted site by oil spills from CPO loading activities. The polluted river water by oil spill from CPO activities decreased redox potential, DO, increased oil content, DHL, water temperature, pH sediment, pH water, TDS, BOD, COD, TSS. Gel electrophoretical analysis demonstrated that Mangrove Soneratia caseolaris synthesized alloenzyme consisted of complex enzymes such as EST in its root and leave cells. Those enzymes were nearly similar to those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The oil spill from CPO have ester bonding so its adaptation mechanism with release Esterase

  5. Enzymatic properties and primary structures of two α-amylase isozymes from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai


    Kumagai, Yuya; Satoh, Takuya; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao


    Two α-amylase (EC isozymes, HdAmy58 and HdAmy82, with approximate molecular masses of 58 kDa and 82 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Optimal temperatures and pHs for HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 were at 30℃ and 6.7, and 30℃ and 6.1, respectively. Both enzymes similarly degraded starch, glycogen, and maltooligosaccharides larger than maltotriose producing maltose and maltotriose as the major degradation products. However, ...

  6. Effect of rare earth ion Ce3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns of six mouse organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangyan, L.; Guojun, S.; Hengyi, L.; Yinhua, L.; Ting, W.; Yansheng, Y.


    Full text: Effect of rare earth ion Ce 3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns of six organs of mouse (heart, liver, kidney, muscle, stomach) were investigated by utilizing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. The results indicated: Ce 3+ not only can make some LDH bands disappear but also can induce some new bands. Under the action of Ce 3+ , the shades of some LDH bands were changed and the shade variations were different from organ to organ. In the muscle, it appeared the shade of LDH bands was related to the rare earth concentration in the feed. Rare earth can affect the muscle LDH patterns widely and apparently

  7. Differential Recognition of Old World and New World Arenavirus Envelope Glycoproteins by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/Site 1 Protease (S1P) (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Ramos da Palma, Joel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura


    The arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses that includes several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans that represent serious public health problems. A crucial step of the arenavirus life cycle is maturation of the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P). Comparison of the currently known sequences of arenavirus GPCs revealed the presence of a highly conserved aromatic residue at position P7 relative to the SKI-1/S1P cleavage side in Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses but not in New World viruses of clades A and B or cellular substrates of SKI-1/S1P. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis, we found that residueY285 of SKI-1/S1P, distal from the catalytic triad, is implicated in the molecular recognition of the aromatic “signature residue” at P7 in the GPC of Old World Lassa virus. Using a quantitative biochemical approach, we show that Y285 of SKI-1/S1P is crucial for the efficient processing of peptides derived from Old World and clade C New World arenavirus GPCs but not of those from clade A and B New World arenavirus GPCs. The data suggest that during coevolution with their mammalian hosts, GPCs of Old World and clade C New World viruses expanded the molecular contacts with SKI-1/S1P beyond the classical four-amino-acid recognition sequences and currently occupy an extended binding pocket. PMID:23536681

  8. Different structure of the complexes of two cytochrome P-450 isozymes with acetanilide by 1H-NMR relaxation and spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Woldman YaYu; Weiner, L M; Lyakhovich, V V


    The functional and spectral characteristics of the interaction of acetanilide with phenobarbital- and methylcholanthrene- induced rat liver microsomes, as well as with corresponding major isozymes (cytochromes P-450b and P-450c) have been compared. The magnitude of the reverse 1st type binding spectra proved to be negatively correlated with the acetanilide oxidation on isozymes under study. The data on paramagnetic relaxation of acetanilide protons in the presence of P-450 have shown the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex to be different for two isozymes, acetanilide molecule being closer to Fe ion in the active site in the case of P-450c, which is active towards acetanilide oxidation. For the P-450c-acetanilide complex the group oxidized (phenyl) is the closest to Fe ion.

  9. Targeting the active site of the placental isozyme of alkaline phosphatase by phage-displayed scFv antibodies selected by a specific uncompetitive inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Mrinalini


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, the tissue non-specific, intestinal and placental, have similar properties and a high degree of identity. The placental isozyme (PLAP is an oncofetal antigen expressed in several malignancies including choriocarcinoma, seminoma and ovarian carcinoma. We had earlier attempted to isolate PLAP-specific scFv from a synthetic human immunoglobulin library but were unable to do so, presumably because of the similarity between the isozymes. In this work, we have employed a PLAP-specific uncompetitive inhibitor, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, to select isozyme specific scFvs. An uncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme in the presence of substrate and stabilizes the enzyme-substrate complex. Several uncompetitive inhibitors have varying degrees of isozyme specificity for human alkaline phosphatase isozymes. A specific uncompetitive inhibitor would be able to unmask conformational differences between the otherwise very similar molecules. Also, such inhibitors would be directed to regions at/close to the active site of the enzyme. In this work, the library was first incubated with PLAP and the bound clones then eluted by incubation with L-Phe-Gly-Gly along with the substrate, para-nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP. The scFvs were then studied with regard to the biochemical modulation of their binding, isozyme specificity and effect on enzyme activity. Results Of 13 clones studied initially, the binding of 9 was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly (with pNPP and 2 clones were inhibited by pNPP alone. Two clones had absolute and 2 clones had partial specificity to PLAP. Two clones were cross-reactive with only one other isozyme. Three scFv clones, having an accessible His6-tag, were purified and studied for their modulation of enzyme activity. All the three scFvs inhibited PLAP activity with the kinetics of competitive inhibition. Cell ELISA could demonstrate binding of the specific scFvs to the cell surface expressed PLAP

  10. The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Azzouni


    Full Text Available Despite the discovery of 5 alpha-reduction as an enzymatic step in steroid metabolism in 1951, and the discovery that dihydrotestosterone is more potent than testosterone in 1968, the significance of 5 alpha-reduced steroids in human diseases was not appreciated until the discovery of 5 alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency in 1974. Affected males are born with ambiguous external genitalia, despite normal internal genitalia. The prostate is hypoplastic, nonpalpable on rectal examination and approximately 1/10th the size of age-matched normal glands. Benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer does not develop in these patients. At puberty, the external genitalia virilize partially, however, secondary sexual hair remains sparse and male pattern baldness and acne develop rarely. Several compounds have been developed to inhibit the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes and they play an important role in the prevention and treatment of many common diseases. This review describes the basic biochemical properties, functions, tissue distribution, chromosomal location, and clinical significance of the 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family.

  11. Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa


    Full Text Available Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh, and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062 to 0.108. Genetic distances among the species ranged from 0.010 to 0.581. The lowest value was obtained between S. maroniense and S. rorotaense, and the highest between S. perflavum and S. trombetense. The genetic relationships among the four S. perflavum group species indicate that they are closely related. The high similarity at the isozyme level, allied to previous studies of morphology and polytene chromosomes, may suggest that the divergence time since the separation of S. maroniense and S. rorotaense is still too recent for diagnostic loci to have evolved.

  12. Molecular diversity of tuliposide B-converting enzyme in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana): identification of the root-specific isozyme. (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Ueno, Ayaka; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo


    6-Tuliposide B (PosB) is a glucose ester accumulated in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) as a major secondary metabolite. PosB serves as the precursor of the antimicrobial lactone tulipalin B (PaB), which is formed by PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB). The gene TgTCEB1, encoding a TCEB, is transcribed in tulip pollen but scarcely transcribed in other tissues (e.g. roots) even though those tissues show high TCEB activity. This led to the prediction of the presence of a TCEB isozyme with distinct tissue specificity. Herein, we describe the identification of the TgTCEB-R gene from roots via native enzyme purification; this gene is a paralog of TgTCEB1. Recombinant enzyme characterization verified that TgTCEB-R encodes a TCEB. Moreover, TgTCEB-R was localized in tulip plastids, as found for pollen TgTCEB1. TgTCEB-R is transcribed almost exclusively in roots, indicating a tissue preference for the transcription of TCEB isozyme genes.

  13. Purification and characterization of two DyP isozymes from Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1 specifically expressed in an air-membrane surface bioreactor. (United States)

    Shimokawa, Takuya; Shoda, Makoto; Sugano, Yasushi


    DyP isozymes (DyP2 and DyP3) from the culture fluid of the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1 by air-membrane surface bioreactor were purified and characterized. The characteristics of DyP2 were almost the same as those of a recombinant DyP reported previously, but different from DyP3.

  14. Barley peroxidase isozymes. Expression and post-translational modification in mature seeds as identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per


    spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination...

  15. New Ideas for an Old Enzyme: A Short, Question-Based Laboratory Project for the Purification and Identification of an Unknown LDH Isozyme (United States)

    Coleman, Aaron B.


    Enzyme purification projects are an excellent way to introduce many aspects of protein biochemistry, but can be difficult to carry out under the constraints of a typical undergraduate laboratory course. We have designed a short laboratory project for the purification and identification of an "unknown" lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme that can…

  16. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C.


    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 ± 1.8 to 28.1 ± 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 ± 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 ± 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity

  17. Resonance Raman study on the structure of the active sites of microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes LM2 and LM4. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, P; Greinert, R; Stier, A; Taniguchi, H


    The isozymes 2 and 4 of rabbit microsomal cytochrome P-450 (LM2, LM4) have been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Based on high quality spectra, a vibrational assignment of the porphyrin modes in the frequency range between 100-1700 cm-1 is presented for different ferric states of cytochrome P-450 LM2 and LM4. The resonance Raman spectra are interpreted in terms of the spin and ligation state of the heme iron and of heme-protein interactions. While in cytochrome P-450 LM2 the six-coordinated low-spin configuration is predominantly occupied, in the isozyme LM4 the five-coordinated high-spin form is the most stable state. The different stability of these two spin configurations in LM2 and LM4 can be attributed to the structures of the active sites. In the low-spin form of the isozymes LM4 the protein matrix forces the heme into a more rigid conformation than in LM2. These steric constraints are removed upon dissociation of the sixth ligand leading to a more flexible structure of the active site in the high-spin form of the isozyme LM4. The vibrational modes of the vinyl groups were found to be characteristic markers for the specific structures of the heme pockets in both isozymes. They also respond sensitively to type-I substrate binding. While in cytochrome P-450 LM4 the occupation of the substrate-binding pocket induces conformational changes of the vinyl groups, as reflected by frequency shifts of the vinyl modes, in the LM2 isozyme the ground-state conformation of these substituents remain unaffected, suggesting that the more flexible heme pocket can accommodate substrates without imposing steric constraints on the porphyrin. The resonance Raman technique makes structural changes visible which are induced by substrate binding in addition and independent of the changes associated with the shift of the spin state equilibrium: the high-spin states in the substrate-bound and substrate-free enzyme are structurally different. The formation of the inactive form

  18. Changes in the isozymic pattern of phosphoenolpyruvate : An early step in photoperiodic control of crassulacean acid metabolism level. (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Arrabaça, M C; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O


    Two major isofunctional forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC have been separated from the leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tom Thumb by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and diethylaminoethyl cellulose techniques: one of the forms prevails under long-day treatment (low crassulacean acid metabolism level), the other develops under short-day treatment (high Crassulacean acid metabolism level). Molecular weights are significantly different: 175·10(3) and 186·10(3), respectively. These results indicate that two populations of phosphoenolyruvate carboxylase are present in the plant, one of which is responsible for Crassulacean acid metabolism activity under the control of photoperiod.The Crassulacean acid metabolism appears to depend on the same endogenous clock that governs other photoperiodically controlled events (e.g. flowering). The metabolic and energetic significance of this feature is discussed. It is suggested that modification in isozymic composition could be an early step in the response to photoperiodism at the metabolic level.

  19. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 {plus minus} 1.8 to 28.1 {plus minus} 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 {plus minus} 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 {plus minus} 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity.

  20. Phospholipase C δ-type consists of three isozymes: bovine PLCδ2 is a homologue of human/mouse PLCδ4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irino, Yasuhiro; Cho, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Nakahara, Masamichi; Furutani, Masahiro; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Fukami, Kiyoko


    To date, 12 phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes have been identified in mammals, and they are divided into five classes, β-, γ-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-type. PLCδ-type is reported to be composed of four isozymes, PLCδ1-δ4. Here we report that a screening for mouse PLCδ2 from a BAC library with primers that amplify a specific region of bovine PLCδ2 resulted in isolation of one clone containing the mouse PLCδ4 gene. Furthermore, a database search revealed that there is only one gene corresponding to PLCδ2 and PLCδ4 in the mouse and human genomes, indicating that bovine PLCδ2 is a homologue of human and mouse PLCδ4. However, PLCδ2 Western blot analysis with a widely used commercial anti-PLCδ2 antibody showed an expression pattern distinct from that of PLCδ4 in wild-type mice. In addition, an 80-kDa band, which was recognized by antibody against PLCδ2, was smaller than an 85-kDa band detected by anti-PLCδ4 antibody, and the 80-kDa band was detectable in lysates of brain, testis, and spleen from PLCδ4-deficient mice. We also found that immunoprecipitates from brain lysates with this PLCδ2 antibody contained no PLC activity. From these data, we conclude that bovine PLCδ2 is a homologue of human and mouse PLCδ4, and that three isozymes (δ1, δ3, and δ4) exist in the PLCδ family

  1. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, 45071 Toledo (Spain)], E-mail:; Wheelock, Craig E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)


    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  2. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Wheelock, Craig E.


    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure

  3. Characterization of Arabidopsis FPS isozymes and FPS gene expression analysis provide insight into the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors in seeds. (United States)

    Keim, Verónica; Manzano, David; Fernández, Francisco J; Closa, Marta; Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Bortolotti, Cristina; Vega, M Cristina; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert


    Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (FPS), the prenyl diphoshate synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In this study, we provide evidence that the two Arabidopsis short FPS isozymes FPS1S and FPS2 localize to the cytosol. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Despite FPS1S and FPS2 share more than 90% amino acid sequence identity, FPS2 was found to be more efficient as a catalyst, more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of NaCl, and more resistant to thermal inactivation than FPS1S. Homology modelling for FPS1S and FPS2 and analysis of the amino acid differences between the two enzymes revealed an increase in surface polarity and a greater capacity to form surface salt bridges of FPS2 compared to FPS1S. These factors most likely account for the enhanced thermostability of FPS2. Expression analysis of FPS::GUS genes in seeds showed that FPS1 and FPS2 display complementary patterns of expression particularly at late stages of seed development, which suggests that Arabidopsis seeds have two spatially segregated sources of FPP. Functional complementation studies of the Arabidopsis fps2 knockout mutant seed phenotypes demonstrated that under normal conditions FPS1S and FPS2 are functionally interchangeable. A putative role for FPS2 in maintaining seed germination capacity under adverse environmental conditions is discussed.

  4. Identification of Morphological Character and Esterase Isozyme Pattern in Second-Generation Black Rice Plant Irradiated to Gamma Rays (United States)

    Hartanti, R. S.; Putri, T. A. N.; Zulfa, F.; Sutarno; Suranto


    Black rice is one of the functional foods due to its high anthocyanin content. Black rice grain was irradiated by gamma rays with a dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy. The main purpose of this irradiation is to induce mutation to the black rice plant in order to achieve the improved organism. This study was undertaken to elucidate the morphological character and esterase isozyme pattern of black rice plant after irradiated by gamma rays. There were morphological differences on leaves, stems and grains between irradiated and non irradiated black rice plant. Gamma radiation dose of 200 Gy showed the significant influence of the length of the stem, number of internodes, and length of leaves. The radiation dose of 300 Gy showed the significant influence of the decrease value of diameter of 3rd internodes, number of branches and width of leaves. Flowering time is getting faster as increasing radiation dose. At the age of 74 days after planting there are 9.15% plants of 200 Gy radiation dose that have flowered faster than normal plants. This value increased into 11.45% at the dose of radiation 300 Gy. There were differences in the esterase banding pattern between radiation dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy than the control plants, indicated that randomly mutation has occurred.

  5. Characterization of Arabidopsis FPS isozymes and FPS gene expression analysis provide insight into the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors in seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Keim

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP synthase (FPS, the prenyl diphoshate synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP. In this study, we provide evidence that the two Arabidopsis short FPS isozymes FPS1S and FPS2 localize to the cytosol. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Despite FPS1S and FPS2 share more than 90% amino acid sequence identity, FPS2 was found to be more efficient as a catalyst, more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of NaCl, and more resistant to thermal inactivation than FPS1S. Homology modelling for FPS1S and FPS2 and analysis of the amino acid differences between the two enzymes revealed an increase in surface polarity and a greater capacity to form surface salt bridges of FPS2 compared to FPS1S. These factors most likely account for the enhanced thermostability of FPS2. Expression analysis of FPS::GUS genes in seeds showed that FPS1 and FPS2 display complementary patterns of expression particularly at late stages of seed development, which suggests that Arabidopsis seeds have two spatially segregated sources of FPP. Functional complementation studies of the Arabidopsis fps2 knockout mutant seed phenotypes demonstrated that under normal conditions FPS1S and FPS2 are functionally interchangeable. A putative role for FPS2 in maintaining seed germination capacity under adverse environmental conditions is discussed.

  6. A Molecular Sensor To Characterize Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Cleavage by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1/Site 1 Protease (United States)

    Oppliger, Joel; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Burri, Dominique J.; Khatib, Abdel-Majid; Spiropoulou, Christina F.


    ABSTRACT Arenaviruses are emerging viruses including several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has greatly accelerated the discovery of novel arenavirus species. However, for many of these viruses, only genetic information is available, and their zoonotic disease potential remains unknown. During the arenavirus life cycle, processing of the viral envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) is crucial for productive infection. The ability of newly emerging arenaviruses to hijack human SKI-1/S1P appears, therefore, to be a requirement for efficient zoonotic transmission and human disease potential. Here we implement a newly developed cell-based molecular sensor for SKI-1/S1P to characterize the processing of arenavirus GPC-derived target sequences by human SKI-1/S1P in a quantitative manner. We show that only nine amino acids flanking the putative cleavage site are necessary and sufficient to accurately recapitulate the efficiency and subcellular location of arenavirus GPC processing. In a proof of concept, our sensor correctly predicts efficient processing of the GPC of the newly emergent pathogenic Lujo virus by human SKI-1/S1P and defines the exact cleavage site. Lastly, we employed our sensor to show efficient GPC processing of a panel of pathogenic and nonpathogenic New World arenaviruses, suggesting that GPC cleavage represents no barrier for zoonotic transmission of these pathogens. Our SKI-1/S1P sensor thus represents a rapid and robust test system for assessment of the processing of putative cleavage sites derived from the GPCs of newly discovered arenavirus by the SKI-1/S1P of humans or any other species, based solely on sequence information. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are important emerging human pathogens that can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality in humans. A crucial step in productive arenavirus

  7. Molecular Characterization of the Processing of Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Precursors by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1/Site-1 Protease (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Pasqual, Giulia; Rochat, Cylia; Seidah, Nabil G.


    A crucial step in the life cycle of arenaviruses is the biosynthesis of the mature fusion-active viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) that is essential for virus-host cell attachment and entry. The maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) critically depends on proteolytic processing by the cellular proprotein convertase (PC) subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P). Here we undertook a molecular characterization of the SKI-1/S1P processing of the GPCs of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the pathogenic Lassa virus (LASV). Previous studies showed that the GPC of LASV undergoes processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/cis-Golgi compartment, whereas the LCMV GPC is cleaved in a late Golgi compartment. Herein we confirm these findings and provide evidence that the SKI-1/S1P recognition site RRLL, present in the SKI-1/S1P prodomain and LASV GPC, but not in the LCMV GPC, is crucial for the processing of the LASV GPC in the ER/cis-Golgi compartment. Our structure-function analysis revealed that the cleavage of arenavirus GPCs, but not cellular substrates, critically depends on the autoprocessing of SKI-1/S1P, suggesting differences in the processing of cellular and viral substrates. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the transmembrane and intracellular domains of SKI-1/S1P are dispensable for arenavirus GPC processing. The expression of a soluble form of the protease in SKI-I/S1P-deficient cells resulted in the efficient processing of arenavirus GPCs and rescued productive virus infection. However, exogenous soluble SKI-1/S1P was unable to process LCMV and LASV GPCs displayed at the surface of SKI-I/S1P-deficient cells, indicating that GPC processing occurs in an intracellular compartment. In sum, our study reveals important differences in the SKI-1/S1P processing of viral and cellular substrates. PMID:22357276

  8. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song


    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  9. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song; Mork, Jarle


    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  10. A Study of Selected Isozymes in Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum cardenasii and Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids in Capsicum Species


    ONUS, Ahmet Naci


    Selected isozymes were investigated in plants of Capsicum baccatum L. ( Solanaceae) accessions SA219 (P.G.Smith), Hawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum cardenasii Heiser and Smith accession SA268 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum eximium A.T.Hunz accession Hawkes 3860 (J.G.Hawkes) and two interspecific F1 hybrids, C. baccatum SA219 x C. eximium Hawkes 3860 and C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x C. cardenasii SA 268. The standard technique of horizontal gel electrophoresis was employed. The gel was cut into severa...

  11. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance. (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H


    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszak, J.; Grulke, N.E.; Marrett, M.J.; Prus-Glowacki, W.


