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Sample records for cylindrical tanks determinacao

  1. Determining the amount of anhydrous alcohol evaporated in vertical cylindrical tanks; Determinacao da quantidade de alcool etilico anidro evaporado em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess the anhydrous alcohol evaporated amount in vertical cylindrical tanks was developed a calculation methodology based on the rate of mass transfer of the product, the Reynolds number and the mass transfer coefficient. An Excel spreadsheet was prepared with data entry of the tank and physical and chemical properties of the product (temperature and density). For a temperature of 50 deg C, the volume evaporated reaches values of 0.8% by day. (author)

  2. Seismic response of flexible cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A; Boley, B A [comps.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of the seismic behavior of thin shell circular cylindrical liquid storage tanks is described. The investigation was planned to evaluate the adequacy of present methods of tank design, and was conducted using the Earthquake Simulator Facility of the University of California, Berkeley. The model tank considered in this paper was 6 ft high by 12 ft in diameter, and was welded from thin sheet aluminum to simulate a steel tank 36 feet in diameter. During testing the tank had an open top, held 60 inches of water, and was subjected to a time scaled El Centro (1940) earthquake, amplified to a peak acceleration of 0.5 g. Both base free and base fixed conditions were studied. Results of the experiments demonstrate that fluid pressures included both impulsive and convective components, and that the wave sloshing followed basic theory quite closely. But it also was apparent that the tank flexibility influenced the hydrodynamic pressures, as indicated by pressure amplification in the clamped tank, and by a total change of pressure history in the unclamped case. Significant out of round distortions of the tank were developed, of a three lobe form or the free base case and with four lobes in the fixed base case. Uplift of the tank base was closely related to the out-of-round deformation of the unanchored tank, whereas initial eccentricities apparently caused the section distortions in the anchored system. Stresses in the tank wall do not follow the expected pattern of response to overturning moment; instead they seem to be mainly associated with the section distortions. At present there is no analytical procedure for predicting these distortions .

  3. An Analytical Solution for Cylindrical Concrete Tank on Deformable Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Vichare

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical concrete tanks are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants. These are usually clarifier tanks. Design codes of practice provide methods to calculate design forces in the wall and raft of such tanks. These methods neglect self-weight of tank material and assume extreme, namely ‘fixed’ and ‘hinged’ conditions for the wall bottom. However, when founded on deformable soil, the actual condition at the wall bottom is neither fixed nor hinged. Further, the self-weight of the tank wall does affect the design forces. Thus, it is required to offer better insight of the combined effect of deformable soil and bottom raft stiffness on the design forces induced in such cylindrical concrete tanks. A systematic analytical method based on fundamental equations of shells is presented in this paper. Important observations on variation of design forces across the wall and the raft with different soil conditions are given. Set of commonly used tanks, are analysed using equations developed in the paper and are appended at the end.

  4. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code

  5. Sliding behaviors of elastic cylindrical tanks under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.

    1993-01-01

    There is a paper that reports on the occurrence of sliding in several oil tanks on Alaskan earthquake of 1964. This incident appears to be in need of further investigation for the following reasons: First, in usual seismic designing of cylindrical tanks ('tanks'), sliding is considered to occur when the lateral inertial force exceeds the static friction force. When the tank in question can be taken as a rigid body, this rule is known to hold true. If the tank is capable of undergoing a considerable amount of elastic deformation, however, its applicability has not been proved. Second, although several studies have been done on the critical conditions for static sliding the present author is unaware of like ones made on the dynamic sliding, except for the pioneering work of Sogabe, in which they have empirically indicated possibility of sliding to occur under the force of sloshing. Third, this author has shown earlier on that tanks, if not anchored properly, will start rocking, inducing uplifting of the base plate, even at a relatively small seismic acceleration of 10 gal or so. The present study has been conducted with these observations for the background. Namely, based on a notion that elastic deformation given rise to by rocking oscillation should be incorporated as an important factor in any set of critical conditions for the onset of sliding, a series of shaking table experiments were performed for rigid steel block to represent the rigid tanks ('rigid model') and a model tank having a same sort of plate thickness-to-diameter ratio as industrial tanks to represent the elastic cylindrical tanks ('elastic model'). Following observations have been obtained for the critical condition of the onset of sliding: (1) sliding of rigid tanks will occur when the lateral force given rise to by oscillation exceeds the static, or the Coulombic, friction force. (2) if vertical oscillation is imposed on the lateral oscillation, the lateral force needed to induce sliding of a

  6. Seismic behavior of a low-rise horizontal cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Alessandra; Rago, Carlo; Vanzi, Ivo; Greco, Rita; Briseghella, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    Cylindrical storage tanks are widely used for various types of liquids, including hazardous contents, thus requiring suitable and careful design for seismic actions. The study herein presented deals with the dynamic analysis of a ground-based horizontal cylindrical tank containing butane and with its safety verification. The analyses are based on a detailed finite element (FE) model; a simplified one-degree-of-freedom idealization is also set up and used for verification of the FE results. Particular attention is paid to sloshing and asynchronous seismic input effects. Sloshing effects are investigated according to the current literature state of the art. An efficient methodology based on an "impulsive-convective" decomposition of the container-fluid motion is adopted for the calculation of the seismic force. The effects of asynchronous ground motion are studied by suitable pseudo-static analyses. Comparison between seismic action effects, obtained with and without consideration of sloshing and asynchronous seismic input, shows a rather important influence of these conditions on the final results.

  7. Dynamic Behaviour and Seismic Response of Ground Supported Cylindrical Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Joseph; Glory, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    Liquid storage tank such as in water distribution systems, petroleum plants etc., constitute a vital component of life line systems. Reducing earthquake effects on liquid storage tanks, to minimize the environmental and economic impact of these effects, have always been an important engineering concern. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of cylindrical ground supported concrete water tanks with different aspect ratios is investigated using finite element software ANSYS. The natural frequencies and modal responses are obtained for impulsive and convective modes of vibration. The natural frequency of vibration of the tank is observed to be the lowest at maximum water depth. The fundamental impulsive frequency increases as water level reduces and for water level less than 1/3 of tank height, there is significantly no change in impulsive frequency. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic behavior of the tank is investigated by performing the modal analysis of flexible and rigid tanks. For a partially filled tank, the results of the present study are of significant relevance. The response of the tank to the transient loading as horizontal ground motion of El Centro earthquake is studied for various water heights. As the height of water on the tank increases, the ultimate maximum seismic response parameters are also observed to be increased. The location of maximum hoop stress varies in accordance with the variations in input ground motion and water fill condition whereas shear and bending moment are maximum at the base.

  8. Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  9. Uncertainty determination in a custody transfer operation from vertical cylinder storage tanks; Determinacao da incerteza do volume transferido em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio C.; Ferreira, Ana Luisa A.S. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir F.; Val, Luiz G. do [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The INMETRO/ANP 1 regulation (2000), presents rules to be followed for measuring and calibrating cylindrical vertical oil storage tanks in Brazil, according to ISO 7507-1 (1993) standard. A methodology for estimating the uncertainty (95,45 % confidence level) of the volume in a custody transfer process was developed, based on ISO GUM (1998) standard. The strapping method was selected for this study, because it has been used as a standard procedure by INMETRO. In this study, the same uncertainty values, as suggested by the standard, were used to estimate the uncertainty of the liquid volume in the tank. This study showed that the uncertainty of the transferred liquid volume from the tank varies from 0,2% to 0,4%, being smaller for larger volumes, which is thus the recommended application. The uncertainty of the ring height measurement is the largest contribution to the volume measurement uncertainty, and, thus, must be accurately measured. The tank internal diameter uncertainty is a small contribution to it. This paper calculates the uncertainty of liquid volume transferred from the tank by three methods, namely, this paper's, ISO 7507- 1's and INMETRO's, and shows that the most important contribution to the measurement uncertainty is the density measurement uncertainty, which must be accurately measured, at least, to within {+-} 0,0005, if the volume uncertainty is to remain in the 0,5 % to 1 % range. (author)

  10. Numerical analysis of the cylindrical rigidity of the vertical steel tank shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergey; Tarasenko, Alexander; Chepur, Petr

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the study of rigidity of a vertical steel cylindrical tank and its structural elements with the development of inhomogeneous subsidence in ANSYS software complex. The limiting case is considered in this paper: a complete absence of a base sector that varies along an arc of a circle. The subsidence zone is modeled by the parameter n. A finite-element model of vertical 20000 m3 steel tank has been created, taking into account all structural elements of tank metal structures, including the support ring, beam frame and roof sheets. Various combinations of vertical steel tank loading are analyzed. For operational loads, the most unfavorable combination is considered. Calculations were performed for the filled and emptied tank. Values of the maximum possible deformations of the outer contour of the bottom are obtained with the development of inhomogeneous base subsidence for the given tank size. The obtained parameters of intrinsic rigidity (deformability) of vertical steel tank can be used in the development of new regulatory and technical documentation for tanks.

  11. Experimental transient natural convection heat transfer from a vertical cylindrical tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Alberto Dopazo, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer experimental data is presented and compared to general correlations proposed in the literature for transient laminar free convection from a vertical cylindrical tank. The experimental data has been obtained from heating and cooling experiments carried out with a cylindrical full-scale hot water storage tank working under real operating conditions. The experimental device and the data acquisition system are described. The calculation procedures established to obtain the experimental values of the heat transfer coefficients, as well as the data reduction process, are detailed. The local convection and radiation heat transfer coefficients are obtained from different heating power conditions for local Rayleigh numbers within the range of 1x10 5 -3x10 8 . The great quantity of available experimental data allows a detailed analysis with a reliable empirical base. The experimental local convection heat transfer coefficients are correlated and compared to correlations proposed in open literature for engineering calculations. - Highlights: → Experimental data of transient local convection heat transfer coefficients from a cylindrical tank for heating and cooling processes is obtained. → The transient behaviour of the convection coefficients is dependent on temperature difference evolutions between the surface and the air. → The Nu.Ra -1/4 ratio decreases proportionally in (T s -T ∞ ) -0.9 . → A new correlation based on the semi-infinite region theory for laminar transient free convection is proposed.

  12. Nonlinear analysis of RC cylindrical tank and subsoil accounting for a low concrete strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Paweł M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses deformational and incremental approaches to a nonlinear FE analysis of soil-structure interaction including the description of behaviour of the RC structure and the subsoil under short-term loading. Two kinds of constitutive models for ground and structure were adopted for a nonlinear interaction analysis of the RC cylindrical tank with subsoil. The constitutive laws for concrete and subsoil were developed in compliance with the deformational and flow theories of plasticity. Moreover, a non-linear elastic-brittle-plastic analysis of RC axi-symmetric structures using finite element iterative techniques is presented. The results of the two types of FE analysis of soil-structure interaction are compared taking into account a low concrete strength of tank structure.

  13. Optimal design of sandwich ribbed flat baffle plates of a circular cylindrical tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Marek; Magnucki, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate of a circular cylindrical tank. The paper deals with a problem of optimal thickness of this construction with a soft core. The construction is distinguished by a local axisymmetric pre-springing. The mathematical description is based on the theory of shells with analysis of disturbance of the stress membrane state. The sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate divides the tank into two chambers. One of them is loaded by uniform pressure, while the other is empty and unloaded. Dimensions of ribs, faces and the entire baffle plate have been determined with a view to minimize the mass under strength constraints. The effect of optimal thickness of this sandwich plate has been examined by means of the finite element method

  14. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal Shell State of the Cylindrical Cryogenic Tank During Filling and Emptying

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    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid hydrogen and oxygen are used as the oxidizer and fuel for liquid rocket engines. Liquefied natural gas, which is based on methane, is seen as a promising motor fuel for internal combustion engines. One of the technical problems arising from the use of said cryogenic liquid is to provide containers for storage, transport and use in the propulsion system. In the design and operation of such vessels it is necessary to have reliable information about their temperature condition, on which depend the loss of cryogenic fluids due to evaporation and the stress-strain state of the structural elements of the containers.Uneven temperature distribution along the generatrix of the cylindrical thin-walled shell of rocket cryogenic tanks, in a localized zone of cryogenic liquid level leads to a curvature of the shell and reduce the permissible axle load in a hazard shell buckling in the preparation for the start of the missile in flight with an increasing acceleration. Moving the level of the cryogenic liquid during filling or emptying the tank at a certain combination of parameters results in an increase of the local temperature distribution nonuniformity.Along with experimental study of the shell temperature state of the cryogenic container, methods of mathematical modeling allow to have information needed for designing and testing the construction of cryogenic tanks. In this study a mathematical model is built taking into account features of heat transfer in a cryogenic container, including the boiling cryogenic liquid in the inner surface of the container. This mathematical model describes the temperature state of the thin-walled shell of cylindrical cryogenic tank during filling and emptying. The work also presents a quantitative analysis of this model in case of fixed liquid level, its movement at a constant speed, and harmonic oscillations relative to a middle position. The quantitative analysis of this model has allowed to find the limit options

  15. Coupling dynamic analysis of spacecraft with multiple cylindrical tanks and flexible appendages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jun; Yue, Bao-Zeng; Huang, Hua

    2016-02-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the coupling dynamic analysis of a complex spacecraft consisting of one main rigid platform, multiple liquid-filled cylindrical tanks, and a number of flexible appendages. Firstly, the carrier potential function equations of liquid in the tanks are deduced according to the wall boundary conditions. Through employing the Fourier-Bessel series expansion method, the dynamic boundaries conditions on a curved free-surface under a low-gravity environment are transformed to general simple differential equations and the rigid-liquid coupled sloshing dynamic state equations of liquid in tanks are obtained. The state vectors of rigid-liquid coupled equations are composed with the modal coordinates of the relative potential function and the modal coordinates of wave height. Based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the D'Alembert's principle, the rigid-flexible coupled dynamic state equations of flexible appendages are directly derived, and the coordinate transform matrixes of maneuvering flexible appendages are precisely computed as time-varying. Then, the coupling dynamics state equations of the overall system of the spacecraft are modularly built by means of the Lagrange's equations in terms of quasi-coordinates. Lastly, the coupling dynamic performances of a typical complex spacecraft are studied. The availability and reliability of the presented method are also confirmed.

  16. Subcritical measurements with a cylindrical tank of Pu-U nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; King, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    This series of measurements with a mixed Pu-U nitrate solution (280 g Pu/liter, 180 g U/liter) in a 35.54-cm-diam cylindrical tank provides a wide variety of experimental data for subcritical configurations that can be used to verify calculational methods and nuclear data. The Pu contained 7.85 wt% 240 Pu and the uranium was natural uranium. The measurements performed were: inverse count rate, prompt neutron decay constants, inverse kinetics, and frequency analysis by the 252 Cf source driven method. These data are presented in sufficient detail that the results of the experiments can be calculated directly. For purposes of extrapolating to the delayed critical height the ratio of spectral densities was linear with height and thus provided the best estimate of critical height

  17. Effect of external pressure environment on the internal noise level due to a source inside a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the noise environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea level) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (noise) level differences in the interior. The noise level differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior noise level between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.

  18. Surface scanning through a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid for clinical microwave breast imaging exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Meaney, Paul M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Microwave tomographic image quality can be improved significantly with prior knowledge of the breast surface geometry. The authors have developed a novel laser scanning system capable of accurately recovering surface renderings of breast-shaped phantoms immersed within a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid which resides completely external to the tank (and the aqueous environment) and overcomes the challenges associated with the optical distortions caused by refraction from the air, tank wall, and liquid bath interfaces. Methods: The scanner utilizes two laser line generators and a small CCD camera mounted concentrically on a rotating gantry about the microwave imaging tank. Various calibration methods were considered for optimizing the accuracy of the scanner in the presence of the optical distortions including traditional ray tracing and image registration approaches. In this paper, the authors describe the construction and operation of the laser scanner, compare the efficacy of several calibration methods—including analytical ray tracing and piecewise linear, polynomial, locally weighted mean, and thin-plate-spline (TPS) image registrations—and report outcomes from preliminary phantom experiments. Results: The results show that errors in calibrating camera angles and position prevented analytical ray tracing from achieving submillimeter accuracy in the surface renderings obtained from our scanner configuration. Conversely, calibration by image registration reliably attained mean surface errors of less than 0.5 mm depending on the geometric complexity of the object scanned. While each of the image registration approaches outperformed the ray tracing strategy, the authors found global polynomial methods produced the best compromise between average surface error and scanner robustness. Conclusions: The laser scanning system provides a fast and accurate method of three dimensional surface capture in the aqueous environment commonly found in microwave

  19. Determination of the permeability of tank basins with Zangar permeameter; Determinacao de permeabilidade em bacias de tanques com permeametro de Zangar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Vicente, Ana Paula Camargo de; Lopes, Jorge Antonio; Silveira Filho, Celso Rodrigues da [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This article addresses a subject that has been target of requirements from environmental agencies for renewal of licenses, expansions, or implementation of new enterprises. That subject refers to the checking of the permeability of tank basins and verifying its adequacy against certain criteria. The Brazilian standard that regulates those criteria is ABNT NBR 17505-2 - Flammable and Combustible Liquid Storage. In order to check compliance with the established criteria, it is best to perform geotechnical tests to check the permeability and main characteristics of the soil. Some difficulties may arise in the execution of those services, as for example, the scarce existence of qualified firms, relative complexity, high cost and considerable time for the execution. In that regard, this article is intended to present a differentiated methodology proposed by Zangar (1953) for the checking of the permeability of the basins and also a practical case applied to a petroleum by-product storage terminal. The methodology is complemented with the presentation of the results obtained in a plant containing iso-value curves, thereby getting a geographic representation of the permeability indexes of the basins. In the case study, 21 tests have been performed encompassing 7 tank basins. As a result therefrom, it was verified that 98.3% of the studied area met the criteria, with an average permeability of 6.84 x 10{sup -5} cm/s. With this paper, one may conclude that the proposed methodology is reliable, quick, low-cost and easily applicable, and may be used for checking the compliance of the tank basin permeability with the criterion of ABNT NBR 17505-2 standard. (author)

  20. Static tilt tests of a full-sized cylindrical liquid storage tank model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is explaining a static tilt test with a full-scaled tank model, the objects of which are the above-ground type LNG,LPG and oil storage tanks. Main points of view to investigate are as follows: Stress and deformation at each part of the tank wall, the bottom plate and the anchor straps in case that the anchor straps are very effective; Behavior in case that the anchor straps are not very effective; Behavior in case of no anchors; Influence of the roof above the shell; and Influence of the foundation rigidity under the bottom plate

  1. Study on dynamic buckling behavior of a cylindrical liquid storage tanks under seismic excitation. 1st report, effects of liquid pressure on elephant foot bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Morita, Hideyuki; Sugiyama, Akihisa; Kawamoto, Yoji; Sirai, Eiji; Ogo, Hideyasu

    2004-01-01

    When a thin walled cylindrical liquid storage tank is exposed to a very large seismic base excitation, buckling phenomena may be caused such as bending buckling where diamond buckling pattern or elephant foot bulge pattern will be found at the bottom portion, and shear buckling at the middle portion of the tank. In this study, dynamic buckling tests were performed using scale models of thin cylindrical liquid storage tanks for the nuclear power plants. The input seismic acceleration was increased until the elephant foot bulge occurred and the vibrational behavior before and after buckling was investigated. And the effects of static and dynamic liquid pressure on the bending buckling patterns and the buckling critical force was investigated by fundamental tests using small tank models. (author)

  2. Nonlinear interaction analysis of RC cylindrical tank with subsoil by adopting two kinds of constitutive models for ground and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiński, Paweł M.; Dudziak, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    In the paper, two kinds of constitutive models for ground and structure were adopted for the nonlinear interaction analysis of the RC cylindrical tank with subsoil. The paper discusses deformational and incremental approaches to a nonlinear FE analysis of soil-structure interaction including the description of behaviour of the RC structure and the subsoil under short-term loading. Moreover, a non-linear elastic-brittle-plastic analysis of RC axisymmetric structures using finite element iterative techniques is presented. The constitutive laws for concrete and subsoil are developed in compliance with the deformational and plastic flow theories of plasticity. Two examples of an FE analysis of soil-structure interaction were performed and the results were analysed.

  3. Control System Design for Cylindrical Tank Process Using Neural Model Predictive Control Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sridevi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical manufacturing and process industry requires innovative technologies for process identification. This paper deals with model identification and control of cylindrical process. Model identification of the process was done using ARMAX technique. A neural model predictive controller was designed for the identified model. The performance of the controllers was evaluated using MATLAB software. The performance of NMPC controller was compared with Smith Predictor controller and IMC controller based on rise time, settling time, overshoot and ISE and it was found that the NMPC controller is better suited for this process.

