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Sample records for cyclotron resonance ecr

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1984-05-01

    Starting with the pioneering work of R. Geller and his group in Grenoble (France), at least 14 ECR sources have been built and tested during the last five years. Most of those sources have been extremely successful, providing intense, stable and reliable beams of highly charged ions for cyclotron injection or atomic physics research. However, some of the operational features of those sources disagreed with commonly accepted theories on ECR source operation. To explain the observed behavior of actual sources, it was found necessary to refine some of the crude ideas we had about ECR sources. Some of those new propositions are explained, and used to make some extrapolations on the possible future developments in ECR sources

  2. Introduction to ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] sources in electrostatic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the possible use of ECR heavy-ion sources in the terminals of electrostatic machines is discussed. The basic concepts of ECR sources are reviewed in the next section using the ORNL source as a model. The possible advantages of ECR sources over conventional negative ion injection and foil stripping are discussed in Section III. The last section describes the possible installation of an ECR source in a large machine such as the HHIRF 25-MV Pelletron. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Plasma heating by radiofrequency in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da; Aihara, S.; Universidade Estadual de Campinas

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of the experimental set-up mounted in the Physical Institute of UFF (Brazil) to produce the gas ionization by radio-frequency are shown and its behaviour when confined by a mirror-geometry magnetic field is studied. The diagnostic is made by a langmuir probe and a prisme spectrogaph is used in order to verify the nature of the ionized helium gas and the degree of purity through its spectral lines. The argon ionization by R.f. is produced in the 'LISA' machine obtain a plasma column of approximatelly 60 cm length and with the Langmuir probe the study of the profile distribution of the plasma parameters such as: electron temperature and density and floating potencial in function of the magnetic field variation is made. The main focus is given to the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). A new expression on the ion saturation current (I sub(is)) produced by radiofrequency is developed. (L.C.) [pt

  4. ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] discharges maintained by radiation in the millimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Yu.V.; Golubev, S.V.; Eremeev, A.G.; Zorin, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that plasmas formed by microwave breakdown of gases under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions can serve as an efficient source for ion beams. The major disadvantage of this type of source is relatively low ion beam currents which generally do not exceed 1 A (for an electron density of ∼10 12 cm -3 in the discharge). Raising the current density in the ion beams requires a higher plasma density, which can be obtained by using higher frequencies. Thus, a study has recently been made of the parameters of the plasma formed by ECR breakdown in a linear confinement system employing pulsed radiation at a frequency of 60 GHz. The maximum electron densities obtained in the experiment were 2·10 13 cm -3 at a gas pressure of 3·10 -4 torr. In this paper the authors describe some experiments on the creation of plasmas by means of quasi-cw electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 100 GHz under electron cyclotron resonance conditions

  5. Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source Development at the Holified Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilheux, Hassina; Liu, Yuan; Alton, Gerald; Cole, John; Williams, Cecil; Reed, Charles

    2004-11-01

    Performance of ECR ion sources can be significantly enhanced by increasing the physical size of their ECR zones in relation to the size of their plasma volumes (spatial and frequency domain methods).^3-5 A 6 GHz, all-permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large resonant plasma volume has been tested at ORNL.^6 The magnetic circuit can be configured for creating both flat-β (volume) and conventional minimum-β (surface) resonance conditions. Direct comparisons of the performance of the two source types can be made under similar operating conditions. In this paper, we clearly demonstrate that the flat-β source outperforms its minimum-β counterpart in terms of charge state distribution and intensity within a particular charge state. ^1bilheuxhn@ornl.gov ^2Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. ^3G.D. Alton, D.N. Smithe, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 (1994) 775. ^4G.D. Alton et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69 (1998) 2305. ^5Z.Q. Xie, C.M. Lyneis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66 (1995) 4218. ^6Y. Liu et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69 (1998) 1311.

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.) multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1978-01-01

    High charge state ions can be produced by electron bombardment inside targets when the target electron density n (cm -3 ) multiplied by the ion transit time through the target tau (sec) is: n tau > 5.10 9 cm -3 sec. The relative velocity between electrons and ions determines the balance between stripping and capture i.e. the final ion charge state. (In a stripper foil fast ions interact with slow electrons involving typically n approximately 10 24 cm -3 , tau approximately 10 -14 sec). In the E.C.R. source a cold ion plasma created in a first stage diffuses slowly through a second stage containing a hot E.C.R. plasma with n > 3.10 11 cm -3 and tau > 10 -2 sec. Continuous beams of several μA of C 6+ N 7+ Ne 9+ A 11+ are extracted from the second stage with normalized emittances of approximately 0.5 π mm mrad. The absence of cathodes and plasma arcs makes the source very robust, reliable and well-fitted for cyclotron injection. A super conducting source is under development

  7. Atomic physics at the Argonne PII ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R.W.; Berry, H.G.; Billquist, P.J.; Pardo, R.C.; Zabransky, B.J.; Bakke, E.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Hass, M.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1987-01-01

    An atomic physics beam line has been set up at the Argonne PII ECR Ion Source. The source is on a 350-kV high-voltage platform which is a unique feature of particular interest in work on atomic collisions. We describe our planned experimental program which includes: measurement of state-selective electron-capture cross sections, studies of doubly-excited states, precision spectroscopy of few-electron ions, tests of quantum electrodynamics, and studies of polarization transfer using optically pumped polarized alkali targets. The first experiments will be measurements of cross sections for electron capture into specific nl subshells in ion-atom collisions. Our method is to observe the characteristic radiation emitted after capture using a VUV spectrometer. Initial data from these experiments are presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  8. ECR ion source for variable energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Dasgupta, B; Mallik, C; Das, S K; Bandopadhaya, D K; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1995-09-01

    Some performance characteristics of 6.4 GHz two stage ECR ion source which was under development at this centre is presented. The present ion source will facilitate acceleration of light heavy ions with the existing k=130 variable energy cyclotron. Multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam from the source will also be utilized for atomic physics studies. Oxygen beam has already been used for ion implantation studies. The external injection system under development is nearing completion. Heavy ion beam from cyclotron is expected by end of 1995. (author).

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  10. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  11. Characterization of surface hardening in a nitrated chromium steel by microwave plasma type ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La O C, G. de.

    1995-01-01

    With this work it is demonstrated the possibility of performing the nitriding process by using a CVD-ECR source, based on the results obtained after treating several samples of AISI H-12 steel. Also, the main operating parameters (time of treatment, sample temperatures and gas mixture) are determined during nitriding of this steel with the mentioned source. Samples used before nitriding were quenched and tempered at 580 Centigrade degrees. Several experiments were done by using a pure nitrogen plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20 minutes at temperatures from 450 to 550 Centigrade degrees, and by using a N 2 - H 2 plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20, 30 and 40 minutes at temperatures from 350 to 550 Centigrade degrees. Metallography, microhardness, EDS and Auger analysis were done to observe changes suffered for the samples after treatment. (Author)

  12. Electron cyclotron resonance multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Three ion sources, that deliver multiply charged ion beams are described. All of them are E.C.R. ion sources and are characterized by the fact that the electrons are emitted by the plasma itself and are accelerated to the adequate energy through electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.). They can work without interruption during several months in a quasi-continuous regime. (Duty cycle: [fr

  13. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Suominen, P. [CERN Geneve 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Koponen, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Nanoscience Center, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2008-03-11

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  14. Electron cyclotron resonance plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: Physics and technology (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are scientific instruments particularly useful for physics: they are extensively used in atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics, for the production of multicharged beams. Moreover, these sources are also of fundamental interest for plasma physics, because of the very particular properties of the ECR plasma. This article describes the state of the art on the physics of the ECR plasma related to multiply charged ion sources. In Sec. I, we describe the general aspects of ECR ion sources. Physics related to the electrons is presented in Sec. II: we discuss there the problems of heating and confinement. In Sec. III, the problem of ion production and confinement is presented. A numerical code is presented, and some particular and important effects, specific to ECR ion sources, are shown in Sec. IV. Eventually, in Sec. V, technological aspects of ECR are presented and different types of sources are shown

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  16. ECR heavy-ion source for the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.; Kalnins, J.G.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1983-03-01

    An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heavy-ion source is under construction at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron. This source will produce very-high-charge-state heavy ions, such as 0 8 + and Ar 12 + , which will increase cyclotron energies by a factor of 2-4, up to A = 80. It is a two-stage source using room-temperature coils, a permanent-magnet sextupole, and a 6-9 GHz microwave system. Design features include adjustable first-to-second-stage plasma coupling, a variable second-stage mirror ratio, high-conductance radial pumping of the second stage, and a beam-diagnostic system. A remotely movable extraction electrode will optimize extraction efficiency. The project includes construction of a transport line and improvements to the cyclotron axial-injection system. The construction period is expected to be two years

  17. Note: Easy-to-maintain electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering apparatus featuring hybrid waveguide and coaxial cables for microwave delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp [NTT Device Innovation Center, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The branched-waveguide electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering apparatus places quartz windows for transmitting microwaves into the plasma source not in the line of sight of the target. However, the quartz windows must be replaced after some time of operation. For maintenance, the loop waveguide branching from the T-junction must be dismounted and re-assembled accurately, which is a time-consuming job. We investigated substituting the waveguide branches with two sets of coaxial cables and waveguide/coaxial cable converters to simplify assembly as far as connection and disconnection go. The resulting hybrid system worked well for the purposes of plasma generation and film deposition.

  18. Note: Easy-to-maintain electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering apparatus featuring hybrid waveguide and coaxial cables for microwave delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2016-06-01

    The branched-waveguide electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering apparatus places quartz windows for transmitting microwaves into the plasma source not in the line of sight of the target. However, the quartz windows must be replaced after some time of operation. For maintenance, the loop waveguide branching from the T-junction must be dismounted and re-assembled accurately, which is a time-consuming job. We investigated substituting the waveguide branches with two sets of coaxial cables and waveguide/coaxial cable converters to simplify assembly as far as connection and disconnection go. The resulting hybrid system worked well for the purposes of plasma generation and film deposition.