    Effects of canopy ozone (O 3 ) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O 3 tolerance were analyzed in ∼20-, ∼80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O 3 exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O 3 exposure, and to higher O 3 exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine

  13. The effect of temperature on the fatty acids and isozymes of a psychrotrophic and two mesophilic species of Xenorhabdus, a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Gordon, R. [Prince Edward Island Univ., Dept. of Biology, Charlottetown, PE (Canada); Gow, J. A. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s NF (Canada)


    Generation times relative to temperature were determined for four strains of Xenorhabdus bacteria that represented three geographically distinct species in order to study the capacity of these bacteria to adapt to changes in temperature, as shown by changes in fatty acid composition. Species of the genus Xenorhabdus are carried in the gut of non-feeding infective juvenile nematodes where they release antibacterial and antifungal compounds, to create a non-competitive environment for nematode and bacterial growth. One of the species investigated was psychotropic (i.e. thriving at low temperatures), the other two mesophilic (i.e. growing at moderate temperatures). Results showed that as temperatures declined, proportions of two of the major fatty acids increased significantly in all strains, while the proportion of the prevalent fatty acid (palmitic acid) decreased. Certain other fatty acids decreased with declining temperatures in all strains. The synthesis of isozymes in response to changing temperatures was also investigated. Results showed a broad capacity for physiological temperature adaptation among strains of different climatic origin. It is suggested that these results support the proposition that entomopathogenic bacteria associated with nematodes adjust to temperature changes physiologically by altering the synthesis of isozymes. 36 refs.,6 tabs.

  14. Isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszak, J. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Grulke, N.E. [USDA Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)], E-mail:; Marrett, M.J. [5184 Tower Road, Riverside, CA 92506 (United States); Prus-Glowacki, W. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)


    Effects of canopy ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance were analyzed in {approx}20-, {approx}80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O{sub 3} exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O{sub 3} exposure, and to higher O{sub 3} exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine.

  15. Replacement of C305 in heart/muscle-type isozyme of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I with aspartic acid and other amino acids. (United States)

    Matsuo, Taisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Takenori; Otsuki, Kaoru; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Terada, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yasuo


    Liver- and heart/muscle-type isozymes of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L- and M-CPTI, respectively) show a certain similarity in their amino acid sequences, and mutation studies on the conserved amino acids between these two isozymes often show essentially the same effects on their enzymatic properties. Earlier mutation studies on C305 in human M-CPTI and its counterpart residue, C304, in human L-CPTI showed distinct effects of the mutations, especially in the aspect of enzyme stability; however, simple comparison of these effects on the conserved Cys residue between L- and M-CPTI was difficult, because these studies were carried out using different expression systems and distinct amino acids as replacements. In the present study, we carried out mutation studies on the C305 in human M-CPTI using COS cells for the expression system. Our results showed that C305 was replaceable with aspartic acid but that substitution with other amino acids caused both loss of function and reduced expression.

  16. Molecular diversity of tuliposide B-converting enzyme in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana): identification of the third isozyme with a distinct expression profile. (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Kuchida, Ryo; Kitaoka, Naoki; Kato, Yasuo


    6-Tuliposide B (PosB), a major secondary metabolite that accumulates in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), is converted to the antibacterial lactone, tulipalin B (PaB), by PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB). TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R, which encode TCEB, are specifically expressed in tulip pollen and roots, respectively, but are hardly expressed in other tissues (e.g. leaves) despite the presence of substantial PosB-converting activity, suggesting the existence of another TCEB isozyme. Here, we describe the identification of TgTCEB-L ("L" for leaf), a paralog of TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R, from leaves via native enzyme purification. The enzymatic characters of TgTCEB-L, including catalytic activity and subcellular localization, were substantially the same as those of TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R. However, TgTCEB-L did not exhibit tissue-specific expression. Identification of TgTCEB-L explains the PosB-converting activity detected in tissues where TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R transcripts could not be detected, indicating that tulip subtilizes the three TgTCEB isozymes depending on the tissue.

  17. Kinetic studies of the inhibition of a human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isozyme by bile acids and anti-inflammatory drugs. (United States)

    Miyabe, Y; Amano, T; Deyashiki, Y; Hara, A; Tsukada, F


    We have investigated the steady-state kinetics for a cytosolic 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isozyme of human liver and its inhibition by several bile acids and anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin, flufemanic acid and naproxen. Initial velocity and product inhibition studies performed in the NADP(+)-linked (S)-1-indanol oxidation at pH 7.4 were consistent with a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADP+ binds first and leaves last. The bile acids and drugs, competitive inhibitors with respect to the alcohol substrate, exhibited uncompetitive inhibition with respect to the coenzyme, with Ki values less than 1 microM, whereas indomethacin exhibited noncompetitive inhibition (Ki < 24 microM). The kinetics of the inhibition by a mixture of the two inhibitors suggests that bile acids and drugs, except indomethacin, bind to overlapping sites at the active center of the enzyme-coenzyme binary complex.

  18. Insights into the "pair of sugar tongs" surface binding site in barley alpha-amylase isozymes and crystallization of appropriate sugar tongs mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranier, S.; Deville, K.; Robert, X.


    of an additional surface binding site called a "pair of sugar tongs" due to the sugar capturing by Tyr380 which is situated in domain C of AMYL For the first time, a biological role for the domain C was suggested as well as a hypothetical explanation of enzymatic differences between the two barley a......-amylase isozymes. However, no sugar was bound at the "sugar tongs" site in the AMY2/acarbose complex. Comparative studies of this domain on the basis of sequence, secondary structure and spatial organization allow to propose factors needed for such a site. One of the most obvious is the replacement of Ser378(AMY1......, surface plasmon resonance sugar binding experiments have proven unambiguously that this residue cannot totally explain the lack of the "pair of sugar tongs" and other tracks must be studied as, for example, the differences in orientation of Asp381 and the critical role of His395, both good candidates...

  19. The taxonomic status of genetically divergent populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on the distribution of mitochondrial and isozyme variation. (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Piñango, Hermes; Norris, Douglas; Alexander, Bruce; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Lanzaro, Gregory C


    The sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) reputedly is a complex of cryptic species; however, there is currently no consensus as to the number of species in the complex or their geographic distributions. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of 31 populations from throughout the species range, using seven isozyme loci and genes in the mitochondrial genome. Analyses of these two independent sets of markers were largely concordant and revealed four distinct clades that support the existence of four species. The four clades have distinct geographic ranges: (1) Brazil (Species A = Lu. longipalpis sensu stricto), (2) Laran (Species B = Lu. pseudolongipalpis), (3) cis-Andean (Species C), and (4) trans-Andean (Species D). The cis-Andean clade may be subdivided further into two groups, one in Colombia and one in northwestern Venezuela, but their taxonomic status remains unresolved. Knowledge that Lu. longipalpis is a complex of species may ultimately shed light on anomalies in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World.

  20. Ontogenetic changes and developmental adjustments in lactate dehydrogenase isozymes of an obligate air-breathing fish Channa punctatus during deprivation of air access. (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Hasnain, Absar-Ul


    In air-breathing snakehead Channa punctatus, Ldh-B is expressed at all ontogenetic and developmental stages, while Ldh-A is expressed temporally in pre-hatchlings 12-13 days ahead of bimodal respiration marked by air-breathing. Remarkable differences are observed in the LDH isozyme expression among various ontogenetic and developmental stages upon denying air access. When denied air access, water-breathing larvae show two distinct characteristics: (i) they survive longer than transitory air-breathers due to independence from air-breathing and (ii) there is more transient induction of Ldh-B than Ldh-A. Transition to bimodal breathing, which occurred post-hatching in 15-day old larvae, is coincidental with inducibility of Ldh-A and concomitant down-regulation of Ldh-B. Heart tissue from air-breathing adults denied air access shows a preferential expression of LDH-A subunit and slight down-regulation of LDH-B. Heterotetramers of A and B subunits participate in adjusting LDH levels among those stages which either precede air-breathing switchover, or are subsequent to this transition. The contribution of heterotetramers depends on the stage-specific levels of LDH homotetramers A(4) or B(4). Scaling of muscle mass during growth, tolerance to extended deprivation of air access and induction of Ldh-A are correlated. Response to restoring air contact indicated that advanced air-breathing stages of C. punctatus possess an inherent capacity to sense surface air. In kinetic properties, LDH isozymes of C. punctatus are teleost-like but species specificity is displayed in oxidative potential by cardiac muscle and in L-lactate reduction by skeletal muscle.

  1. Cloning of soluble alkaline phosphatase cDNA and molecular basis of the polymorphic nature in alkaline phosphatase isozymes of Bombyx mori midgut. (United States)

    Itoh, M; Kanamori, Y; Takao, M; Eguchi, M


    A cDNA coding for soluble type alkaline phosphatase (sALP) of Bombyx mori was isolated. Deduced amino acid sequence showed high identities to various ALPs and partial similarities to ATPase of Manduca sexta. Using this cDNA sequence as a probe, the molecular basis of electrophoretic polymorphism in sALP and membrane-bound type ALP (mALP) was studied. As for mALP, the result suggested that post-translational modification was important for the proteins to express activity and to represent their extensive polymorphic nature, whereas the magnitude of activities was mainly regulated by transcription. On the other hand, sALP zymogram showed poor polymorphism, but one exception was the null mutant, in which the sALP gene was largely lost. Interestingly, the sALP gene was shown to be transcribed into two mRNAs of different sizes, 2.0 and 2.4 Kb. In addition to the null mutant of sALP, we found a null mutant for mALP. Both of these mutants seem phenotypically silent, suggesting that the functional differentiation between these isozymes is not perfect, so that they can still work mutually and complement each other as an indispensable enzyme for B. mori.

  2. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta-do-reino com base em sistemas enzimáticos Characterization of black pepper accessions using isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José MD Gaia


    Full Text Available Setenta e oito acessos de pimenta-do-reino, incluindo algumas espécies silvestres foram submetidos à análise eletroforética de isoenzimas em gel de poliacrilamida, visando distinguir diferenças fenotípicas que auxiliem na discriminação e seleção dos acessos. Foram utilizados os sistemas enzimáticos SKDH, GOT, ACP, ACO, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH e G6PDH. O polimorfismo de isoenzimas foi avaliado pelo número de alozimas com diferentes mobilidades por sistema enzimático, pelas freqüências de alozimas dentro de cada sistema enzimático em relação ao total de bandas do sistema e pela análise da similaridade genética, com base na ausência e presença de bandas. Todos os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados tiveram boa resolução e definição de bandas, com ênfase para SKDH, 6PGDH, PGI e ACP. Em sua totalidade, os sistemas apresentaram polimorfismo capaz de caracterizar e identificar acessos ou grupos de pequeno número de acessos, sendo que o sistema GOT foi o que apresentou maior variabilidade de alozimas e de perfis; e o que apresentou menor variabilidade foi o sistema FUM, com três alozimas e quatro perfis. Cinqüenta e sete por cento das alozimas podem ser usadas para caracterizar e identificar clones ou grupos de clones. Cerca de 64% dos acessos analisados podem ser identificados por um a seis fenótipos individuais de sistemas enzimáticos. A análise da similaridade indicou os grupos G1, G2 e G3 como os mais divergentes da coleção, os quais são indicados para cruzamentos intraespecíficos e interespecíficos visando a obtenção de clones superiores.Seventy and eight accessions of black pepper, including some wild species, were analyzed through isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, aiming to distinguish phenotypic differences to discriminate and select accessions. The enzymatic systems SKDH, GOT, ACO, ACP, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH and G6PDH were studied. The polymorphism of isozymes was evaluated based on number of alozymes with

  3. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference. (United States)

    Temperini, Claudia; Cecchi, Alessandro; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T


    Thiazide and high ceiling diuretics were recently shown to inhibit all mammalian isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC with a very different profile as compared to classical inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, and ethoxzolamide. Some of these structurally related compounds have a very different behavior against the widespread isozyme CA II, with chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide being efficient inhibitors against CA II (K(I)s of 65-138 nM), whereas indapamide is a much weaker one (K(I) of 2520 nM). Furthermore, some of these diuretics are quite efficient (low nanomolar) inhibitors of other isoforms, for example, chlorthalidone against hCA VB, VII, IX, and XIII; indapamide against CA VII, IX, XII, and XIII, trichloromethiazide against CA VII and IX, and furosemide against CA I and XIV. Examining the four X-ray crystal structures of their CA II adducts, we observed several (2-3) active site water molecules interacting with the chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide scaffolds which may be responsible for this important difference of activity. Indeed, indapamide bound to CA II has no interactions with active site water molecules. Chlorthalidone bound within the CA II active site is in an enolic (lactimic) tautomeric form, with the enolic OH also participating in two strong hydrogen bonds with Asn67 and a water molecule. The newly evidenced binding modes of these diuretics may be exploited for designing better CA II inhibitors as well as compounds with selectivity/affinity for various isoforms with medicinal chemistry applications.

  4. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L. (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.


    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  5. Cross-resistance patterns to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) conferred by different combinations of ALS isozymes with a Pro-197-Thr mutation or a novel Trp-574-Leu mutation. (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Yongzhi; Jiao, Hongtao; Mei, Yu; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Mingqi


    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the common target of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and target-site ALS mutations are the main mechanism of resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In this study, ALS1 and ALS2 genes with full lengths of 2004bp and 1998bp respectively were cloned in individual plants of susceptible (S) or resistant (R) flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) populations. Two ALS mutations of Pro-197-Thr and/or Trp-574-Leu were identified in plants of three R biotypes (HB24, HB30 and HB42). In order to investigate the function of ALS isozymes in ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance, pHB24 (a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2), pHB42 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2) and pHB30 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS2) subpopulations individually homozygous for different ALS mutations were generated. Individuals of pHB30 had mutations in each isozyme of ALS and had higher resistance than pHB24 and pHB42 populations containing mutations in only one ALS isozyme. Moreover, the pHB24 had resistance to SU, TP and SCT herbicides, whereas pHB24 and pHB42 had resistance to these classes of herbicides as well as IMI and PTB herbicides. The sensitivity of isolated ALS enzyme to inhibition by herbicides in these populations correlated with whole plant resistance levels. Therefore, reduced ALS sensitivity resulting from the mutations in ALS was responsible for resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in flixweed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  7. Isozymic variability in a Brazilian collection of annatto (Bixa orellana L. Variabilidade isoenzimática em uma coleção brasileira de urucum (Bixa orellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Fiuza Rodrigues Portela de Carvalho


    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to optimize the isozyme electrophoresis technique for Bixa orellana, and use isozyme markers for a preliminary survey on the genetic variability in Brazilian annatto germplasm accessions. Collection consisted of seed samples from sixty open pollinated trees, representing two Northern and four Southern geographic provenances. The extraction, electrophoresis, and interpretation of annatto isozymes are described. Three out of the twenty-one identified isozyme loci were polymorphic in the collection. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P = 21.05 and the expected heterozygosity in annatto (H T = 0.064 were low, compared to other tropical woody species. A UPGMA phenogram, constructed with Nei's genetic distances, clearly separated the germplasm provenant from North and Central Brazil. Variability was significantly higher among the accessions from Maranhão. A sharp genetic differentiation was detected between accessions from Maranhão and Pará States, despite their geographical proximity. The distinctive isozyme polymorphism, observed in the accessions from Maranhão, together with reports on local morphological heterogeneity in annatto fruit shape, color, and pubescence, calls for more detailed genetic and taxonomic investigation.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: otimizar a técnica de eletroforese de isoenzimas para Bixa orellana, e usar marcadores isoenzimáticos para um estudo preliminar da variabilidade genética, presente em uma coleção de germoplasma de urucum. Foi estudada uma coleção de amostras de sementes oriundas de 60 indivíduos de polinização aberta, que representam duas procedências do Norte e quatro do Sul do Brasil. São descritas a extração, a eletroforese e a interpretação de isoenzimas de urucum. Três, dos vinte e um locos isoenzimáticos identificados, foram polimórficos na coleção examinada. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos (P = 21,05 e a heterozigosidade esperada em urucum

  8. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human liver cytochrome(s) P450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Mindaye, Samuel T.; Getie-Kebtie, Melkamu; Alterman, Michail A., E-mail:


    The major objective of personalized medicine is to select optimized drug therapies and to a large degree such mission is determined by the expression profiles of cytochrome(s) P450 (CYP). Accordingly, a proteomic case study in personalized medicine is provided by the superfamily of cytochromes P450. Our knowledge about CYP isozyme expression on a protein level is very limited and based exclusively on DNA/mRNA derived data. Such information is not sufficient because transcription and translation events do not lead to correlated levels of expressed proteins. Here we report expression profiles of CYPs in human liver obtained by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach. We analyzed 32 samples of human liver microsomes (HLM) of different sexes, ages and ethnicity along with samples of recombinant human CYPs. We have experimentally confirmed that each CYP isozyme can be effectively differentiated by their unique isozyme-specific tryptic peptide(s). Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes were established. Those findings should assist in selecting tryptic peptides suitable for MS-based quantitation. The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. CYP2E1, CYP2C8 and CYP4A11 were the only isozymes found in all HLM samples. Female and pediatric HLM samples revealed much more diverse spectrum of expressed CYPs isozymes compared to male HLM. We have confirmed expression of a number of “rare” CYP (CYP2J2, CYP4B1, CYP4V2, CYP4F3, CYP4F11, CYP8B1, CYP19A1, CYP24A1 and CYP27A1) and obtained first direct experimental data showing expression of such CYPs as CYP2F1, CYP2S1, CYP2W1, CYP4A22, CYP4X1, and CYP26A1 on a protein level. - Highlights: ► First detailed proteomic analysis of CYP isozymes expression in human liver ► Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes established ► The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. ► Female HLM samples revealed more

  9. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human liver cytochrome(s) P450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Mindaye, Samuel T.; Getie-Kebtie, Melkamu; Alterman, Michail A.


    The major objective of personalized medicine is to select optimized drug therapies and to a large degree such mission is determined by the expression profiles of cytochrome(s) P450 (CYP). Accordingly, a proteomic case study in personalized medicine is provided by the superfamily of cytochromes P450. Our knowledge about CYP isozyme expression on a protein level is very limited and based exclusively on DNA/mRNA derived data. Such information is not sufficient because transcription and translation events do not lead to correlated levels of expressed proteins. Here we report expression profiles of CYPs in human liver obtained by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach. We analyzed 32 samples of human liver microsomes (HLM) of different sexes, ages and ethnicity along with samples of recombinant human CYPs. We have experimentally confirmed that each CYP isozyme can be effectively differentiated by their unique isozyme-specific tryptic peptide(s). Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes were established. Those findings should assist in selecting tryptic peptides suitable for MS-based quantitation. The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. CYP2E1, CYP2C8 and CYP4A11 were the only isozymes found in all HLM samples. Female and pediatric HLM samples revealed much more diverse spectrum of expressed CYPs isozymes compared to male HLM. We have confirmed expression of a number of “rare” CYP (CYP2J2, CYP4B1, CYP4V2, CYP4F3, CYP4F11, CYP8B1, CYP19A1, CYP24A1 and CYP27A1) and obtained first direct experimental data showing expression of such CYPs as CYP2F1, CYP2S1, CYP2W1, CYP4A22, CYP4X1, and CYP26A1 on a protein level. - Highlights: ► First detailed proteomic analysis of CYP isozymes expression in human liver ► Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes established ► The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. ► Female HLM samples revealed more

  10. Genetic polymorphism of human cytochrome P-450 (S)-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase. Studies with human autoantibodies suggest a functionally altered cytochrome P-450 isozyme as cause of the genetic deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, U.T.; Meyer, U.A.


    The metabolism of the anticonvulsant mephenytoin is subject to a genetic polymorphism. In 2-5% of Caucasians and 18-23% of Japanese subjects a specific cytochrome P-450 isozyme, P-450 meph, is functionally deficient or missing. The authors have accumulated evidence that autoimmune antibodies observed in sera of patients with tienilic acid induced hepatitis (anti-liver kidney microsome 2 or anti-LKM2 antibodies) specifically recognize the cytochrome P-450 involved in the mephrenytoin hydroxylation polymorphism. This is demonstrated by immunoinhibition and immunoprecipitation of microsomal (S)-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation activity and by the recognition by anti-LKM2 antibodies of a single [ 125 I]-protein band on immunoblots of human liver microsomes after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing. The cytochrome P-450 recognized by anti-LKM2 antibodies was immunopurified from microsomes derived from livers of extensive (EM) or poor metabolizers (PM) of (S)-mephenytoin. Comparison of the EM-type cytochrome P-450 to that isolated from PM livers revealed no difference in regard to immuno-cross-reactivity, molecular weight, isoelectric point, relative content in microsomes, two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps, one-dimensional peptide maps with three proteases, amino acid composition, and amino-terminal protein sequence. Finally, the same protein was precipitated from microsomes prepared from the liver biopsy of a subject phenotyped in vivo as a poor metabolizer of mephenytoin. These data strongly suggest that the mephenytoin hydroxylation deficiency is caused by a minor structural change leading to a functionally altered cytochrome P-450 isozyme

  11. Identification and expression analysis of CYP4G25 gene from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 8, 2011 ... hormone, fatty acid, steroid, drug insecticide and phytotoxin (Mansuy et al., ... pyrethroid and organophosphate resistance (Andersen et al., 1994; Kasai and ... novel cytochrome P450 gene was identified from A. pernyi and its ...