  4. Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom. Part I. Analysis of boundary layers and vertical circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Keita, E-mail: iga@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom is investigated and its approximate solution with an analytic expression is obtained. The interior region, comprising the majority of the fluid, consists of two sub-regions. It is easily shown that a rigid-body rotational flow with the same rotation rate as that of the bottom is formed in the inner interior and that a potential flow with constant angular momentum occurs in the outer interior sub-region. However, the radius that divides these two sub-regions has not been determined. To determine this radius, the structures of the boundary layers are investigated in detail. These boundary layers surround the interior regions, and include the boundaries between the interior region and the side wall of the tank, between the interior and the bottom, and between the inner and outer interior sub-regions. By connecting the flows in the boundary layers, the vertical circulation as a whole is established, and consequently the radius dividing the two interior sub-regions is successfully determined as a function of the aspect ratio of the water layer region. This axisymmetric flow will be utilized as the basic state for investigating theoretically various non-axisymmetric phenomena observed in laboratory experiments. (paper)

  5. Computer simulation of mobilization and mixing of kaolin with submerged liquid jets in 25,000-gallon horizontal cylindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents and analyzes results of computer model simulation of mobilization and mixing of kaolin using the TEMPEST code. The simulations are conducted in a horizontal cylindrical geometry replicating a 95 m 3 (25,000 gal) test tank at ORNL, which is scaled to approximate Melton Valley Storage tanks, which are 190 m 3 (50,000 gal). Mobilization and mixing is accomplished by two submerged liquid jets. Two configurations are simulated, one with the jets located at the center of the tank lengthwise and one with the jets located 1/4 tank length from one end. Computer simulations of both jet and suction configurations are performed. Total flow rates of 50, 100, and 200 gpm are modeled, corresponding to jet velocities of 1.52, 3.05, 6.10 m/s (5, 10, 20 ft/s). Calculations were performed to a time of 2 h for the center jet location and to a little over 1 h for the quarter jet location. This report presents computer and fluid properties model basis, preliminary numerical testing, and results. The results are presented in form of flow field and sludge layer contours. Degree of mobilization is presented as fraction of initial sludge layer remaining as a function of time. For the center jet location at 200 gpm, the sludge layer is completely mobilized in just over 1 h. For 100 gpm flow, about 5% of the sludge layer remains after 2 h. For 50 gpm flow, nearly 40% of the initial sludge layer remains after 2 h. For the quarter jets at 200 gpm, about 10% of the initial sludge layer remains after 1 h. For 100 gpm, about 40% of the sludge layer remains after 1 h. The boundary of the sludge layer is defined as 98% max packing for the particles. Mixing time estimates for these cases range from between 9.4 h and 16.2 h. A more critical evaluation and comparison of predictions and the test results is needed

  6. Impedance function study for cylindrical tanks surrounded by an earthen embankment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, T.W.; Mertz, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) operates many which are used to store radioactive waste material. The original design of the tanks was often based on criteria which did not meet current seismic codes. As a result DOE is undertaking a comprehensive review of the adequacy of these structures to meet current seismic standards. This comprehensive review includes an evaluation of soil-structure interaction. One method available for performing soil structure interaction analyses of structures couples a discrete model of the structure to a lumped parameter model of the soil. This method requires the knowledge of the expected dynamic stiffness and damping functions of the rigid, massless structure resting on the soil. These are commonly referred to as the impedance functions. Lumped parameter analysis is cost effective for the surface and embedded structure cases where impedance functions are available in the literature. For a complex case with the structure located on the surface surrounded by an embankment, the impedance functions must be established prior to using a lumped parameter model approach. The present paper describes the development of horizontal impedance functions for the structure surrounded by an embankment which are developed using a finite element approach as implemented by SASSI. Impedance functions for vertical, torsional, and rocking degrees of freedom can be developed in a similar manner. These functions are easily incorporated into simple models which provide conceptual and physical insight to the response of structures. These models provide both a check of more sophisticated methods, and, due to their simplicity, permit assessment of a wide range of site and structural parameters that my affect the dynamic response of structural systems

  7. Slip experiment on a flat bottom cylindrical shell tank model; Hirazoko ento choso mokei no katsudo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, T.; Mentani, Y.; Komori, H.; Yoshihara, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    Although large tank slip, as observed in Alaska in 1964, was not reported in the Hyogo Nanbu Earthquake, tank slip becomes a major concern in seismic engineering. In the case of a non-uplifting tank, ifs slip behavior can be accurately described by the simple analytical model which consists of a single degree of freedom on a potential sliding mass (SDOF slip model). Employing friction force during slip, the governing equations of the SDOF slip model are formulated as a discontinuous linear vibration system. From the analogies between the SDOF slip model and the tank, the physical quantities which correspond to the SDOF slip model are determined in accordance with the values which are specified by the seismic design code for the tank. Comparison of the experimental results of the model tank slip with the analytical results based on the SDOF slip model corroborates ifs applicability to the tank slip with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  8. Water level response measurement in a steel cylindrical liquid storage tank using image filter processing under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Choi, Hyoung-Suk; Park, Dong-Uk; Baek, Eun-Rim; Kim, Jae-Min

    2018-02-01

    Sloshing refers to the movement of fluid that occurs when the kinetic energy of various storage tanks containing fluid (e.g., excitation and vibration) is continuously applied to the fluid inside the tanks. As the movement induced by an external force gets closer to the resonance frequency of the fluid, the effect of sloshing increases, and this can lead to a serious problem with the structural stability of the system. Thus, it is important to accurately understand the physics of sloshing, and to effectively suppress and reduce the sloshing. Also, a method for the economical measurement of the water level response of a liquid storage tank is needed for the exact analysis of sloshing. In this study, a method using images was employed among the methods for measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank, and the water level response was measured using an image filter processing algorithm for the reduction of the noise of the fluid induced by light, and for the sharpening of the structure installed at the liquid storage tank. A shaking table test was performed to verify the validity of the method of measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank using images, and the result was analyzed and compared with the response measured using a water level gauge.

  9. Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom. Part II. Deformation of the water surface and experimental verification of the theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Keita; Watanabe, Shunichi; Niino, Hiroshi; Misawa, Nobuhiko [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan); Yokota, Sho [Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Ikeda, Takashi, E-mail: iga@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Japan Patent Office, 3-4-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8915 (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    The theory of axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical container with a rotating bottom, as described in Part I, is validated against the results of previous and our own laboratory experiments. First, deformation of the water surface is derived using the velocity distribution of the axisymmetric flow obtained by the theory. The form of the water surface is classified into three regimes, and the rotation rates of the transitions between these regimes are determined. The parameters predicted from this theory are compared with the results measured in laboratory experiments and also with data from previous experimental studies. The theory predicts the experimental data well, but a slight difference was found in the narrow region close to the side wall. Corrections estimated by considering the fluid behavior around the side wall boundary layer successfully explain most of the discrepancies. This theory appears to predict the results of the laboratory experiments very well, much better than a theory using an assumption of quadratic drag as a model of turbulent boundary layers. (paper)

  10. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  11. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks

  12. Plastic buckling of cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Xu, J.; Shteyngart, S.; Eckert, H.

    1994-01-01

    Cylindrical shells exhibit buckling under axial loads at stresses much less than the respective theoretical critical stresses. This is due primarily to the presence of geometrical imperfections even though such imperfections could be very small (e.g., comparable to thickness). Under internal pressure, the shell regains some of its buckling strength. For a relatively large radius-to-thickness ratio and low internal pressure, the effect can be reasonably estimated by an elastic analysis. However, for low radius-to-thickness ratios and greater pressures, the elastic-plastic collapse controls the failure load. in order to quantify the elastic-plastic buckling capacity of cylindrical shells, an analysis program was carried out by use of the computer code BOSOR5 developed by Bushnell of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The analysis was performed for various radius-to-thickness ratios and imperfection amplitudes. The purpose of the analytical program was to compute the buckling strength of underground cylindrical tanks, that are used for storage of nuclear wastes, for realistic geometric imperfections and internal pressure loads. This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic analyses and compares them with other available information for various pressure loads

  13. Tank calibration; Arqueacao de tanques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ana [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work relates the analysis of the norms ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks used in fiscal measurement, established on Joint Regulation no 1 of June 19, 2000 between the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum) and the INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality). In this work a comparison between norms ISO and norms published by the API (American Petroleum Institute) and the IP (Institute of Petroleum) up to 2001 was made. It was concluded that norms ISO are wider than norms API, IP, and INMETRO methods in the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks. (author)

  14. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  15. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...... on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank...... by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements. A tank with uniform temperatures and thermal stratification is studied. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by tests and used as input to the CFD model. The investigations focus...

  16. Design and analysis of a multi-cell subscale tank for liquid hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tapeinos, I.; Koussios, S.; Groves, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the structural performance of a conformable pressurizable tank consisting of intersecting spherical shells (multi-cell tank). Multi-cell tanks outrival conventional multiple cylindrical tanks in volumetric efficiency when required to fit in a rectangular envelope in the

  17. Cylindrical neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  18. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The results show that 20–55% of the side heat loss drops to layers below in the part of the tank without the presence of thermal stratification. A heat loss removal factor is introduced...

  19. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  20. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  1. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  2. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  3. Large Steel Tank Fails and Rockets to Height of 30 meters - Rupture Disc Installed Incorrectly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Selig, Robert Simon; Kragh, Eva K.

    2016-01-01

    At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m3 vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank “took off” like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure...

  4. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  5. Design, Development and Testing of a Semi Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor for Liquid Level Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika PAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a low cost noncontact semi cylindrical capacitive type liquid level sensor has been designed, developed and tested. The semi cylindrical capacitive sensor consisting of two thin semi cylindrical metal plates separated by a gap distance and mounted around a non conducting storage tank, has been used to measure the liquid level in the tank. The measured capacitance variation with variation of liquid level is linear and obtained in the nano farad range which again has been converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Since the sensor is noncontact type it can be used for both conducting and non conducting type of liquid contained within a non conducting tank. For converting the capacitance variation in to voltage variation a series R-L-C resonating circuit has been used instead of conventional bridge circuit. Experimental results confirm the satisfactory performance of the sensor for liquid level measurement.

  6. Analysis of Tank PMD Rewetting Following Thrust Resettling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, M. M.; Sala, M. A.; Collicott, S. H.; Rame, Enrique (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations have successfully demonstrated closed-form analytical solutions of spontaneous capillary flows in idealized cylindrical containers with interior corners. In this report, the theory is extended and applied to complex containers modeling spacecraft fuel tanks employing propellant management devices (PMDs). The specific problem investigated is one of spontaneous rewetting of a typical partially filled liquid fuel/cryogen tank with PMD after thrust resettling. The transients of this flow impact the logistics of orbital maneuvers and potentially tank thermal control. The general procedure to compute the initial condition (mean radius of curvature for the interface) for the closed-form transient flows is first outlined then solved for several 'complex' cylindrical tanks exhibiting symmetry. The utility and limitations of the technique as a design tool are discussed in a summary, which also highlights comparisons with NASA flight data of a model propellant tank with PMD.

  7. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  8. Data on mixing of viscous fluids by helical screw impellers in cylindrical vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houari Ameur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the data assembled regarding the mixing of Newtonian and shear thinning fluids by screw impellers in a cylindrical tank is disclosed. The data summarizing some information on the efficiency of such impellers are obtained via 3D calculations of velocities and viscous dissipation in the whole vessel volume. The data presented herein may be useful for those who want to outline the mixing characteristics in terms of fluid circulation and power consumption for this kind of impellers, therefore, avoiding a great effort for achieving a high number of experiments. Keyword: Mixing, Helical screw agitator, Power consumption, Fluid circulation, Cylindrical tanks

  9. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  10. Flow in sodium loop surge tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Martoch, J.

    1977-01-01

    The alternate liquid flow, the condition of vortex formation, gas entrainment in the discharge and the liquid level characteristics are studied using the models of the vertical and horizontal surge tanks of a sodium circuit with pump and heat exchangers. The conditions for vortex formation are more favourable in the vertical cylindrical tank than in the horizontal tank. The size of the vortex produced in the tank is affected by the initial speed circulation, due as a rule to an unsuitable inlet design. The proposed design considers an inlet below the sodium level using capped perforated pipes. Vortex formation, gas transport to the discharge pipe and turbulences of the liquid in the tank may be prevented by dividing the tank to the discharge and the inlet areas using perforated partitions, and by inserting the discharge cylinder above the discharge pipe outflow. The liquid level in the tank may be calmed by screens or by perforated plates. The adaptation of the surge tank of the sodium circuit will probably eliminate vortex formation and the entrainment of cover gas into the discharge piping and the sodium circuit under nominal conditions. (J.B.)

  11. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  12. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...... with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different...

  13. Shearfree cylindrical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Santos, N. O.

    2009-01-01

    We consider diagonal cylindrically symmetric metrics, with an interior representing a general nonrotating fluid with anisotropic pressures. An exterior vacuum Einstein-Rosen spacetime is matched to this using Darmois matching conditions. We show that the matching conditions can be explicitly solved for the boundary values of metric components and their derivatives, either for the interior or exterior. Specializing to shearfree interiors, a static exterior can only be matched to a static interior, and the evolution in the nonstatic case is found to be given in general by an elliptic function of time. For a collapsing shearfree isotropic fluid, only a Robertson-Walker dust interior is possible, and we show that all such cases were included in Cocke's discussion. For these metrics, Nolan and Nolan have shown that the matching breaks down before collapse is complete, and Tod and Mena have shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the sense of Berger, Chrusciel, and Moncrief. The issues about energy that then arise are revisited, and it is shown that the exterior is not in an intrinsic gravitational or superenergy radiative state at the boundary.

  14. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  15. Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yu

    1994-01-01

    A study of the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, the sloshing wave height and associated frequencies, and the base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, the height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids is controlled by three parameters: the height-to-radius ratio and the mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. It is found that some of the response quantities for a tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the corresponding response quantities for an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. ((orig.))

  16. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  17. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  18. Mobilization and mixing of settled solids in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted using submerged jets for the mobilization and mixing of settled solids to form a suspension that can easily be removed from storage tanks. These studies focus on the specific problems relating to horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks. Of primary consideration are the storage tanks located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory which are used for the collection of remote-handled, radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes are in two phases. A layer of undissolved, settled solids varying from 2 to 4 feet in depth under a layer of supernate. Using a surrogate of the tank contents and an approximate 2/3 dimensional scale tank, tests were performed to determine the optimum design and location of suction and discharge nozzles as well as the minimum discharge velocity required to achieve complete mobilization of the solids in the tank

  19. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Smirnov, Artem; Granstedt, Erik; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation.

  20. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Smirnov, Artem; Granstedt, Erik; Fi, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation

  1. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  2. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 19 IN F TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Shine, G.

    2009-12-14

    Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual material in Tank 19 prior to operational closure. Tank 19 is a Type IV underground waste storage tank located in the F-Tank Farm. It is a cylindrical-shaped, carbon steel tank with a diameter of 85 feet, a height of 34.25 feet, and a working capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Tank 19 was placed in service in 1961 and initially received a small amount of low heat waste from Tank 17. It then served as an evaporator concentrate (saltcake) receiver from February 1962 to September 1976. Tank 19 also received the spent zeolite ion exchange media from a cesium removal column that once operated in the Northeast riser of the tank to remove cesium from the evaporator overheads. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual waste, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the waste during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 19 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 19. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte

  3. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  4. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  5. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  6. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  7. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  8. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  9. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  10. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  11. Dismantling OPAL's cylindrical magnet core

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Lifting a handling device for dismounting the pressure bells, which are inside the cylindrical magnet coil on the central section of OPAL, on the right part of the photo. OPAL was a detector on the LEP accelerator, which ran from 1989 to 2000.

  12. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  13. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  14. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  15. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  16. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  17. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  18. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  19. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  20. Cylindrical collapse and gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, L [Escuela de FIsica, Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela (Venezuela); Santos, N O [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/FRE 2460 LERMA/ERGA, Tour 22-12, 4eme etage, BoIte 142, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, 25651-070 Petropolis RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2005-06-21

    We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non-zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time-dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation-though non-gravitational-in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.

  1. Cracking of anisotropic cylindrical polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardan, S.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    We study the appearance of cracking in charged anisotropic cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation. We investigate the existence of cracking in two different kinds of polytropes existing in the literature through two different assumptions: (a) local density perturbation with conformally flat condition, and (b) perturbing polytropic index, charge and anisotropy parameters. We conclude that cracking appears in both kinds of polytropes for a specific range of density and model parameters. (orig.)

  2. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  3. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  4. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  5. Large Steel Tank Fails and Rockets to Height of 30 meters − Rupture Disc Installed Incorrectly

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Frank H.; Selig, Robert S.; Kragh, Eva K.

    2016-01-01

    At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m3 vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank “took off” like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure responsible for the failure was an estimated 60 kPa. A rupture disc rated at <50 kPa provided overpressure protection and thus prevented the tank from being covered by the European Pressure Equipment Dir...

  6. Levitating Drop in a Tilted Rotating Tank - Gallery of Fluid Motion Entry V044

    OpenAIRE

    White, Andrew; Swan, David; Ward, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A cylindrical acrylic tank with inner diameter D = 4 in. is mounted such that its axis of symmetry is at some angle measured from the vertical plane. The mixing tank is identical to that described in [1] The tank is filled with 200 mL of 1000 cSt silicone oil and a 5 mL drop of de-ionized water is placed in the oil volume. The water drop is allowed to come to rest and then a motor rotates the tank about its axis of symmetry at a fixed frequency = 0.3 Hz. Therefore the Reynolds number is fixed...

  7. Laterally excited flexible tanks with nonuniform density liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu

    1996-01-01

    A study of the dynamic responses of flexible tanks containing nonuniform liquid under horizontal base excitations is presented. The system considered is an upright, circular cylindrical tank filled with an incompressible and inviscid liquid in which the density increases with the liquid depth. Only the impulsive components of response are considered in this study since the convective components can be computed by considering the tank to be rigid. It is shown in this study that for tanks with height-to-radius ratios between 0.3 and 1.2, the response quantities may be estimated utilizing the rigid tank solutions. Also, it is found that the pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the liquid density, and that the base shear and moments for the tank with nonuniform liquid can be estimated conservatively by assuming that the tank is filled with an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. Finally, a simple equation for evaluating the fundamental natural frequency of the system is proposed

  8. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Sloshing in Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaas, F

    1996-12-31

    For oil cargo ship tanks and liquid natural gas carriers, the dimensions of the tanks are often such that the highest resonant sloshing periods and the ship motions are in the same period range, which may cause violent resonant sloshing of the liquid. In this doctoral thesis, linear and non-linear analytical potential theory solutions of the sloshing problem are studied for a two-dimensional rectangular tank and a vertical circular cylindrical tank, using perturbation technique for the non-linear case. The tank is forced to oscillate harmonically with small amplitudes of sway with frequency in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequency of the fluid inside the tank. The method is extended to other tank shapes using a combined analytical and numerical method. A boundary element numerical method is used to determine the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the problem. These are used in the non-linear analytical free surface conditions, and the velocity potential and free surface elevation for each boundary value problem in the perturbation scheme are determined by the boundary element method. Both the analytical method and the combined analytical and numerical method are restricted to tanks with vertical walls in the free surface. The suitability of a commercial programme, FLOW-3D, to estimate sloshing is studied. It solves the Navier-Stokes equations by the finite difference method. The free surface as function of time is traced using the fractional volume of fluid method. 59 refs., 54 figs., 37 tabs.

  9. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Sloshing in Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaas, F.

    1995-12-31

    For oil cargo ship tanks and liquid natural gas carriers, the dimensions of the tanks are often such that the highest resonant sloshing periods and the ship motions are in the same period range, which may cause violent resonant sloshing of the liquid. In this doctoral thesis, linear and non-linear analytical potential theory solutions of the sloshing problem are studied for a two-dimensional rectangular tank and a vertical circular cylindrical tank, using perturbation technique for the non-linear case. The tank is forced to oscillate harmonically with small amplitudes of sway with frequency in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequency of the fluid inside the tank. The method is extended to other tank shapes using a combined analytical and numerical method. A boundary element numerical method is used to determine the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the problem. These are used in the non-linear analytical free surface conditions, and the velocity potential and free surface elevation for each boundary value problem in the perturbation scheme are determined by the boundary element method. Both the analytical method and the combined analytical and numerical method are restricted to tanks with vertical walls in the free surface. The suitability of a commercial programme, FLOW-3D, to estimate sloshing is studied. It solves the Navier-Stokes equations by the finite difference method. The free surface as function of time is traced using the fractional volume of fluid method. 59 refs., 54 figs., 37 tabs.

  10. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  11. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  12. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  13. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  14. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  15. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  16. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  17. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  18. How to evaluate the necessity of applying the floating roof tank for storing crude oil and gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, E

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for calculating differential profit from using floating roof tanks rather than fixed roof tanks. The method is based on the extensive testing by the American Petroleum Institute and applied to the Yugoslavian climatic conditions. Several diagrams are reproduced which show how to compute losses due to breathing from a tank with fixed and floating roofs for oil and refined oil products. Also shown are average daily temperatures of air in the Zagreb region, Yugoslavia, a diagram for determining temperature changes in a vertical cylindrical tank, and typical changes undergone in a gasoline tank during a 24-hr cycle.