  19. Ramifide resonators for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The resonators with the conductors ramified form for cyclotrons are systematized and separated into the self-contained class - the ramified resonators for cyclotrons (Carr). The ramified resonators are compared with the quarter-wave and half-wave nonramified resonators, accomplished from the transmitting lines fragments. The CRR are classified into two types: ones with the additional structural element, switched in parallel and in series. The CRR may include several additional structural elements. The CRR calculations may be concluded by analytical methods - the method of matrix calculation or the method of telegraph equations and numerical methods - by means of the ISFEL3D, MAFIA and other programs [ru

  20. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities

  1. Characterization of surface hardening in a nitrated chromium steel by microwave plasma type ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance); Caracterizacion del endurecimiento superficial del acero H-12 nitrurado con plasma de microondas tipo ECR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La O C, G de

    1996-12-31

    With this work it is demonstrated the possibility of performing the nitriding process by using a CVD-ECR source, based on the results obtained after treating several samples of AISI H-12 steel. Also, the main operating parameters (time of treatment, sample temperatures and gas mixture) are determined during nitriding of this steel with the mentioned source. Samples used before nitriding were quenched and tempered at 580 Centigrade degrees. Several experiments were done by using a pure nitrogen plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20 minutes at temperatures from 450 to 550 Centigrade degrees, and by using a N{sub 2} - H{sub 2} plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20, 30 and 40 minutes at temperatures from 350 to 550 Centigrade degrees. Metallography, microhardness, EDS and Auger analysis were done to observe changes suffered for the samples after treatment. (Author).

  2. Proposal for a heavy ion ECR-source at the PSI-Philips cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.

    1989-10-01

    It is proposed by a large community of PSI- and external scientists to install an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source for highly charged heavy ions at the PHILIPS (injector I) cyclotron. Such a facility would then allow to produce high intensity ion beams with energies up to 30 MeV/u. A workshop hold in June 1989 clearly showed that with such a machine a large variety of interesting heavy ion experiments could be performed. While at foreign heavy ion centres the main focus is given to basic research in the field of nuclear physics we propose to concentrate the scientific effort at a PSI heavy ion facility mainly onto applications in the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, accelerator mass spectrometry, radiation biology and solid state physics. This is adequate, in view of the broad infrastructure available at PSI together with the existing know-how in many different fields. The proposed machine will thus be of great potential use for a large community. (author) 19 figs., 3 tabs., 82 refs

  3. Characterization of electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas yield low energy and high ion density plasmas. The characteristics downstream of an ECR hydrogen plasma were investigated as a function of microwave power and magnetic field. A fast-injection Langmuir probe and a carbon resistance probe were used to determine plasma potential (V p ), electron density (N e ), electron temperature (T e ), ion energy (T i ), and ion fluence. Langmuir probe results showed that at 17 cm downstream from the ECR chamber the plasma characteristics are approximately constant across the center 7 cm of the plasma for 50 Watts of absorbed power. These results gave V p = 30 ± 5 eV, N e = 1 x 10 8 cm -3 , and T e = 10--13 eV. In good agreement with the Langmuir probe results, carbon resistance probes have shown that T i ≤ 50 eV. Also, based on hydrogen chemical sputtering of carbon, the hydrogen (ion and energetic neutrals) fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec. at a pressure of 1 x 10 -4 Torr and for 50 Watts of absorbed power. 19 refs

  4. Ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in tokamak and EBT configurations has been studied using 1-2/2 and 2-1/2 dimensional fully self-consistent electromagnetic particle codes. We have tested two major antenna configurations; we have also compared heating efficiencies for one and two ion species plasmas. We model a tokamak plasma with a uniform poloidal field and 1/R toroidal field on a particular q surface. Ion cyclotron waves are excited on the low field side by antennas parallel either to the poloidal direction or to the toroidal direction with different phase velocities. In 2D, minority ion heating (vsub(perpendicular)) and electron heating (vsub(parallel),vsub(perpendicular)) are observed. The exponential electron heating seems due to the decay instability. The minority heating is consistent with mode conversion of fast Alfven waves and heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Minority heating is stronger with a poloidal antenna. The strong electron heating is accompanied by toroidal current generation. In 1D, no thermal instability was observed and only strong minority heating resulted. For an EBT plasma we model it by a multiple mirror. We have tested heating efficiency with various minority concentrations, temperatures, mirror ratios, and phase velocities. In this geometry we have beach or inverse beach heating associated with the mode conversion layer perpendicular to the toroidal field. No appreciable electron heating is observed. Heating of ions is linear in time. For both tokamak and EBT slight majority heating above the collisional rate is observed due to the second harmonic heating. (author)

  5. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is...

  6. Stochastic heating in the cyclotron resonance of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1999-01-01

    The study of the different schemes of plasma heating by radiofrequency waves is a very actual problem related with the plasma heating in different machines and the particle acceleration mechanisms. In this work, it is obtained the expression for the temporal evolution of the energy absorbed in the cyclotron resonance of electrons where it is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. It is obtained the stochastic criteria in a magnetic configuration of an Ecr type plasma source. (Author)

  7. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  8. Development of an Ethernet enabled microcontroller based module for Superconducting Cyclotron ECR beam line control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.; Koley, D.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.

    2012-01-01

    An Ethernet enabled control and data acquisition module is developed for remote control and monitoring of the ECR beam line equipment of the Superconducting Cyclotron. The PIC microcontroller based module supports multiple general purpose analog and digital inputs and outputs for interfacing with various equipments and an embedded web server. The remote monitoring and control of the equipment are achieved through the web based user interface. The user authenticated access to control parameters and module configuration parameters ensures the operational safety of the equipment under control. This module is installed in Superconducting Cyclotron ECR beam line for the control and monitoring of vacuum pumping modules, comprising of pumps, gate valves and dual vacuum gauges. The installation of these modules results in a distributed control with localised field cabling and hence better fault diagnosis. (author)

  9. Permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with remote window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma has been used in conjunction with a solid metal sputter target for Cu deposition over 200 mm diameters. The goal is to develop a deposition system and process suitable for filling submicron, high-aspect ratio ULSI features. The system uses a permanent magnet for creation of the magnetic field necessary for ECR, and is significantly more compact than systems equipped with electromagnets. A custom launcher design allows remote microwave injection with the microwave entrance window shielded from the copper flux. When microwaves are introduced at an angle with respect to the plasma, high electron densities can be produced with a plasma frequency significantly greater than the electron cyclotron frequency. Copper deposition rates of 1000 A/min have been achieved

  10. Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    600 W microwave power with an average electron density of ∼ 6 × 1011 cm. −3 ... the angular frequency of the cyclotron motion, e is the electron charge, m is the mass of .... is also suitable for ECR plasma-based applications like high-quality ...

  11. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  13. Ponderomotive force near cyclotron resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Mitsuo; Sanuki, Heiji

    1987-01-01

    The ponderomotive force, which is involved in the excitation of macroscopic behaviors of plasma caused by wave motion, plays an important role in various non-linear wave motion phenomena. In the present study, equations for the pondermotive force for plasma in a uniform magnetic field is derived using a renormalization theory which is based on the Vlasov equation. It is shown that the pondermotive force, which diverges at the cyclotron resonence point according to adiabatic approximation, can be expressed by a non-divergent equation by taking into account the instability of the cyclotron orbit due to high-order scattering caused by a wave. This is related with chaotic particle behaviors near cyclotron resonance, where the pondermotive force is small and the diffusion process prevails. It is assumed here that the amplitude of the high-frequency electric field is not large and that the broadening of cyclotron levels is smaller than the distance between the levels. A global chaos will be created if the amplitude of the electric field becomes greater to allow the broadening to exceed the distance between the levels. (Nogami, K.).

  14. KEKCB electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at TRIAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, N.; Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Arai, S.; Fuchi, Y.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Tanaka, M. H.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Ichikawa, S.; Kabumoto, H.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Sato, T. K.

    2008-01-01

    The KEKCB is an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for converting singly charged ions to multicharged ones at Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex. By using the KEKCB, singly charged gaseous and nongaseous ions were converted to multicharged ones of A/q≅7 with efficiencies of 7% and 2%, respectively. The conversion efficiency was found to be independent of the lifetime of the radioactive nuclei having lifetimes of the order of one second. Three collimators located at the entrance and the exit of the KEKCB defined the beam axis and facilitated beam injection. Grinding and washing the surfaces of aluminum electrode and plasma chamber dramatically reduced impurities originating from the ECR plasma of the KEKCB

  15. Ca-48 handling for a cyclotron ECR ion source to produce highly intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.Ya.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Kutner, V.B.; Shamanin, A.N.; Yakushev, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of highly intense ion beams of 48 Ca is one of the main tasks in experiments carried out within the framework of the synthesis of new superheavy elements. 48 Ca is very rare and expensive isotope, therefore there is necessity to reach the high intensity of ion beams of the isotope at a low consumption rate. Analysis and our preliminary experiments have showed that the best way of producing highly intense calcium ion beams is evaporation of metallic calcium in an ECR ion source. So we have developed a technique of metallic 48 Ca production by reducing CaO (this chemical form is available at the market with 40-80% of 48 Ca ) with aluminium powder. We used two tantalum crucibles: a larger, with a mixture of CaO + Al heated up to 1250 deg C, which was connected to the smaller (2 mm I.D. and 30 mm long) in which calcium vapour condensed. The temperature distribution in the small crucible was about 50 deg C at the bottom and about 500 deg C in the middle of the crucible. The pressure inside of the set-up was between 0.1 and 1 Pa. The production rate of metallic 48 Ca was 10-20 mg/h. The crucible with the condensed metallic Ca in argon atmosphere was transferred to the ECR-4M ion source, where it was inserted in a wired tubular oven and the calcium evaporation was controlled through the oven power supply. The application of metallic 48 Ca as the working substance for the ECR-4M ion source of the U-400 cyclotron of allowed us to approach a stable high intensity of 48 Ca ion beams: the intensities for the internal and external beams were 10 13 c -1 and 3.10 12 c -1 , respectively, at a consumption rate about 0.4 mg/h. A technique was developed for the reclamation of 48 Ca from the residue inside of the large crucible and from the inner parts of the ECR ion source. Extracting Ca from the inner parts of the ion source enabled us to save up to some 25% of the calcium used in the ECR ion source, so that the actual consumption rate was about 0.3 mg/h at the highest 48

  16. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, I. V.; Razin, S. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Beklemishev, A. D.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap (''vortex'' confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of ''vortex'' confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  17. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I V; Razin, S V; Sidorov, A V; Skalyga, V A; Zorin, V G; Bagryansky, P A; Beklemishev, A D; Prikhodko, V V

    2012-02-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap ("vortex" confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of "vortex" confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be ... has also found application in electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in fusion ... (few GHz) of microwave sources, a small linear ECR plasma system can also serve ..... References.