  12. Estandarización de sistemas isoenzimáticos en clones colombianos del género musa Standarization of isozymic systems in clones of the colombian collection of the genus musa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Margarita


    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la variabilidad genética presente en la Colección Colombiana de Musáceas, S8 estandarizaron varios sistemas enzimáticos en clones de diferentes ploidías. conservados bajo condiciones in vitro. Se probaron un total de 23 sistemas, seis de los cuales presentaron actividad electroforética en condiciones diferentes a las previamente reportadas por otros autores: Diaforasa (DIA E.C.1.6A.3., Enzima málica (ME E.C.l.1.1AO., Fosfoglucoisomerasa (PGI E.C., Fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (PGDH E.C.1.1.1A4., Fosfoglucomutasa (PGM E.C. Y Rubisco (RUB E.CA.11.1.39. . Las enzimas DIA y RUB se reportan por primera vez para el genera Musa, ME, GDH, PGDH Y PGI se reportan por primera vez en geles de acrilamida. Diaforasa presentó alto pournornsmo en los clones probados, mientras que Rubisco mostró una sola zona de actividad.The main purpose of this study was the standardization of several isozymic systems using clones of different ploidy belonging to the Colombian Collection of Musa maintained under in vitro conditions. A total of 23 systems were assayed. Six isozymes presented new electrophoretic activity with regard to previous reports: Diaphorase (DIA E.C.1.6A.3., Malic enzyme(ME E.C.1.1.1AO Phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI E.C., Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGDH E.C., Phosphoglucomutase (PGM E.C. and Rubisco (RUB E.CA.11.1.39.. The enzymes DIA and RUB are reported the first time for the genus Musa. ME, GDH, PGDH and PGI are described the first time in acrylamide support. DIA presented high level of polymorphism in the Colombian clones tested. RUB showed only one zone of activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Foram coletadas, em área comercial da fazenda Córrego dos Bois, município de Canápolis -- MG, 20 plantas matrizes de abacaxizeiro cultivar Smooth Cayenne, para avaliação de similaridade e padrões genotípicos através de marcadores moleculares RAPD e padrões isoenzimáticos. As plantas matrizes foram selecionadas mediante as seguintes características: planta sadia, frutos cilíndricos, ausência de fasciação, pedúnculo curto, ausência de espinhos nas folhas, "olho" do fruto chato e peso dos frutos entre 1,6 a 2,2kg. Para análise de marcadores RAPD, foram testados 100 "primers", dos quais, 43 foram eficientes na amplificação das amostras, onde foram observados padrões de bandas diferentes entre as plantas matrizes utilizadas, indicando a existência de variabilidade genética. Nos padrões isoenzimáticos, dos 15 sistemas utilizados para revelação das amostras, 8 apresentaram atividade enzimática, sendo 5 deles com baixa resolução; entretanto, estes sistemas não foram eficientes em diferenciar as amostras devido à ausência de polimorfismoTwenty matrix plants of pineapple cultivar Smooth Cayenne were collected from commercial area in the farm Córrego dos Bois, Canápolis city - MG, to evaluate similarity and genotypes patterns by both molecular markers, RAPD and isozymes analysis. Collected matrix plants presented the following characteristics: healthy plants, cylindrical fruits, no fasciation, short peduncle, spineless leaves, boring bubilles and fruit weight between 1,6 to 2,2kg. One hundred primers were tested to analyze RAPD patterns, within them, 43 were efficient to amplify the samples. Distinct patterns were observed among the matrix plants indicating that there is genetic variability. In relation to isozyme profiles, 15 isoenzyme systems were tested but only 8 revealed enzymatic activity, where 5 of them presented low resolution. In spite of this, the 8 systems weren't efficient to differentiate the samples not

  14. Kinetic isotope effect studies on aspartate aminotransferase: Evidence for a concerted 1,3 prototropic shift mechanism for the cytoplasmic isozyme and L-aspartate and dichotomy in mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, D.A.; Kirsch, J.F.


    The C alpha primary hydrogen kinetic isotope effects (C alpha-KIEs) for the reaction of the cytoplasmic isozyme of aspartate aminotransferase (cAATase) with [alpha-2H]-L-aspartate are small and only slightly affected by deuterium oxide solvent (DV = 1.43 +/- 0.03 and DV/KAsp = 1.36 +/- 0.04 in H 2 O; DV = 1.44 +/- 0.01 and DV/KAsp = 1.61 +/- 0.06 in D 2 O). The D 2 O solvent KIEs (SKIEs) are somewhat larger and are essentially independent of deuterium at C alpha (D 2 OV = 2.21 +/- 0.07 and D 2 OV/KAsp = 1.70 +/- 0.03 with [α-1H]-L-aspartate; D 2 OV = 2.34 +/- 0.12 and D 2 OV/KAsp = 1.82 +/- 0.06 with [α-2H]-L- aspartate). The C alpha-KIEs on V and on V/KAsp are independent of pH from pH 5.0 to pH 10.0. These results support a rate-determining concerted 1,3 prototropic shift mechanism by the multiple KIE criteria. The large C alpha-KIEs for the reaction of mitochondrial AATase (mAATase) with L-glutamate (DV = 1.88 +/- 0.13 and DV/KGlu = 3.80 +/- 0.43 in H 2 O; DV = 1.57 +/- 0.05 and DV/KGlu = 4.21 +/- 0.19 in D 2 O) coupled with the relatively small SKIEs (D 2 OV = 1.58 +/- 0.04 and D 2 OV/KGlu = 1.25 +/- 0.05 with [α-1H]-L-glutamate; D 2 OV = 1.46 +/- 0.06 and D 2 OV/KGlu = 1.16 +/- 0.05 with [alpha-2H]-L-glutamate) are most consistent with a two-step mechanism for the 1,3 prototropic shift for this isozyme-substrate pair

  15. cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA)-Mediated c-Myc Degradation Is Dependent on the Relative Proportion of PKA-I and PKA-II Isozymes. (United States)

    Liu, Qingyuan; Nguyen, Eric; Døskeland, Stein; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Évelyne


    The transcription factor c-Myc regulates numerous target genes that are important for multiple cellular processes such as cell growth and differentiation. It is commonly deregulated in leukemia. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by a blockade of granulocytic differentiation at the promyelocyte stage. Despite the great success of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based therapy, which results in a clinical remission by inducing promyelocyte maturation, a significant number of patients relapse due to the development of ATRA resistance. A significant role has been ascribed to the cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in retinoid treatment since PKA activation is able to restore differentiation in some ATRA-resistant cells and eradicate leukemia-initiating cells in vivo. In this study, using NB4 APL cell variants resistant to ATRA-induced differentiation, we reveal distinct functional roles of the two PKA isozymes, PKA type I (PKA-I) and PKA-type II (PKA-II), on the steady-state level of c-Myc protein, providing a likely mechanism by which cAMP-elevating agents can restore differentiation in ATRA maturation-resistant APL cells. Therefore, both the inhibition of c-Myc activity and the PKA-I/PKA-II ratio should be taken into account if cAMP-based therapy is considered in the clinical management of APL. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Characterization of a new (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase from the Japanese apricot Prunus mume and cDNA cloning and secretory expression of one of the isozymes in Pichia pastoris. (United States)

    Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Nanda, Samik; Kato, Yasuo; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa


    PmHNL, a hydroxynitrile lyase from Japanese apricot ume (Prunus mume) seed was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographic steps. The purified enzyme was a monomer with molecular mass of 58 kDa. It was a flavoprotein similar to other hydroxynitrile lyases of the Rosaceae family. It was active over a broad temperature, and pH range. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 amino acids) was identical with that of the enzyme from almond (Prunus dulcis). Based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme and the conserved amino acid sequences of the enzymes from Pr. dulcis, inverse PCR method was used for cloning of a putative PmHNL (PmHNL2) gene from a Pr. mume seedling. Then the cDNA for the enzyme was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence was found to be highly similar (95%) to that of an enzyme from Pr. serotina, isozyme 2. The recombinant Pichia pastoris transformed with the PmHNL2 gene secreted an active enzyme in glycosylated form.

  17. [The isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase and insulin activity in the light of phylogenetic theory of pathology. Oleic fatty acid and realization of biologic functions of trophology and locomotion]. (United States)


    The formation of function of isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturases occured at the different stages of phylogeny under realization of biologic function of trophology (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1) and biologic function of locomotion, insulin system (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2) billions years later. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1 transforms in C 18:1 oleic fatty acid only exogenous C 16:0 palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms only endogenic palmitinic saturated fatty acid, synthesized form glucose. The biologic role of insulin is in energy support of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin through expressing stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms energetically non-optimal palmitinic variation of metabolism of substrates into highly effective oleic variation for cells' groundwork of energy (saturated fatty acid and mono fatty acid). The surplus of palmitinic saturated fatty acid in food is enabled in pathogenesis of resistance to insulin and derangement of synthesis of hormone by beta-cells of islets. The resistance to insulin and diabetes mellitus are primarily the derangement of metabolism of saturated fatty acids with mono fatty acids, energy problems of organism and only afterwards the derangement of metabolism of carbohydrates. It is desirable to restrict food intake of exogenous palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The reasons are low expression of independent of insulin stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2, marked lipotoxicity of polar form of palmitinic saturated fatty acid and synthesis of non-optimal palmitinic triglycerides instead of physiologic and more energetically more effective oleic triglycerides.

  18. Combining structure-based pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, and in silico ADMET analysis to discover novel tetrahydro-quinoline based pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 activators with antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C


    Full Text Available Can Chen,1,2,* Ting Wang,1,3,* Fengbo Wu,1,* Wei Huang,4 Gu He,1 Liang Ouyang,1 Mingli Xiang,1 Cheng Peng,4 Qinglin Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Pharmacy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2College of Pharmacy and the First Affiliated Hospital, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, 3Department of Cardiology, Genenal Hospital of Chengdu Military Command, Chengdu, 4State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Compared with normal differentiated cells, cancer cells upregulate the expression of pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2 to support glycolytic intermediates for anabolic processes, including the synthesis of nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids. In this study, a combination of the structure-based pharmacophore modeling and a hybrid protocol of virtual screening methods comprised of pharmacophore model-based virtual screening, docking-based virtual screening, and in silico ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity analysis were used to retrieve novel PKM2 activators from commercially available chemical databases. Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives were identified as potential scaffolds of PKM2 activators. Thus, the hybrid virtual screening approach was applied to screen the focused tetrahydroquinoline derivatives embedded in the ZINC database. Six hit compounds were selected from the final hits and experimental studies were then performed. Compound 8 displayed a potent inhibitory effect on human lung cancer cells. Following treatment with Compound 8, cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were examined in A549 cells. Finally, we evaluated the effects of Compound 8 on mice xenograft tumor models in vivo. These results may provide important

  19. Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: I. Spectral Data-Activity Relationship and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Inhibitors and Non-inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Isozymes

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    Richard D. Beger


    Full Text Available An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D 13C and 1D 15N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D 13C-NMR and 15N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  20. Kinetic and Structural Characterization of a Heterohexamer 4-Oxalocrotonate Tautomerase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus J-10-fl: Implications for Functional and Structural Diversity in the Tautomerase Superfamily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, Elizabeth A.; Fleming, Christopher D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Whitman, Christian P.; Pegan, Scott D.


    4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) isozymes play prominent roles in the bacterial utilization of aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon sources. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 2-hydroxy-2,4-hexadienedioate (or 2-hydroxymuconate) to 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate, where Pro-1 functions as a general base and shuttles a proton from the 2-hydroxyl group of the substrate to the C-5 position of the product. 4-OT, a homohexamer from Pseudomonas putida mt-2, is the most extensively studied 4-OT isozyme and the founding member of the tautomerase superfamily. A search of five thermophilic bacterial genomes identified a coded amino acid sequence in each that had been annotated as a tautomerase-like protein but lacked Pro-1. However, a nearby sequence has Pro-1, but the sequence is not annotated as a tautomerase-like protein. To characterize this group of proteins, two genes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus J-10-fl were cloned, and the corresponding proteins were expressed. Kinetic, biochemical, and X-ray structural analyses show that the two expressed proteins form a functional heterohexamer 4-OT (hh4-OT), composed of three αβ dimers. Like the P. putida enzyme, hh4-OT requires the amino-terminal proline and two arginines for the conversion of 2-hydroxymuconate to the product, implicating an analogous mechanism. In contrast to 4-OT, hh4-OT does not exhibit the low-level activity of another tautomerase superfamily member, the heterohexamer trans-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (CaaD). Characterization of hh4-OT enables functional assignment of the related enzymes, highlights the diverse ways the β-α-β building block can be assembled into an active enzyme, and provides further insight into the molecular basis of the low-level CaaD activity in 4-OT.

  1. Isozyme variation in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) (United States)

    A genetic diversity analysis involving 49 lychee (Litchi chinensis SOM.) accessions using eight enzyme systems encoding 12 loci (Zdh-I, Zdh-2, Mdh-2, Per-l, Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Sk& Tpi-1, Tpi-2, Ugpp-1, and Ugpp-2) revealed moderate to high levels of genetic variability. Cluster analysis of the iso...

  2. Herança e ligação em locos isoenzimáticos de Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil. Inheritance and linkage in isozyme loci of Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João del GIUDICE-NETO


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o estudo davariação isoenzimática em Caesalpinia echinata L.(pau-brasil. Onze sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,DIA, EST, G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX,SKDH e 6PGDH codificando dezoito locos (Acp-1,Est-3, Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1,Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3,Prx-4, Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 e 6pgdh-2 foraminvestigados. Entre esses locos, Pgi-1 e Got-1foram detectados como monomórficos. Três locos(Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 e 6pgdh-1 não tiveram suaherança analisada devido à ausência de progênies deárvores heterozigotas na amostra. A herançamendeliana simples foi confirmada para dez locos(Acp-1, Dia-1, Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1,Prx-3, Skdh-1 e 6pgdh-2. Três locos (Pgi-2, Prx-2e Prx-4 apresentaram desvios altamentesignificativos (P < 0,01 para a hipótese desegregação regular 1:1. As relações dedesequilíbrios de ligações foram avaliadas em 120pares de locos isoenzimáticos. Seis pares de locosapresentaram ligação: Mdh-3:Dia-1, Mdh-3:Prx-3,6pgdh-1:Pgi-2, 6pgdh-1:Prx-1, 6pgdh-2:Prx-3 ePgi-2:Prx-4.This article presents a study of isozymevariation in Caesalpinia echinata L. (brazilwood.Eleven isozyme systems (ACP, DIA, EST,G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX, SKDH and6PGDH codifying eighteen loci (Acp-1, Est-3,Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2,Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3, Prx-4,Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 and 6pgdh-2 were investigated.Among these loci, Pgi-1 and Got-1 weremonomorphic. Three loci (Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 and6pgdh-1 were not evaluated for inheritance duethe lack of families from heterozygous mothertrees in the sampling. Mendelian inheritance wasconfirmed for ten allozyme loci (Acp-1, Dia-1,Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1, Prx-3, Skdh-1,and 6pgdh-2. Three loci (Pgi-2, Prx-2 and Prx-4showed significant deviations (P < 0.01 from expectedsegregation 1:1 hypothesis. Linkage relationshipswere examined for 120 pairs of allozyme loci.Six pairs of loci showed linked: Mdh-3:Dia-1,Mdh-3:Prx-3, 6

  3. Iodophanus carneus and I. testaceus (Ascomycota-Pezizales: Independent taxonomic identity or synonymy? A study of their morphology and isozymes Iodophanus carneus e I. testaceus (ASCOMYCOTA-PEZIZALES: ¿Identidades taxonómicas independientes o sinonimia? Estudio morfológico e isoenzimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E. Cinto

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to delimit two Iodophanus species: I. carneus and I. testaceus , based on morphological characteristics and electrophoretic patterns of their intracellular isozymes. Twenty monosporic strains were used, including five belonging to I. granulipolaris as a control. Fourteen isozyme systems were tested, and the five having the best resolution selected: aspartate aminotransferase, esterases, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. These analyses confirmed the similarity between I. carneus and I. testaceus , since they both produced the same band patterns, which were in turn different from the band pattern of I. granulipolaris. So, as we couldn´t find any character wich permit us to classify the isolated studied during this work in defferent species, we believe that I. testaceus shoul be consider as a synonym of I. carneus .El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la delimitación taxonómica de dos especies del género Iodophanus : I. carneus e I. testaceus a partir de caracteres morfológicos y de los patrones electroforéticos de isoenzimas intracelulares. Para ello se utilizaron veinte cepas monospóricas, cinco de las cuales pertenecientes a I. granulipolaris que fueron utilizadas como control. Se probaron catorce sistemas isoenzimáticos y se eligieron los cinco con mejor resolución: aspartato amino transferasa, esterasa, fosfatasa alcalina, glutamato dehidrogenasa y superóxido dismutasa. El análisis de los patrones isoenzimáticos corroboró la silimitud existente entre I. carneus e I. testaceus , ya que los patrones de bandas obtenidas para estas dos especies fueron iguales y diferentes de I. granulipolaris. Entonces, al no encontrar ningún caracter que nos permita separar a los aislamientos estudiados en este trabajo en dos especies distintas, proponemos a I. testaceus como un sinónimo de I. carneus.

  4. Industrial implications of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressouyre, G.M.


    Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector [fr

  5. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.


    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  6. Caracterização fisiológica, patogênica e análise isoenzimática de isolados monospóricos e multispóricos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Physiologic and pathogenic characterization, and isozyme analysis of monosporic and multisporic isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Márcia Ribeiro de Souza Serra


    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados isolados monospóricos, obtidos de seis isolados multispóricos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, de cajueiro e mangueira, quanto à morfologia das colônias, crescimento micelial em BDA, patogenicidade e análise isoenzimática. As colônias dos isolados multispóricos apresentaram diversidade quanto à cor e aspecto, mas não foram observadas variações expressivas na morfologia dos 60 isolados monospóricos, quando comparados aos respectivos multispóricos, e apenas em dois isolados foi possível observar características morfológicas diferentes. Os isolados estudados exibiram bom crescimento em BDA, aos seis dias de incubação. Alguns isolados monospóricos, obtidos de quatro multispóricos de cajueiro e mangueira, foram heterogêneos no crescimento micelial. A patogenicidade foi o parâmetro que melhor caracterizou a variação entre isolados monospóricos e multispóricos de C. gloeosporioides. Diferentes níveis de agressividade foram observados entre e dentro dos isolados monospóricos e multispóricos. Os padrões eletroforéticos de isoesterases demonstraram que não houve variação, quanto à análise isoenzimática, entre os isolados monospóricos e os multispóricos dos quais foram originados. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a escolha do tipo de isolado de C. gloeosporioides para estudos em cajueiro e mangueira deve ser precedida da comparação entre isolados monospóricos e multispóricos com base no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade.Monosporic isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtained from six cashew and mango trees multisporic isolates were characterized for colony morphology, mycelial growth on BDA, pathogenicity and isozyme analysis. The colonies of multisporic isolates presented diversity of color and aspect, but expressive morphological variations were not observed in 60 monosporic isolates compared to their respective multisporic. Only in two isolates it was possible to

  7. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Morales Corts


    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  8. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression...... and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  9. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications. (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul


    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  10. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.


    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  11. Two Cases of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis due to CYP4F22 Mutations: Expanding the Genotype of Self-Healing Collodion Baby

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguera-Morel, L.; Feito-Rodriguez, M.; Maldonado-Cid, P.; Garcia-Minaur, S.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, R.; Lucas-Laguna, R. De; Hernandez-Martin, A.; Torrelo, A.


    Collodion babies are born with a tight, shiny cast that sheds in a few weeks. After shedding, most patients will display features of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) later in life but in up to 10% of cases, the skin eventually becomes normal or only minimally involved, a phenotype

  12. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp | Efisue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, but no reliable means in tracking their identity, thus causing multiple naming of these varieties. The methods used for identifying different cultivars of crop plants are based conventionally on the phenotypic expressions of the plant, plant parts, seeds ...

  13. Isozyme and RAPD Variation on important Rice genotypes of India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 6, 2013 ... Ayurvedic literature (Indian Materia Media) from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries A.D. describes different rices, particularly scented varieties with medicinal and curative properties. As far back as 400 B.C., Susruta, the great Indian pioneer in medicine, described the medicinal properties of rice. India is a ...

  14. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  15. Peroxidase isozyme profiles in some sweet cherry rootstocks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    , 2005). Santamour (1980) defined role of peroxidase in graft compatibility as; 1) lignification is essential for a strong and permanent graft union; 2) peroxidase isoenzymes mediate the polymeri- zation of cinnamic alcohols to ...

  16. Discrimination of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using isozyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 16, 2014 ... discontinuous buffer system at a monomer concentration of 30% ... The voltage was set at 125 V ... After 30 min, 1 to 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide was added drop by drop till .... represent codominant loci distribution according to.