  19. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  20. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  1. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  2. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  3. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  4. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  5. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  6. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  7. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  8. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  9. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  10. The electrostatic cylindrical sheath in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Sun Xiaoxia; Bai Dongxue

    2004-01-01

    The electrostatic sheath with a cylindrical geometry in an ion-electron plasma is investigated. Assuming a Boltzmann response to electrons and cold ions with bulk flow, it is shown that the radius of the cylindrical geometry do not affect the sheath potential significantly. The authors also found that the sheath potential profile is steeper in the cylindrical sheath compared to the slab sheath. The distinct feature of the cylindrical sheath is that the ion density distribution is not monotonous. The sheath region can be divided into three regions, two ascendant regions and one descendant region. (author)

  11. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  12. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  13. Diffusion from cylindrical waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.F.

    1985-05-01

    The diffusion of a single component material from a finite cylindrical waste form, initially containing a uniform concentration of the material, is investigated. Under the condition that the cylinder is maintained in a well-stirred bath, expressions for the fractional inventory leached and the leach rate are derived with allowance for the possible permanent immobilization of the diffusant through its decay to a stable product and/or its irreversible reaction with the waste form matrix. The usefulness of the reported results in nuclear waste disposal applications is emphasized. The results reported herein are related to those previously derived at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by Bell and Nestor. A numerical scheme involving the partial decoupling of nested infinite summations and the use of rapidly converging rational approximants is recommended for the efficient implementation of the expressions derived to obtain reliable estimates of the bulk diffusion constant and the rate constant describing the diffusant-waste form interaction from laboratory data

  14. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  15. The effect of nozzle location on the concentration profiles in chemical addition tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. H.; Kim, E. K.; Ro, T. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the flow and injection characteristics is performed for the flow field created by water injected into a cylindrical tank with an initially stationary fluid. The flow is relevant to the operation of the chemical addition system in the chemical and volume control system( CVCS) of nuclear power plants. This study is performed to improve the current design which has a disk block inside tank. The numerical analysis for the flow and injection characteristics in chemical addition tank are carried out using CFD code FLUENT 5. Results show that the inlet nozzle installed in tangential direction at the uppermost region of the tank cylinder and the outlet nozzle located at the center of the tank bottom is very effective in enhancing the injection in the tank

  16. Shear rate analysis of water dynamic in the continuous stirred tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulus; Mardiningsih; Sawaluddin; Sitompul, O. S.; Ihsan, A. K. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Analysis of mixture in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is an important part in some process of biogas production. This paper is a preliminary study of fluid dynamic phenomenon in a continuous stirred tank numerically. The tank is designed in the form of cylindrical tank equipped with a stirrer. In this study, it is considered that the tank is filled with water. Stirring is done with a stirring speed of 10rpm, 15rpm, 20rpm, and 25rpm. Mathematical modeling of stirred tank is derived. The model is calculated by using the finite element method that are calculated using CFD software. The result shows that the shear rate is high on the front end portion of the stirrer. The maximum shear rate tend to a stable behaviour after the stirring time of 2 second. The relation between the speed and the maximum shear rate is in the form of linear equation.

  17. Spiral modes in cold cylindrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, H.

    1975-01-01

    The linearized hydrodynamical equations governing the non-axisymmetric free modes of oscillation of cold cylindrical stellar systems are separated in cylindrical coordinates and solved numerically for two models. Short-wavelength unstable modes corresponding to tight spirals do not exist; but there exists an unstable growing mode which has the form of trailing spirals which are quite open. (orig.) [de

  18. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  19. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  20. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  1. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  2. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  3. Diffusion in a cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.

    1977-04-01

    Modern plasma containment devices, such as the Tokamak, employ magnetic fields which are toroidal in shape. They are able to contain a plasma for times approaching a second. Magnetohydrodynamics (M.H.D.) is one of the most attractive theoretical methods for understanding their behaviour, but the equations involved are complex non-linear partial differential equations, and analytic methods are not available for their solution. Numerical methods must be used. A model system of equations representing a cylindrical plasma with no axial variation is considered. It is convenient to introduce a flux function psi for the component of the magnetic field directed around the axis of the cylinder, called the poloidal field, and the M.H.D. equations are rewritten in terms of psi. This produces a set of highly coupled equations describing the evolution of the flux function, the axial field and the plasma pressure. Various steps are taken to gain a better understanding of the properties of these equations. (author)

  4. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of ∼3.07 m (120.7 ± 2 in. from sidewall bottom or ∼132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19 degrees C (66 degrees F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992

  5. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  6. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  7. Evaluation of tank thermal expansion data in CALDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Weh, R.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal expansion test involving a large annular input reprocessing tank was carried out as a part of the CALDEX Project at the TEKO test facility in Karlsruhe, FRG. The objective of this test was to investigate thermal expansion properties of the tank and effects on various pressure and level measurement instruments used in the determination of liquid volume. In the thermal expansion test, a weak nitric acid solution was heated internally to a temperature of 60 degrees C by means of steam injection through the sparge ring. After heating, the annular tank took about one hour to thermally equilibrate, and it took another hour for the sparge ring and pulsator pipes to fill before thermal effects could be followed. The temperature at the end of the test, after tank and its contents had cooled undisturbed for fifty hours, was 29.9 degrees C. Thirteen instrument readings were obtained during each measurement cycle of roughly 70 seconds for a total of over 2800 readings per instrument. Thermal expansion effects for the CALDEX annular tank were consistent with that reported for cylindrical tanks. Temperature variations effect each type of probe in a way that depends on the properties of the probe and the characteristics of the measurement system. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, A.A.; Barzegar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  9. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  10. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  11. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  12. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  13. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  14. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  15. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  16. Cylindrical fabric-confined soil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard A.

    A cylindrical fabric-soil structural concept for implementation on the moon and Mars which provides many advantages is proposed. The most efficient use of fabric is to fashion it into cylindrical tubes, creating cylindrical fabric-confined soil structures. The length, diameter, and curvature of the tubes will depend on the intended application. The cylindrical hoop forces provide radial confinement while end caps provide axial confinement. One of the ends is designed to allow passage of the soil into the fabric tube before sealing. Transportation requirements are reduced due to the low mass and volume of the fabric. Construction requirements are reduced due to the self-erection capability via the pneumatic exoskeleton. Maintenance requirements are reduced due to the passive nature of the concept. The structure's natural ductility is well suited for any seismic activity.

  17. Cylindrical-shaped nanotube field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-29

    A cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may be manufactured on silicon (Si) substrates as a ring etched into a gate stack and filled with semiconductor material. An inner gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack inside the inner circumference of the ring. An outer gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack outside the outer circumference of the ring. The multi-gate cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET operates in volume inversion for ring widths below 15 nanometers. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET demonstrates better short channel effect (SCE) mitigation and higher performance (I.sub.on/I.sub.off) than conventional transistor devices. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may also be manufactured with higher yields and cheaper costs than conventional transistors.

  18. Cylindrical-shaped nanotube field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Smith, Casey E.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-01-01

    A cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may be manufactured on silicon (Si) substrates as a ring etched into a gate stack and filled with semiconductor material. An inner gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack inside the inner circumference of the ring. An outer gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack outside the outer circumference of the ring. The multi-gate cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET operates in volume inversion for ring widths below 15 nanometers. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET demonstrates better short channel effect (SCE) mitigation and higher performance (I.sub.on/I.sub.off) than conventional transistor devices. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may also be manufactured with higher yields and cheaper costs than conventional transistors.

  19. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain

  20. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  1. Gravitational Instability of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    similar to that of viscoelastic fluid where both properties work together. They also ... cylindrical gravitational waves provides a strong motivation in this regard. .... which represents the solenoidal character of the magnetic field and the total stress.

  2. Radon progeny distribution in cylindrical diffusion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressyanov, Dobromir S.

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm to model the diffusion of radioactive decay chain atoms is presented. Exact mathematical solutions in cylindrical geometry are given. They are used to obtain expressions for the concentrations of 222 Rn progeny atoms in the volume and deposited on the wall surface in cylindrical diffusion chambers. The dependence of volume fractions of 222 Rn progeny and chamber sensitivity on the coefficient of diffusion of 222 Rn progeny atoms in air is modeled.

  3. Cylindrical geometry for proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoulet, B.

    1975-06-01

    For experiments performed around storage rings such as e + e - rings or the ISR pp rings, cylindrical wire chambers are very attractive. They surround the beam pipe completely without any dead region in the azimuth, and fit well with the geometry of events where particles are more or less spherically produced. Unfortunately, cylindrical proportional or drift chambers are difficult to make. Problems are discussed and two approaches to fabricating the cathodes are discussed. (WHK)

  4. Cylindrical dust acoustic waves with transverse perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jukui

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas with the combined effects of bounded cylindrical geometry and the transverse perturbation are studied. Using the perturbation method, a cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (CKP) equation that describes the dust acoustic waves is deduced for the first time. A particular solution of this CKP equation is also obtained. It is shown that the dust acoustic solitary waves can exist in the CKP equation

  5. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  6. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  7. The Pulsed Cylindrical Magnetron for Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The magnetron sputtering deposition of films and coatings broadly uses in microelectronics, material science, environmental applications and etc. The rate of target evaporation and time for deposition of films and coatings depends on magnetic field. These parameters link with efficiency of gas molecules ionization by electrons. The cylindrical magnetrons use for deposition of films and coatings on inside of pipes for different protective films and coatings in oil, chemical, environmental applications. The classical forming of magnetic field by permanent magnets or coils for big and long cylindrical magnetrons is complicated. The new concept of pulsed cylindrical magnetron for high rate deposition of films and coating for big and long pipes is presented in this paper. The proposed cylindrical magnetron has azimuthally pulsed high magnetic field, which allows forming the high ionized plasma and receiving high rate of evaporation material of target (central electrode). The structure of proposed pulsed cylindrical magnetron sputtering system is given. The main requirements to deposition system are presented. The preliminary data for forming of plasma and deposition of Ta films and coatings on the metal pipers are discussed. The comparison of classical and proposed cylindrical magnetrons is given. The analysis of potential applications is considered.

  8. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  9. Electron Cross-field Transport in a Miniaturized Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov Artem; Raitses Yevgeny; Fisch Nathaniel J

    2005-01-01

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. The present paper gives a review of the experimental and numerical investigations of electron crossfield transport in the 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level). We show that, in order to explain the discharge current observed for the typical operating conditions, the electron anomalous collision frequency ν b has to be on the order of the Bohm value, ν B ∼ ω c /16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant. The optimal regimes of thruster operation at low background pressure (below 10 -5 Torr) in the vacuum tank appear to be different from those at higher pressure (∼ 10 -4 Torr)

  10. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  11. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  12. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  13. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  14. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  15. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  16. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  17. In situ stabilization of mixed radioactive waste storage tanks and contaminated soil areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthern, G.E.; Meservey, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Within the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex, there are a number of small (<50,000 gallons) underground Storage tanks containing mixed waste materials. The radioactive content of wastes eliminates the feasibility for hazardous waste treatment in accordance with previously prescribed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) technologies. As a result, DOE is funding in situ stabilization technology development for these tanks, Some of this development work has been done at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the initial efforts there were concentrated on the stabilization of the contents of the Test Area North (TAN) V-9 Tank. This is a 400 gallon underground tank filled with about 320 gallons of liquids and silty sediments. Sampling data indicates that approximately 50 wt% of the tank contents is aqueous-phase liquids. The vertically oriented cylindrical tank has a conical bottom and a chordal baffle that separates the tank inlet from its outlet. Access to the tank is through a six inch diameter access pipe on top of the tank. Because of the high volume, and the high concentration of aqueous-phase materials, Tank V-9 stabilization efforts have focussed on applying in situ agitation with dry feed addition to stabilize its contents. Materials selected for dry feed addition to this tank include a mixture of Aquaset IIH, and Type I/II Portland cement. This paper describes the results of proof-of-concept tests performed on full scale mockups of the Tank V-9. This proof-of-concept test were used to set operating parameters for in situ mixing, as well as evaluate how variations in Aquaset IIH/Portland cement ratio and sediment to liquid volume affected mixing of the tank

  18. Low Frequency Sloshing Analysis of Cylindrical Containers with Flat and Conical Baffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnitko V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of low-frequency liquid vibrations in rigid partially filled containers with baffles. The liquid is supposed to be an ideal and incompressible one and its flow is irrotational. A compound shell of revolution is considered as the container model. For evaluating the velocity potential the system of singular boundary integral equations has been obtained. The single-domain and multi-domain reduced boundary element methods have been used for its numerical solution. The numerical simulation is performed to validate the proposed method and to estimate the sloshing frequencies and modes of fluid-filled cylindrical shells with baffles in the forms of circular plates and truncated cones. Both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes of liquid vibrations in baffled and un-baffled tanks have been considered. The proposed method makes it possible to determine a suitable place with a proper height for installing baffles in tanks by using the numerical experiment.

  19. Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Yoshiyuki; Endo, Mitsuru

    1995-01-01

    Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells are investigated. Basic equations, including the effect of initial stress due to rotation, are formulated by the finite-element method. The characteristic relations for finite elements are derived from the energy principle by considering the finite strain. The equations of motion can be separated into quasi-static and dynamic ones, i.e., the equations in the steady rotating state and those in the vibration state. Radial concentrated impulses are considered as the external dynamic force. The transient responses of circular cylindrical shells are numerically calculated under various boundary conditions and rotating speeds. (author)

  20. Tearing instability in cylindrical plasma configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the neutral-layer cylindrical geometry on the development of the tearing instability has been investigated in detail. The increments of the instability for all the regimes have been found. The influence of cylindrical effects becomes manifesting itself at small, as compared to the layer characteristic thickness, distances from the axis, and, finally, the electron regime of the instability development transforms into an ion one. The results obtained are of interest for studying the plasma stability in the devices of the ''Astron'' type and in magnetospheres of cosmic objects

  1. Scattering of spermatozoa off cylindrical pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukatin, Anton; Lushi, Enkeleida; Kantsler, Vasily

    2017-11-01

    The motion of micro-swimmers in structured environments, even though crucial in processes such as in vivo and in vitro egg fertilization, is still not completely understood. We combine microfluidic experiments with mathematical modeling of 3D swimming near convex surfaces to quantify the dynamics of individual sperm cells in the proximity of cylindrical pillars. Our results show that the hydrodynamic and contact forces that account for the shape asymmetry and flagellar motion, are crucial in correctly describing the dynamics observed in the experiments. Last, we discuss how the size of the cylindrical obstacles determines whether the swimmers scatter off or get trapped circling the pillar.

  2. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2015-05-27

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain wall types, and state diagrams in cylindrical nanowires of different types and sizes. The results of the hysteresis process in individual nanowires and nanowire arrays also are presented. Modeling results are compared with experimental ones. The chapter also discusses future trends in nanowire applications in relation to simulations, such as current-driven dynamics, spintronics, and spincaloritronics. The main micromagnetic programs are presented and discussed, together with the corresponding links.

  3. Cylindrical concave body of composite fibrous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a cylindrical concave body of compound fibrous material which is intended to be exposed to high rotation speeds around its own longitudinal axis. The concave body in question has at least one layer of fibrils that are interwoven and enclose an identical angle with the longitudinal axis of the concave body in both directions. The concave body in question also has at least a second layer of fibrils that run in the direction of the circumference and are fitted radially to the outside. The cylindrical concave body of the invention is particularly well suited for application as a rotor tube in a gas ultra-centrifuge

  4. Cylindrical pressure vessel constructed of several layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Takeshi.

    1976-01-01

    For a cylindrical pressure vessel constructed of several layers whose jacket has at least one circumferential weld joining the individual layers, it is proposed to provide this at least at the first bending line turning point (counting from the weld between the jacket and vessel floor), which the sinusoidally shaped jacket has. The section of the jacket extending in between should be made as a full wall section. The proposal is based on calculations of the bending stiffness of cylindrical jackets, which could not yet be confirmed for jackets having several layers. (UWI) [de

  5. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...... of the magnetostatic interaction energy. For comparison, the forces involved are also calculated numerically using finite elements methods. Based on the conservation of the magnetostatic and kinetic energies, the exit and asymptotic velocities are determined. The derived formulas can be used to optimize the generated...... forces and motion of the inner cylindrical magnet....

  6. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  7. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  8. Cryogenic Liquid Fluctuations in a Motionless Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Vin Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers approximate numerical methods to determine own frequencies of cryogenic liquid fluctuations stratification of which changes under any law. The increasing use of cryogenic liquids, liquefied gas, superfluid solutions, and slush liquids in modern mechanical engineering define relevance of a perspective. Interest in the considered problem is also caused by the fact that in cryogenic liquid along with superficial waves there can be internal wave movements penetrating all thickness of liquid in a tank and therefore playing important role in many hydro-dynamic processes.This article considers problems of determining the own frequencies of cryogenic liquid fluctuations, partially filling cylindrical tank of any cross section. It is supposed that the change of the liquid particles density due to thermal stratification of entire liquid mass can proceed continuously under any law. To solve numerically a similar problem, a method of trigonometric series (MTS and a method of final elements (MFE were used. When using the MTS method the unknown solution and variable coefficients of the equation were presented in the form of trigonometric series. Further, after multiplication of series and the subsequent mathematical operations the frequency equation was obtained. Bubnov-Galyorkin's approach was used to obtain solutions by the MFE method. Reliability of received numerical results is confirmed by coincidence with frequency results calculated by analytical formulas of solutions of differential equations with constant frequency of buoyancy.

  9. Characterization of Samples from Old Solvent Tanks S1 through S22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    1999-03-25

    The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG, 643-E) contains 22 old solvent tanks (S1 - S22) which were used to receive and store spent PUREX solvent from F- and H-Canyons. The tanks are cylindrical, carbon-steel, single-wall vessels buried at varying depths. A detailed description of the tanks and their history can be found in Reference 1. A Sampling and Analysis Plan for the characterization of the material contained in the old solvent tanks was developed by the Analytical Development Section (ADS) in October of 19972. The Sampling and Analysis Plan identified several potential disposal facilities for the organic and aqueous phases present in the old solvent tanks which included the Solvent Storage Tank Facility (SSTF), the Mixed Waste Storage Facilities (MWSF), Transuranic (TRU) Pad, and/or the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF). In addition, the 241-F/H Tank Farms, TRU Pads, and/or the MWSF were identified as potential disposal facilities for the sludge phases present in the tanks. The purpose of this sampling and characterization was to obtain sufficient data on the material present in the old solvent tanks so that a viable path forward could be established for the closure of the tanks. Therefore, the parameters chosen for the characterization of the various materials present in the tanks were based upon the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the SSTF3, TRU Pads4, MWSF5, CIF6, and/or 241-F/H Tank Farms7. Several of the WAC's have been revised, canceled, or replaced by new procedures since October of 1997 and hence where required, the results of this characterization program were compared against the latest revision of the appropriate WAC.

  10. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  11. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  12. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  13. An investigation on cylindrical imploding turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Haidong; Yang Libin; Zhang Xilin; Ouyang Kai; Li Jun

    2001-01-01

    The interfacial instability experiments in cylindrically convergent geometry are performed by imploding jelly liner with high pressure gases; and instability growth were observed with high-speed framing camera. The relevant 2D numerical simulation programs were developed and their results are in good agreement with those of experiments

  14. Wellposedness of a cylindrical shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, C.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a well-known model of a thin cylindrical shell with dissipative feedback controls on the boundary in the form of forces, shears, and moments. We show that the resulting closed loop feedback problem generates a s.c. semigroup of contractions in the energy space

  15. Exact relativistic cylindrical solution of disordered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da; Wolk, I.; Som, M.M.

    1976-05-01

    A source free disordered distribution of electromagnetic radiation is considered in Einstein' theory, and a time independent exact solution with cylindrical symmetry is obtained. The gravitation and pressure effects of the radiation alone are sufficient to give the distribution an equilibrium. A finite maximum concentration is found on the axis of symmetry, and decreases monotonically to zero outwards. Timelike and null geodesics are discussed

  16. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  17. Shear stresses around circular cylindrical openings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Van Weelden, C.; Blom, C.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper stress concentrations are studied around circular cylindrical openings or voids in a linear elastic continuum. The loading is such that a uniform shear stress occurs in the continuum, which is disturbed by the opening. The shear stress is in the direction of the centre axis of the

  18. On isotropic cylindrically symmetric stellar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, Brien C; Nolan, Louise V

    2004-01-01

    We attempt to match the most general cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetime with a Robertson-Walker interior. The matching conditions show that the interior must be dust filled and that the boundary must be comoving. Further, we show that the vacuum region must be polarized. Imposing the condition that there are no trapped cylinders on an initial time slice, we can apply a result of Thorne's and show that trapped cylinders never evolve. This results in a simplified line element which we prove to be incompatible with the dust interior. This result demonstrates the impossibility of the existence of an isotropic cylindrically symmetric star (or even a star which has a cylindrically symmetric portion). We investigate the problem from a different perspective by looking at the expansion scalars of invariant null geodesic congruences and, applying to the cylindrical case, the result that the product of the signs of the expansion scalars must be continuous across the boundary. The result may also be understood in relation to recent results about the impossibility of the static axially symmetric analogue of the Einstein-Straus model

  19. A strong focussing cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yaochang

    1986-01-01

    The construction and performance of small cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole, which is installed in JM-400 pulse electrostatic accelerator, are described. This electrostatic quadrupole is not only used in neutron generator, but also suitable for ion injector as well as for low energy electron accelerator

  20. Cylindrical Induction Melter Modicon Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.

    1998-04-01

    In the last several years an extensive R ampersand D program has been underway to develop a vitrification system to stabilize Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm) inventories at SRS. This report documents the Modicon control system designed for the 3 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM)

  1. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material ...