  19. Superconducting ECR ion source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.; Saxena, A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to cover the entire mass range of the elements across the periodic table, an ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme, consisting of a superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source and a room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by low and high beta superconducting resonator cavities has been proposed. The 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source system has already been commissioned and being operated periodically at FOTIA beam hall. This source is capable of delivering ion beams right from proton to uranium with high currents and high charge states over a wide mass range (1/7 ≤ q/m ≤ 1/2) across the periodic table, including U"3"4"+ (q/m∼1/7) with 100 pna yield. The normalized transverse beam emittance from ECR source is expected to be <1.0 pi mm mrad. ECR ion sources are quite robust, making them suitable for operating for weeks continuously without any interruption

  20. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz

  1. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Ohba, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Racz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Tér 18/c (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  2. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Lin, S. H.; Xie, D. Z.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sha, S.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Guo, X. H.; Li, X. X.; Ma, H. Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Zhu, Y. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Li, J. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  3. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, A.; Lei, L.; Dikhtyar, V.; Korol, M.; Jerby, E.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  4. Cyclotron resonance in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E A; Jiang, Z; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2008-02-29

    We present the first measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in bilayer graphene. In magnetic fields up to B=18 T, we observe four distinct intraband transitions in both the conduction and valence bands. The transition energies are roughly linear in B between the lowest Landau levels, whereas they follow square root[B] for the higher transitions. This highly unusual behavior represents a change from a parabolic to a linear energy dispersion. The density of states derived from our data generally agrees with the existing lowest order tight binding calculation for bilayer graphene. However, in comparing data to theory, a single set of fitting parameters fails to describe the experimental results.

  5. Design of small ECR ion source for neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Yang Haisu; Xiong Riheng

    2003-01-01

    The principles, structures and characteristics of small ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source used in the neutron generator are introduced. The processes of the design and key technique and innovations are described. (authors)

  6. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  7. CH4/H2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching for GaAs-based field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassel, van J.G.; Es, van C.M.; Nouwens, P.A.M.; Maahury, J.H.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etch processes with CH4/H2/AR have been investigated on different III–Vsemiconductor materials (GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, and InP). The passivation depth as a function of the GaAs carrierconcentration and the recovery upon annealing at different temperatures

  8. Enhanced confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2010-02-01

    Power loss by plasma-wall interactions may become a limitation for the performance of ECR and fusion plasma devices. Based on our research to optimize the performance of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) devices by the use of metal-dielectric (MD) structures, the development of the method presented here, allows to significantly improve the confinement of plasma electrons and hence to reduce losses. Dedicated measurements were performed at the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS using argon and helium as working gas and high temperature resistive material for the MD structures. The analyzed charge state distributions and bremsstrahlung radiation spectra (corrected for background) also clearly verify the anticipated increase in the plasma-electron density and hence demonstrate the advantage by the MD-method.

  9. Ion-cyclotron-resonance- and Fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance spectroscopy: technology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luederwald, I.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and technology of Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance and Fourier-Transform-Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Spectroscopy are described. The method can be applied to studies of ion/molecule reactions in gas phase, to obtain thermodynamic data as gas phase acidity or basicity, proton and electron affinity, and to establish reaction mechanisms and ion structures. (orig.) [de

  10. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D

    2000-01-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...

  11. First results from the new RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T; Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Aihara, T; Tamura, M; Uchiyama, A; Okuno, H; Kusaka, K; Kidera, M; Ikezawa, E; Fujimaki, M; Sato, Y; Watanabe, Y; Komiyama, M; Kase, M; Goto, A; Kamigaito, O; Yano, Y

    2010-02-01

    The next generation heavy ion accelerator facility, such as the RIKEN radio isotope (RI) beam factory, requires an intense beam of high charged heavy ions. In the past decade, performance of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources has been dramatically improved with increasing the magnetic field and rf frequency to enhance the density and confinement time of plasma. Furthermore, the effects of the key parameters (magnetic field configuration, gas pressure, etc.) on the ECR plasma have been revealed. Such basic studies give us how to optimize the ion source structure. Based on these studies and modern superconducting (SC) technology, we successfully constructed the new 28 GHz SC-ECRIS, which has a flexible magnetic field configuration to enlarge the ECR zone and to optimize the field gradient at ECR point. Using it, we investigated the effect of ECR zone size, magnetic field configuration, and biased disk on the beam intensity of the highly charged heavy ions with 18 GHz microwaves. In this article, we present the structure of the ion source and first experimental results with 18 GHz microwave in detail.

  12. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  13. On Resonant Heating Below the Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liu; Lin, Zhihong; White, R.

    2001-01-01

    Resonant heating of particles by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicular to a confining uniform magnetic field is examined. It is shown that, with a sufficiently large wave amplitude, significant perpendicular stochastic heating can be obtained with wave frequency at a fraction of the cyclotron frequency

  14. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  15. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ''volume'' ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques

  16. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.W.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ''ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A ampersand M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H - Source; The H + ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research

  17. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

  18. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  19. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Prestemon, S; Sabbi, G L; Todd, D S

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb(3)Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb(3)Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb(3)Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb(3)Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb(3)Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water

  20. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers

  1. Stochastic heating in the cyclotron resonance of electrons; Calentamiento estocastico en la resonancia ciclotronica de los electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The study of the different schemes of plasma heating by radiofrequency waves is a very actual problem related with the plasma heating in different machines and the particle acceleration mechanisms. In this work, it is obtained the expression for the temporal evolution of the energy absorbed in the cyclotron resonance of electrons where it is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. It is obtained the stochastic criteria in a magnetic configuration of an Ecr type plasma source. (Author)

  2. Performance test of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, K.; Sawada, J.; Sakata, T.; Uno, K.; Okanishi, K.; Harada, H.; Itano, A.; Higashi, A.; Akagi, T.; Yamada, S.; Noda, K.; Torikoshi, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2000-02-01

    Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were manufactured for the accelerator facility at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. H2+, He2+, and C4+ were chosen as the accelerating ions because they have the highest charge to mass ratio among ion states which satisfy the required intensity and quality. The sources have the same structure as the 10 GHz ECR source at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba except for a few improvements in the magnetic structure. Their performance was investigated at the Sumitomo Heavy Industries factory before shipment. The maximum intensity was 1500 μA for H2+, 1320 μA for He2+, and 580 μA for C4+ at the end of the ion source beam transport line. These are several times higher than required. Sufficient performance was also observed in the flatness and long-term stability of the pulsed beams. These test results satisfy the requirements for medical use.

  3. Developing laser ablation in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for actinide detection with AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauder, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Pardo, R.C.; Kondev, F.G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Palchan, T. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Collon, P. [University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paul, M. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    A laser ablation material injection system has been developed at the ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for use in accelerator mass spectrometry experiments. Beam production with laser ablation initially suffered from instabilities due to fluctuations in laser energy and cratering on the sample surface by the laser. However, these instabilities were rectified by applying feedback correction for the laser energy and rastering the laser across the sample surface. An initial experiment successfully produced and accelerated low intensity actinide beams with up to 1000 counts per second. With continued development, laser ablation shows promise as an alternative material injection scheme for ECR ion sources and may help substantially reduce cross talk in the source.

  4. Investigation and application of microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma physical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhaoxing; Sheng Yanya; Shi Yicai; Wen Haihu; Cao Xiaowen

    1991-06-01

    The evaporating deposition of Ti film and Cu film by using microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique was investigated. It deposition rate was about 50 nm/min and the temperature of the substrate was 50∼150 deg C. The thin amorphous films with strong adherent force were obtained. The sputtering deposition with ECR plasma was studied by employing higher plasma density and ionicity and negative substrate potential to make YBaCuO superconducting film. Its film was compact and amorphous with a thickness of 1.0 μm and the deposition rate was about 10 nm/min. The results show that this technique can initiate a high density and high ionicity plasma at lower gas pressure (10 -2 ∼10 -3 Pa). This plasma is the most suitable plasma source in thin film deposition process and surface treatment technique

  5. Influence of Bernstein modes on the efficiency of electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Nikitin, G.V.; Savanovich, V.Yu.; Umnov, A.M.; Elizarov, L.I.; Serebrennikov, K.S.; Vostrikova, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The article considers the factors influencing the temperature of hot electron component in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) x-ray source. In such sources the electron heating occurs often due to extraordinary electromagnetic wave propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field. In this case the possibility of the absorption of Bernstein modes is regarded as an additional mechanism of electron heating. The Bernstein modes in an ECR x-ray source can arise due to either linear transformation or parametric instability of external transversal wave. The article briefly reviews also the further experiments which will be carried out to study the influence of Bernstein modes on the increase of hot electron temperature and consequently of x-ray emission

  6. Field-aligned plasma-potential structure formed by local electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro; Sato, Noriyoshi

    2001-01-01

    The significance of basic experiments on field-aligned plasma-potential structure formed by local electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) is claimed based on the historical development of the investigation on electric double layer and electrostatic potential confinement of open-ended fusion-oriented plasmas. In the presence of a single ECR point in simple mirror-type configurations of magnetic field, a potential dip (thermal barrier) appears around this point, being followed by a subsequent potential hump (plug potential) along a collisionless plasma flow. The observed phenomenon gives a clear-cut physics to the formation of field-aligned plug potential with thermal barrier, which is closely related to the double layer formation triggered by a negative dip. (author)

  7. Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.