  17. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera


    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  18. Implications of antisocial parents. (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B


    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  19. Implications of secondary structure prediction and amino acid sequence comparison of class I and class II phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthases on catalysis, regulation, and quaternary structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, B N; Hove-Jensen, B


    Spinach 5-phospho-D-ribosyl alpha-1-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase isozyme 4 was synthesized in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. The activity of the enzyme is independent of P(i); it is inhibited by ADP in a competitive manner, indicating a lack of an allosteric site; and it accepts...... is consistent with a homotrimer. Secondary structure prediction shows that spinach PRPP synthase isozyme 4 has a general folding similar to that of Bacillus subtilis class I PRPP synthase, for which the three-dimensional structure has been solved, as the position and extent of helices and beta-sheets of the two...... in the spinach enzyme. In contrast, residues of the active site of B. subtilis PRPP synthase show extensive conservation in spinach PRPP synthase isozyme 4....

  20. Structuralism and Its Heuristic Implications. (United States)

    Greene, Ruth M.


    The author defines structuralism (a method for modeling and analyzing event systems in a space-time framework), traces its origins to the work of J. Piaget and M. Fourcault, and discusses its implications for learning. (CL)

  1. Strategic Implications of Global Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monaghan, Karen


    "Strategic Implications of Global Health" responds to a request from the Undersecretary of State for Democratization and Global Affairs for an intelligence assessment on the connections between health and U.S. national interests...

  2. The privacy implications of Bluetooth


    Kostakos, Vassilis


    A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implications. Furthermor...

  3. Maritime Violence : Implications to Malaysia


    Zubir, Nurulizwan Ahmad


    Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in M...

  4. Quantum histories and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, A.


    Classical mechanics and standard Copenhagen quantum mechanics respect subspace implications. For example, if a particle is confined in a particular region R of space, then in these theories we can deduce that it is confined in regions containing R. However, subspace implications are generally violated by versions of quantum theory that assign probabilities to histories, such as the consistent histories approach. I define here a new criterion, ordered consistency, which refines the criterion of consistency and has the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. This raises the question: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? If so, ordered consistency defines a version of quantum theory with greater predictive power than the consistent histories formalism. If not, and our observations are defined by a non-ordered consistent quantum history, then subspace implications are not generally valid. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murăriţa Ilie


    Full Text Available The authors have started from the idea that inflationary phenomenon is a companion, the cause and the effect of the globalization of poverty in the broader context of world economy globalization. Therefore, starting from a common definition of inflation, the first objective was to identify causal relationships that singularize contemporary inflationary process. After that, attention was focused on the implications of inflation in the current stage, bearing in mind that monetary financial theory and practice are operating with perfectly anticipated inflation or imperfectly anticipated inflation. Inflation has great implications on the long-term contracts and wage contracts.

  6. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education. (United States)

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

  7. Implications of SNOMED CT versioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Dennis; Cornet, Ronald; Lau, Francis


    To determine the changes each Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) release undergoes and the implications of those changes. (1) We reviewed the SNOMED CT Component History documentation and analyzed the Component History table in detail. (2) We outlined a list of semantic

  8. Military Implications of Global Warming. (United States)


    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  9. Pharmacogenetics and Cardiovascular Disease—Implications for Personalized Medicine (United States)

    Cavallari, Larisa H.


    The past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the genetic factors influencing response to a variety of drugs, including those targeted at treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the case of clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins, the literature has become sufficiently strong that guidelines are now available describing the use of genetic information to guide treatment with these therapies, and some health centers are using this information in the care of their patients. There are many challenges in moving from research data to translation to practice; we discuss some of these barriers and the approaches some health systems are taking to overcome them. The body of literature that has led to the clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotyping for clopidogrel, VKORC1, CYP2C9; and CYP4F2 for warfarin; and SLCO1B1 for statins is comprehensively described. We also provide clarity for other genes that have been extensively studied relative to these drugs, but for which the data are conflicting. Finally, we comment briefly on pharmacogenetics of other cardiovascular drugs and highlight β-blockers as the drug class with strong data that has not yet seen clinical implementation. It is anticipated that genetic information will increasingly be available on patients, and it is important to identify those examples where the evidence is sufficiently robust and predictive to use genetic information to guide clinical decisions. The review herein provides several examples of the accumulation of evidence and eventual clinical translation in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics. PMID:23686351

  10. Safety implications of control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.L.


    The Safety Implications of Control Systems Program has three major activities in support of USI-A47. The first task is a failure mode and effects analysis of all plant systems which may potentially induce control system disturbance that have safety implications. This task has made a preliminary study of overfill events and recommended cases for further analysis on the hybrid simulator. Work continues on overcooling and undercooling. A detailed investigation of electric power network is in progress. LERs are providing guidance on important failure modes that will provide initial conditions for further simulator studies. The simulator taks is generating a detailed model of the control system supported by appropriate neutronics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics submodels of all other principal plant components. The simulator is in the last stages of development. Checkout calculations are in progress to establish model stability, robustness, and qualitative credibility. Verification against benchmark codes and plant data will follow

  11. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A


    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir


    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in Malaysia and discusseswhether the definition of piracy under the International Law could be applied to these attacks. Thispaper concludes that cooperation between the region’s states and the enhancement of a good securitysystem of one state are needed to combat maritime violence. Thus it is imperative that the internationallaw need to be changed in order to enhance the meaning of piracy and also to include sea terrorism. Key words: piracy, maritime, terrorist

  13. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  14. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.


    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some...... cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...

  15. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Vatikiotis


    Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identification, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

  16. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.


    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  17. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)


    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

  18. CREAM: Results, Implications and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment has accumulated ∼161 days of exposure during six successful flights over Antarctica. Energy measurements are made with a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter. Charge measurements are made with timing scintillators, pixelated Si, and Cherenkov detectors to minimize the effect of backscattered particles. High energy cosmicray data were collected over a wide energy range from ∼ 1010 to ∼ 1015 eV at an average altitude of ∼ 38.5 km, with ∼ 3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. All cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Recent results from the ongoing analysis including the discrepant hardening of elemental spectra at ∼ 200 GeV/n are presented and their implications on cosmic-ray origin, acceleration and propagation are discussed. The project status and plans are also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI


    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  20. Conflict management: importance and implications. (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie


    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  1. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M.


    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  2. Implications of deforestation and desertification on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the implications of deforestation and desertification in sustainable agriculture. The problems of deforestation and desertification were examined as they affect land and agricultural productivity. The socio-economic implications of deforestation and desertification in sustainable agriculture were equally ...

  3. Biotransformation and induction: implications for toxicity, bioaccumulation and monitoring of environmental xenobiotics in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinow, K.M.; Melancon, M.J.; Lech, J.J.


    Biotransformation of xenobiotics in fish occurs by many of the same reactions as in mammals. These reactions have been shown to affect the bioaccumulation, persistence, residue dynamics, and toxicity of select chemicals in fish. P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity of fish can be induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but phenobarbital-type agents induce poorly, if at all. Fish monooxygenase activity exhibits ideal temperature compensation and sex-related variation. Induction of monooxygenase activity by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can result in qualitative as well as quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of a chemical. Induction can also alter toxicity. In addition, multiple P-450 isozymes have been described for several fish species. The biotransformation productions of certain chemicals have been related to specific P-450 isozymes, and the formation of these products can be influenced by induction. Exposure of fish to low levels of certain environmental contaminants has resulted in induction of specific monooxygenase activities and monitoring of such activities has been suggested as a means of identifying areas of pollutant exposure in the wild

  4. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Sinha

    Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at

  5. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians (United States)

    Noble, Michael R.


    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  6. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  7. Health implications of hydropower development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, A.K.


    Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

  8. Geometric Implications of Maxwell's Equations (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.


    Maxwell's synthesis of the varied results of the accumulated knowledge of electricity and magnetism, based largely on the searching insights of Faraday, still provide new issues to explore. A case in point is a well recognized anomaly in the Maxwell equations: The laws of electricity and magnetism require two 3-vector and two scalar equations, but only six dependent variables are available to be their solutions, the 3-vectors E and B. This leaves an apparent redundancy of two degrees of freedom (J. Rosen, AJP 48, 1071 (1980); Jiang, Wu, Povinelli, J. Comp. Phys. 125, 104 (1996)). The observed self-consistency of the eight equations suggests that they contain additional information. This can be sought as a previously unnoticed constraint connecting the space and time variables, r and t. This constraint can be identified. It distorts the otherwise Euclidean 3-space of r with the extremely slight, time dependent curvature k (t) =Rcurv-2 (t) of the 3-space of a hypersphere whose radius has the time dependence dRcurv / dt = +/- c nonrelativistically, or dRcurvLor / dt = +/- ic relativistically. The time dependence is exactly that of the Hubble expansion. Implications of this identification will be explored.

  9. Implications of human tissue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.


    Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole body contributions to the Transuranium Registry revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash fraction. The analysis of a whole body with a documented 241 Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies of the Registries are designed to evaluate in vivo estimates of actinide deposition with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, compare results of animal experiments with human data, and reviw histopathologic slides for tissue toxicity that might be attributable to exposure to uranium and the transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the Registries are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, safety standards, and operational health physics practices

  10. On the implications of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.D.


    In this paper, the authors consider some implications of confinement starting from the basic observation that cross-sections for the production of colored asymptotic states, such as free quarks and gluons, from color singlet initial states must be zero if QCD is to be confining. The authors discuss two pictures of confinement: the failure of the cluster decomposition property and the absence of a pole at timelike momenta in the propagator of a confined particle. The authors use QCD-based models as a framework to relate the failure of the cluster decomposition property to other ideas, such as the role of a nonzero gluon condensate. The authors' primary interest is to address the question of the absence of a mass pole through a study of model Schwinger-Dyson equations. These equations contain some of the dynamical information that is present in the study of the cluster decomposition property. The authors discuss the problems within this idea and its study using the Schwinger-Dyson equations

  11. National and international social implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zablocki, B.D.


    Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states

  12. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleick, P H; Cooley, H S


    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  13. Implications of Donald Macdonald's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolick, M.; Carr, J.; Hall, D.; Murphy, J.; Jennings, T.; Shepherd, J.


    The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work

  14. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ESL students ... and collaborative teaching/learning model involving the major course convenors. ... The quality of the work and mood of all concerned improved tremendously.

  15. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen


    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  16. Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial Performance of Sugar ... The respondents were functional heads of the companies under the survey. ... of downside losses in order to minimize the negative impact of risk on returns.

  17. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  18. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  19. The pedagogical implications of information and communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pedagogical implications of information and communication technology on adult education: a case study of the osun state colleges of ... Finally, the department should give individual students access to the use of 1C1 equipment.

  20. Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on Household Energy uses: Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation around Wondo Genet Catchments, South-Central Ethiopia.

  1. Personal Narratives: Cultural Differences and Clinical Implications (United States)

    Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa


    A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.

  2. Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for school leadership: A case study of two South African high schools. ... South African Journal of Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  3. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... with a specific focus on the themes that have dominated current studies, major research methods in use, major theories that ...

  4. Business ethics: implications for managed care contracts. (United States)

    Stahl, D A


    Business ethics is a specialized study that emphasizes how moral standards apply to organizations, policies, procedures and behavior. Moral standards must be considered to understand the implications of business ethics in subacute care.

  5. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.


    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Neurosurgical implications of Carney complex. (United States)

    Watson, J C; Stratakis, C A; Bryant-Greenwood, P K; Koch, C A; Kirschner, L S; Nguyen, T; Carney, J A; Oldfield, E H


    The authors present their neurosurgical experience with Carney complex. Carney complex, characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac myxomas, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, pituitary tumors, and nerve sheath tumors (NSTs), is a recently described, rare, autosomal-dominant familial syndrome that is relatively unknown to neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery is required to treat pituitary adenomas and a rare NST, the psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS), in patients with Carney complex. Cushing's syndrome, a common component of the complex, is caused by primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and is not secondary to an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed 14 cases of Carney complex, five from the literature and nine from their own experience. Of the 14 pituitary adenomas recognized in association with Carney complex, 12 developed growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion (producing gigantism in two patients and acromegaly in 10), and results of immunohistochemical studies in one of the other two were positive for GH. The association of PMSs with Carney complex was established in 1990. Of the reported tumors, 28% were associated with spinal nerve sheaths. The spinal tumors occurred in adults (mean age 32 years, range 18-49 years) who presented with pain and radiculopathy. These NSTs may be malignant (10%) and, as with the cardiac myxomas, are associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Because of the surgical comorbidity associated with cardiac myxoma and/or Cushing's syndrome, recognition of Carney complex has important implications for perisurgical patient management and family screening. Study of the genetics of Carney complex and of the biological abnormalities associated with the tumors may provide insight into the general pathobiological abnormalities associated with the tumors may provide insight into the general pathobiological features of pituitary adenomas and NSTs.

  7. Implications of U.S. electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, D.A.


    This article is a concise summary of the potential impacts of electric utility deregulation, including the resolution of stranded costs, impact on electricity rates, reformation of utilities, and reshuffling of the nation's fuel portfolio. The national and state implications of the deregulation of the electricity industry are monumental and overwhelming. The implications occur on many fronts, including monetary, quality, reliability, and environmental issues. Many significant changes will occur as a result--some will be positive and others may be more disturbing

  8. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.


    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  9. Prime implicants in dynamic reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrväinen, Tero


    This paper develops an improved definition of a prime implicant for the needs of dynamic reliability analysis. Reliability analyses often aim to identify minimal cut sets or prime implicants, which are minimal conditions that cause an undesired top event, such as a system's failure. Dynamic reliability analysis methods take the time-dependent behaviour of a system into account. This means that the state of a component can change in the analysed time frame and prime implicants can include the failure of a component at different time points. There can also be dynamic constraints on a component's behaviour. For example, a component can be non-repairable in the given time frame. If a non-repairable component needs to be failed at a certain time point to cause the top event, we consider that the condition that it is failed at the latest possible time point is minimal, and the condition in which it fails earlier non-minimal. The traditional definition of a prime implicant does not account for this type of time-related minimality. In this paper, a new definition is introduced and illustrated using a dynamic flowgraph methodology model. - Highlights: • A new definition of a prime implicant is developed for dynamic reliability analysis. • The new definition takes time-related minimality into account. • The new definition is needed in dynamic flowgraph methodology. • Results can be represented by a smaller number of prime implicants.

  10. Implicative Algebras | Kolluru | Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Keywords: Implicative ...

  11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations. (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R


    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  12. Uranium ore deposits: geology and processing implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyk, C.L.


    There are fifteen accepted types of uranium ore deposits and at least forty subtypes readily identified around the world. Each deposit type has a unique set of geological characteristics which may also result in unique processing implications. Primary uranium production in the past decade has predominantly come from only a few of these deposit types including: unconformity, sandstone, calcrete, intrusive, breccia complex and volcanic ones. Processing implications can vary widely between and within the different geological models. Some key characteristics of uranium deposits that may have processing implications include: ore grade, uranium and gangue mineralogy, ore hardness, porosity, uranium mineral morphology and carbon content. Processing difficulties may occur as a result of one or more of these characteristics. In order to meet future uranium demand, it is imperative that innovative processing approaches and new technological advances be developed in order that many of the marginally economic traditional and uneconomic non-traditional uranium ore deposits can be exploited. (author)

  13. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  14. The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.


    This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxide concentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of the carbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominated in trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv. The impact of carbon cycle uncertainties are smaller than those for climate sensitivity, and broadly comparable to the effect of uncertainty in technology availability

  15. Mainstreaming academic literacy teaching: Implications for how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws on research into the role of academic literacies within a range of disciplines and its implications for academic literacy teaching in Higher Education. The study explored ways of transforming current academic literacy teaching practices with a view to developing better synergy between the academic ...

  16. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION. AKINPELU, A.O. ... huge potential for the export market (Egesi et al., 2007). In urban areas ... farmer's/ household income and economic growth. Stakeholders in ..... dissertation submitted to the school of graduate studies in partial fulfilment of the.

  17. First Planck results and cosmological implications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The Planck satellite has measured CMB anisotropies over the full sky with unprecedented sensitivity. The collaboration has released its first CMB temperature maps and cosmological analysis on the 21st of March. I will present a summary of these new CMB results, focusing mainly on their implications for our understanding of the Universe.

  18. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications. (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.


    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  19. The CHARGE Association: Implications for Teachers. (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Dunne, Michele T.


    CHARGE association is described as a diagnostic label for a group of congenital malformations, including coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retarded postnatal growth/central nervous system defects, genital hypoplasia, and ear deformities. Etiology and characteristics of the CHARGE association are discussed, along with implications for…

  20. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pataracchia, B.


    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  1. Insecurity and national economic development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecurity and national economic development implications for Nigeria's vision 20: 2020. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... These social menace trigger off a worrisome sense of insecurity that challenge Nigeria's efforts towards national economic development and consequently its vision ...

  2. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development. (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  3. Proof complexity of intuitionistic implicational formulas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil


    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2017), s. 150-190 ISSN 0168-0072 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : proof complexity * intuitionistic logic * implicational fragment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016

  4. Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications for Quality in Language Teacher Education. ... attitude, focus and performance. The growing influence of constructivism in teacher education and the increase in the amount of research into teacher cognition has put the notion of beliefs and vision into central ...

  5. Understanding predation: implications toward forest management (United States)

    Harvey R. Smith


    It is generally accepted that when gypsy moths rest in the litter survival is low due to predation by ground-foraging generalist predators and that predation can maintain these populations indefinitely. Forest Service research on predators of gypsy moth continues to focus on population dynamics, the mechanisms of predation and forest management implications.

  6. Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)


    Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

  7. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.


    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  8. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental crises and problems throughout the world are widespread and increasing rapidly. In relation to these concerns, the article discusses the following aspects: people and the environment, environmental conflicts, climate change and environmental conflicts, and management implications. The section on people ...

  9. Social Constructionism and Ethics: Implications for Counseling (United States)

    Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Rudes, James


    Social constructionism is set forth as an epistemological framework from which to establish an ethical base for the field of counseling. The development of the social constructionist movement in counseling is described. Implications of a social constructionist position are considered in relation to ethics. A case example is provided to illustrate…

  10. Implicational Schemata and the Attribution of Morality. (United States)

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Spores, John M.

    Attribution of a disposition or trait to a person asserts information about the pattern of that person's behavior. Past research has suggested that a moral disposition implies only moral behavior, while an immoral disposition implies both moral and immoral behavior. The effect of these implicational schemata on attributions of morality was…

  11. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture. Increasing carbon dioxide: Good for most crops. Increase in mean temperature: orter ... Increasing rainfall intensity and dry days- more floods and droughts: Higher production variability. Himalayan glaciers to recede: irrigation in IGP gradually becomes less dependable ...

  12. Current Trends In Educational Technology: Implication On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the current trends in educational technology and the implication on educational managers in Nigeria. The current trends in the field of educational technology are centred on the influence of information and communication technology on the development of educational management. Various challenges ...

  13. Assisted Reproductive Technologies : Implications for Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assisted Reproductive Technologies : Implications for Women's Reproductive Rights and Social Citizenship. There is a general perception that assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) affect only a small number of affluent women in India. However, the ART industry - tied as it is to the vigorously pushed medical tourism ...

  14. Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism. (United States)

    Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

  15. The implications of the German Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Koeberlein, K.


    The methods and results of the German Risk Study published in 1979 are summarized and its implications for reactor safety are discussed. It has led to suggestions that risk analysis should be more widely used for nuclear and other technological systems. It has also identified the need for specific system modifications and confirmed trends in safety research. (author)

  16. Alternative Families and Children: Implications for Education. (United States)

    Alexander, Jannette; Eiduson, Bernice T.


    Since 1973, the UCLA Family Styles Project has studied a sample of nontraditional Caucasian families (single mothers, social contract families, communal families) plus a comparison group of conventional nuclear families. Findings are reported on parents' personal/social values and changes in childrearing practices. Implications for education are…

  17. Managerialism and higher education governance: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary ...

  18. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans...

  19. Feminist Developmental Theory: Implications for Counseling. (United States)

    Wastell, Colin A.


    Discusses the importance of counseling guided by a life-span development model. Emphasizes that one popular theory should be modified by taking into account a broader understanding of life-span development in terms of commonalities and differences in male and female development. Examines implications with borderline personality disorder and…

  20. Implications of Telecommuting in a Library Environment. (United States)

    Meglio, Delores


    Discussion of telecommuting possibilities focuses on a program at Information Access Company that allows indexers and abstractors to work at home. Employer and employee expectations are discussed, equipment provisions are described, employee benefits are examined, and implications for the library environment are suggested. (LRW)

  1. Globalisation; Its Implications and Consequences for Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to look at the concept of globalisations and analyse its implications and consequences for developing nations in Africa. It is premised on the general perception that globalisations is a positive and powerful force for the improved material well-being of humankind, that would aid the developing countries ...

  2. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...

  3. Implications of the behavioral approach to hypnosis. (United States)

    Starker, S


    The findings of behaviorally oriented research regarding the importance of cognitive-motivational variables in hypnosis are examined and some clinical and theoretical implications are explored. Hypnosis seems usefully conceptualized as a complex configuration or gestalt of interacting variables on several different levels, for example, cognitive, motivational, social, physiologic.