  2. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  3. Modeling and analysis of ORNL horizontal storage tank mobilization and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1994-06-01

    The retrieval and treatment of radioactive sludges that are stored in tanks constitute a prevalent problem at several US Department of Energy sites. The tanks typically contain a settled sludge layer with non-Newtonian rheological characteristics covered by a layer of supernatant. The first step in retrieval is the mobilization and mixing of the supernatant and sludge in the storage tanks. Submerged jets have been proposed to achieve sludge mobilization in tanks, including the 189 m 3 (50,000 gallon) Melton Valley Storage tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the planned 378 m 3 (100,000 gallon) tanks being designed as part of the MVST Capacity Increase Project (MVST-CIP). This report focuses on the modeling of mixing and mobilization in horizontal cylindrical tanks like those of the MVST design using submerged, recirculating liquid jets. The computer modeling of the mobilization and mixing processes uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics program (Trend and Eyler 1992). The goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents

  4. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  5. Experimentation of a Solar Water Heater with Integrated Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmidi, I; Frikha, N; Chaouchi, B; Gabsi, S

    2009-01-01

    An integrated collector storage (ICS) solar water heater was constructed in 2004 and studied its optical and thermal performance. It was revealed that it has some thermal shortcomings of thermal performances. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was to delimit the causes of these deficiencies and trying to diagnose them. A rigorous experimentation of the solar water heater has been done over its daily energetic output as well as the evolution of the nocturnal thermal losses. In fact, three successive days, including nights, of operation have permitted to obtain diagrams describing the variations of mean temperature in the tank and the thermal loss coefficient during night of our installation. The experimental results, compared with those obtained by simulation, showed a perfecting of thermal performances of system which approach from those of other models introduced on the international market

  6. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  7. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  8. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  9. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  10. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  11. Robotic Hand with Flexible Fingers for Grasping Cylindrical Objects

    OpenAIRE

    柴田, 瑞穂

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a robotic hand for grasping a cylindrical object is proposed. This robotic hand has flexible fingers that can hold a cylindrical object during moving. We introduce a grasping strategy for a cylindrical object in terms of state transition graph. In this strategy the robotic hand picks up the cylindrical object utilizing a suction device before the hand grasp the object. We also design the flexible fingers; then, we investigate the validity of this robotic hand via several e...

  12. Elephant's foot phenomenon in liquid storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Q.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing the seismic response of a flat bottomed cylindrical liquid storage tank to vertical earthquake excitation. Here, vertical earthquake acceleration is considered to correspond to an increase in the density of a stored liquid. Taking into account the vertical and horizontal earthquake loads, hydrostatic pressure, and considering restrictive moment and shear forces at shell-bottom welded joint, the author has calculated circumferential and longitudinal stresses. These are combined to more accurately approximate the stresses at the base shell course. The calculated result closely conforms to the actual damage, termed ''elephant's foot,'' observed in the fuel storage tanks damaged in the Tangshan earthquake. This result shows that the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon is not caused by buckling of the tank shell due to longitudinal compressive stresses resulting from horizontal earthquake acceleration, but rather by the combined stresses in the base shell course of the storage tank exceeding the yield strength of the shell course material. The effect due to vertical earthquake load is more than the effect from the horizontal load. Finally, some earthquake resistant methods to prevent the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon are suggested by the author.

  13. Cylindrical continuous martingales and stochastic integration in infinite dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, M.C.; Yaroslavtsev, I.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we define a new type of quadratic variation for cylindrical continuous local martingales on an infinite dimensional spaces. It is shown that a large class of cylindrical continuous local martingales has such a quadratic variation. For this new class of cylindrical continuous local

  14. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  15. Development of assessment system for tank earthquake-proof design (ASTEP code) installing automatic operation and knowledge database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Suzuki, Michiaki; Fujii, Yuzo

    2004-01-01

    In a nuclear power station, seismic-proof design of the various tanks classified as auxiliary installation are required to follow technical guideline for the seismic-proof design of nuclear power station, which is called JEAC4601 for short in below. This guideline uses simple mechanical multi-mass model but a rather complicated evaluation method requires designers to have knowledge and experience and consumes both time and labor. On purpose to resolve those difficulties, Assessment System for Tank Earthquake-Proof Design, which is called ASTEP in short, has been developed and equipped with automated process and knowledge database. For this system, the targeted types of tank are a vertical cylindrical tank that has four supports or a skirt support, a horizontal cylindrical tank that has two saddle supports, and vertical cylindrical tank or water storage tank with a flat bottom. The system integrated all the seismic-proof design evaluation related tools and equipped with step by step menus in order of the flowchart, so enables designers to use them easily. In addition, it has a input aid that enables users to input with ease and a tool that automatically calculates input parameters. So this system reduces seismic-proof design evaluation related work load dramatically and also does not require much knowledge and experience related to this field. Further more, this system organized seismic-proof design related past statement and technical documents as a knowledge database so user could obtain the identical output as of the manual calculation results. Comparing output of ASTEP code and the manual calculation results of a typical tank that requires government approval of its design evaluation document, the error was within less than a percent so validity of the system was confirmed. This system has gained favorable comment during the trial run, and it was beyond our expectation. (author)

  16. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  17. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  18. Method of dismantling cylindrical structure by cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Minoru; Mitsuo, Kohei; Yokota, Isoya; Nakamura, Kenjiro.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a method of cutting and removing cylindrical structures, for example, iron-reinforced concrete materials such as thermal shielding walls in BWR type power plants into block-like form. That is, in a method of cutting and removing the cylindrical structure from the side of the outer wall, the structural material is cut from above to below successively in the axial direction and the circumferential direction by means abrasive jet by remote operation and cut into blocks each of a predetermined size. The cut out blocks are successively taken out. Cutting of the material from above to below by remote operation and taking out of small blocks causes no hazards to human body. Upon practicing the present invention, it is preferred to use a processing device for slurry and exhaust gases for preventing scattering of activated dismantled pieces or powdery dusts. (K.M.)

  19. Cylindrically converging blast waves in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Cylindrically converging shock waves are produced by utilizing the detonation of cylindrical explosive shells. The production and the propagation of shock waves are observed by framing and streak camera photographs, and the trajectory of shock propagations is determined by using an electrical ionization probing system. The effect of the quantity of explosives on the stability, or the axial symmetry, of shock fronts and on the strength of shocks produced is investigated. It has been shown that, for practical purposes, the approximation of shock trajectories by Guderley's formulas would be sufficiently acceptable in an unexpectedly wide region near the implosion center, and that the axial symmetry of the shock front is improved by increasing the quantity of explosives, and thus, strong shocks are produced by merely increasing the quantity of explosives. The reflected diverging shock seems to be very stable. Piezoelectric elements have also been used to detect reflected diverging waves.

  20. Final dimensional test with alu-jig travelling through the CMS Inner vacuum tank

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The inner vacuum tank is an object of 13m lenght and 6m diameter that is completely made of stainless steel SS304. To allow insertion of the inner detectors, especially the hadronic calorimeter, a rail at 9 and 3 o'clock position is integral part of the cylindrical tank. To insert, weld and finally machine this rail was a big challenge for the manufacturer. The dummy jig presented on the pictures represents the diameter of the most outer corner of the hadronic calorimeter plus a scintillator and some cables.

  1. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  2. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  3. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  4. Spontaneous development of rotating inertial gravity wave inside the cylindrical tank with combined in- and outflow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Stachiv, Ivo; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2013), s. 133-138 ISSN 0869-8643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/10/0824; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : inertial gravity wave * free surface * rotating flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0869864313020017

  5. Escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved technique for the generation of escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry was applied to the existing resonance cross section processing code ROLAIDS. The algorithm of Hwang and Toppel, [ANL-FRA-TM-118] (with modifications) was employed. The probabilities generated were found to be as accurate as those given by the method previously applied in ROLAIDS, while requiring much less computer core storage and CPU time

  6. The large cylindrical drift chamber of TASSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, H.; Fischer, H.M.; Hartmann, H.; Loehr, B.; Wollstadt, M.; Fohrmann, R.; Schmueser, P.; Cassel, D.G.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.

    1980-03-01

    We have built and operated a large cylindrical drift chamber for the TASSO experiment at the DESY storage ring, PETRA. The chamber has a length of 3.5 m, a diameter of 2.5 m, and a total of 2340 drift cells. The cells are arranged in 15 concentric layers such that tracks can be reconstructed in three dimensions. A spatial resolution of 220 μm has been achieved for tracks of normal incidence on the drift cells. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 9 (2012), s. 1715-1719 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : permanent magnet * cylindrical magnet * Earnshaw's theorem * magnetic gun * magnetostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885311008997

  8. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  9. Cylindric-like algebras and algebraic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenczi, Miklós; Németi, István

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways:  as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.

  10. The analytic nodal method in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomasevic, Djordje I.

    2008-01-01

    Nodal diffusion methods have been used extensively in nuclear reactor calculations, specifically for their performance advantage, but also for their superior accuracy. More specifically, the Analytic Nodal Method (ANM), utilising the transverse integration principle, has been applied to numerous reactor problems with much success. In this work, a nodal diffusion method is developed for cylindrical geometry. Application of this method to three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry has never been satisfactorily addressed and we propose a solution which entails the use of conformal mapping. A set of 1D-equations with an adjusted, geometrically dependent, inhomogeneous source, is obtained. This work describes the development of the method and associated test code, as well as its application to realistic reactor problems. Numerical results are given for the PBMR-400 MW benchmark problem, as well as for a 'cylindrisized' version of the well-known 3D LWR IAEA benchmark. Results highlight the improved accuracy and performance over finite-difference core solutions and investigate the applicability of nodal methods to 3D PBMR type problems. Results indicate that cylindrical nodal methods definitely have a place within PBMR applications, yielding performance advantage factors of 10 and 20 for 2D and 3D calculations, respectively, and advantage factors of the order of 1000 in the case of the LWR problem

  11. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  12. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  13. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  14. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible...... if the solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  15. Study of Vapour Cloud Explosion Impact from Pressure Changes in the Liquefied Petroleum Gas Sphere Tank Storage Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Z. A.; Suhaimi Yeong, A. F. Mohd; Alias, A. B.; Ahmad, M. A.; AbdulBari Ali, S.

    2018-05-01

    This research was carried out to determine the risk impact of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facilities, especially in the event of LPG tank explosion. In order to prevent the LPG tank explosion from occurring, it is important to decide the most suitable operating condition for the LPG tank itself, as the explosion of LPG tank could affect and cause extensive damage to the surrounding. The explosion of LPG tank usually occurs due to the rise of pressure in the tank. Thus, in this research, a method called Planas-Cuchi was applied to determine the Peak Side-On Overpressure (Po) of the LPG tank during the occurrence of explosion. Thermodynamic properties of saturated propane, (C3H8) have been chosen as a reference and basis of calculation to determine the parameters such as Explosion Energy (E), Equivalent Mass of TNT (WTNT), and Scaled Overpressure (PS ). A cylindrical LPG tank in Feyzin Refinery, France was selected as a case study in this research and at the end of this research, the most suitable operating pressure of the LPG tank was determined.

  16. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  17. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  18. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  19. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  20. Analysis of a cylindrical shell vibrating in a cylindrical fluid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.; Turula, P.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    Analytical and experimental methods are presented for evaluating the vibration characteristics of cylindrical shells such as the thermal liner of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel. The NASTRAN computer program is used to calculate the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and response to a harmonic loading of a thin, circular cylindrical shell situated inside a fluid-filled rigid circular cylinder. Solutions in a vacuum are verified with an exact solution method and the SAP IV computer code. Comparisons between analysis and experiment are made, and the accuracy and utility of the fluid-solid interaction package of NASTRAN is assessed

  1. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  2. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  3. Tank Characterization Report for Single-Shell Tank 241-C-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  4. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  5. Fast, inexpensive, diffraction limited cylindrical microlenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synder, J.J.; Reichert, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a technique for fabricating fast, well corrected cylindrical microlenses. With this technique we have made a number of different microlenses with dimensions and focal lengths in the range of few hundred μm, and diffraction limited numerical apertures as high as 0.9. The microlenses are specifically designed for applications where they can increase the radiance or otherwise enhance the optical characteristics of laser diode light. The fabrication method we use is very versatile, and the microlenses produced this way would be very inexpensive in production quantities. 6 refs., 4 figs

  6. History of the small cylindrical melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.L.; Iverson, D.C.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1985-08-01

    The small cylindrical melter (SCM) was designed to provide engineering data useful for operation and design of full-scale glass melters for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste. This melter was part of the research and development program for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Extensive corrosion testing of melter materials of construction (Monofrax K3, Inconel 690), simulated radioactive waste glass characterization, and melter component development were conducted in support of the DWPF full-scale melter design. 66 figs., 14 tabs

  7. Acoustic propagation mode in a cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Idehara, Toshitaka; Inada, Hideyo

    1975-01-01

    The sound velocity in a cylindrical plasma produced by a high frequency discharge is measured by an interferometer system. The result shows that the acoustic wave guide effect does exist in a neutral gas and in a plasma. It is found that the wave propagates in the mode m=2 in a rigid boundary above the cut-off frequency fsub(c) and in the mode m=0 below fsub(c). Because the mode m=0 is identical to a plane wave, the sound velocity in free space can be evaluated exactly. In the mode m=2, the sound velocity approaches the free space value, when the frequency increases sufficiently. (auth.)

  8. Cylindrical ionization chamber with compressed krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'minov, V.V.; Novikov, V.M.; Pomanskii, A.A.; Pritychenko, B.V.; Viyar, J.; Garcia, E.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunes-Lagos, R.; Puimedon, J.; Saens, K.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cylindrical ionization chamber with a grid is used to search for double positron decay and atomic electron conversion to a positron in 78 Kr. Krypton is the working gas material of the chamber. The spectrometric characteristics of the chamber filled with krypton and xenon are presented. The energy resolution is 2.1% for an energy of 1.84 MeV (the source of γ-quanta is 88 Y) when the chamber is filled with a mixture of Kr+0.2% H 2 under a pressure of 25 atm

  9. Cullet Manufacture Using the Cylindrical Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    The base process for vitrification of the Am/Cm solution stored in F-canyon uses 25SrABS cullet as the glass former. A small portion of the cullet used in the SRTC development work was purchased from Corning while the majority was made in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Task 1.01 of TTR-NMSS/SE-006, Additional Am-Cm Process Development Studies, requested that a process for the glass former (cullet) fabrication be specified. This report provides the process details for 25SrAB cullet production thereby satisfying Task 1.01

  10. Stability analysis of cylindrical Vlasov equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A general method of stability analysis is described which may be applied to a large class of such problems, namely those which are described dynamically by the Vlasov equation, and geometrically by cylindrical symmetry. The method is presented for the simple case of the Vlasov-Poisson (electrostatic) equations, and the results are applied to a calculation of the lower-hybrid-drift instability in a plasma with a rigid rotor distribution function. The method is extended to the full Vlasov-Maxwell (electromagnetic) equations. These results are applied to a calculation of the instability of the extraordinary electromagnetic mode in a relativistic E-layer interacting with a background plasma

  11. Enhanced Performance of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The cylindrical thruster differs significantly in its underlying physical mechanisms from the conventional annular Hall thruster. It features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel, and performance comparable with the state-of-the-art conventional Hall thrusters. Very significant plume narrowing, accompanied by the increase of the energetic ion fraction and improvement of ion focusing, led to 50-60% increase of the thruster anode efficiency. These improvements were achieved by overrunning the discharge current in the magnetized thruster plasma

  12. Waves in inhomogeneous plasma of cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1966-01-01

    The conductivity tensor of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma has been calculated for a cylindrical geometry using Vlasov equations. The method used consists in a perturbation method involving the first integrals of the unperturbed movement. The conductivity tensor will be particularly useful for dealing with stability problems. In the case of a cold plasma the wave equation giving the electric fields as a function of the radius is obtained. This equation shows the existence of resonant layers which lead to an absorption analogous to the Landau absorption in a hot plasma. (author) [fr

  13. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards...

  14. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...

  15. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  16. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum... to the fuel tank safety requirements of § 238.223 or § 238.423 of this chapter. The Director of the...

  17. Tal en tanke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Hendricks, Vincent

    Den svenske biskop og poet Esais Tegnèr har engang sagt: "Menneskers ord og tanker fødes sammen, at tale uklart er at tænke uklart." Denne lærebog er et lynkursus i at tænke og tale klart - og i at være på vagt over for uklar tænkning og tale, hvor den end optræder.Tal en tanke er hurtigt læst og...

  18. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  19. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  1. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  2. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  3. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the applicable...

  4. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  5. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva F. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.

  6. Forced Vibration Analysis for a FGPM Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Dai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analytical study for forced vibration of a cylindrical shell which is composed of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM. The cylindrical shell is assumed to have two-constituent material distributions through the thickness of the structure, and material properties of the cylindrical shell are assumed to vary according to a power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions for constituent materials, the exact solution for the forced vibration problem is presented. Numerical results are presented to show the effect of electric excitation, thermal load, mechanical load and volume exponent on the static and force vibration of the FGPM cylindrical shell. The goal of this investigation is to optimize the FGPM cylindrical shell in engineering, also the present solution can be used in the forced vibration analysis of cylindrical smart elements.

  7. Note: Electrochemical etching of cylindrical nanoprobes using a vibrating electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufeng; Zeng, Yongbin; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical etching process using a vibrating electrolyte of potassium hydroxide to prepare tungsten cylindrical nanotips is developed. The vibrating electrolyte eases the effects of a diffusion layer and extends the etching area, which aid in the production of cylindrical nanotips. Larger amplitudes and a vibration frequency of 35 Hz are recommended for producing cylindrical nanotips. Nanotips with a tip radius of approximately 43 nm and a conical angle of arctan 0.0216 are obtained

  8. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NE-F6, KSC, FL 32899 (United States); Tomsik, T. M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Conyers, H. J. [NASA Stennis Space Center, Building 3225, SSC, MS 39529 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  9. Natural hazards, vulnerability and structural resilience: tsunamis and industrial tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mebarki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated framework which deals with natural hazards (tsunamis, physical vulnerability modelling, risk of failure for industrial structures (metal structures and structural resilience provided by plastic adaptation. Simplified models are proposed to describe the run-up and wave height attenuation in case of tsunamis. The results are calibrated in the case of important tsunamis having taken place in Asian region. The mechanical vulnerability of cylindrical metal tanks erected near the shoreline is also investigated. The fragility curves are then developed in order to describe the multimodal failure: overturning, rupture of anchorages and sliding, buoyancy, excessive bending effects or buckling. Corresponding fragility curves are developed under various conditions: height of tsunami waves, filling ratios and service conditions of the tanks, friction tank/ground as well as dimensions effects. Probabilistic description of the natural hazard and the fragility curves are presented. Sensitivity analysis is also performed in order to investigate the effect of various governing parameters. Furthermore, resilience concepts and metrics are proposed. Theoretical description of the damages and post-disaster recovery functions are discussed: plastic adaptation as well as elastic and plastic attractors.

  10. Doublet III neutral beam injector test tank cryopanel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Arend, P.V.

    1980-03-01

    A simple condensing cryopanel has been designed for the Doublet III neutral beam test tank with a 320,000 liters per second pumping capacity for hydrogen. This maintains a vacuum in the test tank which simulates the Doublet III vessel, 1.3 x 10 -3 Pa (approx.10 -5 torr). The hydrogen gas load comes from the beam striking the test tank calorimeter and amounts to about 7.2 torr liters per second. The cryopanel is cylindrical shaped with a liquid helium (LHe) surface that pumps through liquid nitrogen (LN) cooled aluminum chevrons located in squirrel-cage fashion around the inside surface of the cylinder. The LHe cooled surface is a smooth cylinder 2.09m in diameter by .69m long with LHe flowing in a approx. 1mm annular space between concentric cylinders. The chevrons which are not blackened are cooled from each end with LN flowing in ring manifolds that serve as the primary cryopanel structure. The LHe is force fed at 55.2 kPa remaining in the liquid phase through the panel. External heat exchanger capability permits use of helium at 3.8 to 4.2 0 K. Normal operating flow rate is 1.4 g/sec for a heat load expected to be 12.2 W total

  11. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  12. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  13. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  14. Solitons in a wave tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations. 19 references, 6 figures

  15. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H; Lahtinen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  16. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report

  17. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  18. Magnetostatic interactions and forces between cylindrical permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Ludek; Sittner, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Permanent magnets of various shapes are often utilized in magnetic actuators, sensors or releasable magnetic fasteners. Knowledge of the magnetic force is required to control devices reliably. Here, we introduce an analytical expression for calculating the attraction force between two cylindrical permanent magnets on the assumption of uniform magnetization. Although the assumption is not fulfilled exactly in cylindrical magnets, we obtain a very good agreement between the calculated and measured forces between two identical cylindrical magnets and within an array of NdFeB cylindrical magnets.