    1986-01-01

    Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH

  8. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  9. Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Vay, J.L.; Grote, D.P.; Ng, J.T.; Pivi, M.F.; Wang, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    A new set of resonances for electron cloud dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field has been found. For short beam bunch lengths and low magnetic fields where l b c , (l b = bunch duration, ω c = non-relativistic cyclotron frequency) resonances between the bunch frequency and harmonics of the cyclotron frequency cause an increase in the electron cloud density in narrow ranges of magnetic field near the resonances. For ILC parameters the increase in the density is up to a factor ∼ 3, and the spatial distribution of the electrons is broader near resonances, lacking the well-defined density 'stripes' of multipactoring found for non-resonant cases. Simulations with the 2D computer code POSINST, as well as a single-particle tracking code, were used to elucidate the physics of the dynamics. The resonances are expected to affect the electron cloud dynamics in the fringe fields of conventional lattice magnets and in wigglers, where the magnetic fields are low. Results of the simulations, the reason for the bunch-length dependence, and details of the dynamics will be discussed

  10. A cyclotron resonance laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Tang, C.M.; Vlahos, L.

    1983-01-01

    A laser acceleration mechanism which utilizes a strong static, almost uniform, magnetic field together with an intense laser pulse is analyzed. The interaction and acceleration mechanism relies on a self resonance effect. Since the laser field is assumed to be diffraction limited, the magnetic field must be spatially varied to maintain resonance. The effective accelerating gradient is shown to scale like 1/√E /SUB b/ , where E /SUB b/ is the electron energy. For a numerical illustration the authors consider a 1 x 10 13 W/cm 2 , CO 2 laser and show that electrons can be accelerated to more than 500 MeV in a distance of 15 m (approximately two Rayleigh lengths)

  11. Characteristics of 6.5 GHz ECR ion source for polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi.

    1983-04-01

    A 6.5 GHz ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source has been developed for optically pumped polarized H - ion source at KEK. The properties of this ECR ion source such as beam intensities, proton ratios, plasma electron temperatures and beam emittances were measured. (author)

  12. Diffusion induced by cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Tajima, T.; Hatori, T.; Pfirsch, D.

    1985-09-01

    The wave induced particle transport during the ion cyclotron resonance heating is studied in collisionless toroidal plasmas. It is shown that the previously neglected non-conservation of the toroidal angular momentum IP/sub phi/ caused by the toroidal wave component E/sub phi/ is necessary to allow particle diffusion and yields the leading diffusive contribution. While the induced ion transport for the rf power in contemporary experiments is of the order of the neoclassical value, that of fast alpha particles is quite large if resonance is present

  13. Valorization of ECR sources

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    One way to limit the size of particle accelerators is to use intense multicharged ion beams. Thus, compact, low cost and reliable sources have been developed. These sources are based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) principle and need no cathode nor filament. A prototype named Nanogan has been developed for the Spiral project of the Ganil accelerator (Caen, France). Then, this technology has been transferred toward other research domains and industrial applications, like the ion implantation in micro-electronics components. (J.S.)

  14. Cyclotron resonance for electrons over helium in resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Shikin, V B

    2002-01-01

    The problem on the cyclotron resonance (CR) for electrons on the helium film, positioned in the resonator lower part, is solved. It is shown, that it relates to one of the examples of the known problem on the oscillations of the coupled oscillators system. The coupling constant between these oscillators constituting the variable function of the problem parameters. It is minimal in the zero magnetic field and reaches its maximum under the resonance conditions, when the cyclotron frequency coincides with one of the resonator modes. The CR details of the Uhf CR-energy absorption coupled by the electrons + resonator system, are calculated. The applications of the obtained results to the available CR experiments for electrons over helium

  15. Plasma heating in the TM-3 Tokamak at electron-cyclotron resonance with magnetic fields up to 25 ke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Bobrovskii, G.A.; Poznyak, V.I.; Razumova, K.A.; Sannikov, V.V.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shmarin, A.A.

    Experiments were conducted in heating plasma at electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) with longitudinal magnetic fields up to 25 ke. It was shown by the aid of laser diagnosis that the temperature of the basic component of the electrons increases in accordance with the classical mechanism of heating at ECR in the process of electron-cyclotron heating (ECH). The distribution of the temperature of electrons with respect to radius was measured. The relationship of energetic lifetime in the Tokamak and electron temperature was obtained and the magnitude of energetic lifetime of accelerated electrons in the function of their energy was estimated. The value β/sub tau/ approximately equal to 2.2 was obtained by the aid of ECH in a regime with small discharge currents

  16. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  17. Isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Gil, C.; Louvet, P.

    1986-10-01

    The principle of the process of isotopic separation by ionic cyclotron resonance is explained succinctly. The theoretical calculation of the isotopic effect is given as functions of the electric and magnetic fields in the frame of single particle approximation and of plasma collective theory. Then, the main parts of the demonstration device which is in operation at the CEA, are described here: the supraconducting magnetic field, the used diagnostics, the principle of the source and the collecting apparatus. Some experimental results are given for chromium. The application of the process to ponderal separation of metal isotopes, as chromium, nickel and molybdenum is discussed in view of production of medical, structural and irradiation isotopes

  18. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbanovschi, N.; Tanasa, M.; Stoican, O.

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  19. ECR plasma photographs as a plasma diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R; Biri, S; Palinkas, J [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2011-04-15

    Low, medium or highly charged ions delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources all are produced in the ECR plasma. In order to study such plasmas, high-resolution visible light plasma photographs were taken at the ATOMKI ECR ion source. An 8 megapixel digital camera was used to photograph plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The analysis of the photo series gave many qualitative and some valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. A comparison was made between the plasma photos and computer simulations, and conclusions were drawn regarding the cold electron component of the plasma. The warm electron component of similar simulation was compared with x-ray photos emitted by plasma ions. While the simulations are in good agreement with the photos, a significant difference was found between the spatial distribution of the cold and warm electrons.

  20. ECR Plasma Photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The effects of the main external setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, microwave power, microwave frequency) were studied to the shape, color and structure of the plasma. The double frequency mode (9+14 GHz) was also realized and photos of this special 'star-in-star' shape plasma were recorded. A study was performed to analyze and understand the color of the ECR plasmas. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. To our best knowledge our work is the first systematic study of ECR plasmas in the visible light region. When looking in the plasma chamber of an ECRIS we can see an axial image of the plasma (figure 1) in conformity with experimental setup. Most of the quantitative information was obtained through the summarised values of the Analogue Digital Unit (ADU) of pixels. By decreasing the strength of the magnetic trap we clearly observed that the brightness of the central part of the plasma gradually decreases, i.e. the plasma becomes more and more 'empty'. Figure 2 shows a photo series of ECR plasma at decreasing axial magnetic field. The radial size of the plasma increased because of the ascendant resonant zone. By increasing the power of the injected microwave an optimum (or at least saturation) was found in the brightness of the plasma. We found correlation between the gas dosing rates and plasma intensities. When sweeping the frequency of the microwave in a wide region

  1. A new approach for calculation of volume confined by ECR surface and its area in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The volume confined by the resonance surface and its area are important parameters of the balance equations model for calculation of ion charge-state distribution (CSD) in the electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. A new approach for calculation of these parameters is given. This approach allows one to reduce the number of parameters in the balance equations model

  2. The effect of magnetic field strength on the time evolution of high energy bremsstrahlung radiation created by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jones, P.; Peura, P.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Suominen, P. [Prizztech Ltd/Magnet Technology Centre, Tiedepuisto 4, FI-28600 Pori (Finland); Koivisto, H.; Arje, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2009-03-11

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is one of the most used ion source types for high charge state heavy ion production. In ECR plasma the electrons are heated by radio frequency microwaves in order to provide ionization of neutral gases. As a consequence, ECR heating also generates very high electron energies (up to MeV region) which can produce a vast amount of bremsstrahlung radiation causing problems with radiation shielding and heating superconducting cryostat of an ECR ion source. To gain information about the time evolution of the electron energies in ECR plasma radial bremsstrahlung measurements were performed. JYFL 14 GHz ECR ion source was operated in pulsed mode and time evolution measurements were done with different axial magnetic field strengths with oxygen and argon plasmas. Bremsstrahlung data were analyzed with a time interval of 2 ms yielding information at unprecedented detail about the time evolution of high energy bremsstrahlung radiation from an ECR ion source. It was observed, for example, that reaching the steady state phase of the plasma bremsstrahlung requires several hundred milliseconds and the steady state time can be different with different gases.