  4. Changing business environment: implications for farming


    Malcolm, Bill


    The natural, technological, economic, political and social environment in which farmers farm constantly changes. History has lessons about change in agriculture and about farmers coping with change, though the future is unknowable and thus always surprising. The implication for farm operation is to prepare, do not predict.

  5. Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt


    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...

  6. Energy from forests: environmental and wildlife implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, D [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Chick, S; Vergara, W


    This report analyzes the feasibility of utilizing forests in North America as an energy source. The analysis focuses on three major aspects: (1) the technology of converting wood biomass to energy; (2) the potential of wood as a source of energy; and (3) the environmental implications of using forest products for energy. 49 references, 6 tables.

  7. Total Quality Management: Implications for Educational Assessment. (United States)

    Rankin, Stuart C.


    Deming's "System of Profound Knowledge" is even more fundamental than his 14-principle system transformation guide and is based on 4 elements: systems theory, statistical variation, a theory of knowledge, and psychology. Management should revamp total system processes so that quality of product is continually improved. Implications for…

  8. The nuclear and its psychological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.


    From the 13. to 15. january 1977, the S.F.R.P. has organised at Paris, with the patronage of The National Institute of Health and Medical Research, the French Society of Radiology, a colloquium devoted to the nuclear and its psycho-implications sociological. It is a second edition, realised at the demand of the Antoine Beclere Center. (N.C.)

  9. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    main manifestations and implications of these conflicts are examined in the next section ... with invasive or alien species. This special ... the majority of potential pest species. ... Production of goods: food, durable materials and industrial products, ... well as a remarkably stable life support system that has allowed human.

  10. Clinical Implications Of Childhood Bilingualism | Southwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Clinical Implications Of Childhood Bilingualism.

  11. Federal Tax Implications of Charitable Gift Annuities (United States)

    Teitell, Conrad


    Surveys the federal tax implications of "immediate" charitable gift annuities (annuity payments beginning within one year of transfer) and "deferred payment" charitable gift annuities (beginning at a specified date), both of which enable individuals to make a charitable gift, retain a form of life income, and achieve federal…

  12. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin


    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  13. Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management among ... and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management among Nigerian Collegiate ... with e-waste may pose potential threat to human health and the environment.

  14. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava


    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

  15. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.


    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  16. Clinical implications of contemporary gender theory. (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy


    The current intellectual scene in psychoanalysis is marked by vigorous theoretical controversies about gender. The ideas being debated have important implications for clinical work, which have not been thoroughly explicated or integrated into common practice. These implications include the following: gender can accrue idiosyncratic meanings; gender identity is considered fluid and rigidity of gender identity deemed problematic; gender-related conflicts are typically described as divergent; analysis of superego conflicts related to gender becomes particularly important; and, finally, gender-related biases are seen as inevitable and must be taken into account in the clinical situation. A detailed clinical example illustrates the application of these ideas. While the more dramatic cases related to gender have been more frequent subjects of study, conflicts about gender are everyday occurrences for our patients and deserve further attention.

  17. Cosmological implications of grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopoulos, D.V.


    These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU 5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)

  18. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ... (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  19. Automotive fuels - environmental and health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.G.


    This document covers papers presented to the Institute of Petroleum's conference ''Automotive Fuels: Environmental and Health Implications'' held on the 9th October 1991. This wide ranging title meant that topics covered included the biochemistry, pathology and epidemiology of automotive fuel use, combustion science, environmental chemistry and atmospheric modelling. Also discussed are the technology of fuel and engine manufacture, limiting and containing emissions and social and political aspects relating to the use of automotive fuels. (UK)

  20. Civil implications of commercial nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.; Gallie, N.


    The following aspects are discussed; spent fuel transport by rail, routes and possible accidents; reactors, possible accidents and effects of radioactive releases to the environment; possible effects of sabotage and terrorist attacks; possible hazards from fuel reprocessing plants; radioactive wastes, inventories and possible effects of escape to environment; biological radiation effects; civil war effects and democratic freedoms; the miners' strike and its implications. (U.K.)

  1. Inferring Genetic Ancestry: Opportunities, Challenges, and Implications


    Royal, Charmaine D.; Novembre, John; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Goldstein, David B.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Clark, Andrew G.


    Increasing public interest in direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic ancestry testing has been accompanied by growing concern about issues ranging from the personal and societal implications of the testing to the scientific validity of ancestry inference. The very concept of “ancestry” is subject to misunderstanding in both the general and scientific communities. What do we mean by ancestry? How exactly is ancestry measured? How far back can such ancestry be defined and by which genetic tools? How ...



    Dukić, Nikolina; Arbula Blecich, Andrea; Cerović, Ljerka


    The main goal of this paper is to elaborate the importance of health literacy in cost-effective utilization of health care services which influence the efficiency of the entire health care sector. In order to complement the theoretical framework of the economic implications and the circular influence of health literacy on the economy, an empirical analysis was carried out using S–TOFHLA. The results suggest that the patients’ personal characteristics and the accessibil...

  3. Physician-Rating Web Sites: Ethical Implications. (United States)

    Samora, Julie Balch; Lifchez, Scott D; Blazar, Philip E


    To understand the ethical and professional implications of physician behavior changes secondary to online physician-rating Web sites (PRWs). The American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) Ethics and Professionalism Committee surveyed the ASSH membership regarding PRWs. We sent a 14-item questionnaire to 2,664 active ASSH members who practice in both private and academic settings in the United States. We received 312 responses, a 12% response incidence. More than 65% of the respondents had a slightly or highly unfavorable impression of these Web sites. Only 34% of respondents had ever updated or created a profile for PRWs, although 62% had observed inaccuracies in their profile. Almost 90% of respondents had not made any changes in their practice owing to comments or reviews. One-third of respondents had solicited favorable reviews from patients, and 3% of respondents have paid to improve their ratings. PRWs are going to become more prevalent, and more research is needed to fully understand the implications. There are several ethical implications that PRWs pose to practicing physicians. We contend that it is morally unsound to pay for good reviews. The recourse for physicians when an inaccurate and potentially libelous review has been written is unclear. Some physicians have required patients to sign a waiver preventing them from posting negative comments online. We propose the development of a task force to assess the professional, ethical, and legal implications of PRWs, including working with companies to improve accuracy of information, oversight, and feedback opportunities. It is expected that PRWs will play an increasing role in the future; it is unclear whether there will be a uniform reporting system, or whether these online ratings will influence referral patterns and/or quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory


    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  5. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary


    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  6. Competitive implications of cross-border banking


    Claessens, Stijn


    This paper reviews the recent literature on cross-border banking, with a focus on policy implications. Cross-border banking has increased sharply in recent decades, particularly in the form of entry, and has affected the development of financial systems, access to financial services, and stability. Reviewing the empirical literature, the author finds much, although not uniform, evidence that cross-border banking supports the development of an efficient and stable financial system that offers ...

  7. Market-Driven Management: the Policy Implications


    Bellini, Nicola


    The first policy implication of the diffusion of a Market-Driven Management approach is the same as the spreading of globalization, i.e. the obsolescence of industrial policies as traditionally designed and managed by Nation-States with the established toolbox of protectionism and subsidies, picking 'national champions', etc. The growing asymmetry between the physical jurisdiction of political bodies and the global operation space of modern corporations feeds the apparent trend toward company...

  8. Investigating Variations in Gameplay: Cognitive Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sedig


    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in creating computer games for learning, problem solving, and other high-level cognitive activities. When investigating whether gameplay is conducive to such activities, gameplay is often studied as a whole. As a result, cognitive implications can be linked to the game but not to its structural elements. Given that gameplay arises from interaction between the player and the game, it is the structural components of interaction that should be investigated to better understand the design of gameplay. Furthermore, minor variations in the components of interaction can have significant cognitive implications. However, such variation has not been studied yet. Thus, to gain a better understanding of how we can study the effect of interaction on the cognitive aspect of gameplay, we conducted an exploratory investigation of two computer games. These games were isomorphic at a deep level and only had one minor difference in the structure of their interaction. Volunteers played these games and discussed the cognitive processes that emerged. In one game, they primarily engaged in planning, but in the other game they primarily engaged in visualizing. This paper discusses the results of our investigation as well as its implications for the design of computer games.

  9. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother. (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A


    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  10. Myasthenia Gravis and Its Aeromedical Implications. (United States)

    Jagathesan, Tania; O'Brien, Michael D


    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune condition where antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, eventually causing damage to the motor end plate. The clinical features include muscle fatigability as well as ocular, bulbar, and limb weakness, which can have implications on the role of a pilot or air traffic controller. This retrospective study reviewed the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (UK CAA) experience of myasthenia gravis. A search of the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records database from 1990 to 2016 identified 11 individuals with a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Data were extracted for the class of medical certificate, age at diagnosis, symptoms, acetylcholine receptor antibody status, treatment, the time from diagnosis to loss of medical certification, and the reasons for loss of certification. There were two Class 1 certificate holders (for professional flying) and six Class 2 certificate holders (for private pilot flying) and three air traffic controllers. The mean and median ages at diagnosis were 53 and 57 yr, respectively, with a range of 28-67 yr. The mean and median intervals from diagnosis to loss of certification were 22 and 11 mo, respectively, with a range of 0 to 108 mo. The aeromedical implications of myasthenia gravis, including complications, types of treatment, and functional impact, are considered. A policy for medical certification following a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is proposed.Jagathesan T, O'Brien MD. Myasthenia gravis and its aeromedical implications. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):30-33.

  11. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications]. (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E


    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioenergy and its implication for yoga therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chathapuram Rajan Narayanan


    Full Text Available Electro photonic imaging (EPI is being researched relative to its application for yoga therapy. Three parameters of interest in EPI measurements are as follows: Communication energy (C, integral or normalized area (IA, and Entropy (E. It is important to note that C indicates the total energy of communication for the organ system; IA is an indication of total amount of energy that is available for the organ system while entropy is an indication of the amount of coherence of the energy. Coherence and entropy are inversely related; this means less the entropy, more the coherence and vice versa. Illustrative cases of successful therapy with yoga practices in a wide variety of abnormal conditions are examined, and in every case, entropy is shown to decrease for the affected organ system while communication energy stays within stable range. Relative to the electromagnetic (Rubik and living matrix (Oschman models, it is suggested that the regulation of energy, its coherence in the biological system and interaction with life processes provide the basis for model building and design of health-promoting procedures. Further, this approach is examined relative to yoga theory, traditional medicine systems, and scientific developments in the field of gene expression and neuroplasticity and a generalized model that we call Unified System of Medicine is proposed. This model has direct implications on methods used to control the environmental factors to get robust results from EPI application for therapeutic purposes. Implications for furthering research in yoga therapy using EPI and implications of EPI as a translational technology between traditional medicine systems and modern medicine is discussed.

  13. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumleve, T D [Plowshare Systems Research Division, Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  14. Stopping Power Measurements: Implications in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Angulo; Thierry Delbar; Jean-Sebastien Graulich; Pierre Leleux


    The stopping powers of C, CH 2 , Al, Ni, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) for several light ions ( 9 Be, 11 B, 12 C, 14 N, 16 O, 19 F, 20 Ne) with an incident energy of 1 MeV/amu have been measured at the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility. Stopping powers are given relative to the one for 5.5 MeV 4 He ions with an uncertainty of less than 1%. We compare our results with two widely used semiempirical models and we discuss some implications in nuclear astrophysics studies

  15. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette


    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design...... is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...

  16. Conflicting belief systems: some implications for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. van Niekerk


    Full Text Available In this article the conceptions of knowledge and time within Christianity, secular humanism and traditional African religion are juxtaposed. In order to emphasise the vital role o f belief systems in the field of education, some educational implications are inferred from these different conceptions of knowledge and time. The need to create enough space within the South African education system so that parents will be able to send their children to schools where education is conducted according to their particular belief systems is also foregrounded.

  17. Literature and the Sarau: Political Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Pivetta de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of the cultural gatherings that currently take place in the urban peripheries of Brazil’s larger cities, such as, for example, Sarau da Cooperifa, organized by Sérgio Vaz, and Sarau Suburbano, managed by Alessandro Buzo, both in São Paulo. We attempt to understand how they are organized and the cultural functions they perform in the context of a debate on literature as a cultural practice (Williams 1977; 2015 with aesthetic and political implications (Rancière 1996; 2009.

  18. Machine implications for detectors and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchi, Toshiaki


    Future linear colliders are very different at many aspects because of low repetition rate (5∼200 Hz) and high accelerating gradient (22∼150 MeV/m). For high luminosity, the beam sizes must be squeezed in extremely small region at interaction point (IP). We briefly describe new phenomena at the IP, i.e. beamstrahlung process, creations of e + e - pairs and minijets. We also report machine implications related to the energy spread, beamstrahlung, bunch-train structure, beam polarizations and backgrounds for detectors and physics

  19. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles


    Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  20. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail


    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cosmological implications of Higgs near-criticality. (United States)

    Espinosa, J R


    The Standard Model electroweak (EW) vacuum, in the absence of new physics below the Planck scale, lies very close to the boundary between stability and metastability, with the last option being the most probable. Several cosmological implications of this so-called 'near-criticality' are discussed. In the metastable vacuum case, the main challenges that the survival of the EW vacuum faces during the evolution of the Universe are analysed. In the stable vacuum case, the possibility of implementing Higgs inflation is critically examined.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.


    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  3. Implications of organizational ethics to healthcare. (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn; MacDonald, Chris


    Organizational ethics is an emerging field concerned with the study and practice of the ethical behaviour of organizations. For effective application to healthcare settings, we argue that organizational ethics requires attention to organizations' special characteristics combined with tools borrowed from the fields of business ethics and bioethics. We identify and discuss several implications of this burgeoning field to healthcare organizations, showing how organizational ethics can facilitate policy making, accountability, self-evaluation, and patient and business perspectives. In our conclusion, we suggest an action plan for healthcare organizations to help them respond appropriately to their ethical responsibilities.

  4. Dust and radon: the legal implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sittert, J.M.O.


    It is known that radon gas is not generally considered to be a major problem when encountered in the working environment. However, in its process of decay, a series of four short lived daughter products are formed. In a dust-laden atmosphere these daughter products, which are ionized readily, attach to the particulate material and when inhaled are deposited in the alveoli of the lungs. Therefore, if respirable dust is controlled, the effects of radon daughters will also be minimized. The legal requirements for dust control in South Africa and their implications are discussed. 1 ill


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES


    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  6. Global Climate Change: National Security Implications (United States)


    it cost to treat asthma in children and other health problems caused by the dirt we were putting out of the smokestacks. It was passed by Latin America for a number of years. General Clark used to say, “In SOUTHCOM, take no credit and expect none.” And I think that was a good rule...damage the health of our children .35 People also need to better understand the implications of globalization. Not all currently appreciate how our

  7. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles


    Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  8. Distribution of phospholipase C isozymes in various rat tissues and cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, P.G.; Ryu, S.H.; Choi, W.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Rhee, S.G.


    Monoclonal antibodies prepared against PLC-I or PLC-II enzyme did not cross-react with the other. Using a pair of antibodies which recognizes 2 different antigenic sites on the same molecule, radioimmunoassays were developed for the quantitation of PLC-I and PLC-II in homogenates of various tissues and cultured cells, prepared by homogenization in a 2 M KCl buffer. The contents of PLC enzymes were measured in 19 rat tissues, in human platelets and in 17 cultured cells. Results indicate that the concentration of PLC-I and PLC-II is very high in brain, PLC-I is localized mainly in brain and partly in seminal vesicles, PLC-II is found in most tissues and cells. PLC-I is highly localized even in brain: 5 different neuroblastoma did not contain PLC-I while 2 glioma and 1 astrocytoma contained significant amounts

  9. Laccase isozymes of Pleurotus sajor-caju culture on husk and bran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 20, 2008 ... be separated into three groups: unboundLac and bound fractions ... In the range of various dye concentrations tested, it was found that ... four copper ions, which are distributed among three ... with each copper ion appearing to play an important role ... exchange column equilibrated with the same buffer.

  10. Morphological variation and isozyme diversity in Dioscorea alata L. landraces from Vale do Ribeira, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Andrade Bressan


    Full Text Available Traditional growers of the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, grow and make use of several D. alata landraces. This study assessed the genetic diversity of 16 landraces, using isozymatic and morphological markers and comparing them with 19 commercial varieties of D. alata. Their distribution in different levels of organization such as households and communities of the Vale do Ribeira was evaluated. Isozymatic analyses were performed with polyacrylamide (six systems and starch gels (one system, while the morphological analyses were carried out with 24 traits. Due to the polyploid nature of this species, the isozymatic bands were scored as binary data. Morphological traits were also scored as binary data. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses were conducted for both markers, using for the later the Jaccard´s similarity coefficient and UPGMA method. The separation of the landraces from the commercial varieties, which showed lower genetic diversity, was reported for both markers. No correlation between genetic and geographical distances was found for both data, which suggests that the observed variability is not spatially structured. Also, no correlation was found between both markers. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that genetic diversity was mainly found within households for both isozymatic (54% and morphological (70% markers. The results obtained for both markers revealed the importance of traditional agriculturists in the Vale do Ribeira in maintaining high diversity for D. alata, even higher than the varieties commercialized in São Paulo State, contributing for the in situ/on farm conservation of this crop.

  11. Isozyme Variation in Two Samples of Babylonia areolata from Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T. X. T.; Nugranad, J.; Simonsen, V.


    Hylleberg, J. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress & Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP), Kodaikanal, Rameswaram and Tuticorin Tamilnadu, India, 28th September- 8th October 2000. Part 1. Tuticorin, India: Sugnthi Devadason Marine Research Institute (SDMRI...

  12. Apoenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase isozymes in serum and its diagnostic usefullness for hepatic diseases. (United States)

    Kamei, S; Ohkubo, A; Yamanaka, M


    Aspartate aminotransferase in the sera of normal subjects and of patients with hepatic diseases has been immunologically separated into two isoenzymes, cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The activity of the isoenzymes was measured in three different buffer solutions with or without pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. To attain maximal activation, the apoenzyme of mitochondrial fraction must be preincubated with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate longer than that of the cytosolic fraction in either of the three reaction mixtures. In most sera the activity of both isoenzymes increased substantially in the presence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate regardless of the type of buffer solutions. Both the apoenzymatic activity and the ratio of apo- to holo-enzymatic activity of each of the isoenzymes varied among samples from the patients with hepatic diseases. However, significantly high ratios of apo- to holo-enzymatic activity of both isoenzymes were observed in the patients with hepatoma in contrast with those with other hepatic diseases. These findings suggest that the simultaneous measurement of both apo- and holo-enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes may be useful in the clinical assessment of hepatic diseases.

  13. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole


    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  14. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of α-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Østergaard, O.


    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... identified only by immunostaining. Mass spectrometry identified 12 full-length forms and 12 fragments from the cultivar Barke. Products of both alpha-amylase 2 entries co-migrated in five full-length and one fragment spot. The alpha-amylase abundance and the number of fragments increased during germination...... products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  15. Effects of calcium ion concentration on starch hydrolysis of barley α-amylase isozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuk, Jeong-Bin; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hee


    Barley (x-amylase genes, amyl and amy2, were separately cloned into the expression vector of pPICZ alpha A and recombinant Pichia strains were established by homologous recombination. Both AMYs from Pichia shared almost identical hydrolysis patterns on short maltooligosaccharides to result...

  16. Isozyme-specific fluorescent inhibitor of glutathione s-transferase omega 1. (United States)

    Son, Junghyun; Lee, Jae-Jung; Lee, Jun-Seok; Schüller, Andreas; Chang, Young-Tae


    Recently, the glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) is suspected to be involved in certain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. However, profound investigation on the pathological roles of GSTO1 has been hampered by the lack of specific methods to determine or modulate its activity in biological systems containing other isoforms with similar catalytic function. Here, we report a fluorescent compound that is able to inhibit and monitor the activity of GSTO1. We screened 43 fluorescent chemicals and found a compound (6) that binds specifically to the active site of GSTO1. We observed that compound 6 inhibits GSTO1 by covalent modification but spares other isoforms in HEK293 cells and demonstrated that compound 6 could report the activity of GSTO1 in NIH/3T3 or HEK293 cells by measuring the fluorescence intensity of the labeled amount of GSTO1 in SDS-PAGE. Compound 6 is a useful tool to study GSTO1, applicable as a specific inhibitor and an activity reporter.

  17. Studies on the chromosome aberrations and isozyme patterns in cancer patients treated with therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.