  19. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  20. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  1. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  2. Dynamic analysis of liquid storage tank including hydrodynamic interaction by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.T.; Ting, K.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic response of liquid storage tanks considering the hydrodynamic interactions due to earthquake ground motion has been extensively studied. Several finite element procedures, such as Balendra et. al. (1982) and Haroun (1983), have been devoted to investigate the dynamic interaction between the deformable wall of the tank and the liquid. Further, if the geometry of the storage tank can not be described by axi-symmetric case, the tank wall and the fluid domain must be discretized by three dimensional finite elements to investigate the fluid-structure-interactions. Thus, the need of large computer memory and expense of vast computer time usually make this analysis impractical. To demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the solution technique developed herein, the dynamic behavior of ground-supported, deformed, cylindrical tank with incompressible fluid conducted by Haroun (1983) are analyzed. Good correlations of hydrodynamic pressure distribution between the computed results with the referenced solutions are noted. The fluid compressibility significantly affects the hydrodynamic pressures of the liquid-tank-interactions and the work which is done on this discussion is still little attention. Thus, the influences of the compressibility of the liquid on the reponse of the liquid storage due to ground motion are then drawn. By the way, the complex-valued frequency response functions for hydrodynamic forces of Haroun's problem are also displayed. (orig./GL)

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Deformation of Cylindrical Shell Panels to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramajeyathilagam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical investigations on cylindrical shell panels subjected to underwater explosion loading are presented. Experiments were conducted on panels of size 0.8 × 0.6 × 0.00314 m and shell rise-to-span ratios h/l = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 , using a box model set-up under air backed conditions in a shock tank. Small charges of PEK I explosive were employed. The plastic deformation of the panels was measured for three loading conditions. Finite element analysis was carried out using the CSA/GENSA [DYNA3D] software to predict the plastic deformation for various loading conditions. The analysis included material and geometric non-linearities, with strain rate effects incorporated based on the Cowper-Symonds relation. The numerical results for plastic deformation are compared with those from experiments.

  4. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  5. A dynamic model of liquid containers (tanks) with legs and probability analysis of response to simulated earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi; Shimosaka, Haruo

    1980-01-01

    This paper is described on the results of analysis of the response of liquid containers (tanks) to earthquakes. Sine wave oscillation was applied experimentally to model tanks with legs. A model with one degree of freedom is good enough for the analysis. To investigate the reason of this fact, the response multiplication factor of tank displacement was analysed. The shapes of the model tanks were rectangular and cylindrical. Analyses were made by a potential theory. The experimental studies show that the characteristics of attenuation of oscillation was non-linear. The model analysis of this non-linear attenuation was also performed. Good agreement between the experimental and the analytical results was recognized. The probability analysis of the response to earthquake with simulated shock waves was performed, using the above mentioned model, and good agreement between the experiment and the analysis was obtained. (Kato, T.)

  6. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  7. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  8. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  9. Focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiang, Zhang; Ruishan, Chen; Anting, Wang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, following Richards and Wolf vectorial diffraction theory, the focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams (CVVB) are investigated, and a diffractive optical element (DOE) is designed to spatially modulate the amplitude of the CVVB. Simulated results show that the CVVB focused by an objective also carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), and the optical fields near the focal region can be modulated by changing the topological charge of the CVVB. We numerically simulate the focus properties of radially and azimuthally polarized beams with topological charge equal to 0, 1, 2 and 10 respectively. As a result, a dark channel with a length about 20 λ can be obtained. These new properties have the potential applications such as particle acceleration, optical trapping and material processing.

  10. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  11. Confined detonations with cylindrical and spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linan, A.; Lecuona, A.

    1979-01-01

    An imploding spherical or cylindrical detonation, starting in the interface of the detonantion with an external inert media, used as a reflector, creates on it a strong shock wave moving outward from the interface. An initially weak shock wave appears in the detonated media that travels toward the center, and it could reach the detonation wave, enforcing it in its process of implosion. To describe the fluid field, the Euler s equations are solved by means of expansions valid for the early stages of the process. Isentropic of the type P/pγ-K for the detonated and compressed inert media are used. For liquid or solid reflectors a more appropriate equation is used. (Author) 8 refs

  12. Unbalanced Cylindrical Magnetron for Accelerating Cavities Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Rosaz, Guillaume; Calatroni, Sergio; Sublet, Alban; Tobarelli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We report in this paper the design and qualification of a cylindrical unbalanced magnetron source. The dedicated magnetic assemblies were simulated using a finite element model. A hall-effect magnetic probe was then used to characterize those assemblies and compared to the theoretical magnet profiles. These show a good agreement between the expected and actual values. the qualification of the different magnetic assemblies was then performed by measuring the ion flux density reaching the surface of the sample to be coated using a commercial retarding field energy analyzer. The strongest unbalanced configuration shows an increase from 0.016A.cm^-2 to 0.074A.cm^-2 of the ion flux density reaching the sample surface compared to the standard balanced configuration for a pressure 5.10^-3 mbar and a plasma source power of 300W.

  13. Space charge emission in cylindrical diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Córdoba, Rafael; Martínez-García, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model to describe cylindrical electron current emissions through a physics approximation method is presented. The proposed mathematical approximation consists of analyzing and solving the nonlinear Poisson's equation, with some determined mathematical restrictions. Our findings tackle the problem when charge-space creates potential barrier that disable the steady-state of the beam propagation. In this problem, the potential barrier effects of electron's speed with zero velocity emitted through the virtual cathode happens. The interaction between particles and the virtual cathode have been to find the inter-atomic potentials as boundary conditions from a quantum mechanics perspective. Furthermore, a non-stationary spatial solution of the electrical potential between anode and cathode is presented. The proposed solution is a 2D differential equation that was linearized from the generalized Poisson equation. A single condition was used solely, throughout the radial boundary conditions of the current density formation

  14. Analysis of a cylindrical imploding shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Fujimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    the self-similar solution of the gasdynamic equations of a strong cylindrical shock wave moving through an ideal gas, with γ = csub(p)/csub(v), is considered. These equations are greatly simplified following the transformation of the reduced velocity U 1 (xi) → U 1 = 1/2(γ + 1 ) (U + xi). The requirement of a single maximum pressure, dsub(xi)P = 0, leads to an analytical determination of the self-similarity exponent α(γ). For gases with γ = 2 + 3sup(1/2), this maximum ensues right at the shock front and the pressure distribution then decreases monotonically. The postulate of analyticity by Gelfand and Butler is shown to concur with the requirement dsub(xi)P 0. The saturated density of the gas left in the wake of the shock is computed and - U is shown to be the reduced velocity of sound at P = P sub(m). (author)

  15. Cathode Effects in Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstedt, E.M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-09-12

    Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode-neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

  16. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  17. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  18. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  19. Diffusion coefficient calculations for cylindrical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam-Hime, M.

    1983-03-01

    An accurate and general diffusion coefficient calculation for cylindrical cells is described using isotropic scattering integral transport theory. This method has been particularly applied to large regular lattices of graphite-moderated reactors with annular coolant channels. The cells are divided into homogeneous zones, and a zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a collision probability problem. The reflection of neutrons at the cell boundary is accounted for by the conservation of the neutron momentum. The uncorrected diffusion coefficient Benoist's definition is used, and the described formulation does not neglect any effect. Angular correlation terms, energy coupling non-uniformity and anisotropy of the classical flux are exactly taken into account. Results for gas-graphite typical cells are given showing the importance of these approximations

  20. Study of Cylindrical Honeycomb Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish Mozumder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of our investigation on cylindrical honeycomb solar collector. The honeycomb has been fabricated with transparent cellulose triacetate polymer sheets. Insulation characteristics of the honeycomb were studied by varying the separation between the honeycomb and the absorber plate. The optimal value of the separation was found to be 3.3 mm for which the heat transfer coefficient is 3.06 W m−2 K−1. This supports result of previous similar experiments. Further we test the honeycomb through a field experiment conducted in Delhi (28.6°N, 77°E and found that when the incident angle of the solar radiation is within 20° then the performance of the system with the honeycomb is better than the one without the honeycomb.

  1. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report

  2. Self-regulating characteristics of cold neutron source with annular cylindrical moderator cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Lee Chien-Hsiung; Chan Yea-Kuang; Guung Tai-Cheng; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Kawabata, Yuji; Hino, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    The conditions, in which the ORPHEE type cold neutron source with an annular cylindrical moderator cell could have self-regulating characteristics, were obtained through thermodynamic considerations. From a viewpoint of engineering, it is not easy to establish these conditions because three parameters are involved even in an idealized system without the effect of the mass transfer resistance in the moderator transfer tube between the condenser and the moderator cell. The inner shell of the ORPHEE moderator cell is open in the bottom, but it is expected that only hydrogen vapor is contained in the inner shell and liquid hydrogen in the outer shell. The thermodynamic considerations show that such a state is maintained only when a liquefaction capacity of the condenser is large compared to heat lead and three parameters are optimized with a good balance. We proposed another type of a moderator cell, which has an inner cylindrical cavity with no hole in the bottom but a vapor inlet opening at the uppermost part of the cavity. In this structure, a self-regulating characteristic is established easily and the liquid level in the outer shell is maintained almost constant against thermal disturbances. Therefore it is enough to control one parameter, that is, the reservoir tank pressure corresponding to the liquefaction capacity of the condenser given by the refrigeration power of the helium refrigerator. (author)

  3. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roared tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  4. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  5. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  6. SURGTANK, Steam Pressure, Saturation Temperature or Reactor Surge Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, D.J.; Gupta, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    the heat transferred to the walls and down into the liquid content of the tank is computed. The equation of state is utilized to obtain ambient temperature at the end of the interval. Deviations of the steam from perfect gas theory are taken into account. An energy balance is determined for the end of interval in keeping with the first law of thermodynamics. Any imbalance is designed as error, stored, and the procedure is repeated with a slightly higher assumed pressure. These calculations are repeated until a change in sign of the error is noted, and the exact pressure can be determined. The properties calculated for the end of the first level and time increment are used as the starting proper- ties of the second increment, etc. Calculations are terminated when the final level is reached. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program was developed for predicting pressure behavior in vertical axis cylindrical tanks with spherical dome caps. It could be readily adapted to other geometries, such as spherical tanks (reference 2). Back-to-back insurges and outsurges cannot be treated since each must start from equilibrium conditions. The analysis does not include the effects of heaters, sprays, and safety valves. Possible modifications to include effects of sprays are discussed in reference 5

  7. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived...

  8. Cylindrical and spherical dust-acoustic wave modulations in dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The nonlinear wave modulation of planar and non-planar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic waves (DAW) propagating in dusty plasmas, in the presence of non-extensive distribu- tions for ions and electrons is investigated. By employing multiple scales technique, a cylindrically and spherically modified ...

  9. Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dilaton black hole solutions have attracted considerable attention for the ... theory and study the corresponding cylindrically symmetric spacetime, where .... where Йm and Йe are integration constants to be interpreted later as the ..... feature is apparent for the cylindrically symmetric spacetime in the presence of the dila-.

  10. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  11. Settling of a cylindrical particle in a stagnant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    The objective of this work is to collect data and develop models for cylindrical particles which could be used in numerical multiphase flow modeling. Trajectories of cylindrical particles settling in stagnant water are filmed from two directions in order to derive detailed information on their mo...

  12. Analysis of radial vibrations of poroelastic circular cylindrical shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    vanished, the considered problem reduces to the problem of radial vibrations of fluid-filled poroelastic circular cylindrical shell. (2). When the .... the volume change of the solid to that of liquid. ..... When the outer fluid density is zero, that is, ρof = 0 then the poroelastic cylindrical shell immersed in an acoustic medium will.

  13. Tank 241-BY-110 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-BY-110

  14. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-SX-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SX-108. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  15. Tank 241-S-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-S-107

  16. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks

  17. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  18. Tank 241-AN-102 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-AN-102

  19. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-U-111

  20. Tank 241-B-106 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-B-106

  1. Tank 241-SY-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-SY-103

  2. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank B-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Baird, D.B.; Ryan, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the waste in single shell Tank B-201. Characterization includes the determination of the physical, chemical (e.g., concentrations of elements and organic species), and radiological properties of the waste. These determinations are made using analytical results from B-201 core samples as well as historical information about the tank. The main objective is to determine average waste properties: but in some cases, concentrations of analytes as a function of depth were also determined. This report also consolidates the available historical information regarding Tank B-201, arranges the analytical information from the recent core sampling in a useful format, and provides an interpretation of the data within the context of what is known about the tank

  3. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  4. Fast calculation method for computer-generated cylindrical holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Fujii, Tomohiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Since a general flat hologram has a limited viewable area, we usually cannot see the other side of a reconstructed object. There are some holograms that can solve this problem. A cylindrical hologram is well known to be viewable in 360 deg. Most cylindrical holograms are optical holograms, but there are few reports of computer-generated cylindrical holograms. The lack of computer-generated cylindrical holograms is because the spatial resolution of output devices is not great enough; therefore, we have to make a large hologram or use a small object to fulfill the sampling theorem. In addition, in calculating the large fringe, the calculation amount increases in proportion to the hologram size. Therefore, we propose what we believe to be a new calculation method for fast calculation. Then, we print these fringes with our prototype fringe printer. As a result, we obtain a good reconstructed image from a computer-generated cylindrical hologram.

  5. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  6. Seismic response of unanchored and partially anchored liquid-storage tanks. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, P.K.; Veletsos, A.S.

    1995-12-01

    Ground-mounted vertical storage tanks are important components of nuclear plant safety systems. A systematic study is made of the principal effects of base uplifting on the seismic response of laterally excited, unanchored and partially anchored cylindrical liquid-storage tanks. The study consists of two parts: the first deals with the static uplifting resistance of the flexible base plate, and the second deals with the dynamic response of the uplifting system. An insight into the behavior of the uplifting base plate is first gained with the help of a prismatic beam solution. In Section 2, the solution is implemented exactly, whereas in Section 3 it is implemented approximately by use of the Ritz energy procedure. Solutions are next presented for axisymmetrically and asymmetrically uplifted base plate of tanks, in Section 4. For the axisymmetric case the solution is implemented exactly, as well as approximately by modeling the plate by a series of semiinfinite prismatic beams. The accuracy of the latter approach is confirmed by comparing its predictions with those of the former. In Section 5, a highly efficient and rational method is presented for the dynamic response analysis of uplifting tanks. Both unanchored tanks and partially anchored tanks, for which the number of anchor bolts at the base is insufficient to ensure full fixity, are considered. It is shown that base uplifting may reduce significantly the hydrodynamic pressures, but these reductions may be associated with increased axial compressive stresses in the tank wall and large plastic rotations at the plate-shell junction. For partially anchored tanks, energy loss due to bolt yielding is found to be small

  7. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under § 154...

  8. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanfords 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  9. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  10. continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the small and large intestines as plug flow reactor (PFR) ... from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of the modeled reactors.

  11. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  12. Storage Tank Legionella and Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage Tank Legionella and Community. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Qin, K., I. Struewing, J. Santodomingo, D. Lytle, and J. Lu....

  13. Research Award: Think Tank Iniave

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... be learned from these examples to help strengthen think tanks more widely? ... What is the nature of the applied research market in (some) ... A Master's in economics, development studies, public policy, or polical sciences;.

  14. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall... calibration chart is available at the bonded wine premises, the spirits may be gauged by volume in the tank...

  15. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ 0 /p 0 ) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ 0 is the permeability, and p 0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field

  16. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  17. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  18. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullin, D. I. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Samtaney, R. [Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-15

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The

  19. Arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical invisible cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun; Yu Guanxia; Lin Xianqi; Cheng Qiang; Chin, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea of coordinate transformation (Pendry, Schurig and Smith 2006 Science 312 1780), arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed. The elliptical cloak, which is composed of inhomogeneous anisotropic metamaterials in an elliptical-shell region, will deflect incoming electromagnetic (EM) waves and guide them to propagate around the inner elliptical region. Such EM waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the elliptical cloak. General formulations of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for arbitrarily elliptical axis ratio k, which can also be used for the circular cloak when k = 1. Hence the elliptical cloaks can make a large range of objects invisible, from round objects (when k approaches 1) to long and thin objects (when k is either very large or very small). We also show that the material parameters in elliptical cloaking are singular at only two points, instead of on the whole inner circle for circular cloaking, which are much easier to be realized in actual applications. Full-wave simulations are given to validate the arbitrarily elliptical cloaking

  20. Electrical tensor Green functions for cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Formation of electrical tensor Green functions for cylindrical waveguides is considered. Behaviour of these functions in the source region is studied. Cases of electrical tensor Green functions for vector potential G E (r-vector, r'-vector) and electric field G e (r-vector, r'-vector) are analysed. When forming G E (r-vector, r'-vector), its dependence on lateral coordinates is taken into account by means of two-dimensional fundamental vector Hansen functions, several methods are used to take into account the dependence on transverse coordinate. When forming G e (r-vector, r'-vector) we use the fact that G E (r-vector, r'-vector) and G e (r-vector, r'-vector) are the generalized functions. It is shown that G e (r-vector, r'-vector) behaviour in the source region is defined by a singular term, which properties are described by the delta-function. Two variants of solving the problem of defining singular and regular sides of tensor function G E (r-vector, r'-vector) are presented. 23 refs

  1. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  2. Electron emitter pulsed-type cylindrical IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Gu, Y.; Stubbers, R.; Zich, R.; Anderl, R.; Hartwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    A cylindrical version of the single grid Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device (termed the C-device) has been developed for use as a 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutron source for neutron activation analysis. The C-device employs a hollow-tube type cathode with similar anodes backed up by ''reflector'' dishes. The resulting discharge differs from a conventional hollow cathode discharge, by creating an explicit ion beam which is ''pinched'' in the cathode region. Resulting fusion reactions generate ∼10 6 neutron/s. A pulsed version is under development for applications requiring higher fluxes. Several pulsing techniques are under study, including an electron emitter (e-emitter) assisted discharge in a thorated tungsten wire emitter located behind a slotted area in the reflector dishes. Pulsing is initiated after establishing a low power steady-state discharge by pulsing the e-emitter current using a capacitor switch type circuit. The resulting electron jet, coupled with the discharge by the biased slot array, creates a strong pulse in the pinched ion beam. The pulse length/repetition rate are controlled by the e-emitter pulse circuit. Typical parameters in present studies are ∼30micros, 10Hz and 1-amp ion current. Corresponding neutron measurements are an In-foil type activation counter for time averaged rates. Results for a wide variety of operating conditions are presented

  3. Parametric Investigation of Miniaturized Cylindrical and Annular Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. An alternative approach, a 2.6-cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster with a cusp-type magnetic field distribution, was developed and studied. Its performance was compared to that of a conventional annular thruster of the same dimensions. The cylindrical thruster exhibits discharge characteristics similar to those of the annular thruster, but it has a much higher propellant ionization efficiency. Significantly, a large fraction of multi-charged xenon ions might be present in the outgoing ion flux generated by the cylindrical thruster. The operation of the cylindrical thruster is quieter than that of the annular thruster. The characteristic peak in the discharge current fluctuation spectrum at 50-60 kHz appears to be due to ionization instabilities. In the power range 50-300 W, the cylindrical and annular thrusters have comparable efficiencies (15-32%) and thrusts (2.5-12 mN). For the annular configuration, a voltage less than 200 V was not sufficient to sustain the discharge at low propellant flow rates. The cylindrical thruster can operate at voltages lower than 200 V, which suggests that a cylindrical thruster can be designed to operate at even smaller power

  4. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  5. Impulsive response of nonuniform density liquid in a laterally excited tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.; Chang, Y.W.