  3. In vacuo substrate pretreatments for enhancing nanodiamond formation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teii, Kungen; Kouzuma, Yutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2006-01-01

    Substrate pretreatment conditions at low pressures have been examined for enhancing nanocrystalline diamond formation on silicon in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Three kinds of pretreatments (I) exposure to an ECR H 2 plasma with application of a substrate bias from -100 to +30 V (II) hot-filament heating in H 2 gas, and (III) hot-filament heating in vacuum, were used alone or followed by carburization prior to a two-step process of ion-enhanced nucleation in an ECR plasma and subsequent growth in a hot-filament system. The number density of diamond particles after the final growth step was greatly increased up to the order of 10 7 -10 8 cm -2 when applying pretreatment (I) at the bias of 0 V corresponding to the ion-bombardment energy of around 10 eV. In this treatment, a clean and smooth surface with minimal damage was made by the dominance of anisotropic etching by hydrogen ions over isotropic etching by hydrogen atoms. The number density of diamond particles was still more increased when applying pretreatment (II), but the treated surface was unfavorably contaminated and roughened

  4. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  5. Studies of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction to the plasma physics of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) and a review of the results obtained by the author and co-workers including discussion of related work by others. The thesis begins with a theoretical discussion dealing with plasma physics relevant for the production of highly charged ions in ECR ion source plasmas. This is followed by an overview of different techniques, such as gas mixing and double frequency heating, that can be used to improve the performance of this type of ion source. The experimental part of the work consists of studies related to ECRIS plasma physics. The effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of different ion beams was studied with both gaseous and solid materials. It was observed that gas mixing improves the confinement of the heavier element while the confinement of the lighter element is reduced. When the effect of gas mixing on MIVOC-plasmas was studied with several mixing gases it was observed that applying this technique can reduce the inevitable carbon contamination by a significant factor. In order to understand the different plasma processes taking place in ECRIS plasmas, a series of plasma potential and emittance measurements was carried out. An instrument, which can be used to measure the plasma potential in a single measurement without disturbing the plasma, was developed for this work. Studying the plasma potential of ECR ion sources is important not only because it helps to understand different plasma processes, but also because the information can be used as an input parameter for beam transport simulations and ion source extraction design. The experiments performed have revealed clear dependencies of the plasma potential on certain source parameters such as the amount of carbon contamination accumulated on the walls of the plasma chamber during a MIVOC-run. It was also observed that gas mixing affects not only the production efficiency

  6. Resonance cones below the ion cyclotron frequency: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.

    1976-03-01

    The resonance cones existing below the ion cyclotron frequency, ω/sub c/sub i//, are shown, theoretically and experimentally, to be the asymptotes of hyperbolic constant-phase surfaces of low-frequency ion acoustic waves. Above ω/sub c/sub i// the surfaces transform into ellipses that are related to the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves and ion acoustic waves

  7. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-06-01

    As for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the introduction of pulsed Fourier transform techniques revolutionized ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: increased speed (factor of 10,000), increased sensitivity (factor of 100), increased mass resolution (factor of 10,000-an improvement not shared by the introduction of FT techniques to IR or NMR spectroscopy), increased mass range (factor of 500), and automated operation. FT-ICR mass spectrometry is the most versatile technique for unscrambling and quantifying ion-molecule reaction kinetics and equilibria in the absence of solvent (i.e., the gas phase). In addition, FT-ICR MS has the following analytically important features: speed (~1 second per spectrum); ultrahigh mass resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy for analysis of mixtures and polymers; attomole sensitivity; MSn with one spectrometer, including two-dimensional FT/FT-ICR/MS; positive and/or negative ions; multiple ion sources (especially MALDI and electrospray); biomolecular molecular weight and sequencing; LC/MS; and single-molecule detection up to 108 Dalton. Here, some basic features and recent developments of FT-ICR mass spectrometry are reviewed, with applications ranging from crude oil to molecular biology.

  8. Ferrite-guided cyclotron-resonance maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerby, Eli; Kesar, A.; Aharony, A.; Breitmeier, G.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) with a ferrite loading incorporated in its waveguide is proposed. The CRM interaction occurs between the rotating electron beam and the em wave propagating along a longitudinally magnetized ferrite medium. The ferrite anisotropic permeability resembles the CRM susceptibility in many aspects, and particularly in their similar response to the axial magnetic field (the ferrite susceptibility can be regarded as a passive analog of the active CRM interaction). The ferrite loading slows down the phase velocity of the em wave and thus the axial (Weibel) mechanism of the CRM interaction dominates. The ferrite loading enables also a mechanism of spectral tunability for CRM's. The ferrite loading is proposed, therefore, as a useful ingredient for high-power CRM devices. A linear model of the combined ferrite-guided CRM interaction reveals its useful features. Future schemes may also incorporate ferrite sections functioning as isolators, gyrators, or phase shifters within the CRM device itself for selective suppression of backward waves and spurious oscillations, and for gain and efficiency enhancement

  9. Field emission studies of silver nanoparticles synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Vishwas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bhise, A.B.; Poddar, Pankaj; Joag, D.S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Field emission has been studied for silver nanoparticles (25-200 nm), deposited within a cylindrical silver target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Particle size distribution was controlled by optimum biasing voltages between the chamber and the target. Presence of non-oxidized silver was confirmed from the X-Ray diffraction analysis; however, thin protective layer of oxide was identified from the selective area electron diffraction pattern obtained with transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were seen to exhibit hilly pointed like structures when viewed under the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The emissive properties of these particles were investigated by field emission microscopy. It is found that this technique of deposition is ideal for formation of nanoparticles films on different substrate geometries with size controllability as well as its application to emission devices.

  10. Parallel ion flow velocity measurement using laser induced fluorescence method in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Okamoto, Atsushi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ogiwara, Kohei; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Parallel ion flow velocity along a magnetic field has been measured using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) argon plasma with a weakly-diverging magnetic field. To measure parallel flow velocity in a cylindrical plasma using the LIF method, the laser beam should be injected along device axis; however, the reflection of the incident beam causes interference between the LIF emission of the incident and reflected beams. Here we present a method of quasi-parallel laser injection at a small angle, which utilizes the reflected beam as well as the incident beam to obtain the parallel ion flow velocity. Using this method, we observed an increase in parallel ion flow velocity along the magnetic field. The acceleration mechanism is briefly discussed on the basis of the ion fluid model. (author)

  11. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  12. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω + ), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω + quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω + frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω + frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen/helium plasma characterization and simulation of pumping in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas have been employed to simulate the plasma conditions at the edge of a tokamak in order to investigate hydrogen/helium uptake in thin metal films. The process of microwave power absorption, important to characterizing the ECR plasma source, was investigated by measuring the electron density and temperature with a Langmuir probe and optical spectroscopy as a function of the magnetic field gradient and incident microwave power. A novel diagnostic, carbon resistance probe, provided a direct measure of the ion energy and fluence while measurements from a Langmuir probe were used for comparison. The Langmuir probe gave a plasma potential minus floating potential of 30 ± 5 eV, in good agreement with the carbon resistance probe result of ion energy ≤ 40 eV. The measured ion energy was consistent with the ion energy predicted from a model based upon divergent magnetic field extraction. Also, based upon physical sputtering of the carbon, the hydrogen fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec for 50 Watts of incident microwave power. ECR hydrogen/helium plasmas were used to study preferential pumping of helium in candidate materials for tokamak pump-limiters: nickel, vanadium, aluminum, and nickel/aluminum multi-layers. Nickel and vanadium exhibited similar pumping capacities whereas aluminum showed a reduced capacity due to increased sputtering. A helium retention model based upon ion implantation ranges and sputtering rates agreed with the experimental data. A new multilayer/bilayer pumping concept showed improved pumping above that for single element films

  14. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...

  15. New development of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Ma, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advance design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an 18-28 GHz fully superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source dedicated for highly charged heavy ion beam production. SECRAL, with an innovative superconducting magnet structure of solenoid-inside-sextupole and at lower frequency and lower rf power operation, may open a new way for developing compact and reliable high performance superconducting ECR ion source. One of the recent highlights achieved at SECRAL is that some new record beam currents for very high charge states were produced by 18 GHz or 18+14.5 GHz double frequency heating, such as 1 e μA of 129 Xe 43+ , 22 e μA of 209 Bi 41+ , and 1.5 e μA of 209 Bi 50+ . To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, a 24 GHz/7 kW gyrotron microwave generator was installed and SECRAL was tested at 24 GHz. Some promising and exciting results at 24 GHz with new record highly charged ion beam intensities were produced, such as 455 e μA of 129 Xe 27+ and 152 e μA of 129 Xe 30+ , although the commissioning time was limited within 3-4 weeks and rf power only 3-4 kW. Bremsstrahlung measurements at 24 GHz show that x-ray is much stronger with higher rf frequency, higher rf power. and higher minimum mirror magnetic field (minimum B). Preliminary emittance measurements indicate that SECRAL emittance at 24 GHz is slightly higher that at 18 GHz. SECRAL has been put into routine operation at 18 GHz for heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. The total operation beam time from SECRAL for HIRFL accelerator has been more than 2000 h, and 129 Xe 27+ , 78 Kr 19+ , 209 Bi 31+ , and 58 Ni 19+ beams were delivered. All of these new developments, the latest results, and long-term operation for the accelerator have again demonstrated that SECRAL is one of the best in the performance of ECR ion source for highly charged heavy ion beam production. Finally the future development

  16. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  17. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  18. Preliminary Ionization Efficiencies of 11C and 14O with the LBNL ECR Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Cerny, J.; Guo, F.Q.; Joosten, R.; Larimer, R.M.; Lyneis, C.M.; McMahan, P.; Norman, E.B.; O'Neil, J.P.; Powell, J.; Rowe, M.W.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Wutte, D.; Xu, X.J.; Haustein, P.

    1998-01-01

    High charge states, up to fully stripped 11 C and 14 O ion, beams have been produced with the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (LBNL, ECR and AECR-U) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The radioactive atoms of 11 C and 14 O were collected in batch mode with an LN 2 trap and then bled into the ECR ion sources. Ionization efficiency as high as 11% for 11 C 4+ was achieved

  19. Nonlinear cyclotron-resonance accelerations by a generalized EM wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Hojo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerations by a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, dispersive pulse in an external magnetic field are investigated. It is found that the well-known cyclotron resonance may be classified into three regimes as the length and/or the amplitude of the pulse are varied. Namely, as the pulse amplitude increases, the transit-time cyclotron-resonance acceleration (CRA) evolves to phase trapping, and reflect particles. The amplitude and wave dispersion as well as the pulse length strongly affect those accelerations. The interesting phenomena of quantization of resonance velocities in between the two regimes are also investigated. This new mechanism may lead to wave amplification at some discrete frequencies other than the cyclotron frequency. (authors)

  20. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  1. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Yang, Xu; Huang, Feiling; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N 2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N 2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  2. Structural and interfacial characteristics of thin (2 films grown by electron cyclotron resonance plasma oxidation on [100] Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Carl, D.A.; Hess, D.W.; Lieberman, M.A.; Gronsky, R.