    The chromosome aberration yield of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from cancer patients who had been locally irradiated with therapeutic radiation seems to be largely influenced by total dose, loss of cell with aberration, irradiation interval and dose per day. When treatment period from 7 to 21 days and total dose range from 1000 to 3000 rad, the aberration yield is considered to change according to total dose and accumulated effect by continued existence of damaged chromosomes. However, loss of cell with aberration might play important role in chromosome aberration yield of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from those who had received radiation above 3000 rad. In case that other conditions make little difference, dose per day and irradiation interval are looked upon as important factors in aberration yield of lymphocyte chromosomes

  18. Multiple forms of the human tyrosine phosphatase RPTP alpha. Isozymes and differences in glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daum, G; Regenass, S; Sap, J


    Among all the receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatase RPTP alpha clones described from mammalian tissues, one differed in that it encoded a 9-amino-acid insert 3 residues upstream from the transmembrane segment (Kaplan, R., Morse, B., Huebner, K., Croce, C., Howk, R. Ravera, M., Ricca, G...

  19. Gradient dissimilation in Mongolian: Implications for diachrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jatteau, Adèle; Hejná, Michaela


    This paper explores the implications of ‘gradient dissimilation’ (Jatteau & Hejná 2016) for the diachronic implementation of dissimilation. Since this sound change is usually considered as typically sporadic, lexically regular cases should result from lexical diffusion. In contrast with this ass......This paper explores the implications of ‘gradient dissimilation’ (Jatteau & Hejná 2016) for the diachronic implementation of dissimilation. Since this sound change is usually considered as typically sporadic, lexically regular cases should result from lexical diffusion. In contrast...... with this assumption, we explore the hypothesis that gradient dissimilation may represent the phonetic precursor of completed, regular dissimilatory processes. Such cases of dissimilation might then be reanalysed as Neogrammarian types of change. To assess this question, we gather and analyse new data from Halh...... Mongolian, a language reported to show gradient dissimilation (Svantesson et al. 2005), and compare it to two completed patterns of dissimilation reconstructed within the Mongolic family: Mongolian Chahar and Monguor. The results suggest that the gradient dissimilation in Halh may represent the phonetic...

  20. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying. (United States)

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates


    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions.

  1. Global implications of China's healthcare reform. (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian


    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  3. Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil ULUKAN


    Full Text Available Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications Cemil ULUKAN, Ph.D Anadolu UniversityOpen Education Faculty Eskisehir-TURKEYABSTRACT Technology and globalization are forcing higher education institutions to transform themselves. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding the leadership and managerial implications of recent developments for higher education. Reviewing unique characteristics and the fundamental changes shaping higher education, the paper examines the need for organizational transformation and the major managerial implications.

  4. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses. (United States)

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D


    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  5. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health. (United States)

    Rozek, Laura S; Dolinoy, Dana C; Sartor, Maureen A; Omenn, Gilbert S


    Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention.

  6. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip


    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  7. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Syam, P.V.S.


    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  8. Gestalt theory: implications for radiology education. (United States)

    Koontz, Nicholas A; Gunderman, Richard B


    The Gestalt theory of modern psychology is grounded in the ideas that holistic rather than atomistic approaches are necessary to understand the mind, and that the mental whole is greater than the sum of its component parts. Although the Gestalt school fell out of favor due to its descriptive rather than explanatory nature, it permanently changed our understanding of perception. For the radiologist, such fundamental Gestalt concepts as figure-ground relationships and a variety of "grouping principles" (the laws of closure, proximity, similarity, common region, continuity, and symmetry) are ubiquitous in daily work, not to mention in art and personal life. By considering the applications of these principles and the stereotypical ways in which humans perceive visual stimuli, a radiology learner may incur fewer errors of diagnosis. This article serves to introduce several important principles of Gestalt theory, identify examples of these principles in widely recognizable fine art, and highlight their implications for radiology education.

  9. Environmental implications of China's WTO accession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemo, Haakon; Aunan, Kristin; He, Jianwu; Hu, Tao; Li, Shantong; Rypdal, Kristin


    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

  10. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research (United States)

    Sheinbaum, C.


    While an integrated assessment approach will be required to achieve and sustain improvements in the air quality of Mexico City Metropolitan Area's (MCMA), policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air pollution. The required level of understanding can only be achieved by comprehensive atmospheric measurements followed by a coordinated atmospheric modeling program. The innovative, two-phase atmospheric measurement program, which was a collaborative effort between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission, with exploratory measurements in February 2002 and extensive measurements from late March through early May of 2003, was an important step towards meeting these requirements. Although the extensive data sets from the two measurement programs are still being analyzed by the investigators, their preliminary analysis efforts have yielded important insights into the nature and extent of air pollution problem in the MCMA, which in turn will have important policy implications.

  11. Tumor dedifferentiation: diagnostic and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Jha


    Full Text Available Some of the neoplasm especially malignant tumors are notorious in masquerading their cell of origin because of additional mutations which drives them to differentiate into unusual phenotype. This is implicated to a phenomenon of tumor dedifferentiation which can mislead into inappropriate categorization and therapy. Dedifferentiation is well recognized in sarcomas such as liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma and MPNST. However, it can also develop in carcinomas, melanomas and lymphomas at initial diagnosis, following therapy or at recurrence.  The phenomenon has been reported in both primary tumors as well as at metastatic foci. A correct and early pathological identification of this phenomenon might profoundly help in guiding appropriate therapy. Clinical and radiological findings, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis are often required for correct lineage identification of these tumors.

  12. Hyperspectral forest monitoring and imaging implications (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Bannon, David


    The forest biome is vital to the health of the earth. Canada and the United States have a combined forest area of 4.68 Mkm2. The monitoring of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of improved information products to land managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory (major forest species), forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon. Operationally there is a requirement for a mix of airborne and satellite approaches. This paper surveys some methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and discusses the implications for space initiatives with hyperspectral sensing

  13. IPAD products and implications for the future (United States)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.


    The betterment of productivity through the improvement of product quality and the reduction of cost is addressed. Productivity improvement is sought through (1) reduction of required resources, (2) improved ask results through the management of such saved resources, (3) reduced downstream costs through manufacturing-oriented engineering, and (4) lowered risks in the making of product design decisions. The IPAD products are both hardware architecture and software distributed over a number of heterogeneous computers in this architecture. These IPAD products are described in terms of capability and engineering usefulness. The future implications of state-of-the-art IPAD hardware and software architectures are discussed in terms of their impact on the functions and on structures of organizations concerned with creating products.

  14. [Mental Imagery: Neurophysiology and Implications in Psychiatry]. (United States)

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo


    To provide an explanation about what mental imagery is and some implications in psychiatry. This article is a narrative literature review. There are many terms in which imagery representations are described in different fields of research. They are defined as perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus, and can be created in any sensory modality. Their neurophysiological substrate is almost the same as the one activated during sensory perception. There is no unified theory about its function, but it is possibly the way that our brain uses and manipulates the information to respond to the environment. Mental imagery is an everyday phenomenon, and when it occurs in specific patterns it can be a sign of mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive implications of facilitating echoic persistence. (United States)

    Baldwin, Carryl L


    Seventeen participants performed a tone-pattern-matching task at different presentation levels while concurrently engaged in a simulated-driving task. Presentation levels of 60, 65, and 70 dBC (SPL) were combined factorially with tone-matching delays of 2, 3, and 4 sec. Intensity had no effect on performance in single-task conditions and short-delay conditions. However, when the participants were engaged concurrently in the driving task, a significant interaction between presentation level and delay was observed. In the longest delay condition, the participants performed the tone-pattern-matching task more efficiently (more quickly and without additional errors) as presentation intensity increased. These findings demonstrate the interaction between sensory and cognitive processes and point to a direct-intensity relationship where intensity affects the persistence of echoic memory. Implications for facilitating auditory processing and improving auditory interfaces in complex systems (i.e., transportation environments), particularly for older and hearing-impaired listeners, are discussed.

  16. Regulated necrosis and its implications in toxicology. (United States)

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi


    Recent research developments have revealed that caspase-dependent apoptosis is not the sole form of regulated cell death. Caspase-independent, but genetically regulated, forms of cell death include pyroptosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, and the recently discovered ferroptosis and autosis. Importantly, regulated necrosis can be modulated by small molecule inhibitors/activators, confirming the cell autonomous mechanism of these forms of cell death. The success of small molecule-mediated manipulation of regulated necrosis has produced great changes in the field of cell death research, and has also brought about significant changes in the fields of pharmacology as well as toxicology. In this review, we intend to summarize the modes of regulated cell death other than apoptosis, and discuss their implications in toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitcher, P.


    The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

  18. Projections of energy requirements and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogroian, P.


    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. The record of nuclear power forecasting (estimates of the growth of world nuclear power, penetration of the electric power market by nuclear power); brief review of energy forecasting techniques and problems; some views of future world energy demand (estimates of world primary energy requirements); possible allocations of energy resources to needs (allocation of resources (oil, oil from tar sands, shale, natural gas, coal, coal to gasification, hydroelectricity, renewable resources, nuclear) to the world's primary energy needs in the year 2000); observations on the adequacy of energy resources; implications for nuclear energy (postulated growth of world nuclear power, annual fuel cycle requirements of the world, annual uranium requirements of the world). (U.K.)

  19. Glutamate in schizophrenia: clinical and research implications. (United States)

    Goff, D C; Wine, L


    The excitatory amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are of interest to schizophrenia research because of their roles in neurodevelopment, neurotoxicity and neurotransmission. Recent evidence suggests that densities of glutamatergic receptors and the ratios of subunits composing these receptors may be altered in schizophrenia, although it is unclear whether these changes are primary or compensatory. Agents acting at the phencyclidine binding site of the NMDA receptor produce symptoms of schizophrenia in normal subjects, and precipitate relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The improvement of negative symptoms with agents acting at the glycine modulatory site of the NMDA receptor, as well as preliminary evidence that clozapine may differ from conventional neuroleptic agents in its effects on glutamatergic systems, suggest that clinical implications may follow from this model. While geriatric patients may be at increased risk for glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, very little is known about the specific relevance of this model to geriatric patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.


    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  1. The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety. (United States)

    Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G


    Drawing on previous theorizing from both the prejudice and social anxiety literatures, a model of the antecedents and implications of intergroup anxiety is offered. It is argued that a lack of positive previous experiences with outgroup members creates negative expectancies about interracial interactions, which result in intergroup anxiety. This anxiety is posited to result in heightened hostility toward outgroup members and a desire to avoid interacting with outgroup members. Study 1 examined White participants' responses to interacting with Black people using a range of self-report measures; the associations between these responses supported the relationships outlined in the model. Study 2 explored White participants' responses to an anticipated interaction with a Black person or a White person. The findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about an interaction with a Black person, but not a White person, were associated with a lower likelihood of returning for the interaction.

  2. Waste management implications of concentrating slimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios

  3. Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellender, R.


    Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes


    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  5. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications. (United States)

    Phillips, Janice


    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta


    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  7. Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.; Nolan, J.V.; Preston, T.R.


    The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

  8. Low energy implications of minimal superstring unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.; Vissani, F.; Masiero, A.


    We study the phenomenological implications of effective supergravities based on string vacua with spontaneously broken N =1 supersymmetry by dilation and moduli F-terms. We further require Minimal String Unification, namely that large string threshold corrections ensure the correct unification of the gauge couplings at the grand unification scale. The whole supersymmetric mass spectrum turns out to be determined in terms of only two independent parameters, the dilaton-moduli mixing angle and the gravitino mass. In particular we discuss the region of the parameter space where at least one superpartner is ''visible'' at LEPII. We find that the most likely candidates are the scalar partner of the right-handed electron and the lightest chargino, with interesting correlations between their masses and with the mass of the lightest higgs. We show how discovering SUSY particles at LEPII might rather sharply discriminate between scenarios with pure dilaton SUSY breaking and mixed dilaton-moduli breaking. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  9. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy. (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  10. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo-Taik


    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  11. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, Michel; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mauricio, J; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meissner, M; Mejia, H; Mendez-Munoz, V; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Mul, F; Müller, K; Munneke, B; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nawrot, A; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nikolaiko, Y; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Ostankov, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; van Overbeek, M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; van Petten, O; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Piedigrossi, D; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, M; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Rethore, F; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roeland, E; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; de Roo, K; Rouvinet, J; Roy, L; Rudloff, K; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Saornil Gamarra, S; Sapunov, M; Saputi, A; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savidge, T; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schimmel, A; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schneider, T; Schopper, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Sigurdsson, S; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Slater, M W; Sluijk, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Squerzanti, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; Tikhonov, A; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tocut, V; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ullaland, O; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vink, W; Volkov, S; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Vouters, G; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Warda, K; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Wenerke, P; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xue, T; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zappon, F; Zavertyaev, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A; Zwart, A; Bharucha, A; Bigi, I.I.; Bobeth, C; Bobrowski, M; Brod, Joachim; Buras, A J; Davies, C T H; Datta, A.; Delaunay, C; Descotes-Genon, S; Ellis, J; Feldmann, T; Fleischer, R; Gedalia, O; Girrbach, J; Guadagnoli, D; Hiller, G; Hochberg, Y; Hurth, T; Isidori, G; Jager, S; Jung, M; Kagan, A; Kamenik, J F; Lenz, A; Ligeti, Z; London, D; Mahmoudi, F; Matias, J; Nandi, S; Nir, Y; Paradisi, P; Perez, G; Petrov, A A; Rattazzi, R; Sharpe, S R; Silvestrini, L; Soni, A; Straub, D M; van Dyk, D; Virto, J; Wang, Y M; Weiler, A; Zupan, J


    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  12. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Joerg; Thielmann, Sascha


    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  13. Nuclear power: Health implications of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report provides general guidelines for national public health and environmental authorities. It does not provide detailed technical data, but instead broadly surveys the whole field, indicating the present position as assessed by members of the Working Group. The Working Group considered three major facets: physiological, toxicological and dosimetric aspects of the transuranium elements; the application of occupational health control, including health physics; and environmental behaviour together with public health implications associated with the transuranium elements. The intention was to cover all aspects relevant to health, with respect both to those who are occupationally engaged in work with such elements and to the general public who might be affected as the result of such operations. Consideration was also given to routine and emergency situations


    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.


    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  15. Implications of Canadian oil tax policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, G H


    This thesis examines some of the implications of the policy initiatives taken by both levels of government during the 1974-80 period (i.e., from the OPEC oil embargo and subsequent quadrupling of posted world oil prices to the introduction of the National Energy Program, or NEP). A survey of the fiscal instruments employed by both the federal and the oil-producing provincial levels of government to distribute the oil revenues generated in Canada is presented. The focus of this survey is primarily on the pre-NEP regime and the immediate post-NEP regime. The remainder of the thesis then deals with some of the distributional and efficiency aspects of these tax regimes. The thesis also examines the economic efficiency aspects of the pre- and post-NEP tax regimes. In particular, it addresses the issue of an inefficient allocation of resources within the oil industry itself.

  16. Racism and cardiovascular disease: implications for nursing. (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid


    The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern.

  17. Economic implications of resistance to antimalarial drugs. (United States)

    Phillips, M; Phillips-Howard, P A


    The widespread evolution of drug resistance in malarial parasites has seriously hampered efforts to control this debilitating disease. Chloroquine, the mainstay of malaria treatment for many decades, is now proving largely ineffective in many parts of the world, particularly against the most severe form of malaria--falciparum. Alternative drugs have been developed, but they are frequently less safe and are all between 50 and 700% more expensive than chloroquine. Choice of drug clearly has important budgetary implications and national malaria control programmes need to weigh up the costs and benefits in deciding whether to change to more effective but more expensive drugs. The growth in drug resistance also has implications for the choice of diagnostic tool. Clinical diagnosis of malaria is relatively cheap, but less specific than some technological approaches. As more expensive drugs are employed, the cost of wasted treatment on suspected cases who do not in fact have malaria rises and the more worthwhile it becomes to invest in more specific diagnostic techniques. This paper presents an economic framework for analysing the various malaria drug and diagnostic tool options available. It discusses the nature of the key factors that need to be considered when making choices of malaria treatment (including treatment costs, drug resistance, the costs of treatment failure and compliance) and diagnosis (including diagnosis cost and accuracy, and the often overlooked costs associated with delayed treatment), and uses some simple equations to illustrate the impact of these on the relative cost effectiveness of the alternatives being considered. On the basis of some simplifying assumptions and illustrative calculations, it appears that in many countries more effective drugs and more specific and rapid diagnostic approaches will be worth adopting even although they imply additional expense.

  18. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications (United States)

    Sun, Miantao


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  19. Paradoxical implications of personal social media use for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Rice, R.E.


    New information and communication technologies can have paradoxical implications: they may be liberating and constraining at the same time. This field study examines the direct implications of personal social media use for work on employees’ autonomy and work pressure, and the indirect effects on

  20. The SANE Research Project: Its Implications for Higher Education. (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew; Dugdale, Shirley


    Describes a 2-year research program called Sustainable Accommodation for the New Economy (SANE), which is exploring the implications of the distributed workplace. Its focus is on the creation of sustainable, collaborative workplaces for knowledge workers across Europe, encompassing both virtual and physical spaces. Discusses its implications for…

  1. The Technological Society: Implications for Women in the Workplace. (United States)

    Cianni, Mary; Weitz, Anna D.


    Although increased technology is altering the nature of work, familiar barriers continue to exist for women. Examines the equity of access to technology, the career implications for those employed at home, and the realities of newly promised occupational opportunities. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Author/BL)

  2. Poverty and Brain Development in Children: Implications for Learning (United States)

    Dike, Victor E.


    Debates on the effect of poverty on brain development in children and its implications for learning have been raging for decades. Research suggests that poverty affects brain development in children and that the implications for learning are more compelling today given the attention the issue has attracted. For instance, studies in the fields of…

  3. Kierkegaardian Implications of Punishment, Guilt, and Forgiveness for Education. (United States)

    Senyshyn, Yaroslav


    Explores Soren Kierkegaard's notion of punishment, which should interest educators because it provides a way to avoid the pitfalls of unjust punishment by viewing it in conjunction with the implications of guilt and forgiveness. The paper notes the need to question the notion of punishment closely and seek to understand its implications. (SM)

  4. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings. (United States)

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  5. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.


    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  6. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F


    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific

  7. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.


    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  8. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  9. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  10. The Implications of Deep Mitigation Pathways (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.


    The 21st Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC agreement called for limiting climate change to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C." A climate target of 1.5°C places a stringent constraint on allowable emissions over the twenty-first century. Roegli et al. (2015) set that constraint at 200-415 GtCO2 between 2011 and 2100 for a likely chance of staying below 1.5°C in 2100. Limiting emissions to these levels requires that global emissions peak and decline over the coming decades, with net negative global emissions by mid-century. This level of decarbonization requires dramatic shifts in the energy and agricultural sectors, and comes at significant economic costs. This talk explores the effect of mitigating climate change to 1.5°C on the economy, energy system, and terrestrial system. We quantify the required deployment of various low carbon technologies, as well as the amount of existing capital that is abandoned in an effort to limit emissions. We show the shifts required in the terrestrial system, including its contribution to carbon sequestration through afforestation and bioenergy. Additionally, we show the implications of deep mitigation pathways on energy, food, and carbon prices. We contrast these results with a reference, no climate policy, world and a 2°C.

  11. Relativistic implications of the quantum phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Stephen G


    The quantum phase leads to projective representations of symmetry groups in quantum mechanics. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the group. A celebrated example is Wigner's formulation of special relativistic quantum mechanics as the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. However, Wigner's formulation makes no mention of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and the hermitian representation of its algebra that are the Heisenberg commutation relations fundamental to quantum physics. We put aside the relativistic symmetry and show that the maximal quantum symmetry that leaves the Heisenberg commutation relations invariant is the projective representations of the conformally scaled inhomogeneous symplectic group. The Weyl-Heisenberg group and noncommutative structure arises directly because the quantum phase requires projective representations. We then consider the relativistic implications of the quantum phase that lead to the Born line element and the projective representations of an inhomogeneous unitary group that defines a noninertial quantum theory. (Understanding noninertial quantum mechanics is a prelude to understanding quantum gravity.) The remarkable properties of this symmetry and its limits are studied.

  12. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek


    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women.

  13. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy. (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J


    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  14. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.


    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  15. Rehabilitation of executive functions: Implications and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon


    Full Text Available Executive Functions (EF concern a range of abilities including problem-solving, planning, initiation, selfmonitoring,conscious attention, cope with new situations and the ability to modify plans if necessary. It’s a high cognitive function that is crucial for a person to get engaged and maintain daily activities whilst keeping a good quality of life. Problems in the EF were formerly known as Dysexecutive Syndrome (DS. There are many models concerning DS, although the literature on the subject still remains unclear. Several works appoint the effects brought by elderly life, as well as abuse of drugs and some psychopathologies. These factors are known to increase the distress of the frontal circuits and that could be associated to executive deficits. The effects of DS would compromise individuals in day-to-day routine, academic, social and labor fields. There is a growing body of studies trying to determine the causes, implications, associations and the best way to take care of these effects. This work intends to review DS, focusing on the most important fields related to this area, such as psychopathology associations, cognitive reserve, assessment and cognitive rehabilitation programs.