    1994-04-01

    A study on the impulsive component of the dynamic response of a liquid of nonuniform density in a tank undergoing lateral base excitations is presented. The system considered is a circular cylindrical tank containing an incompressible and inviscid liquid whose density increases with the liquid depth. The density distribution along the depth can be of any arbitrary continuous or discontinuous function. In the analysis, the liquid field is divided into n layers. The thickness of the liquid layers can be different, but the density of each liquid layer is considered to be uniform and is equal to the value of the original liquid density at the mid-height of that layer. The problem is solved by the eigenfunction expansion in conjunction with the transfer matrix technique. The effect of the nonuniform liquid density on the impulsive component of the dynamic response is illustrated in a numerical example in which the linear and cosine distributions of the liquid density are assumed. The response quantities examined include the impulsive pressure, base shear and moments. The results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. It is found that the impulsive pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the density, and the base shear and moments for the nonuniform liquid can be estimated by assuming an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. The effect of tank flexibility is assessed by a simple approach in which the response quantities for flexible tanks are evaluated by simplified equations

  6. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  7. Cylindrical solitons in shallow water of variable depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaro, P.; Floris, R.; Pantano, P.

    1983-01-01

    The propagation and the interaction of cylindrical solitons in shallow water of variable depth are studied. Starting from the cylindrically symmetric version of the equations describing long waves in a beach, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived. Since no exact analytical solution has been found to date for this equation, some remarkable cases in which the equation takes up a tractable form are analyzed. Finally the intercation between cylindrical imploding and expanding waves is considered and the phase shifts caused by the head-on collision are given

  8. Vibrational analysis of submerged cylindrical shells based on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.G.; Naeem, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a vibration analysis was performed of an isotropic cylindrical shell submerged in fluid, resting on Winkler and Pasternak elastic foundations for simply supported boundary condition. Love's thin shell theory was exploited for strain- and curvature- displacement relationship. Shell problem was solved by using wave propagation approach. Influence of fluid and Winkler as well as Pasternak elastic foundations were studied on the natural frequencies of submerged isotropic cylindrical shells. Results were validated by comparing with the existing results in literature. Vibration, Submerged cylindrical shell, Love's thin shell theory, Wave propagation method, Winkler and Pasternak foundations. (author)

  9. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  10. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  11. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  12. External Cylindrical Nozzle with Controlled Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a developed design of the external cylindrical nozzle with a vacuum camera. The paper studies the nozzle controllability of flow rate via regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere through an air throttle. Working capacity of the nozzle with inlet round or triangular orifice are researched. The gap is provided in the nozzle design between the external wall of the inlet orifice and the end face of the straight case in the nozzle case. The presented mathematical model of the nozzle with the evacuated chamber allows us to estimate the expected vacuum amount in the compressed section of a stream and maximum permissible absolute pressure at the inlet orifice. The paper gives experimental characteristics of the fluid flow process through the nozzle for different values of internal diameter of a straight case and an extent of its end face remoteness from an external wall of the inlet orifice. It estimates how geometry of nozzle constructive elements influences on the volume flow rate. It is established that the nozzle capacity significantly depends on the shape of inlet orifice. Triangular orifice nozzles steadily work in the mode of completely filled flow area of the straight case at much more amounts of the limit pressure of the flow. Vacuum depth in the evacuated chamber also depends on the shape of inlet orifice: the greatest vacuum is reached in a nozzle with the triangular orifice which 1.5 times exceeds the greatest vacuum with the round orifice. Possibility to control nozzle capacity through the regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere was experimentally estimated, thus depth of flow rate regulation of the nozzle with a triangular orifice was 45% in comparison with 10% regulation depth of the nozzle with a round orifice. Depth of regulation calculated by a mathematical model appeared to be much more. The paper presents experimental dependences of the flow coefficients of nozzle input orifice

  13. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  14. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  15. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  16. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation tank 241-SX-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ''Wallet Report'' is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980

  17. Characterization of Slosh Damping for Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid Internal Tank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; Sansone, Marco D.; Eberhart, Chad J.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Grid stiffened tank structures such as Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid are widely used in cryogenic tanks for providing stiffening to the tank while reducing mass, compared to tank walls of constant cross-section. If the structure is internal to the tank, it will positively affect the fluid dynamic behavior of the liquid propellant, in regard to fluid slosh damping. As NASA and commercial companies endeavor to explore the solar system, vehicles will by necessity become more mass efficient, and design margin will be reduced where possible. Therefore, if the damping characteristics of the Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structure is understood, their positive damping effect can be taken into account in the systems design process. Historically, damping by internal structures has been characterized by rules of thumb and for Ortho-Grid, empirical design tools intended for slosh baffles of much larger cross-section have been used. There is little or no information available to characterize the slosh behavior of Iso-Grid internal structure. Therefore, to take advantage of these structures for their positive damping effects, there is much need for obtaining additional data and tools to characterize them. Recently, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted both sub-scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of slosh damping for Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid tanks for cylindrical tanks containing water. Enhanced grid meshing techniques were applied to the geometrically detailed and complex Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structures. The Loci-STREAM CFD program with the Volume of Fluid Method module for tracking and locating the water-air fluid interface was used to conduct the simulations. The CFD simulations were validated with the test data and new empirical models for predicting damping and frequency of Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structures were generated.

  18. Numerical determination of transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de.

    1989-11-01

    Efficient methods for numerical calculation of transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry are presented. Relative errors of the order of 10 -5 or smaller are obtained using analytical solutions and low order quadrature integration schemes. (author) [pt

  19. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-01-01

    inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors

  20. Response of an electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade many experimental studies of surface charge phenomena have been undertaken employing right cylindrical spacers. Measurement of the surface charge was performed using small electrostatic field probes to scan across the dielectric surface. Charges are electrostatically induced...

  1. Analysis of Hall Probe Precise Positioning with Cylindrical Permanent Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicev, P.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Precise positioning of a Hall probe for cyclotron magnetic field mapping, using cylindrical permanent magnets, was analyzed. The necessary permanent magnet parameters in order to achieve ±20 μm position precision, were determined. (author)

  2. Improving the performance parameters of metal cylindrical grid shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the performance parameters of metal cylindrical grid shell structures. ... Finite element models are designed taking into account minimization of production and ... The force factors and deformation parameters of the basic circuits of a ...

  3. Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container

    KAUST Repository

    Amaouche, Mustapha; Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid; Vatistas, Georgios H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study

  4. A single-electron current in a cylindrical nanolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazaryan, E.M.; Aghekyan, N.G.; Sarkisyan, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    The orbital current and the spin magnetic moment current of an electron in a cylindrical nanolayer are investigated. It is shown that under certain conditions, the main contribution to the total current is specified by the spin magnetic moment current

  5. Optical inspections of research reactor tanks and tank components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    By the end of 1987 worldwide there were 326 research reactors in operation, 276 of them operating more than 10 years, and 195 of them operating more than 20 years. The majority of these reactors are swimming-pool type or tank type reactors using aluminium as structural material. Although aluminium has prooven its excellent properties for reactor application in primary system, it is however subjected to various types of corrosion if it gets into contact with other materials such as mild steel in the presence of destilled water. This paper describes various methods of research reactor tank inspections, maintenance and repair possibilities. 9 figs. (Author)

  6. On cylindrically converging shock waves shaped by obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, V; Henshaw, W D; Appelo, D

    2007-07-16

    Motivated by recent experiments, numerical simulations were performed of cylindrically converging shock waves. The converging shocks impinged upon a set of zero to sixteen regularly space obstacles. For more than two obstacles the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal shaped patterns near the point of focus. The maximum pressure and temperature as a function of number of obstacles were studied. The self-similar behavior of cylindrical, triangular and square-shaped shocks were also investigated.

  7. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  8. Theory and modeling of cylindrical thermo-acoustic transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Lihong, E-mail: lhtong@ecjtu.edu.cn [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, Jiangxi (China); Lim, C.W. [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zhao, Xiushao; Geng, Daxing [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, Jiangxi (China)

    2016-06-03

    Models both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions are proposed and the corresponding acoustic pressure solutions are obtained. The acoustic pressure for an individual carbon nanotube (CNT) as a function of input power is investigated analytically and it is verified by comparing with the published experimental data. Further numerical analysis on the acoustic pressure response and characteristics for varying input frequency and distance are also examined both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions. Through detailed theoretical and numerical studies on the acoustic pressure solution for thinfilm-solid cylindrical transduction, it is concluded that a solid with smaller thermal conductivity favors to improve the acoustic performance. In general, the proposed models are applicable to a variety of cylindrical thermo-acoustic devices performing in different gaseous media. - Highlights: • Theory and modeling both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions are proposed. • The modeling is verified by comparing with the published experimental data. • Acoustic response characteristics of cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions are predicted by the proposed model.

  9. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chull Hee; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  10. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  11. Tank Space Alternatives Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.; Kirch, N.W.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Schaus, P.S.; Wodrich, D.D.; Wiegman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

  12. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities

  13. Tank 241-BY-103 Tank Characterization Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-103

  14. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-103

  15. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned

  16. Tank waste remediation system tank waste retrieval risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimper, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This Risk Management Plan defines the approach to be taken to manage programmatic risks in the TWRS Tank Waste Retrieval program. It provides specific instructions applicable to TWR, and is used to supplement the guidance given by the TWRS Risk Management procedure

  17. Continual approach to the dynamics problems of tanks containing rod bundles or particle groups and fluid at vibrational actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotovskii, V.S.

    1988-02-01

    The vibration of tanks with liquid and non deformed cylindrical or spherical inclusions are considered. It is shown that for calculating dynamic characteristics of such systems it is advisable to use continual approach i.e. consider-heterogeneous media formed by liquid and weighted inclusions in it as homogeneous media with effective or vibroreological properties. On the base of the problem on vibrations of the tank, containing liquid and localized inclusions, rod assemblies vibrations are considered and relationships for the added mass and resistance coefficient determining dynamic characteristics of such systems are obtained. Considered are also liquid tank vibrations containing spherical inclusions. The results obtained are used for calculating dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow pipelines at bubble and annular flow mode. The theoretical relationships are compared with available experimental data [fr

  18. 49 CFR 172.326 - Portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... petroleum gas (LPG) that is unodorized as authorized in § 173.315(b)(1) unless it is legibly marked NON... the portable tank are not visible. (d) NON-ODORIZED marking on portable tanks containing LPG. After...

  19. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak when...

  20. Lightweight, Composite Cryogenic Tank Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without...

  1. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  2. The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis......In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... of a typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo...

  3. Design of an Experimental PCM Solar Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Istvan Peter

    2010-09-15

    The one of the most important part of a solar collector system is the solar tank. The relevant type and capacity of the solar tank is a requirement of the good operation of the system. According the current architectural tendencies the boiler rooms are smaller, so the putting of the currently available solar tanks is very difficult. It is necessary to store the energy in a little space. The solution of the problem is the solar tank particularly filled with phase change material.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Liquids Draining From a Tank Using OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakri, Fadhilah Mohd; Sukri Mat Ali, Mohamed; Zaki Shaikh Salim, Sheikh Ahmad; Muhamad, Sallehuddin

    2017-08-01

    Accurate simulation of liquids draining is a challenging task. It involves two phases flow, i.e. liquid and air. In this study draining a liquid from a cylindrical tank is numerically simulated using OpenFOAM. OpenFOAM is an open source CFD package and it becomes increasingly popular among the academician and also industries. Comparisons with theoretical and results from previous published data confirmed that OpenFOAM is able to simulate the liquids draining very well. This is done using the gas-liquid interface solver available in the standard library of OpenFOAM. Additionally, this study was also able to explain the physics flow of the draining tank.

  5. Tank 241-U-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-U-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  6. Farming in a fish tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth, H

    1992-01-01

    Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost.

  7. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...

  8. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply sys...

  10. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  11. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  12. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the car...

  13. DOUBLE SHELL TANK EMERGENCY PUMPING GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    This document provides preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  14. Heater for Combustible-Gas Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Walter B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed heater for pressurizing hydrogen, oxygen, or another combustible liquid or gas sealed in immersion cup in pressurized tank. Firmly supported in finned cup, coiled rod transfers heat through liquid metal to gas tank. Heater assembly welded or bolted to tank flange.

  15. Remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy. The ICPP's mission is to process government-owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel, extracting off uranium, and calcining the waste to a solid form for storage, Prior to calcining, WINCO temporarily stores the liquid waste from this process in eleven 1,135,600-l(300,000-gal), 15,2-m (50-ft)-diam, high-level liquid waste tanks. Each of these stainless steel tanks is contained within an underground concrete vault. The only access to the interior of the tanks is through risers that extend from ground level to the dome of the tanks. WINCO is replacing these tanks because of their age and the fact that they do not meet all of the current design requirements. The tanks will be replaced in two phases. WINCO is now in the Title I design stage for four new tank and vault systems to replace five of the existing systems. The integrity of the six remaining tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced in the second phase. To perform any integrity analysis, the inner surface of the tanks must be inspected. The remote tank inspection (RTI) robotic system, designed by RedZone Robotics of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was developed to access the interior of the tanks and position various end effectors required to perform tank wall inspections

  16. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  17. 7 CFR 58.427 - Paraffin tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paraffin tanks. 58.427 Section 58.427 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....427 Paraffin tanks. The metal tank should be adequate in size, have wood rather than metal racks to...

  18. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  19. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  20. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issuesclose quotes. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolutionclose quotes

  1. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  2. Tank 241-BY-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  3. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  4. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  5. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in ''Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues'' (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-BY-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  6. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  7. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  8. Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  9. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  10. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  11. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMBERT, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues

  12. Power deposition in a cylindrical geometry using B-10 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, A.K.; Prelas, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The transport of charged particles produced by 10 B (n, α) Li and 235 U (n, νn) ff nuclear reactions in a two region cylindrical geometry is predicted. We employed a mean-range straight-flight approximation to calculate the power deposition by the charged particles in a gaseous medium. Our model demonstrated some features in a cylindrical experiment which were suspected but not proven. In the common slab model used by Guyot et al 1 and Romero 2 , the spatial distribution of power deposition is much flatter than it would be in a cylindrical model. A steeper gradient in the power deposition is expected in a cylindrical geometry than in a slab geometry. We also found that for a standard thickness of Boron-10 coating (1.73 μm) used in NPLs, the expected efficiency of a cylindrical geometry (7.5%) is much lower than the 12% efficiency predicted by the slab model. Indeed the use of slab geometry in modeling current NPL experimental devices is not accurate

  13. Sensitivity optimization in whispering gallery mode optical cylindrical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozeymeh, F.; Razaghi, M.

    2018-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode resonances propagated in cylindrical resonators have two angular and radial orders of l and i. In this work, the higher radial order whispering-gallery-mode resonances, (i = 1 - 4), at a fixed l are examined. The sensitivity of theses resonances is analysed as a function of the structural parameters of the cylindrical resonator like different radii and refractive index of composed material of the resonator. A practical application where cylindrical resonators are used for the measurement of glucose concentration in water is presented as a biosensor demonstrator. We calculate the wavelength shifts of the WG1-4, in several glucose/water solutions, with concentrations spanning from 0.0% to 9.0.% (weight/weight). Improved sensitivity can be achieved using multi-WGM cylindrical resonators with radius of R = 100 μm and resonator composed material of MgF 2 with refractive index of nc = 1.38. Also the effect of polarization on sensitivity is considered for all four WGMs. The best sensitivity of 83.07 nm/RIU for the fourth WGM with transverse magnetic polarization, is reported. These results propose optimized parameters aimed to fast designing of cylindrical resonators as optical biosensors, where both the sensitivity and the geometries can be optimized.

  14. The decrease of cylindrical pempek quality during boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karneta, R.; Gultom, N. F.

    2017-09-01

    The research objective was to study the effects of temperature and formulation on quality of pempek lenjer during boiling. Treatments in this study were four levels of pempek formulation and five levels of temperature. Data was processed by using analysis of variance (Anova). If test results showed that samples were significantly different or highly significantly different, then further test was conducted by using Honestly Significant Different. The results showed that chemical analysis showed that fish dominant formula of cylindrical pempek had higher water content, protein content, lipid content and ash content than that of tapioca starch dominant formula, but it had lower carbohydrate content and fibre content than that of tapioca starch dominant formula.The higher the temperature at center point of cylindrical pempek, the lower the chemical quality of cylindrical pempek. The effect of formula on physical quality of cylindrical pempek showed that tapioca starch dominant formula had more rubbery texture, more neutral pH and brighter color than that of fish dominant formula.The temperature change had no significant effect on texture and pH of cylindrical pempek, but it had significant effect on lightness, intensity and chromatic color especially after exceeding optimum time of boiling.

  15. Novel spherical hohlraum with cylindrical laser entrance holes and shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ke [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Wudi [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Our recent works [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 052704 (2014)] have shown that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are superior to the cylindrical hohlraums in both higher symmetry during the capsule implosion and lower backscatter without supplementary technology. However, both the coupling efficiency from the drive laser energy to the capsule and the capsule symmetry decrease remarkably when larger laser entrance holes (LEHs) are used. In addition, the laser beams injected at angles > 45° transport close to the hohlraum wall, thus the wall blowoff causes the LEH to close faster and results in strong laser plasma interactions inside the spherical hohlraums. In this letter, we propose a novel octahedral hohlraum with LEH shields and cylindrical LEHs to alleviate these problems. From our theoretical study, with the LEH shields, the laser coupling efficiency is significantly increased and the capsule symmetry is remarkably improved in the spherical hohlraums. The cylindrical LEHs take advantage of the cylindrical hohlraum near the LEH and mitigate the influence of the blowoff on laser transport inside a spherical hohlraum. The cylindrical LEHs can also be applied to the rugby and elliptical hohlraums.

  16. Novel spherical hohlraum with cylindrical laser entrance holes and shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Ke; Zheng, Wudi

    2014-01-01

    Our recent works [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 052704 (2014)] have shown that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are superior to the cylindrical hohlraums in both higher symmetry during the capsule implosion and lower backscatter without supplementary technology. However, both the coupling efficiency from the drive laser energy to the capsule and the capsule symmetry decrease remarkably when larger laser entrance holes (LEHs) are used. In addition, the laser beams injected at angles > 45° transport close to the hohlraum wall, thus the wall blowoff causes the LEH to close faster and results in strong laser plasma interactions inside the spherical hohlraums. In this letter, we propose a novel octahedral hohlraum with LEH shields and cylindrical LEHs to alleviate these problems. From our theoretical study, with the LEH shields, the laser coupling efficiency is significantly increased and the capsule symmetry is remarkably improved in the spherical hohlraums. The cylindrical LEHs take advantage of the cylindrical hohlraum near the LEH and mitigate the influence of the blowoff on laser transport inside a spherical hohlraum. The cylindrical LEHs can also be applied to the rugby and elliptical hohlraums

  17. A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Colin M.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. - Highlights: • The missing wedge is a serious problem for electron cryo-tomography. • Cylindrical specimens allow the missing wedge to be eliminated. • Carbon nanopipettes can be used as cylindrical holders for tomography of frozen-hydrated specimens. • Cryo-tomography of cylindrical biological samples demonstrates a reduction of deleterious effects associated with the missing wedge

  18. Tanks focus area. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM's technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE's four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program

  19. Large Steel Tank Fails and Rockets to Height of 30 meters - Rupture Disc Installed Incorrectly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Frank H; Selig, Robert S; Kragh, Eva K

    2016-06-01

    At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m(3) vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank "took off" like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure responsible for the failure was an estimated 60 kPa. A rupture disc rated at < 50 kPa provided overpressure protection and thus prevented the tank from being covered by the European Pressure Equipment Directive. This safeguard failed and it was later discovered that the rupture disc had been installed upside down. The organizational root cause of this incident may be a fundamental lack of appreciation of the hazards of large volumes of low-pressure compressed air or gas. A contributing factor may be that the standard piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) symbol for a rupture disc may confuse and lead to incorrect installation. Compressed air systems are ubiquitous. The medium is not toxic or flammable. Such systems however, when operated at "slight overpressure" can store a great deal of energy and thus constitute a hazard that ought to be addressed by safety managers.

  20. The outer vactank, an object of 7.6m diameter and 13m length is built up of three cylindrical parts. The central part that is integral part of the central barrel and the the extension on either side each one 4.5m long. These extensions house the shoulders that will support and prestress the CMS Coil. To weld the extensions onto the central part a full penetration weld of 24m length and 45 mm thickness has to be done by hand from inside and outside the vacuum tank and its deformation is controled permanently.

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The outer vacuum tank will hold the coil suspension system and transmits the weight of the inner detectors to the central barrel. Its thickness is staggered. In the central part its thickness is 60 mm and then goes down to 30 mm at the extremity.

  1. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report

  2. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...

  3. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  4. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground...

  5. Cylindrical-confinement-induced phase behaviours of diblock copolymer melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Jiao, Liu; Shi-Ben, Li; Lin-Xi, Zhang; Xiang-Hong, Wang

    2010-01-01

    The phase behaviours of diblock copolymers under cylindrical confinement are studied in two-dimensional space by using the self-consistent field theory. Several phase parameters are adjusted to investigate the cylindrical-confinement-induced phase behaviours of diblock copolymers. A series of lamella-cylinder mixture phases, such as the mixture of broken-lamellae and cylinders and the mixture of square-lamellae and cylinders, are observed by varying the phase parameters, in which the behaviours of these mixture phases are discussed in the corresponding phase diagrams. Furthermore, the free energies of these mixture phases are investigated to illustrate their evolution processes. Our results are compared with the available observations from the experiments and simulations respectively, and they are in good agreement and provide an insight into the phase behaviours under cylindrical confinement. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. The cylindrical GEM detector of the KLOE-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencivenni, G.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; Domenici, D.; Felici, G.; Fermani, P.; Morello, G.; Branchini, P.; Cicco, A. Di; Czerwinski, E.