    1991-04-01

    The feasibility of fabricating ultra-thin SiO 2 films on the order of a few nanometer thickness has been demonstrated. SiO 2 thin films of approximately 7 nm thickness have been produced by ion flux-controlled Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma oxidation at low temperature on [100] Si substrates, in reproducible fashion. Electrical measurements of these films indicate that they have characteristics comparable to those of thermally grown oxides. The thickness of the films was determined by ellipsometry, and further confirmed by cross-sectional High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Comparison between the ECR and the thermal oxide films shows that the ECR films are uniform and continuous over at least a few microns in lateral direction, similar to the thermal oxide films grown at comparable thickness. In addition, HRTEM images reveal a thin (1--1.5 nm) crystalline interfacial layer between the ECR film and the [100] substrate. Thinner oxide films of approximately 5 nm thickness have also been attempted, but so far have resulted in nonuniform coverage. Reproducibility at this thickness is difficult to achieve

  3. Plasma heating due to X-B mode conversion in a cylindrical ECR plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.K.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2004-07-01

    Extra Ordinary (X) mode conversion to Bernstein wave near Upper Hybrid Resonance (UHR) layer plays an important role in plasma heating through cyclotron resonance. Wave generation at UHR and parametric decay at high power has been observed during Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating experiments in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. A small linear system with ECR and UHR layer within the system has been used to conduct experiments on X-B conversion and parametric decay process as a function of system parameters. Direct probing in situ is conducted and plasma heating is evidenced by soft x-ray emission measurement. Experiments are performed with hydrogen plasma produced with 160-800 W microwave power at 2.45 GHz of operating frequency at 10{sup -3} mbar pressure. The axial magnetic field required for ECR is such that the resonant surface (B = 875 G) is situated at the geometrical axis of the plasma system. Experimental results will be presented in the paper. (authors)

  4. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  5. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  6. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...... of the electron cyclotron frequency. These are injected obliquely from the outside of the tokamak near an optimal angle to the magnetic field lines. This method involves two mode conversions. The ordinary waves are converted into extraordinary waves near the plasma cut-off layer. The extraordinary waves...... are subsequently converted into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer, and the Bernstein waves are completely absorbed close to the plasma centre. Results are presented from ray-tracinq calculations in full three-dimensional geometry using the dispersion function for a hot non...

  7. Measurements of bremsstrahlung spectra of Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 3 (LECR3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Ma, X.W.; Zhang, S.F.; Feng, W.T.; Zhu, X.L.; Zhang, Z.M.; He, W.; Sun, L.T.; Feng, Y.C.; Cao, Y.; Li, J.Y.; Li, X.X.; Wang, H.; Ma, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    In order to diagnose the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, electron bremsstrahlung spectra were measured by a HPGe detector on Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 3 at IMP. The ion source was operated with argon under various working conditions, including different microwave power, mixing gas, extraction high voltage (HV), and so on. Some of the measured spectra are presented in this article. The dependence of energetic electron population on mixing gas and extraction HV is also described. Additionally, we are looking forward to further measurements on SECRAL (Superconducting ECR Ion Source with Advanced design at Lanzhou)

  8. Peculiarity of the charged particles dynamics at the cyclotron resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Tolstoluzhsky, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the analysis was provided of the discrepancy between thresholds for appearance of the chaotic regime in the conditions of cyclotron resonances, obtained by analytical consideration of the particle dynamics, on the one hand, and by numerical investigation, on the other hand. The explanation is given for these threshold discrepancies.

  9. Heavy stable isotope separation by ion cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Larousse, B.; Patris, M.

    1994-01-01

    The scientific feasibility of the ion cyclotron resonance process (ICR), as well as the technical one, has been investigated carefully for light metallic elements, whose masses lies between 40 and 100/1,2/. The present work deals mainly with the same demonstration for heavier elements such as ytterbium, gadolinium and barium. Recent results, as well as future prospects, are considered here. (authors)

  10. Ion cyclotron resonance heating in the Wisconsin supported toroidal octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Ion heating at the fundamental of the cyclotron resonance (1 MHz 12 cm -3 ) with no evidence of parametric decay or enhanced particle loss other than temperature dependent losses such as thermal flow to obstacles. Ion temperatures are limited by charge exchange on the large neutral reflux at the higher rf powers. (author)

  11. Isotope separation in plasma by ion-cyclotron resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinov, A.E.; Kornilova, I.Yu.; Selemir, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary state of investigation on isotope separation in plasma using selective ion-cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating is considered. The main attention is paid to necessary conditions of heating selectivity, plasma creation methods in isotope ICR-separation facilities, selection of antenna systems for heating, and principles of more-heated component selection. Experimental results obtained at different isotope mixtures separation are presented [ru

  12. Electron-cyclotron-resonant-heated electron distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Nevins, W.M.; Cohen, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code indicate that the energetic electron tail formed by electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) at the second harmonic is not Maxwellian. We present the results of our bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code along with some simple analytic models of hot-electron distribution functions

  13. A superconducting RFQ for an ECR injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1988-01-01

    The beam dynamics and resonator properties of a superconducting radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for heavy ions are discussed. The motivation is its use as a very low velocity section following an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source for injection into a superconducting heavy-ion linac. The constraints on the design and performance of this accelerating structure are presented. Expressions for a limiting stable phase angle and longitudinal and transverse acceptance are derived. A numerical example is given, using the SUNYLAC linac at Sony Stony Brook. Beam-dynamics calculations with PARMTEQ are reported, verifying the theoretical beam-dynamics calculations. (author) 12 refs., 1 tab

  14. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz.

  15. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  16. Wave propagation through an electron cyclotron resonance layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of a wave beam through an electron cyclotron resonance layer is analysed in two-dimensional slab geometry in order to assess the deviation from cold plasma propagation due to resonant, warm plasma changes in wave dispersion. For quasi-perpendicular propagation, N ' 'parallel to'' ≅ v t /c, an O-mode beam is shown to exhibit a strong wiggle in the trajectory of the centre of the beam when passing through the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance. The effects are largest for low temperatures and close to perpendicular propagation. Predictions from standard dielectric wave energy fluxes are inconsistent with the trajectory of the beam. Qualitatively identical results are obtained for the X-mode second harmonic. In contrast, the X-mode at the fundamental resonance shows significant deviations form cold plasma propagation only for strongly oblique propagation and/or high temperatures. On the basis of the obtained results a practical suggestion is made for ray tracing near electron cyclotron resonance. (Author)

  17. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  18. Electron - cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs

  19. Development and studies on a compact electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, A.; Tarey, R. D.; Arora, N.; Narayanan, R.

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced plasmas are efficient, high-density plasma sources and have many industrial applications. The concept of a portable compact ECR plasma source (CEPS) would thus become important from an application point of view. This paper gives details of such a CEPS that is both portable and easily mountable on a chamber of any size. It uses a fully integrated microwave line operating at 2.45 GHz, up to 800 W, cw. The required magnetic field is produced by a set of suitably designed NdFeB ring magnets; the device has an overall length of  ≈60 cm and weighs  ≈14 kg including the permanent magnets. The CEPS was attached to a small experimental chamber to judge its efficacy for plasma production. In the pressure range of 0.5-10 mTorr and microwave power of  ≈400-500 W the experiments indicate that the CEPS is capable of producing high-density plasma (≈9  ×  1011-1012 cm-3) with bulk electron temperature in the range  ≈2-3 eV. In addition, a warm electron population with density and temperature in the range ≈7  ×  108-109 cm-3 and  ≈45-80 eV, respectively has been detected. This warm population plays an important role at high pressures in maintaining the high-density plasma, when plasma flow from the CEPS into the test chamber is strongly affected.

  20. Numerical simulations of gas mixing effect in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions code nam-ecris is used to simulate the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma sustained in a mixture of Kr with O_{2}, N_{2}, Ar, Ne, and He. The model assumes that ions are electrostatically confined in the ECR zone by a dip in the plasma potential. A gain in the extracted krypton ion currents is seen for the highest charge states; the gain is maximized when oxygen is used as a mixing gas. The special feature of oxygen is that most of the singly charged oxygen ions are produced after the dissociative ionization of oxygen molecules with a large kinetic energy release of around 5 eV per ion. The increased loss rate of energetic lowly charged ions of the mixing element requires a building up of the retarding potential barrier close to the ECR surface to equilibrate electron and ion losses out of the plasma. In the mixed plasmas, the barrier value is large (∼1  V compared to pure Kr plasma (∼0.01  V, with longer confinement times of krypton ions and with much higher ion temperatures. The temperature of the krypton ions is increased because of extra heating by the energetic oxygen ions and a longer time of ion confinement. In calculations, a drop of the highly charged ion currents of lighter elements is observed when adding small fluxes of krypton into the source. This drop is caused by the accumulation of the krypton ions inside plasma, which decreases the electron and ion confinement times.

  1. Diagnostics of microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for surface modification of nylon 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Supriya E.; Das, Partha Sarathi; Bansode, Avinash; Dhamale, Gayatri; Ghorui, S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2018-01-01

    Looking at the increasing scope of plasma processing of materials surface, here we present the development and diagnostics of a microwave assisted Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system suitable for surface modification of polymers. Prior to the surface-treatment, a detailed diagnostic mapping of the plasma parameters throughout the reactor chamber was carried out by using single and double Langmuir probe measurements in Ar plasma. Conventional analysis of I-V curves as well as the elucidation form of the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) has become the source of calibration of plasma parameters in the reaction chamber. The high energy tail in the EEDF of electron temperature is seen to extend beyond 60 eV, at much larger distances from the ECR zone. This proves the suitability of the rector for plasma processing, since the electron energy is much beyond the threshold energy of bond breaking in most of the polymers. Nylon 6 is used as a representative candidate for surface processing in the presence of Ar, H2 + N2, and O2 plasma, treated at different locations inside the plasma chamber. In a typical case, the work of adhesion is seen to almost get doubled when treated with oxygen plasma. Morphology of the plasma treated surface and its hydrophilicity are discussed in view of the variation in electron density and electron temperature at these locations. Nano-protrusions arising from plasma treatment are set to be responsible for the hydrophobicity. Chemical sputtering and physical sputtering are seen to influence the surface morphology on account of sufficient electron energies and increased plasma potential.