  16. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi


    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  17. Climate change: potential implications for Ireland's biodiversity (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison


    A national biodiversity and climate change adaptation plan is being developed for Ireland by the Department of Communications, Climate Action, and Environment. In order to inform such a plan, it was necessary to review and synthesize some of the recent literature pertaining to the impact of climate change on biodiversity in Ireland. Published research on this topic fell within three broad categories: (i) changes in the timing of life-cycle events (phenology) of plants, birds, and insects; (ii) changes in the geographic range of some bird species; and (iii) changes in the suitable climatic zones of key habitats and species. The synthesis revealed evidence of (i) a trend towards earlier spring activity of plants, birds, and insects which may result in a change in ecosystem function; (ii) an increase in the number of bird species; and (iii) both increases and decreases in the suitable climatic area of key habitats and species, all of which are expected to impact Ireland's future biodiversity. This process identified data gaps and limitations in available information both of which could be used to inform a focused research strategy. In addition, it raises awareness of the potential implications of climate change for biodiversity in Ireland and elsewhere and demonstrates the need for biodiversity conservation plans to factor climate change into future designs.

  18. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space (United States)

    Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas


    We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.

  19. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R. J.; Bartlett, D. T.; Hager, I. G.; Jones, I. N.; Molinos, C.; Roberts, N. J.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.


    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. (authors)

  20. Implications and Prospects of the GNEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jae-Soo; Lee, Byung-Wook; Lee, Han-Myung; Ko, Han-Suk; Lee, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Hak-Ro


    As increased recognition for a role of an economical carbon-free nuclear energy, it is expected that possibility for introduction and an expansion of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be increased around the world,1) with pursuing self-reliant nuclear fuel cycle in certain states to secure assurances of nuclear fuel supply. However, the pursuit of sensitive nuclear technology such as enrichment and reprocessing has led to concerns about nuclear proliferation. The disclosure of nuclear black market has threatened the current global nonproliferation regime.2) To respond to these concerns, efforts have been made to overcome the loophole of the existing nuclear nonproliferation regime. In February 2004, US President Bush proposed that nuclear exporters refuse to transfer sensitive nuclear technology to prevent new states from producing fissile material to close a loophole in the NPT.3) Meanwhile as the amount of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by once-through fuel cycle increases, the US needs multiple repositories by the end of the century.4) In February 2006, therefore, Bush administration announced the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which can bring about expansion of nuclear energy including SNF management while decreasing the risk of nuclear proliferation. It is expected that the GNEP will have an effect on national nuclear programs of participating countries as well as nuclear international cooperation. In this regard, this paper discusses the implication of the GNEP and its prospects

  1. Online customer experience: Implications for digital banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štavljanin Velimir


    Full Text Available Banks will be facing great challenges in the coming period. Some of these challenges are a lack of differentiation, disloyal customers, new non-traditional competitors, increased interaction and expectations from digital channels. Many consulting firms, but also the academic community, propose a solution in the form of implementing the concept of customer experience management. As research shows that a large number of challenges come from the online environment, it is necessary for banks to ensure excellence in the online environment by applying the concept of online customer experience. In order to create this experience, it is up to the banks to meet all the necessary antecedents, which can involve the elements in terms of control, processes and content. This can be a very difficult job if one is unfamiliar with the basics, but it could also be a rewarding job which will reflect on the business performance. Although the focus of the paper is online customer experience, even in the developed countries 'digital' customers are rare. Most of them are multichannel oriented and an important aspect is the multichannel integration and the strategy focused on customer experience. This paper presents an overview of the literature in the field of online customer experience, with the aim of introducing the public with the concept as well as presenting the implications which this concept has for digital banking.

  2. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore


    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  3. Atropa belladonna neurotoxicity: Implications to neurological disorders. (United States)

    Kwakye, Gunnar F; Jiménez, Jennifer; Jiménez, Jessica A; Aschner, Michael


    Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, ranks among one of the most poisonous plants in Europe and other parts of the world. The plant contains tropane alkaloids including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, which are used as anticholinergics in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs and homeopathic remedies. These alkaloids can be very toxic at high dose. The FDA has recently reported that Hyland's baby teething tablets contain inconsistent amounts of Atropa belladonna that may have adverse effects on the nervous system and cause death in children, thus recalled the product in 2017. A greater understanding of the neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna and its modification of genetic polymorphisms in the nervous system is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, regulations, education of at-risk populations, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. This review offers an integrated view of the homeopathy and neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna in children, adults, and animal models as well as its implications to neurological disorders. Particular attention is dedicated to the pharmaco/toxicodynamics, pharmaco/toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, epidemiological cases, and animal studies associated with the effects of Atropa belladonna on the nervous system. Additionally, we discuss the influence of active tropane alkaloids in Atropa belladonna and other similar plants on FDA-approved therapeutic drugs for treatment of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications. (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan


    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  5. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian


    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  6. The public health implications of melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J.J. Inglis

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a biological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

  7. [Hepatitis E virus: Blood transfusion implications]. (United States)

    Gallian, P; Piquet, Y; Assal, A; Djoudi, R; Chiaroni, J; Izopet, J; Tiberghien, P


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Clinical implications of polycystic ovary syndrome]. (United States)

    Dravecká, Ingrid

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous and complex endocrine disease which among the female population belongs to the most widespread endocrinopathies and it is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism, anticoagulation and infertility. Insulin resistance is one of the important diabetology factors impacting hyperglycaemia in a majority of women with PCOS (60-80 %). Clinical expressions of PCOS include reproduction disorders, metabolic characteristics and psychological implications. Reproduction disorders include hyperthyroidism, menstruation cycle disorders, infertility and pregnancy complications as well as early abortions, gestational diabetes and pregnancy induced hypertension. Long-term metabolic risks of PCOS include type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. The available data confirms higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in women with PCOS. In particular among obese women PCOS is more frequently associated with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, sleep apnoea syndrome and endometrial cancer. The literature includes some controversial data about the relationship between PCOS and autoimmunity. Women with PCOS are more prone to suffer from insufficient confidence with higher incidence of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder and eating disorders. autoimmunity - diabetes mellitus - pregnancy - insulin resistance - metabolic syndrome - menstrual disorders - polycystic ovary syndrome.

  9. Effects of Odor on Emotion, with Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko eKadohisa


    Full Text Available The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger, and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.

  10. Environmental implications of carbon limits on market ... (United States)

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy system, particularly those with policies limiting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper develops and analyzes scenarios using a bottom-up, technology rich optimization model of the U.S. energy system. Two distinct carbon reduction goals were set up for analysis. In Target 1, carbon emission reduction goals were only included for the electric sector. In Target 2, carbon emission reduction goals were set across the entire energy system with the target patterned after the U.S.’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions as part of the Paris Agreement reached at the COP21 summit. From a system-wide carbon reduction standpoint, Target 2 is significantly more stringent. In addition, these scenarios examine the implications of various CHP capacity expansion and contraction assumptions and energy prices. The largest CHP capacity expansion are observed in scenarios that included Target 1, but investments were scaled back in scenarios that incorporated Target 2. The latter scenario spurred rapid development of zero-emissions technologies within the electric sector, and purchased electricity increased dramatically in many end-use sectors. The results suggest that CHP may play a role in a carbon-c

  11. Surgical orodental implications in ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh


    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint and the pelvic complex are bidirectionally related. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a seronegative arthropathy with the key feature of bony fusion of lumbar vertebrae. A 39 year old known case of AS was presented to private office for left lower impacted third molar surgical removal. Previously, he was rejected to receive oral care for pulpectomy and extraction due to limited mouth opening. Prior to the surgery, lateral neck radiography was obtained to exclude any subluxation of fracture of cervical vertebrae. Neck was supported to insure neck stability during surgical forces. In addition, considering consumption of immunosuppressive medications including corticosteroids, procedure was performed with a great care, with attention to higher possibility of infection and fracture. Access to the surgical site was not desirable, though surgery accomplished without any significant event and the patient discharged with routine analgesic and antibiotics recommendation. Sometimes, impaired access to the oral cavity in patients with AS leads to receive suboptimal or minimal orodental care. Long list of dental implications in these patients may be simplified by considering of careful neck and jaw support, applying at least possible forces and great attention to the infection control rules. It is wised to be performed under patient and skilled hands.

  12. Environmental implications and applications of engineered ... (United States)

    This review focus on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that take advantages of their superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition, hydrothermal process, emulsion, and microbial process. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for making excellent anode electrode materials in lithium-ion battery, for constructing biosensors, and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are made as antimicrobial agent for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dye, oil, arsenic, Cr(VI), heavy metals, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization. Submit to Journal of Hazardous Materials.

  13. Microsporogenesis of Cycas and its systematic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Fen ZHANG; Hai-Bo OUYANG; Jin-Yan DU; Shou-Zhou ZHANG; Yong LI; Hong WU


    Taxonomists are divided over the infrageneric classification and species delimitation within the genus Cycas.The division is largely determined by whether a broad or narrow species concept is adopted,the latter approach being based on apparently minor morphological differences.It is well known that cytokinesis in the cells of pollen provides important evidence for plant taxonomy,particularly at the higher taxonomic level.Here we present the first broad comparison of the cytokinesis of male meiosis in five species of Cycas.A comparative analysis of microsporogenesis in Cycas was carried out using conventional microscopy,semi-thin sectioning,histochemistry,and fluorescence microscopy with a focus on the cytokinesis of meiosis in the pollen of dividing cells.Our observations confirmed that,contrary to previous reports,the cytokinesis in male meiosis of five species in Cycas is simultaneous at the end of second meiosis.The basic model of microsporogenesis and its systematic implications in Cycas is discussed based both on previous reports and our new results.

  14. Neutrino masses and mixing: evidence and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Nir, Yosef


    Measurements of various features of the fluxes of atmospheric and solar neutrinos have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations and therefore for neutrino masses and mixing. The authors review the phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter. They present the existing evidence from solar and atmospheric neutrinos as well as the results from laboratory searches, including the final status of the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) experiment. The theoretical inputs that are used to interpret the experimental results are described in terms of neutrino oscillations. The allowed ranges for the mass and mixing parameters are derived in two frameworks: First, each set of observations is analyzed separately in a two-neutrino framework; Second, the data from solar and atmospheric neutrinos are analyzed in a three-active-neutrino framework. The theoretical implications of these results are then discussed, including the existence of new physics, the estimate of the scale of this new physics, and the lessons for grand unified theories, for models of extra dimensions and singlet fermions in the bulk, and for flavor models

  15. Cosmological implications of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Bernal, José; Bellomo, Nicola; Raccanelli, Alvise; Verde, Licia, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [ICC, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The possibility that a relevant fraction of the dark matter might be comprised of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) has been seriously reconsidered after LIGO's detection of a ∼ 30 M {sub ⊙} binary black holes merger. Despite the strong interest in the model, there is a lack of studies on possible cosmological implications and effects on cosmological parameters inference. We investigate correlations with the other standard cosmological parameters using cosmic microwave background observations, finding significant degeneracies, especially with the tilt of the primordial power spectrum and the sound horizon at radiation drag. However, these degeneracies can be greatly reduced with the inclusion of small scale polarization data. We also explore if PBHs as dark matter in simple extensions of the standard ΛCDM cosmological model induces extra degeneracies, especially between the additional parameters and the PBH's ones. Finally, we present cosmic microwave background constraints on the fraction of dark matter in PBHs, not only for monochromatic PBH mass distributions but also for popular extended mass distributions. Our results show that extended mass distribution's constraints are tighter, but also that a considerable amount of constraining power comes from the high-ℓ polarization data. Moreover, we constrain the shape of such mass distributions in terms of the correspondent constraints on the PBH mass fraction.

  16. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, P.


    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  17. Comprehensive Map of Molecules Implicated in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisri Jagannadham

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic affecting over 1.5 billion people and is one of the risk factors for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We have constructed a comprehensive map of the molecules reported to be implicated in obesity. A deep curation strategy was complemented by a novel semi-automated text mining system in order to screen 1,000 full-length research articles and over 90,000 abstracts that are relevant to obesity. We obtain a scale free network of 804 nodes and 971 edges, composed of 510 proteins, 115 genes, 62 complexes, 23 RNA molecules, 83 simple molecules, 3 phenotype and 3 drugs in "bow-tie" architecture. We classify this network into 5 modules and identify new links between the recently discovered fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene with well studied examples such as insulin and leptin. We further built an automated docking pipeline to dock orlistat as well as other drugs against the 24,000 proteins in the human structural proteome to explain the therapeutics and side effects at a network level. Based upon our experiments, we propose that therapeutic effect comes through the binding of one drug with several molecules in target network, and the binding propensity is both statistically significant and different in comparison with any other part of human structural proteome.

  18. Monitoring gaseous exchange: implications for nursing care. (United States)

    Martin, Susan; Wilson, Michael


    The purpose of this study is to examine whether a relationship exists between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 and PETCO2 respectively) in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and what the implications it has for nursing care. PaCO2 and PETCO2 are indicators of ventilatory adequacy which is an important aspect of respiratory function. These measures of carbon dioxide tension are obtained via invasive and non-invasive monitoring tools. Measurement of PETCO2 has only recently been introduced into ICUs and its usefulness in these environments is open to debate. A population of 30 intubated patients had 214 simultaneous measurements of PaCO2 and PETCO2 taken over a period of 10 months. The findings indicate that, despite strong significant correlations, PETCO2 cannot be used safely as a substitute for PaCO2 as the arterial/end-tidal carbon dioxide gradient is not constant, nor does capnography provide a consistently reliable indicator of PaCO2.

  19. Atherosclerosis in epilepsy: its causes and implications. (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A


    Evidence from epidemiological, longitudinal, prospective, double-blinded clinical trials as well as case reports documents age-accelerated atherosclerosis with increased carotid artery intima media thickness (CA-IMT) in patients with epilepsy. These findings raise concern regarding their implications for age-accelerated cognitive and behavioral changes in midlife and risk of later age-related cognitive disorders including neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chronic epilepsy, cerebral atherosclerosis, and age-related cognitive disorders including AD share many clinical manifestations (e.g. characteristic cognitive deficits), risk factors, and structural and pathological brain abnormalities. These shared risk factors include increased CA-IMT, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), lipid abnormalities, weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and high levels of inflammatory and oxidative stresses. The resulting brain structural and pathological abnormalities include decreased volume of the hippocampus, increased cortical thinning of the frontal lobe, ventricular expansion and increased white matter ischemic disease, total brain atrophy, and β-amyloid protein deposition in the brain. The knowledge that age-accelerated atherosclerosis may contribute to age-accelerated cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and structural brain pathologies in patients with chronic epilepsy represents an important research path to pursue future clinical and management considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Science and religion: implications for science educators (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.


    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  1. The compression dome concept: the restorative implications. (United States)

    Milicich, Graeme


    Evidence now supports the concept that the enamel on a tooth acts like a compression dome, much like the dome of a cathedral. With an overlying enamel compression dome, the underlying dentin is protected from damaging tensile forces. Disruption of a compression system leads to significant shifts in load pathways. The clinical restorative implications are significant and far-reaching. Cutting the wrong areas of a tooth exposes the underlying dentin to tensile forces that exceed natural design parameters. These forces lead to crack propagation, causing flexural pain and eventual fracture and loss of tooth structure. Improved understanding of the microanatomy of tooth structure and where it is safe to cut teeth has led to a revolution in dentistry that is known by several names, including microdentistry, minimally invasive dentistry, biomimetic dentistry, and bioemulation dentistry. These treatment concepts have developed due to a coalescence of principles of tooth microanatomy, material science, adhesive dentistry, and reinforcing techniques that, when applied together, will allow dentists to repair a compromised compression dome so that it more closely replicates the structure of the healthy tooth.

  2. Implications of recurrent disturbance for genetic diversity. (United States)

    Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J; Landguth, Erin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Banks, Sam C


    Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes.

  3. The Greek crisis: Causes and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamis Prodromos


    Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

  4. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))


    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  5. Statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions - 051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwen, Xu; Rhodes, J.; Smith, K.


    As a result of steady advances of computer power, continuous-energy Monte Carlo depletion analysis is attracting considerable attention for reactor burnup calculations. The typical Monte Carlo analysis is set up as a combination of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver and a fuel burnup solver. Note that the burnup solver is a deterministic module. The statistical errors in Monte Carlo solutions are introduced into nuclide number densities and propagated along fuel burnup. This paper is towards the understanding of the statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions, including both statistical bias and statistical variations in depleted fuel number densities. The deterministic Studsvik lattice physics code, CASMO-5, is modified to model the Monte Carlo depletion. The statistical bias in depleted number densities is found to be negligible compared to its statistical variations, which, in turn, demonstrates the correctness of the Monte Carlo depletion method. Meanwhile, the statistical variation in number densities generally increases with burnup. Several possible ways of reducing the statistical errors are discussed: 1) to increase the number of individual Monte Carlo histories; 2) to increase the number of time steps; 3) to run additional independent Monte Carlo depletion cases. Finally, a new Monte Carlo depletion methodology, called the batch depletion method, is proposed, which consists of performing a set of independent Monte Carlo depletions and is thus capable of estimating the overall statistical errors including both the local statistical error and the propagated statistical error. (authors)

  6. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  7. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice. (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J


    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. Legal implications of genetics and crime research. (United States)

    Denno, D W


    Two controversial topics dominate discussions of the legal implications of genetics and crime research; (1) the viability and politics of such research, which has sparked fervent debate in the USA; and (2) the current status of new or atypical criminal law defences, which would include a genetic-defect defence to criminal behaviour. This chapter begins by examining the scientifically discredited XYY chromosome syndrome defence, the major genetic-defect defence that defendants have attempted, albeit unsuccessfully. It then focuses on attorneys' efforts to test for evidence of genetic abnormality in the recent and highly publicized case involving convicted murderer Stephen Mobley, whose family history reveals four generations of violent, aggressive and behaviourally disordered men and women. Mobley is currently appealing his death sentence before the Georgia Supreme Court on the basis that the trial court denied his request both to have genetic testing performed and to have such testing allowed as evidence into court. This chapter concludes by emphasizing that the question is not whether genetic evidence will ever be admitted into court, but when and under what kinds of circumstances. No doubt, genetic evidence, and comparable kinds of biological evidence, will have a major impact on juries when such evidence is more fully accepted by the legal and scientific communities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cîrstea


    Full Text Available Abstract We live in an environment in which e-commerce continues to grow and evolve while state legislators attempt to catch up to the ever-changing technology. Today electronic transactions are more and more frequently supplementing or even entirely replacing traditional channels and business models. Even though, in theory, is easy to apply laws to Internet, in practice is harder. This article synthesizes a number of issues on the application of Romanian legislation on ecommerce and offers practical solutions both to managers and to authorities. The article use quantitative and qualitative methods in order to identify the information provided by catering web sites to their consumers in Romania, compared to United Kingdom. The research results raise question marks about how is written and applied Internet law in Romania and also about the limitations of Romanian electronic commerce legislation. Also it shows how companies fail to comply with applicable legislation and to attract their consumers. Managerial implications related to these findings are provided and future studies are encouraged to be investigated.

  10. A neurophysiological approach to tinnitus: clinical implications. (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Hazell, J W


    This paper presents a neurophysiological approach to tinnitus and discusses its clinical implications. A hypothesis of discordant damage of inner and outer hair cells systems in tinnitus generation is outlined. A recent animal model has facilitated the investigation of the mechanisms of tinnitus and has been further refined to allow for the measurement of tinnitus pitch and loudness. The analysis of the processes involved in tinnitus detection postulates the involvement of an abnormal increase of gain within the auditory system. Moreover, it provides a basis for treating patients with hyperacusis, which we are considering to be a pre-tinnitus state. Analysis of the process of tinnitus perception allows for the possibility of facilitating the process of tinnitus habituation for the purpose of its alleviation. The combining of theoretical analysis with clinical findings has resulted in the creation of a multidisciplinary Tinnitus Centre. The foundation of the Centre focuses on two goals: the clinical goal is to remove tinnitus perception from the patient's consciousness, while directing research toward finding a mechanism-based method for the suppression of tinnitus generators and processes responsible for enhancement of tinnitus-related neuronal activity.

  11. Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R


    BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

  12. Origin and implications of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (United States)

    Narang, H


    All spongiform encephalopathies in animals, including humans, are slow developing infectious diseases. The current working theory links the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to the feeding of cattle with meat and bone meal prepared from scrapie-infected sheep remains. Recycling of cattle meat and bones (MBM) essentially resulted in the selection of a single strain from the "wild type", a mixture of 20 strains. The BSE agent is easily transmitted through ingestion, with some evidence of vertical transmission. Paradoxically, cattle have selected a major new strain which appears to be more virulent than an unselected strain found in scrapie sheep. The same strain of BSE agent is implicated in the occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy in domestic cats, tiger, and some exotic species of ruminants in zoos. The properties of BSE and its spread into cattle are still disputed. Since our understanding of the disease and its transmissibility in humans must await observations that will be made over some years to come, it is important to keep a reasonable perspective and ensure that any speculative comment is consistent with fact. In risk assessment in such circumstances, it is tempting give too much credence to persuasive parallels when direct relevant information is not available. On the other hand, it would also not be wise to assume that the disease will die by itself and will have no effect on humans.