    2017-01-01

    The KLOE-2 experiment started its data taking campaign in November 2014 with an upgraded tracking system at the DAΦNE electron-positron collider at the Frascati National Laboratory of INFN. The new tracking device, the Inner Tracker, operated together with the KLOE-2 Drift Chamber, has been installed to improve track and vertex reconstruction capabilities of the experimental apparatus. The Inner Tracker is a cylindrical GEM detector composed of four cylindrical triple-GEM detectors, each provided with an X-V strips-pads stereo readout. Although GEM detectors are already used in high energy physics experiments, this device is considered a frontier detector due to its fully-cylindrical geometry: KLOE-2 is the first experiment benefiting of this novel detector technology. Alignment and calibration of this detector will be presented together with its operating performance and reconstruction capabilities.

  7. Errors due to the cylindrical cell approximation in lattice calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmarch, D A [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1960-06-15

    It is shown that serious errors in fine structure calculations may arise through the use of the cylindrical cell approximation together with transport theory methods. The effect of this approximation is to overestimate the ratio of the flux in the moderator to the flux in the fuel. It is demonstrated that the use of the cylindrical cell approximation gives a flux in the moderator which is considerably higher than in the fuel, even when the cell dimensions in units of mean free path tend to zero; whereas, for the case of real cells (e.g. square or hexagonal), the flux ratio must tend to unity. It is also shown that, for cylindrical cells of any size, the ratio of the flux in the moderator to flux in the fuel tends to infinity as the total neutron cross section in the moderator tends to zero; whereas the ratio remains finite for real cells. (author)

  8. Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum......, but where subsequently the load starts to increase again, it is found that near the local load minimum, the buckling pattern switches back to a periodic type of pattern. The inelastic material behavior of the panel is described in terms of J(2) corner theory, which avoids the sometimes unrealistically high...

  9. Tight multilattices calculated by extended-cell cylindrization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segev, M; Carmona, S

    1983-01-01

    Among the common features of advanced LWR concepts are the tightness of lattices and the symbiotic setting of different fuels. Such symbioses often come in the form of multilattices, whose numerically-repeated unit is a configuration of several pins, typically with one pin type at the center and pins of a second type surrounding the center pin. If this extended-cell (EC) unit is cylindricized, then a simple transport calculation of the unit will be possible. If the lattice of such units is tight, there is further an a priori reason to expect the cylindrization to introduce only a small distortion of the true neutron fluxes in the lattice. A strict numerical validation of the EC cylindrization approximation is impractical, but similar validations can be carried out for regular lattices, viewed as being made up of multicell units whose centers are moderators and whose peripheries are fuel pins. In these comparisons the EC cylindrization approximation gives good results.

  10. ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.; Millet, C.B.; Staiger, M.D.; Ward, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed

  11. Sampling plan to support HLW tank 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, P.O.; Martin, B.

    1997-01-01

    Plans are to remove the residual waste from the annulus of High-Level Waste Tank 16, located in the H-Area Tank Farm, in 1998. The interior of the tank is virtually clean. In the late 1970's, the waste was removed from the interior of the tank by several campaigns of waste removal with slurry pumps, spray washing, and oxalic acid cleaning. The annulus of the tank at one time had several thousand gallons of waste salt, which had leaked from the tank interior. Some of this salt was removed by adding water to the annulus and circulating, but much of the salt remains in the annulus. In order to confirm the source term used for fate and transport modeling, samples of the tank interior and annulus will be obtained and analyzed. If the results of the analyses indicate that the data used for the initial modeling is bounding then no changes will be made to the model. However, if the results indicate that the source term is higher than that assumed in the initial modeling, thus not bounding, additional modeling will be performed. The purpose of this Plan is to outline the approach to sampling the annulus and interior of Tank 16 as a prerequisite to salt removal in the annulus and closure of the entire tank system. The sampling and analysis of this tank system must be robust to reasonably ensure the actual tank residual is within the bounds of analysis error

  12. History of Tank 23, 1962 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 23 was placed in service in April 1964 receiving contaminated water from Buildings 244-H, the Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuel (RBOF), and 245-H, the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF). Tank 23 also provided emergency storage space for 500,000 gallons in the event of a severe contamination incident in Building 244-H. The tank has remained in this service since that time. The Tank 23 waste was processed initially by the 242-H evaporator, but since mid-1966 the waste has been processed through a zeolite bed to remove 137 C and other radioisotopes by ion exchange, and discarded to seepage basins. Inspections of the tank interior were made by using a 40-ft optical periscope and the thickness of the steel bottom of the tank was measured ultrasonically. Samples of the waste in the tank and liquid collected in the side wall and bottom sumps were analyzed. Several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  13. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  14. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4 · Na 2 CO 3 ). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form

  15. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*

  16. Cylindrical optical resonators: fundamental properties and bio-sensing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozeymeh, Foroogh; Razaghi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, detailed theoretical analysis of cylindrical resonators is demonstrated. As illustrated, these kinds of resonators can be used as optical bio-sensing devices. The proposed structure is analyzed using an analytical method based on Lam's approximation. This method is systematic and has simplified the tedious process of whispering-gallery mode (WGM) wavelength analysis in optical cylindrical biosensors. By this method, analysis of higher radial orders of high angular momentum WGMs has been possible. Using closed-form analytical equations, resonance wavelengths of higher radial and angular order WGMs of TE and TM polarization waves are calculated. It is shown that high angular momentum WGMs are more appropriate for bio-sensing applications. Some of the calculations are done using a numerical non-linear Newton method. A perfect match of 99.84% between the analytical and the numerical methods has been achieved. In order to verify the validity of the calculations, Meep simulations based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method are performed. In this case, a match of 96.70% between the analytical and FDTD results has been obtained. The analytical predictions are in good agreement with other experimental work (99.99% match). These results validate the proposed analytical modelling for the fast design of optical cylindrical biosensors. It is shown that by extending the proposed two-layer resonator structure analyzing scheme, it is possible to study a three-layer cylindrical resonator structure as well. Moreover, by this method, fast sensitivity optimization in cylindrical resonator-based biosensors has been possible. Sensitivity of the WGM resonances is analyzed as a function of the structural parameters of the cylindrical resonators. Based on the results, fourth radial order WGMs, with a resonator radius of 50 μm, display the most bulk refractive index sensitivity of 41.50 (nm/RIU).

  17. Far-field potentials in cylindrical and rectangular volume conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, D; King, J C; Rogers, W E

    1993-07-01

    The occurrence of a transient dipole is one method of producing a far-field potential. This investigation qualitatively defines the characteristics of the near-field and far-field electrical potentials produced by a transient dipole in both cylindrical and rectangular volume conductors. Most body segments of electrophysiologic interest such as arms, legs, thorax, and neck are roughly cylindrical in shape. A centrally located dipole generator produces a nonzero equipotential region which is found to occur along the cylindrical wall at a distance from the dipole of approximately 1.4 times the cylinder's radius and 1.9 times the cylinder's radius for the center of the cylinder. This distance to the equi-potential zone along the surface wall expands but remains less than 3.0 times the cylindrical radius when the dipole is eccentrically placed. The magnitude of the equipotential region resulting from an asymmetrically placed dipole remains identical to that when the dipole is centrally located. This behavior is found to be very similar in rectangular shallow conducting volumes that model a longitudinal slice of the cylinder, thus allowing a simple experimental model of the cylinder to be utilized. Amplitudes of the equipotential region are inversely proportional to the cylindrical or rectangular volume's cross-sectional area at the location of dipolar imbalance. This study predicts that referential electrode montages, when placed at 3.0 times the radius or greater from a dipolar axially aligned far-field generator in cylindrical homogeneous volume conductors, will record only equipotential far-field effects.

  18. Development of new cylindrical magnetrons for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, B.

    2000-09-01

    A number of alternative techniques were considered and tested with a view to the construction of a cylindrical sputtering device. This device was required to be capable of depositing tribological coatings inside approximately cylindrical substrates of diameters less than 100mm, in an industrial situation. A cylindrical magnetron device was designed, and constructed as a prototype, using a magnetic assembly inside a cylindrical target with outside diameter (o.d.) 40mm. Two alternative magnetic assemblies were tested, and found to have complimentary advantages. The magnetron characteristics of the device were tested, as were key properties (such as adhesion level and hardness) of the coatings deposited. In all cases good results were obtained. A 22mm o.d. device based on the same design was shown to operate, but with less satisfactory characteristics. In an attempt to improve the miniaturised design, the feasibility of gas cooling (rather than water cooling) the cylindrical magnetron was demonstrated. A system incorporating four 40mm o.d. cylindrical magnetrons was designed, constructed and briefly tested. This was intended to prove the feasibility of using a multi-magnetron system to reduce the cost to coat. Its dimensions and design were tailored to an industrially specified engine block. In use the plasma rings formed on the 40mm magnetron target surfaces during operation were found to be of unequal intensities, especially on the shorter magnetron design used in the four-fold system. In an attempt to tackle this problem, a finite element model of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic assembly was built, run and verified. Changes were made to this model, and a new .magnet assembly was built and tested based on the results obtained. This did not lead to a final solution of the problem, but has set bounds within which the solution must lie. (author)

  19. Composite Cryotank Technologies and Development 2.4 and 5.5M out of Autoclave Tank Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin R.; Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration (CCTD) project substantially matured composite, cryogenic propellant tank technology. The project involved the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of large-scale (2.4-m-diameter precursor and 5.5-m-diameter) composite cryotanks. Design features included a one-piece wall design that minimized tank weight, a Y-joint that incorporated an engineered material to alleviate stress concentration under combined loading, and a fluted core cylindrical section that inherently allows for venting and purging. The tanks used out-of-autoclave (OoA) cured graphite/epoxy material and processes to enable large (up to 10-m-diameter) cryotank fabrication, and thin-ply prepreg to minimize hydrogen permeation through tank walls. Both tanks were fabricated at Boeing using automated fiber placement on breakdown tooling. A fluted core skirt that efficiently carried axial loads and enabled hydrogen purging was included on the 5.5-m-diameter tank. Ultrasonic inspection was performed, and a structural health monitoring system was installed to identify any impact damage during ground processing. The precursor and 5.5-m-diameter tanks were tested in custom test fixtures at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center. The testing, which consisted of a sequence of pressure and thermal cycles using liquid hydrogen, was successfully concluded and obtained valuable structural, thermal, and permeation performance data. This technology can be applied to a variety of aircraft and spacecraft applications that would benefit from 30 to 40% weight savings and substantial cost savings compared to aluminum lithium tanks.

  20. Jet mixing long horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-12-01

    Large storage tanks may require mixing to achieve homogeneity of contents for several reasons: prior to sampling for mass balance purposes, for blending in reagents, for suspending settled solids for removal, or for use as a feed tank to a process. At ORNL, mixed waste evaporator concentrates are stored in 50,000-gal tanks, about 12 ft in diameter and 60 ft long. This tank configuration has the advantage of permitting transport by truck and therefore fabrication in the shop rather than in the field. Jet mixing experiments were carried out on two model tanks: a 230-gal (1/6-linear-scale) Plexiglas tank and a 25,000-gal tank (about 2/3 linear scale). Mixing times were measured using sodium chloride tracer and several conductivity probes distributed through the tanks. Several jet sizes and configurations were tested. One-directional and two-directional jets were tested in both tanks. Mixing times for each tank were correlated with the jet Reynolds number. Mixing times were correlated for the two tank sizes using the recirculation time for the developed jet. When the recirculation times were calculated using the distance from the nozzle to the end of the tank as the length of the developed jet, the correlation was only marginally successful. Data for the two tank sizes were correlated empirically using a modified effective jet length expressed as a function of the Reynolds number raised to the 1/3 power. Mixing experiments were simulated using the TEMTEST computer program. The simulations predicted trends correctly and were within the scatter of the experimental data with the lower jet Reynolds numbers. Agreement was not as good at high Reynolds numbers except for single nozzles in the 25,000-gal tank, where agreement was excellent over the entire range

  1. Tank 50H Tetraphenylborate Destruction Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted several scoping tests with both Tank 50H surrogate materials (KTPB and phenol) as well as with actual Tank 50H solids. These tests examined whether we could destroy the tetraphenylborate in the surrogates or actual Tank 50H material either by use of Fenton's Reagent or by hydrolysis (in Tank 50H conditions at a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C) under a range of conditions. The results of these tests showed that destruction of the solids occurred only under a minority of conditions. (1)Using Fenton's Reagent and KTPB as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at pH ranges greater than 9. (2)Using Fenton's Reagent and phenol as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at a pH of 14. (3)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, a reaction occurred at a pH of 9.5 in the presence of ECC additives. (4)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, after a thirty three day period, all attempts at hydrolysis (at pH 14) were too slow to be viable. This happened even in the case of higher temperature (50 degrees C) and added (100 ppm) copper. Tank 50H is scheduled to return to HLW Tank Farm service with capabilities of transferring and receiving salt supernate solutions to and from the Tank Farms and staging feed for the Saltstone Facility. Before returning Tank 50H to Tank Farm service as a non-organic tank, less than 5 kg of TPB must remain in Tank 50H. Recently, camera inspections in Tank 50H revealed two large mounds of solid material, one in the vicinity of the B5 Riser Transfer Pump and the other on the opposite side of the tank. Personnel sampled and analyzed this material to determine its composition. The sample analysis indicated presence of a significant quantity of organics in the solid material. This quantity of organic material exceeds the 5 kg limit for declaring only trace amounts of organic material remain in Tank 50H. Additionally, these large volumes of solids, calculated as approximately 61K gallons, present other

  2. Energy corrections in pulsed neutron measurements for cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Woznicka, U.

    1982-01-01

    A solution of the thermal neutron diffusion equation for a two-region concentric cylindrical system, with a constant neutron flux in the inner medium assumed, is given. The velocity-averaged dynamic parameters for thermal neutrons are used in the method. The corrections due to the diffusion cooling are introduced into the dynamic material buckling and into the velocity distribution of the thermal neutron flux. Detailed relations obtained for a hydrogenous moderator are given. Results of the measurements of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-sections for the samples in the two-region cylindrical systems are presented. (author)

  3. Confined and interface phonons in combined cylindrical nanoheterosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.Makhanets

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectra of all types of phonons existing in a complicated combined nanoheterosystem consisting of three cylindrical quantum dots embedded into the cylindrical quantum wire placed into vacuum are studied within the dielectric continuum model. It is shown that there are confined optical (LO and interface phonons of two types: top surface optical (TSO and side surface optical (SSO modes of vibration in such a nanosystem. The dependences of phonon energies on the quasiwave numbers and geometrical parameters of quantum dots are investigated and analysed.

  4. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived...... and the generated field is compared to that of a Halbach cylinder of equal dimensions. The ideal remanence magnet is shown in most cases to generate a significantly lower field than the equivalent Halbach cylinder, although the field is generated with higher efficiency. The most efficient Halbach cylinder is shown...... to generate a field exactly twice as large as the equivalent ideal remanence magnet....

  5. Two-dimensional collapse calculations of cylindrical clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, P.; Mitalas, R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code has been extensively modified and expanded to study the collapse of non-rotating interstellar clouds. The physics and the numerical methods involved are discussed. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the Jeans number. The critical Jeans number for collapse of non-rotating cylindrical clouds whose length is the same as their diameter is 1.00. No evidence for fragmentation has been found for these clouds, but fragmentation seems quite likely for more elongated cylindrical clouds. (author)

  6. Gravitational collapse of a cylindrical null shell in vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khakshournia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available   Barrabès-Israel null shell formalism is used to study the gravitational collapse of a thin cylindrical null shell in vacuum. In general the lightlike matter shell whose history coincides with a null hypersurface is characterized by a surface energy density. In addition, a gravitational impulsive wave is present on this null hypersurface whose generators admit both the shear and expansion. In the case of imposing the cylindrical flatness the surface energy-momentum tensor of the matter shell on the null hypersurface vanishes and the null hyper- surface is just the history of the gravitational wave .

  7. Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium. PMID:26073066

  8. Spherical and cylindrical particle resonator as a cloak system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.; Eremeev, A. I.; Tseplyaev, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    The concept of dielectric spherical or cylindrical particle in resonant mode as a cloak system is offered. In fundamental modes (modes with the smallest volume correspond to |m| = l, and s = 1) the field is concentrated mostly in the equatorial plane and at the surface of the sphere. Thus under resonance modes, such perturbation due to cuboid particle inserted in the spherical or cylindrical particle has almost no effect on the field forming resonance regardless of the value of internal particle material (defect) as long as this material does not cover the region where resonance takes place.

  9. Experiments on cylindrically converging blast waves in atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hideo; Nakamura, Yuichi

    1980-06-01

    Cylindrically converging blast waves have been produced in normal atmospheric conditions by the detonation of the explosives, pentaerythritoltetranitrate, (PETN), over cylindrical surfaces. The shocks generated in this way are so strong that the fronts propagating through the air become luminous of themselves. The production and the propagation of the shocks have been monitored with a framing camera and a streak camera, and the time-space relations of the shock propagations have been determined using an electrical ionization probing system. The results have shown that the trajectory of the shock fronts near the axis of the cylinder can be approximately represented by the Guderley's formula.

  10. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture

  11. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  12. Ferrocyanide tank safety program: Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for 137 Cs uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford Site waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these 137 Cs-exchanged materials to form ''hot-spots'' in the tanks. This research, performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company, stems from concerns regarding possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. After ferrocyanide was added to 18 high-level waste tanks in the 1950s, some of the ferrocyanide tanks received considerable quantities of saltcake waste that was rich in 137 Cs. If radioactive cesium was exchanged and concentrated by the nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, the associated heating could cause tank temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide-containing tanks, especially if the supernate in the tanks is pumped out and the waste becomes drier

  13. Understanding Think Tank University Relationships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pmartin@idrc.ca

    10 Abr 2013 ... Comprensión de las relaciones entre think tanks y universidades en .... Políticas Globales de Salud Pública. Políticas Sociales y Económicas. Ciencia e Innovación. El IDRC lleva décadas de trabajo en cuestiones de género, ..... Estrategia adecuada para mitigar los riesgos de seguridad y éticos de los ...

  14. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  15. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  16. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  17. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  18. Magnetization curves for general cylindrical samples in a transverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    complexity associated with the task of determining and studying the movement of the flux- front as the flux ... a volume current density causing the flux-front to move by an appropriate amount. Since the flux-front does ... Let us consider an infinite cylindrical sample with its axis along the z-axis and its cross- section bounded ...

  19. Acoustic characteristics of sand sediment with circular cylindrical pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol; Lee, Kang-Il; Yoon, Suk-Wang

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic pressure transmission coefficient and the phase velocity are experimentally measured as functions of the frequency and the porosity in sand sediment slabs with circular cylindrical pores filled with water and air. They are also theoretically estimated with the modified Biot-Attenborough (MBA) model, which uses a separate treatment of the viscous and the thermal effects in a non-rigid porous medium with water- and air-filled cylindrical pores. In this study, the fast (first kind) wave and the slow (second kind) wave are not separated in the transmitted signals through a sediment slab without the circular cylindrical pores, but they are separated in the transmitted signals through a sediment slab with pores. Both the phase velocities and the transmission coefficients of the fast wave and the slow wave in the sediment slabs with water- and air-filled cylindrical pores are sensitive to the air and the water porosities. It is proposed that the fast and the slow waves have opposite behaviors for several acoustic characteristics. The generalized tortuosity factor and the dynamic shape factor are introduced from the acoustic characteristics of the fast wave. The experimental results show reasonable agreement with the theoretical results estimated with the MBA model. These results suggest the possibility of predicting the acoustic characteristics of a sediment as functions of arbitrary water and air porosities. This study may also be applicable to understanding acoustic wave propagations in a bubbly liquid sediment for underwater applications and in cancellous bone for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  20. An approximate solution for spherical and cylindrical piston problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the growth and decay of shock strengths for spherical and cylindrical pistons starting from a non-zero ... conditions at an appropriate level, a new theory of shock dynamics (NTSD) has been proposed (Ravindran and ..... sive, its packing density etc. which are not included in our mathematical formulation, it may explain the ...

  1. Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An exact solution is obtained for coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in a cylindrically symmetric spacetime where an axial magnetic field as well as a radial electric field both are present. Depending on the choice of the arbitrary constants our solution reduces either to dilatonic gravity with pure electric field or to that ...