  2. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  3. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  4. Gas breakdown at cyclotron resonance with a submillimeter laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Temkin, R.J.; Lax, B.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed 496-μm CH 3 F laser is used to produce gas breakdown in He at pressures between 1 and 300 Torr in an intense longitudinal magnetic field. Breakdown is detected by the observation of visible light when the electron cyclotron frequency (eB/m) equals the laser frequency, which occurs at B=216 kG for lambda=496 μm. At the lowest helium pressures and near cyclotron resonance, the focused laser intensity of 40 kW/cm 2 gives rise to very large electron heating rates, well beyond the limit of validity of conventional equilibrium breakdown theory. The observed result is an intensity-dependent resonant linewidth, much larger than predicted by equilibrium theories

  5. State of the Art ECR Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He 2+ and O 6+ , and 30 eμA of Au 32+ , 1.1 eμA of 238 U 48+ , and epA currents of very high charge states such as 86 Kr 35+ and 238 U 60+ have been produced

  6. Ion cyclotron-resonance heating in a toroidal octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    rf power near the ion cyclotron-resonance frequency has been used to produce a hundredfold increase (from approximately-less-than1 to approx.100 eV) in the ion temperature in a toroidal octupole device. The heating produces no noticeable instabilities or other deleterious effects except for a high reflux of neutrals from the walls. The heating rate is consistent with theory and the limiting ion temperature is determined by charge-exchange losses

  7. Mode converter for electron cyclotron resonance heating of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.; Hsuan, H.; Glanz, J.

    1980-09-01

    A method is proposed for improving the efficiency of cyclotron resonance heating of a toroidal plasma by ordinary mode radiation from the outside of the torus. Radiation not absorbed in the first pass is reflected from the inside of the torus by a corrugated surface which rotates the polarization by 90 0 , so that a secondary source of extraordinary waves is created in the high field, accessible region of the plasma

  8. Development of a collision induced dissociation ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.N.

    1982-01-01

    A transient analysis ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is developed to investigate the phenomena of collision induced dissociation. The Fourier transform method and the modified maximum entropy spectral analysis or covariance least square method are implemented in measuring the mass spectrum of the ion ensemble. The Fourier transform method can be used in quantitative analysis while the maximum entropy method as developed here is useful for qualitative analysis only. The cyclotron resonance frequency, relaxation time constant, and the relative ion population are observable from the Fourier transform spectrum. These parameters are very important in investigating collision induced dissociation process and other topics in gas phase chemistry. The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is not only developed to study fragments and their abundance from a parent ion, but also to determine the threshold energy and reaction cross section in the collision induced dissociation process. When hard sphere model is used in the ion-molecule collision, the radius of acetone ion measured from the reactive cross section is 2.2 angstrom which is very close to the physical dimension of acetone. The threshold energy for acetone ion in collision induced dissociation process is 1.8 eV which is similar to the result obtained by the angle-resolved mass spectrometer

  9. The influence of ambipolarity on plasma confinement and on the performance of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Dobrescu, S; Stiebing, K E; Thuillier, T; Lamy, T

    2008-02-01

    Charge diffusion in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) discharge is usually characterized by nonambipolar behavior. While the ions are transported to the radial walls, electrons are lost axially from the magnetic trap. Global neutrality is maintained via compensating currents in the conducting walls of the vacuum chamber. It is assumed that this behavior reduces the ion breeding times compared to a truly ambipolar plasma. We have carried out a series of dedicated experiments in which the ambipolarity of the ECRIS plasma was influenced by inserting special metal-dielectric structures (MD layers) into the plasma chamber of the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS. The measurements demonstrate the positive influence on the source performance when the ECR plasma is changed toward more ambipolar behavior.

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of the electron distribution function in the plasma of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Perret, C.; Bourg, F.; Khodja, H.; Melin, G.; Lecot, C.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are mirror machines which can deliver important fluxes of Highly Charged Ions (HCI). These performances are strongly correlated with hot electrons sustained by an RF wave. This paper presents an analysis of the EDF in an ECR source. In the first part of the paper a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck code for the Electron Distribution Function is presented: this code includes a quasilinear diffusion operator for the RF wave, a collision term and a source term due to electron impact ionization. The present status of this code is presented. In the second part of the paper experiments related to the measurement of the EDF are presented: electron density, diamagnetism, electron endloss current have been measured at the Quadrumafios ECRIS. With these results it is possible to give a precise description of the EDF. (author)

  11. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C(5+) ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  12. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yun, E-mail: caoyun@impcas.ac.cn; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  13. Development status of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhary, S G [Ion Sources and Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The present review provides a very brief introduction of the historical development of this recent trend type of ion sources. There are two main types of this source which use the microwave power (2.45 up to 20 GHz). ECR ion sources that can generate substantial currents of very high charge state ions ( for example ions of U with charge state +39, with intensities of a few hundred nano amperes for injection directly into cyclotrons or synchrotrons), and the microwave sources that can generate currents (100-500 mA) for ion implanters and accelerator injectors. In this work, the theory of the microwave discharge and influence of resonance on increasing the power density consumed by the discharge are studied. The power density consumed by the discharge is found to increase with increase of number of electrons in the discharge, and decreases with increase of discharge pressure. The description of the main components and factors affecting the design of the source are declared. Also the factors enhancing source performance such as: plasma cooling by the addition of light ions which absorb energy from the heavy ions thereby increasing the lifetime of the heavy ions, and increasing the extent of highly charged ions. Injection of electrons into the discharge increases the extracted ion current, and the decrease of the magnetic field in the extraction region decreases the beam emittance. 12 figs.

  14. Phosphorus Doping Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma for Large-Area Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Mohri, Mikio; Tsuruoka, Taiji

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorus doping using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, for application to the poly-Si driving circuits of liquid crystal displays or image sensors. The PH3/He was ionized and accelerated to poly-Si and c-Si substrates with a self bias of -220 V. The P concentration, as detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), is ˜5×1021 cm-3 at the surface, which decayed to ˜1017 cm-3 within 50 100 nm depth. The surface is found to be etched during doping. The etching is restored by adding a small amount of SiH4 and the sheet resistance R s decreases. The optimized as-irradiated R s is ˜ 1× 105 Ω/\\Box and 1.7× 102 Ω/\\Box for poly-Si and (110) c-Si, respectively. The dependence of R s on the substrates and the anomalous diffusion constants derived from SIMS are also discussed.

  15. Plasma potentials and performance of the advanced electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The mean plasma potential was measured on the LBL advanced electron cyclotron resonance (AECR) ion source for a variety of conditions. The mean potentials for plasmas of oxygen, argon, and argon mixed with oxygen in the AECR were determined. These plasma potentials are positive with respect to the plasma chamber wall and are on the order of tens of volts. Electrons injected into the plasma by an electron gun or from an aluminum oxide wall coating with a very high secondary electron emission reduce the plasma potential as does gas mixing. A lower plasma potential in the AECR source coincides with enhanced production of high charged state ions indicating longer ion confinement times. The effect of the extra electrons from external injection or wall coatings is to lower the average plasma potential and to increase the n e τ i of the ECR plasma. With sufficient extra electrons, the need for gas mixing can be eliminated or reduced to a lower level, so the source can operate at lower neutral pressures. A reduction of the neutral pressure decreases charge exchange between ions and neutrals and enhances the production of high charge state ions. An aluminum oxide coating results in the lowest plasma potential among the three methods discussed and the best source performance

  16. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed

  17. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.

  18. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ , and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ , and U 34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ , and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyneis, C., E-mail: CMLyneis@lbl.gov; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Plaum, B. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany); Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  20. Results of a new ''OCTOPUS'' ECR ion source at 6.4 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, C.; Jongen, Y.; Arakawa, K.; Yokota, W.; Satoh, T.; Tachikawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    The first OCTOPUS electron cyclstron resonance (ECR) multicharged heavy ion source was built in 1985 at the Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron of the University of Louvain (Belgium). This first source used an ECR frequency of 14.3 GHz in the injector stage and 8.5 GHz in the main confinement stage. A new OCTOPUS source has now been built for a new cyclotron to be installed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The design of this new OCTOPUS source is identical to the first OCTOPUS source, but uses an ECR frequency of 6.4 GHz in the main confinement stage. The experimental results are described, and a comparison is made between the two sources. However, the available data does not allow any clear conclusion to be drawn on frequency scaling

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ... required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( ... The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 ...

  2. Development of superconducting magnets for RAON 28 GHz ECR ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeongil; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    RAON, a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR IS), was designed and tested as a Rare Isotope Science Project. It is expected that RAON would provide not only rare-isotope beams but also stable heavy ions ranging from protons to uranium. In order to obtain the steady heavy-ion beam required for ECR IS, we must use a 28 GHz microwave source as well as a high magnetic field. A superconducting magnet using a NbTi wire was designed and manufactured for producing the ECR IS and a test was conducted. In this paper, the design and fabrication of the superconducting magnet for the ECR IS are presented. Experimental results show that the quench current increases whenever quenching occurs, but it has not yet reached the designed current. The experiment is expected to reveal the ideal conditions required to reach the designed current.

  3. Electron cyclotron emission measurements during 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating in Wendelstein WVII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Gasparino, U.; Tutter, M.; Brakel, R.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Engelhardt, K.; Erckmann, V.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Raeuchle, E.; Schueller, P.G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, M.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator. Blackbody radiation from the thermalized plasma main body as well as radiation from a small amount of weakly relativistic suprathermal electrons has been detected. In addition sideband emission has been observed near the second harmonic of the heating line source. Harmonic generation and parametric wave decay at the upper hybrid layer may be a reasonable explanation. (orig.)