  13. Practical implications of the new risk perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje


    In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the “assumption deviation risk”, reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made

  14. Clinical Ethics Consultation After God: Implications for Advocacy and Neutrality. (United States)

    Parker, J Clint


    In After God: Morality and Bioethics in a Secular Age, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. explores the broad implications for moral reasoning once a culture has lost a God's-eye perspective. In this paper, I focus on the implications of Engelhardt's views for clinical ethics consultation. I begin by examining the question of whether clinical ethics consultants (CECs) should advocate a particular viewpoint and/or process during consultations or adopt a neutral stance. I then examine the implications of Engelhardt's views for this question. Finally, I discuss some of Engelhardt's foundational ontological, metaphysical, meta-ethical, and epistemological commitments and how these commitments connect to his views on clinical ethics consultation.

  15. Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications for health ... communities often only learnt about disability following the birth of a disabled child. ... to education and the availability of transport, particularly amongst caregivers ...

  16. Technical limitations of African prints and their implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    THEIR IMPLICATIONS ON GARMENT CONSTRUCTION IN. GHANA ... economic growth throughout the world. In. 2001, the sector ... and its exports represent 45 billion Euros, mak- ing it the world's ..... Unpublished BA Thesis,. College of Art ...

  17. Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for Nigeria: a reflection on Ola Rotimi's Our husband has gone mad again. ... The corrupt tendencies of this select few, which come in various forms, have ... from 32 Countries:.

  18. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.


    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism

  19. Noncommutative black-body radiation: Implications on cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatollahi, A.H.; Hajirahimi, M.


    Including loop corrections, black-body radiation in noncommutative space is anisotropic. A direct implication of possible space non-commutativity on the cosmic microwave background map is argued. (authors)

  20. Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community livelihoods in the coastal ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This will further address conflicts over resource uses that may arise due to livelihood ...

  1. Structuralism: Its Implications for the Performance of Prose Fiction (United States)

    Hopkins, Mary Francis


    Discusses the implications of structuralism by examining "Introduction to The Structural Analysis of Narrative", a contemporary writing by Roland Barthes. Explains Barthes' terms and concepts by using Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway character for an example. (MH)

  2. Utilization of HIV Testing and Counseling in Ghana: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of HIV Testing and Counseling in Ghana: Implications for Universal Coverage. ... HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is a gateway to all systems of AIDS-related care. This study examined ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  3. Micronesian agroforestry: evidence from the past, implications for the future (United States)

    Marjorie V. C. Falanruw


    Traditional agroforest systems exist throughout Micronesia. The system found on one Micronesian group of islands, Yap, is described and evaluated in ecological terms. Implications for future development of agriculture in Micronesia are discussed and some specific recommendations are given.

  4. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  5. Dependence on carbonated water: Clinical and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Gupta


    Full Text Available A case of caffeine dependence syndrome with preference for a specific brand of carbonated water (popularly known as soft drinks or colas is discussed to highlight the clinical and policy implications.

  6. Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a "Contextaulised Choice Model" to Prospective South African Domestic Partnerships Legislation. ... is enacted. Keywords: Life partnership; domestic partnership; Domestic Partnerships Bill; choice argument; contextualised choice model; reciprocal duty of support.

  7. Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services ... disseminated by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). ... The Honourable Chrystia Freeland, Minister of International Trade, announced a ...

  8. Extension Implications of Skill Gaps among Cassava Farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension Implications of Skill Gaps among Cassava Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Skill gap analysis indicated 16 areas including packaging of cassava products with ...

  9. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities. (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.


    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  10. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban ... water is not mentioned by WHO, but all the samples analyzed were found to ... Key words: Drinking water quality, Heavy metals, Maximum admissible limit, ...

  11. Climate Change: Implications for South African Building Systems and Components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T


    Full Text Available to determine the implications of these changes for buildings. Proposals are made on how buildings may be adapted to climate change and recommendations on further research and development are outlined....

  12. changing stm curricula for the information age: implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    information age, rationale and strategies for changing STM curricular, implications for the teacher and then conclusion. ... learner under the guidance of a school to effect a change in the ..... education international conference. Ofele, C. N. ...

  13. Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising campaigns. ... The way the consumers perceive an advertising campaign will, therefore, determine how they will respond to the advertisement. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications. (United States)


    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  15. The use of dexamethasone in animals: implication for fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to dexamethasone causes numerous changes in various biological systems including the reproductive system and this has huge implication on fertility and pregnancy. Maternal dexamethasone administration promotes foetal lung maturation and thermoregulation in premature foetuses. This indication makes ...

  16. Philosophy of adult education and the implication for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy of adult education and the implication for agricultural extension service. ... The paper highlights the relationhip between adult education and extension using the philosophy as a fulcrum between both. The paper further reiterated ...

  17. Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software Development. ... Software maintenance is the process of modifying existing operational software by correcting errors, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control of the disease. ... Mango anthracnose is a major disease hampering the production of quality fruits for export in Ghana. The nature of the disease and ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ... that one of the most obvious and urgent problems at management level in organizations is ... to change their attitude and behavior as rapidly as their organization requires.

  20. Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els


    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, 30 August - 3 September). Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment. Paper presented at the bi-annual EARLI conferences, Exeter, UK.

  1. The Rational Unconscious: Implications for Mental Illness and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Bowins, Brad


    Rational and reality-congruent unconscious processes facilitate adaptive functioning and have implications for mental illness and psychotherapy. With this knowledge, psychotherapists can more effectively guide interventions to improve mental health.

  2. implications of decision making process on agricultural employees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the implications of decision making process on employees' turnover in the Institute of ... Involvement in Decision Making and Agricultural Employees' Turnover in Ibadan, Nigeria 37 ..... Lack of motivation.

  3. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  4. Implications for Effective Child Development System in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Child Rights Campaign and the Nigerian Family: Implications for Effective Child .... of socialization like: day-care centres, schools, peer groups, video bars, recreational parks and new social media have taken over this role. The outcome is that ...

  5. Keystone Life Orientation (LO) teachers: Implications for educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keystone Life Orientation (LO) teachers: Implications for educational, social, and ... characteristics and support networks needed by keystone Life Orientation (LO) ... In this study “keystone” refers to LO teachers who make a positive impact in ...

  6. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  7. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game reserve, Borno state, Nigeria. ... avian species diversity and abundance in Sambisa Game Reserve in Borno State, Sudano-Sahelian vegetation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Nuclear debate and its implications in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, J M


    The controversy associated with nuclear power has been grouped into three areas: safety, economics, and availability of uranium. Implications of these factors are discussed in terms of their effects on Third World countries, particularly in Latin America.

  10. attitudes of women to menopause: implications for counselling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    conforms to society's standards of youth and beauty include low self- esteem, depression and anxiety. .... issue in understanding her attitudes or perception of menopause. Fifty- .... Lippert, L. (1997). Women at midlife: Implications for theories of.

  11. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random.. (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned...

  12. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  13. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin


    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  14. The medical implications of space tourism. (United States)

    Tarzwell, R


    Commercial space travel may soon be a reality. If so, microgravity, high acceleration, and radiation exposure, all known hazards, will be accessible to the general public. Therefore, space tourism has medical implications. Even though the first flights will feature space exposure times of only a few minutes, the potential may someday exist for exposure times long enough to warrant careful consideration of the potential hazards to the space-faring public. The effects of acceleration and microgravity exposure are well known on the corps of astronauts and cosmonauts. The effects of space radiation are partially known on astronauts, but much remains to be discovered. However, there are problems using astronaut data to make inferences about the general public. Astronauts are not necessarily representative of the general public, since they are highly fit, highly screened individuals. Astronaut data can tell us very little about the potential hazards of microgravity in pediatric, obstetric and geriatric populations, all of whom are potential space tourists. Key issues in standard setting will be determining acceptable limits of pre-existing disease and inferring medical standards from mission profiles. It will not be a trivial task drafting minimal medical standards for commercial space travel. It will require the collaboration of space medicine physicians, making the best guesses possible, based on limited amounts of data, with limited applicability. A helpful departure point may be the USAF Class 3 medical standard, applicable to NASA payload specialists. It is time to begin preliminary discussions toward defining those standards. acceleration, aerospace medicine, medical standards, microgravity, radiation, space, space tourism, environmental hazards, environmental medicine.

  15. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming. (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F


    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard


    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  18. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.


    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO 2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO 2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO 2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  19. Brain microbleeds: Epidemiology and clinical implications. (United States)

    Boyano, I; Bravo, N; Miranda, J; Gil-Gregorio, P; Olazarán, J


    Brain microbleeds (BMB) are haemosiderin deposits contained within macrophages, which are displayed as hypointense images in some T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences. There are still many questions to be answered about the pathophysiology and clinical relevance of BMB. We conducted a literature review of the main epidemiological, clinical, and anatomical pathology studies of BMB performed in the general population, in patients at risk of or already suffering from a vascular disease, and in patients with cognitive impairment. We analysed the prevalence of BMB, risk factors, and potential pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications. The prevalence of BMB is highly variable (3%-27% in the general population, 6%-80% in patients with vascular risk factors or vascular disease, and 16%-45% in patients with cognitive impairment). BMB are associated with ageing, Alzheimer disease (AD), and in particular haemorrhagic or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. The pathological substrate of BMB is either lipohyalinosis (subcortical BMB) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (lobar BMB). BMB exacerbate cognitive impairment, possibly through cortical-subcortical and intracortical disconnection, and increase the risk of death, mostly due to vascular causes. BMB also increase the risk of cerebral haemorrhage, particularly in patients with multiple lobar BMB (probable erebral amyloid angiopathy). Therefore, anticoagulant treatment may be contraindicated in these patients. In patients with lower risk of bleeding, the new oral anticoagulants and the combination of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow-up could be helpful in the decision-making process. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatility of fragrance chemicals: patch testing implications. (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah J; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I


    Diagnostic and predictive patch testing to determine contact allergy due to fragrance materials requires applying a fixed dose of material to the skin. This dose can be affected by the volatile nature of fragrances; little data exist on how the loss of fragrance dose due to volatility affects patch testing. (1) To evaluate pH dependence and evaporation rates of two fragrance chemicals, geraniol, citronellol, and a common fragrance solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and (2) Assess implications for predictive patch-testing methods for fragrances. pH analysis of each material at 1% for three values (4.0, 5.0, 7.0) was done over 40 hours. Volatility experiments for each material, nonradiolabeled and radiolabeled, were conducted over a 24-hour period, taking readings at six time points (5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, and 24 hours). Evaporation rates were not sensitive to pH shifts from 4.0 to 7.0. Evaporation rates for nonradiolabeled materials were low: after 24 hours, geraniol lost 8.9%, citronellol 27.0% and DEP 14.5%. The volatility data for radiolabeled materials demonstrated that geraniol loses up to 39% of its dose, citronellol loses up to 26%, and DEP up to 14% within 40 minutes. The tendency of fragrance materials to evaporate can impact the dose being applied to the patch and therefore the result of the patch and ultimately the decision-making process regarding that fragrance material's safety. These data, developed with DEP, utilized in a predictive sensitization assay cannot be generalized.

  1. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm


    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  2. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.


    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  3. Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear. (United States)

    Willems, Catherine; Stassijns, Gaetane; Cornelis, Wim; D'Août, Kristiaan


    This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered "minimal". © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The public health implications of asthma. (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Bousquet, Philippe J; Godard, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre


    Asthma is a very common chronic disease that occurs in all age groups and is the focus of various clinical and public health interventions. Both morbidity and mortality from asthma are significant. The number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to asthma worldwide is similar to that for diabetes, liver cirrhosis and schizophrenia. Asthma management plans have, however, reduced mortality and severity in countries where they have been applied. Several barriers reduce the availability, affordability, dissemination and efficacy of optimal asthma management plans in both developed and developing countries. The workplace environment contributes significantly to the general burden of asthma. Patients with occupational asthma have higher rates of hospitalization and mortality than healthy workers. The surveillance of asthma as part of a global WHO programme is essential. The economic cost of asthma is considerable both in terms of direct medical costs (such as hospital admissions and the cost of pharmaceuticals) and indirect medical costs (such as time lost from work and premature death). Direct costs are significant in most countries. In order to reduce costs and improve quality of care, employers and health plans are exploring more precisely targeted ways of controlling rapidly rising health costs. Poor control of asthma symptoms is a major issue that can result in adverse clinical and economic outcomes. A model of asthma costs is needed to aid attempts to reduce them while permitting optimal management of the disease. This paper presents a discussion of the burden of asthma and its socioeconomic implications and proposes a model to predict the costs incurred by the disease.

  5. Declining world fertility: trends, causes, implications. (United States)

    Tsui, A O; Bogue, D J


    This Bulletin examines the evidence that the world's fertility has declined in recent years, the factors that appear to have accounted for the decline, and the implications for fertility and population growth rates to the end of the century. On the basis of a compilation of estimates available for all nations of the world, the authors derive estimates which indicate that the world's total fertility rate dropped from 4.6 to 4.1 births per woman between 1968 and 1975, thanks largely to an earlier and more rapid and universal decline in the fertility of less developed countries (LDCs) than had been anticipated. Statistical analysis of available data suggests that the socioeconomic progress made by LDCs in this period was not great enough to account for more than a proportion of the fertility decline and that organized family planning programs were a major contributing factor. The authors' projections, which are compared to similar projections from the World Bank, the United Nations, and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, indicate that, by the year 2000, less than 1/5 of the world's population will be in the "red danger" circle of explosive population growth (2.1% or more annually); most LDCs will be in a phase of fertility decline; and many of them -- along with most now developed countries -- will be at or near replacement level of fertility. The authors warn that "our optimistic prediction is premised upon a big IF -- if (organized) family planning (in LDCs) continues. It remains imperative that all of the developed nations of the world continue their contribution to this program undiminished."

  6. Stem cell terminology: practical, theological and ethical implications. (United States)

    Shanner, Laura


    Stem cell policy discussions frequently confuse embryonic and fetal sources of stem cells, and label untested, non-reproductive cloning as "therapeutic." Such misnomers distract attention from significant practical and ethical implications: accelerated research agendas tend to be supported at the expense of physical risks to women, theological implications in a multi-faith community, informed consent for participation in research, and treatment decisions altered by unrealistic expectations.

  7. Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions


    Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina


    Comunicação apresentada em 15th IAMB Conference, Lisboa Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications ...

  8. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  9. Exploring ethical implications of personal relationships in dyadic business exchanges


    Davidrajuh, Reggie


    This paper explores the ethical implications of the existence of personal relationships in business exchanges. Firstly, this paper introduces personal relationship in business exchanges. Secondly, three normative theories of business ethics that are related to the issue of personal relationship are presented. Finally, this paper explores the ethical implications on personal relationships according to the three theories. The main recommendation of this paper is that an analysis of ...

  10. GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications (United States)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra


    The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic

  11. Space climate implications from substorm frequency (United States)

    Newell, P. T.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Mitchell, E. J.


    solar wind impacting the Earth varies over a wide range of time scales, driving a corresponding range of geomagnetic activity. Past work has strongly indicated that the rate of merging on the frontside magnetosphere is the most important predictor for magnetospheric activity, especially over a few hours. However, the magnetosphere exhibits variations on other time scales, including UT, seasonal, and solar cycle variations. Much of this geomagnetic variation cannot be reasonably attributed to changes in the solar wind driving—that is, it is not created by the original Russell-McPherron effect or any generalization thereof. In this paper we examine the solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal effects based upon the frequency of substorm onsets, using a data set of 53,000 substorm onsets. These were identified through the SuperMAG collaboration and span three decades with continuous coverage. Solar cycle variations include a profound minimum in 2009 (448 substorms) and peak in 2003 (3727). The magnitude of this variation (a factor of 8.3) is not explained through variations in estimators of the frontside merging rate (such as dΦMP/dt), even when the more detailed probability distribution functions are examined. Instead, v, or better, n1/2v2 seems to be implicated in the dramatic difference between active and quiet years, even beyond the role of velocity in modulating merging. Moreover, we find that although most substorms are preceded by flux loading (78.5% are above the mean and 83.8% above median solar wind driving), a high solar wind v is almost as important (68.3% above mean, 74.8% above median). This and other evidence suggest that either v or n1/2v2 (but probably not p) plays a strong secondary role in substorm onset. As for the seasonal and diurnal effects, the elliptical nature of the Earth's orbit, which is closest to the Sun in January, leads to a larger solar wind driving (measured by Bs, vBs, or dΦMP/dt) in November, as is confirmed by 22 years of solar wind

  12. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, James G.M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Harrison, Anna L.


    important implications for constraining potential rates of sequestration in serpentinite-hosted aquifers and under accelerated sequestration scenarios in mine tailings

  13. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  14. Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, Michael


    This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

  15. L'analyse implicative bayésienne multivariée d'un questionnaire binaire : quasi-implications et treillis de Galois simplifié


    Bernard, Jean-Marc; Poitrenaud, Sébastien


    We propose a new method for simplifying the Galois lattice associated to a binary questionnaire (n units classified according to q binary questions). The method consists in weakening the implications borne by the lattice into quasi-implications. At the descriptive level, the method involves a new measure for quasi-implications (the "multivariate implicative index") which satisfies some requirements of invariance by logical equivalence. At the inductive level, uncertainty about the patterns' t...

  16. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability. (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio


    active (>500 ˚C). As shown by Gudmundsson [2011] a large contrast in mechanical properties between two formations could cause dyke arrest or deflection. Contacts between the Comiso Limestone (overall ductile at depth) and extruded basalt flows (overall brittle) could very well facilitate such a locality, and such 'layering' will form part of future laboratory investigations. References: Chiodini, G., S. Caliro, A. Aiuppa, R. Avino, D. Granieri, R. Moretti, and F. Parello (2011), First 13C/12C isotopic characterisation of volcanic plume CO2, Bulletin of Volcanology, 73(5), 531-542. Gudmundsson, A. (2011), Deflection of dykes into sills at discontinuities and magma-chamber formation, Tectonophysics, 500(1-4), 50-64. Heap, M. J., S. Mollo, S. Vinciguerra, Y. Lavallée, K. U. Hess, D. B. Dingwell, P. Baud, and G. Iezzi (2013), Thermal weakening of the carbonate basement under Mt. Etna volcano (Italy): Implications for volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 250(0), 42-60. Mollo, S., S. Vinciguerra, G. Iezzi, A. Iarocci, P. Scarlato, M. J. Heap, and D. B. Dingwell (2011), Volcanic edifice weakening via devolatilization reactions, Geophysical Journal International, 186(3), 1073-1077. Tibaldi, A., and G. Groppelli (2002), Volcano-tectonic activity along structures of the unstable NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy) and their possible origin, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115(3-4), 277-302.

  17. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders and Their Clinical Implications in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theocharidou


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation. The latter has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Enhanced colonic motility is usually associated with the use of lactulose. Pharmacological interventions aiming to alter gastrointestinal motility in cirrhosis could potentially have a beneficial effect reducing the risk of hepatic decompensation and improving prognosis.

  18. Theoretical analyses of the refractive implications of transepithelial PRK ablations. (United States)

    Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Awwad, Shady T


    To analyse the refractive implications of single-step, transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) ablations. A simulation for quantifying the refractive implications of TransPRK ablations has been developed. The simulation includes a simple modelling of corneal epithelial profiles, epithelial ablation profiles as well as refractive ablation profiles, and allows the analytical quantification of the refractive implications of TransPRK in terms of wasted tissue, achieved optical zone (OZ) and induced refractive error. Wasted tissue occurs whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the applied epithelial ablation profile, achieved OZ is reduced whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thicker than the applied epithelial ablation profile and additional refractive errors are induced whenever the actual difference centre-to-periphery in the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the difference in the applied epithelial ablation profile. The refractive implications of TransPRK ablations can be quantified using simple theoretical simulations. These implications can be wasted tissue (∼14 µm, if the corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the ablated one), reduced OZ (if the corneal epithelial profile is thicker than ablated one, very severe for low corrections) and additional refractive errors (∼0.66 D, if the centre-to-periphery progression of the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the progression of the ablated one). When TransPRK profiles are applied to normal, not previously treated, non-pathologic corneas, no specific refractive implications associated to the transepithelial profile can be anticipated; TransPRK would provide refractive outcomes equal to those of standard PRK. Adjustments for the planned OZ and, in the event of retreatments, for the target sphere can be easily derived.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby


    Full Text Available The review articles constitute a mini-symposium entitled "Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications for Performance and Supplementation" that were recently presented at the 2004 annual conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in Las Vegas, NV. Much controversy often surrounds macronutrient intake, utilization, and subsequent metabolism regarding exercise and athletic performance. Furthermore, the role of macronutrient supplementation with the specificintent of improving body composition and exercise performance by way of nutrient timing is also an important issue. As such, the articles provide a comprehensive overview of metabolic and performance-enhancing implications regarding carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

  20. Federalism and social justice: implications for social work. (United States)

    Linhorst, Donald M


    Federalism is a system of government that divides power between two or more levels of government. During the current conservative political climate in the United States, power has shifted increasingly from the federal government to states, a move that has implications for the achievement of social justice. Consequently, it is now necessary for social workers to engage in political activity at the state and local levels, in addition to the federal level, to promote social justice. Implications for social work policy practice, research, and education for advancing social justice within the federal system of government are explored.