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN CYLINDRICAL INDUCTION INDUCTOR SYSTEM WITH MASSIVE SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piskun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes in a cylindrical induction inductor system with a massive additional non-magnetic shield and a thin ferromagnetic sheet blank are considered and the formula for induced currents and the strength of excited fields have been obtained.

  3. Optical properties of helical cylindrical molecular aggregates : the homogeneous limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didraga, C.; Klugkist, J.A.; Knoester, J.

    2002-01-01

    Using a Frenkel exciton model, we study the optical absorption spectrum and linear and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of cylindrical molecular aggregates. We demonstrate that such aggregates can always be described as a stack of molecular rings with nearest-neighbor rings rotated relative to each

  4. Particle Creation in Oscillating Cavities with Cubic and Cylindrical Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setare, M. R.; Dinani, H. T.

    2008-04-01

    In the present paper we study the creation of massless scalar particles from the quantum vacuum due to the dynamical Casimir effect by oscillating cavities with cubic and cylindrical geometry. To the first order of the amplitude we derive the expressions for the number of the created particles.

  5. Theory of precipitation effects on dead cylindrical fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Fosberg

    1972-01-01

    Numerical and analytical solutions of the Fickian diffusion equation were used to determine the effects of precipitation on dead cylindrical forest fuels. The analytical solution provided a physical framework. The numerical solutions were then used to refine the analytical solution through a similarity argument. The theoretical solutions predicted realistic rates of...

  6. Magnetoresistance of cylindrical nanowires with artificial pinning site

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Mohammed, H.; Ivanov, I.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    New concepts of magnetic memory devices are exploiting the movement of data bits by current induced domain wall motion. This concept has been widely explored with rectangular nanowires (NWs) or stripes both theoretically and experimentally [1]. In the case of cylindrical NWs not much progress has been made on the experimental side, despite its promising advantages like the absence of Walker breakdown [2].

  7. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.; Goriely, A.

    2011-01-01

    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common

  8. A cylindrical drift chamber with azimuthal and axial position readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Yam, Z.; Cummings, J.P.; Dowd, J.P.; Eugenio, P.; Hayek, M.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Shenhav, N.; Chung, S.U.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Olchanski, C.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.; Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Gunter, J.; Lindenbusch, R.; Rust, D.R.; Scott, E.; Smith, P.T.; Sulanke, T.; Teige, S.; Denisov, S.; Dushkin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.; Shein, I.; Soldatov, A.; Anoshina, E.V.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Kodolova, O.L.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Kostin, M.A.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sinev, N.B.; Vardanyan, I.N.; Yershov, A.A.; Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; Sanjari, A.H.; LoSecco, J.M.; Manak, J.J.; Shephard, W.D.; Stienike, D.L.; Taegar, S.A.; Thompson, D.R.; Brown, D.S.; Pedlar, T.; Seth, K.K.; Wise, J.; Zhao, D.; Adams, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    A cylindrical multiwire drift chamber with axial charge-division has been constructed and used in experiment E852 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It serves as a trigger element and as a tracking device for recoil protons in π - p interactions. We describe the chamber's design considerations, details of its construction, electronics, and performance characteristics. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of cylindrical particles with phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, H; Gréhan, G; Gouesbet, G; Xu, T H; Tropea, C

    1996-09-01

    Light scattering from cylindrical particles has been described with geometric optics. The feasibility of determining the particle diameter with a planar phase Doppler anemometer has been examined by simulations and experiments. In particular, the influence of particle orientation on measurability and measurement accuracy has been investigated. Some recommendations for realizing a practical-measurement instrument have been presented.

  10. Formation of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Diego Alves de Moro; Souza, Francisco José de; Salvo, Ricardo de Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rotating flows in conical–cylindrical cavities were simulated via an in-house code using unstructured meshes. • The vortex breakdown phenomenon was verified in the geometries analyzed. • The influence of Stewartson and Bödewadt layers was observed in the vortex breakdown formation. • A curve of stability and number of breakdowns was obtained as a function of Reynolds number. • Spiral vortex breakdown was observed in some situations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations in confined rotating flows were performed in this work, in order to verify and characterize the formation of the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Cylindrical and conical–cylindrical geometries, both closed, were used in the simulations. The rotating flow is induced by the bottom wall, which rotates at constant angular velocity. Firstly the numerical results were compared to experimental results available in references, with the purpose to verify the capacity of the computational code to predict the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Further, several simulations varying the parameters which govern the characteristics of the flows analyzed in this work, i.e., the Reynolds number and the aspect ratio, were performed. In these simulations, the limits for the transitional regime and the vortex breakdown formation were verified. Steady and transient cases, with and without turbulence modeling, were simulated. In general, some aspects of the process of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical geometries were observed to be different from that in cylinders

  11. Positive column of the discharge in a cylindrical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, M.; Maciel, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    A Schottky type theoretical model is presented for the positive column of a discharge on a cylindric shell contained gas, with the discharge current flowing in the longitudinal direction. Some analytical results and the conclusion are presented. (L.C.J.A.). 5 refs

  12. Magnetic forces between arrays of cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, D.; Tomassetti, G.; Beleggia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    procedures. Here, we introduce analytical expressions for calculating the attraction force between two arrays of cylindrical permanent magnets and compare the predictions with experimental data obtained from force measurements with NdFeB magnets. We show that the difference between predicted and measured...

  13. Development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace for reycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace, which could be used for recycling aluminum in small-scale foundries in Nigeria. The crucible, combustion chamber, suspension shaft and bearings were appropriately sized. The furnace chamber was 410 mm high and 510 mm diameter and had a ...

  14. A winning strategy for 3 x n Cylindrical Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huneke, S. C.; Hayward, R.; Toft, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    For Cylindrical Hex on a board with circumference 3, we give a winning strategy for the end-to-end player. This is the first known winning strategy for odd circumference at least 3, answering a question of David Gale. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Magnetoresistance of cylindrical nanowires with artificial pinning site

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova

    2015-05-01

    New concepts of magnetic memory devices are exploiting the movement of data bits by current induced domain wall motion. This concept has been widely explored with rectangular nanowires (NWs) or stripes both theoretically and experimentally [1]. In the case of cylindrical NWs not much progress has been made on the experimental side, despite its promising advantages like the absence of Walker breakdown [2].

  16. Dynamics of a Liquid Dielectric Attracted by a Cylindrical Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Rafael; Lemos, Nivaldo A.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of a liquid dielectric attracted by a vertical cylindrical capacitor are studied. Contrary to what might be expected from the standard calculation of the force exerted by the capacitor, the motion of the dielectric is different depending on whether the charge or the voltage of the capacitor is held constant. The problem turns out to…

  17. static analysis of circular cylindrical shell under hydrostatic and ring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    (Golzan et al, 2008). Circular cylindrical shells are used in a large variety of civil engineering structures, e.g. off-shore platforms, chimneys, silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers (Winterstetter et al, 2002). This work is concerned with the analysis of circular cylindri- cal shell subjected to hydrostatic pressure in.

  18. Flow-induced vibrations of circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.

    1977-06-01

    The problems of flow-induced vibrations of circular cylindrical structures are reviewed. First, the general method of analysis and classification of structural responses are presented. Then, the presentation is broken up along the lines with stationary fluid, parallel flow, and cross flow. Finally, design considerations and future research needs are pointed out. 234 references

  19. Simulation of cylindrical Pierce diodes with radial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.V.; Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.; Buenos Aires Univ.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the electron instability and the non linear behaviour of cylindrical Pierce's diodes by particle simulation. We ignore here the ion contribution (ions are fixed at a 1/r density and given a very large mass) to give perspicuity to the electron dynamics, and to facilitate comparison with existing theory. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs

  20. A Clustering Method for Data in Cylindrical Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Fujita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new clustering method for data in cylindrical coordinates based on the k-means. The goal of the k-means family is to maximize an optimization function, which requires a similarity. Thus, we need a new similarity to obtain the new clustering method for data in cylindrical coordinates. In this study, we first derive a new similarity for the new clustering method by assuming a particular probabilistic model. A data point in cylindrical coordinates has radius, azimuth, and height. We assume that the azimuth is sampled from a von Mises distribution and the radius and the height are independently generated from isotropic Gaussian distributions. We derive the new similarity from the log likelihood of the assumed probability distribution. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method using the new similarity can appropriately partition synthetic data defined in cylindrical coordinates. Furthermore, we apply the proposed method to color image quantization and show that the methods successfully quantize a color image with respect to the hue element.

  1. Optical Properties of Helical Cylindrical Molecular Aggregates : The Homogeneous Limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didraga, Cătălin; Klugkist, Joost A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2002-01-01

    Using a Frenkel exciton model, we study the optical absorption spectrum and linear and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of cylindrical molecular aggregates. We demonstrate that such aggregates can always be described as a stack of molecular rings with nearest-neighbor rings rotated relative to each

  2. Dynamic shear-bending buckling experiments of cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Y.; Akiyama, H.

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic experimental studies of the plastic shear/bending buckling of cylindrical shells were performed. They clarified the inelastic response reduction and the seismic margin of FBR reactor vessels. The test results were incorporated into the draft of the seismic buckling design guidelines of FBR. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs

  3. Rothe's method for parabolic equations on non-cylindrical domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dasht, J.; Engström, J.; Kufner, Alois; Persson, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2006), s. 59-80 ISSN 0973-2306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : parabolic equations * non-cylindrical domains * Rothe's method * time-discretization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  5. Considerations of fluid-structure interaction effects in the design of high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, R.J.; Shipley, L.E.; Ghose, A.; Hiremath, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    For the seismic evaluation and design of the large number of underground high-level waste storage tanks (HLWST) at DOE sites, an important consideration is the adequate estimation of the fluid-structure interaction effects on the design forces. The DOE Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) has developed seismic design and evaluation guidelines which include simplified methods for estimating hydrodynamic effects on tanks. For the practical analysis and design of HLWSTs, however, more sophisticated methods are often needed. The research presented in this paper demonstrates the effectiveness and reliability of finite element method based techniques, developed and utilized by ARES, to evaluate the fluid-structure interaction effects on underground HLWSTs. Analysis results for simple cylindrical tank configurations are first compared with previously published data, to benchmark the techniques. Next, for an actual HLWST configuration, correlations are established between these techniques and the TSEP guidelines, for the design parameters affected by fluid-structure interaction. Finally, practical design situations which may require a level of analysis sophistication that goes beyond the simplified TSEP guidelines are presented. This level of sophistication is frequently required when attempting to validate or upgrade the design qualifications of existing tanks

  6. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  7. LH2 fuel tank design for SSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    This report will discuss the design of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank constructed from composite materials. The focus of this report is to recommend a design for a fuel tank which will be able to withstand all static and dynamic forces during manned flight. Areas of study for the design include material selection, material structural analysis, heat transfer, thermal expansion, and liquid hydrogen diffusion. A structural analysis FORTRAN program was developed for analyzing the buckling and yield characteristics of the tank. A thermal analysis Excel spreadsheet was created to determine a specific material thickness which will minimize heat transfer through the wall of the tank. The total mass of the tank was determined by the combination of both structural and thermal analyses. The report concludes with the recommendation of a layered material tank construction. The designed system will include exterior insulation, combination of metal and organize composite matrices and honeycomb.

  8. Double shell tanks emergency pumping plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), a formal plan for the emergency transfer of waste from a leaking double shell tank to a designated receiver tank has been developed. This plan is in response to the priority 2 safety issue ''Response to a leaking double-shell tank'' in the DOE Report to Congress, 1991. The plan includes the tanks in four of the east tank farms and one of the west farms. The background information and supporting calculations used for the creation of the emergency plan are discussed in this document. The scope of this document is all of the double shell tanks in the AN, AP, AW, AY, and SY farms. The transfer lines, flush pits, and valve pits involved in the transfer of waste between these farms are also included in the scope. Due to the storage of high heat waste, AZ farm is excluded at this time

  9. Modeling and simulation of large scale stirred tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, John R.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a written record of the evaluation performed on the DWPF mixing process by the construction of numerical models that resemble the geometry of this process. There were seven numerical models constructed to evaluate the DWPF mixing process and four pilot plants. The models were developed with Fluent software and the results from these models were used to evaluate the structure of the flow field and the power demand of the agitator. The results from the numerical models were compared with empirical data collected from these pilot plants that had been operated at an earlier date. Mixing is commonly used in a variety ways throughout industry to blend miscible liquids, disperse gas through liquid, form emulsions, promote heat transfer and, suspend solid particles. The DOE Sites at Hanford in Richland Washington, West Valley in New York, and Savannah River Site in Aiken South Carolina have developed a process that immobilizes highly radioactive liquid waste. The radioactive liquid waste at DWPF is an opaque sludge that is mixed in a stirred tank with glass frit particles and water to form slurry of specified proportions. The DWPF mixing process is composed of a flat bottom cylindrical mixing vessel with a centrally located helical coil, and agitator. The helical coil is used to heat and cool the contents of the tank and can improve flow circulation. The agitator shaft has two impellers; a radial blade and a hydrofoil blade. The hydrofoil is used to circulate the mixture between the top region and bottom region of the tank. The radial blade sweeps the bottom of the tank and pushes the fluid in the outward radial direction. The full scale vessel contains about 9500 gallons of slurry with flow behavior characterized as a Bingham Plastic. Particles in the mixture have an abrasive characteristic that cause excessive erosion to internal vessel components at higher impeller speeds. The desire for this mixing process is to ensure the

  10. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT-TOP TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed in support of the

  11. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-02-16

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed

  12. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagadu, C.P.K., E-mail: dagadukofi@yahoo.co.uk [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A. [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-UST, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-01-15

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I-131 radioactive tracer is suitable for tracing the aqueous phase in gold ore slurry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Online data collection is more convenient method for tracer monitoring in industrial process systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant zones is suitable to describe the flow behavior of leaching tanks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radiotracer RTD technique could be used to validate design data after process intensification in gold leaching tanks.

  13. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagadu, C.P.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A.; Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. - Highlights: ► I-131 radioactive tracer is suitable for tracing the aqueous phase in gold ore slurry. ► Online data collection is more convenient method for tracer monitoring in industrial process systems. ► The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant zones is suitable to describe the flow behavior of leaching tanks. ► The radiotracer RTD technique could be used to validate design data after process intensification in gold leaching tanks.

  14. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly

  15. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  16. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  17. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  18. Sound radiation modes of cylindrical surfaces and their application to vibro-acoustics analysis of cylindrical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Yang, Tiejun; Chen, Yuehua

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, sound radiation modes of baffled cylinders have been derived by constructing the radiation resistance matrix analytically. By examining the characteristics of sound radiation modes, it is found that radiation coefficient of each radiation mode increases gradually with the increase of frequency while modal shapes of sound radiation modes of cylindrical shells show a weak dependence upon frequency. Based on understandings on sound radiation modes, vibro-acoustics behaviors of cylindrical shells have been analyzed. The vibration responses of cylindrical shells are described by modified Fourier series expansions and solved by Rayleigh-Ritz method involving Flügge shell theory. Then radiation efficiency of a resonance has been determined by examining whether the vibration pattern is in correspondence with a sound radiation mode possessing great radiation efficiency. Furthermore, effects of thickness and boundary conditions on sound radiation of cylindrical shells have been investigated. It is found that radiation efficiency of thicker shells is greater than thinner shells while shells with a clamped boundary constraint radiate sound more efficiently than simply supported shells under thin shell assumption.

  19. Review of Tank Lay-Up Status at US Department of Energy Radioactive Waste Tank Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-01-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 2001 as part of a Tanks Focus Area strategic initiative, tank lay-up options were developed and evaluated for the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project. As follow-on task, a list of key waste tank contacts throughout the US Department of Energy complex was developed. Visits were then made to the primary DOE sites with radioactive waste storage tanks to discuss the concept and applicability of tank lay-up. This report documents the results of individual discussions with tank closure staff at the four DOE Sites concerning tank closure status and plans as well as lay-up options and activities

  20. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  1. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagadu, C P K; Akaho, E H K; Danso, K A; Stegowski, Z; Furman, L

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Robotic system for decommissioning the Gunite tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesser, J.B.; Evans, J.H.; Norman, R.E.; Peishel, F.L.; Ruppel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic systems and equipment to facilitate removal of the contents of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Waste Tanks as well as the tanks themselves are one of several options being considered for this site. The technology described consists of proven remote systems and equipment or remote adaptations of proven industrial concepts. The proposed robotic system would be housed in a portable containment structure, fabricated from steel plate, and reinforced with structural shapes. The structure would be cylindrical and have a domed head. The containment structure would be sized to cover one tank. The tanks are in two sizes: 60 ft and 35 ft diameters. The structures would be supported on driven steel piles and would have an earthen berm around the base to enhance the effectiveness of the containment. Internal to the containment structure, a polar crane bridge equipped with a pair of trolley-mounted telescoping masts would be utilized to support and manipulate the systems, tools, etc., which would perform the individual tasks. The bridge and mast control system and the manipulator control system would provide both teleoperated and robotic modes to support either manual or preprogrammed operations. Equipment mounted at the end of the mast would include servomanipulators, water jet cutter, or a clam shell bucket. The mast would feature an interface plate allowing remote changeout of most mounted equipment. The operating system would be required to have the capability to decontaminate the dome and its equipment to the degree necessary to allow it to be relocated. Viewing would be provided by commercial closed-circuit TV (CCTV). It is believed that the systems described herein represent a feasible approach to removing the contents from the ORNL gunite tanks and implementing remediation of the site

  3. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-110. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-U-110 (U-110) is a Hanford Site waste tank that was ;most recently sampled in November and December 1989. Analysis of the samples obtained from tank U-110 was conducted to support the characterization of the contents of this tank and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-10-00 (Ecology, et al. 1992). Because of incomplete recovery of the waste during sampling, there may be bias in the results of this characterization report.

  4. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1996-01-01

    This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and sampling and analysis results of waste stored in double-shell underground storage tank 241- AN-102. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1996). Tank 241-AN-102 is one of seven double-shell tanks located in the AN Tank Farm in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The tank was hydrotested in 1981, and when the water was removed, a 6-inch heel was left. Tank 241-AN-102 began receiving waste from tank 241-SY-102 beginning in 1982. The tank was nearly emptied in the third quarter of 1983, leaving only 125 kL (33 kgal) of waste. Between the fourth quarter of 1983 and the first quarter of 1984, tank 241-AN-102 received waste from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-SY-102, 241-AW-105, and 241- AN-101. The tank was nearly emptied in the second quarter of 1984, leaving a heel of 129 kL (34 kgal). During the second and third quarters of 1984, the tank was filled with concentrated complexant waste from tank 241-AW-101. Since that time, only minor amounts of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant miscellaneous waste and water have been received; there have been no waste transfer to or from the tank since 1992. Therefore, the waste currently in the tank is considered to be concentrated complexant waste. Tank 241-AN-102 is sound and is not included on any of the Watch Lists

  5. Protocol for disposition of tank farm equipment lists and tank farm drawings for year 2000 compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A program has been initiated to assess, renovate, document and certify tank farm field equipment for year 2000 compliance. The program is necessary to assure no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to what is widely known as the ''millennium bug''. This document elaborates the protocols for reviewing field equipment lists and tank farm drawings for the purpose of identifying and resolving year 2000 compliance problems in tank farm equipment

  6. Tank 241-C-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-111. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  7. Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BY-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to the tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  8. Tank 241-C-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  9. Tank 241-C-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-102. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  10. Tank 241-TY-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-101. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  11. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.; Jensen, L.

    1993-04-01

    This report investigates the nature of the waste in tank U-110 using historical and current information. When characterizing tank waste, several important properties are considered. First, the physical characteristics of the waste are presented, including waste appearance, density, and size of waste particles. The existence of any exotherms in the tank that may present a safety concern is investigated. Finally, the radiological and chemical composition of the tank are presented

  12. Tank 241-BX-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BX-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  13. Tank 241-SX-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-SX-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  14. Tank 241-T-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-T-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  15. Tank 241-B-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-B-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  16. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-U-110 (U-110) is a Hanford Site waste tank that was;most recently sampled in November and December 1989. Analysis of the samples obtained from tank U-110 was conducted to support the characterization of the contents of this tank and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-10-00 (Ecology, et al. 1992). Because of incomplete recovery of the waste during sampling, there may be bias in the results of this characterization report

  17. Thermodynamic optimization of heat exchanger tanks by exergy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper introduces heat exchanger tanks, detailing their dominant thermodynamic relations to obtain the exergy analysis relations of heat exchanger tanks. Heat exchanger tank is examined under various laboratory conditions, including the power of heat element inside the tank, mass flow rate of cooling water of tank ...

  18. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements...

  19. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it has an inorganic sacrificial galvanic coating on the inside and outside of the tank, a fuel tank must not...

  20. 14 CFR 121.229 - Location of fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of fuel tanks. 121.229 Section 121... of fuel tanks. (a) Fuel tanks must be located in accordance with § 121.255. (b) No part of the engine... the wall of an integral tank. (c) Fuel tanks must be isolated from personnel compartments by means of...