  4. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  5. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  6. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Philipp, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  7. Optically detected cyclotron resonance in a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Gregor

    2011-09-23

    Optically detected far-infrared cyclotron resonance (FIR-ODCR) in GaAs/AlGaAs HJs is interpreted in the frame of an exciton-dissociation mechanism. It is possible to explain the ODR mechanism by an exciton drag, mediated by ballistically propagating phonons. Furthermore, very narrow resonances are presented and realistic electron mobility values can be calculated. The exceptionally narrow ODCRs allow to measure conduction-band nonparabolicity effects and resolve satellite resonances, close to the main cyclotron resonance line.

  8. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.

  9. Simulation and beam line experiments for the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Damon S.; Leitner, Daniela; Grote, David P.; Lyneis, ClaudeM.

    2007-01-01

    The particle-in-cell code Warp has been enhanced to incorporate both two- and three-dimensional sheath extraction models giving Warp the capability of simulating entire ion beam transport systems including the extraction of beams from plasma sources. In this article we describe a method of producing initial ion distributions for plasma extraction simulations in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources based on experimentally measured sputtering on the source biased disc. Using this initialization method, we present preliminary results for extraction and transport simulations of an oxygen beam and compare them with experimental beam imaging on a quartz viewing plate for the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

  10. Development of 16.5 GHz ECR ion source in KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Kinsho, Michikazu; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Akira

    1992-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is useful for generating not only highly charged heavy ions but intense protons. We have developed the 16.5 GHz ECR ion source for the optically pumped polarized ion source (OPPIS). Recently, we have modified it to extract highly charged heavy ions and succeeded in producting highly charged argon ions of which charge-states were from 2 to 8. When we introduced electrons into the plasma with a LaB 6 filament, the argon ion beam whose charge-state up to 11 could be extracted. The intensity was also enhanced in factor 2 to 6 for each charge-state ions. (author)

  11. ECR plasma cleaning for superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-02-01

    A superconducting linac has been operating well as a heavy ion energy booster of the tandem accelerator at JAERI since 1994. Forty superconducting quarter wave resonators are used in the linac. They have high performances in average. Some of them are, however, suffering from 'Q-disease' that has been caused by hydrogen absorption into niobium during electro-polishing and the precipitation of niobium-hydrides on the surface at the vicinity of about 120K during precooling. A method of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma cleaning was applied to spare resonator in order to investigate if it is useful as a curing method of Q-disease. ECR plasma was excited in the resonator by 2.45 GHz microwave in a magnetic field of about 87.5 mT. In the first preliminary experiments, hydrogen, helium, water and oxigen gases were investigated. Every case was done at a pressure of about 3x10{sup -3} Pa. The results show that apparent recovery from Q-disease was found with helium and oxigen gases. (author)

  12. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  13. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Light Source Assembly of PTB - ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Gruebling, P; Ulm, G

    1999-01-01

    In the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische,Bundesanstalt at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY I, radiation sources for radiometric applications in industry and basic research in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range are developed, characterized and calibrated. Established sources such as deuterium lamps, Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources have limited spectral ranges and in particular their stability and life time suffers from the erosion of the cathode material. To overcome these limitations we have developed a radiation source based on the principle of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. ELISA is a 10 GHz monomode source with a compact design featuring a tunable cavity and axially positionable permanent magnets. The radiation emission of the source can be detected simultaneously in the VUV and X-ray spectral range via a toroidal grating monochromator and a Si(Li)-detector. The special design of the source allows spectroscopic investigations of the plasma in dep...

  14. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  15. Comparison analysis of superconducting solenoid magnet systems for ECR ion source based on the evolution strategy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shao Qing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is an essential component of heavy-ion accelerator. For a given design, the intensities of the highly charged ion beams extracted from the source can be increased by enlarging the physical volume of ECR zone. Several models for ECR ion source were and will be constructed depending on their operating conditions. In this paper three simulation models with 3, 4 and 6 solenoid system were built, but it's not considered anything else except the number of coils. Two groups of optimization analysis are presented, and the evolution strategy (ES) is adopted as an optimization tool which is a technique based on the ideas of mutation, adaptation and annealing. In this research, the volume of ECR zone was calculated approximately, and optimized designs for ECR solenoid magnet system were presented. Firstly it is better to make the volume of ECR zone large to increase the intensity of ion beam under the specific confinement field conditions. At the same time the total volume of superconducting solenoids must be decreased to save material. By considering the volume of ECR zone and the total length of solenoids in each model with different number of coils, the 6 solenoid system represented the highest coil performance. By the way, a certain case, ECR zone volume itself can be essential than the cost. So the maximum ECR zone volume for each solenoid magnet system was calculated respectively with the same size of the plasma chamber and the total magnet space. By comparing the volume of ECR zone, the 6 solenoid system can be also made with the maximum ECR zone volume.

  16. Status report of pelletron accelerator and ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator is completing twenty seven years of round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. Over the years, various developmental activities and application oriented programs have been initiated at Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting into enhanced utilization of the accelerator. We have also been pursuing an ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme under XII th Plan, consisting of an 18 GHz superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source and a room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by low and high beta superconducting niobium resonator cavities. This talk will provide the current status of Pelletron Accelerator and the progress made towards the ECR based heavy ion accelerator program at BARC. (author)

  17. Optimum condition for spatial ion cyclotron resonance in a multiple magnetic mirror field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Sato, Noriyoshi

    1988-01-01

    A Spatial cyclotron resonance of ion beams passing through a multiple magnetic mirror field is investigated experimentally by varying parameters of the multiple mirror field. The optimum resonance condition is realized with a decrease in the cell length of the multiple mirror along the beams to satisfy the local condition of the spatial ion cyclotron resonance. The results show a remarkable increase of nonadiabatic transfer of the beam energy into the transverse direction to the magnetic field. (author)

  18. Heating tokamaks via the ion-cyclotron and ion-ion hybrid resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1977-04-01

    For the ion-ion hybrid resonance it is shown that: (1) the energy absorption occurs via a sequence of mode conversions; (2) a poloidal field component normal to the ion-ion hybrid mode conversion surface strongly influences the mode conversion process so that roughly equal electron and ion heating occurs in the present proton-deuterium experiments, while solely electron heating is predicted to prevail in deuterium-tritium reactors; (3) the ion-ion hybrid resonance suppresses toroidal eigenmodes; and (4) wave absorption in minority fundamental ion-cyclotron heating experiments will be dominated by ion-ion hybrid mode conversion absorption for minority concentrations exceeding roughly 1 percent. For the ion-cyclotron resonance, it is shown that: (1) ion-cyclotron mode conversion leads to surface electron heating; and (2) ion-cyclotron mode conversion absorption dominates fundamental ion-cyclotron absorption thereby preventing efficient ion heating

  19. Temperature anisotropy in a cyclotron resonance heated tokamak plasma and the generation of poloidal electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Chang, C.S.

    1994-11-01

    The temperature anisotropy generated by cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas is calculated and the poloidal equilibrium electric field due to the anisotropy is studied. For the calculation of anisotropic temperatures, bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function of heated particles is solved, assuming a moderate wave power and a constant quasilinear cyclotron resonance diffusion coefficient. The poloidal electrostatic potential variation is found to be proportional to the particle density and the degree of temperature anisotropy of warm species created by cyclotron resonance heating

  20. Fundamental ion cyclotron resonance heating of JET deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A V; Amosov, V N; Kaschuck, Yu A; Van Eester, D; Lerche, E; Ongena, J; Bonheure, G; Biewer, T; Crombe, K; Ericsson, G; Giacomelli, L; Hellesen, C; Hjalmarsson, A; Esposito, B; Marocco, D; Jachmich, S; Kiptily, V; Leggate, H; Mailloux, J; Kallne, J

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency heating of majority ions is of prime importance for understanding the basic role of auxiliary heating in the activated D-T phase of ITER. Majority deuterium ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) experiments at the fundamental cyclotron frequency were performed in JET. In spite of the poor antenna coupling at 25 MHz, this heating scheme proved promising when adopted in combination with D neutral beam injection (NBI). The effect of fundamental ICRH of a D population was clearly demonstrated in these experiments: by adding ∼25% of heating power the fusion power was increased up to 30-50%, depending on the type of NBI adopted. At this power level, the ion and electron temperatures increased from T i ∼ 4.0 keV and T e ∼ 4.5 keV (NBI-only phase) to T i ∼ 5.5 keV and T e ∼ 5.2 keV (ICRH + NBI phase), respectively. The increase in the neutron yield was stronger when 80 keV rather than 130 keV deuterons were injected in the plasma. It is shown that the neutron rate, the diamagnetic energy and the electron as well as the ion temperature scale roughly linearly with the applied RF power. A synergistic effect of the combined use of ICRF and NBI heating was observed: (i) the number of neutron counts measured by the neutron camera during the combined ICRF + NBI phases of the discharges exceeded the sum of the individual counts of the NBI-only and ICRF-only phases; (ii) a substantial increase in the number of slowing-down beam ions was detected by the time of flight neutron spectrometer when ICRF power was switched on; (iii) a small D subpopulation with energies slightly above the NBI launch energy was detected by the neutral particle analyzer and γ-ray spectroscopy.

  1. Ion cyclotron wave excitation by double resonance coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A.; Good, T.N.; Paris, P.J.; Skiff, F.; Tran, M.Q.

    1990-07-01

    A modulated high frequency wave is used to remotely excite low frequency oscillations in a linear, strongly magnetized plasma column. An electromagnetic wave is launched as an extraordinary mode across the plasma by an external waveguide in the Upper Hybrid frequency regime f=f UH =f ce =8 GHz, with P≤2 W. By frequency modulating (at f FM =1-60 kHz, with f ci ≅30 kHz) the pump wave, the resonant layer is swept radially across the profile and perpendicularly to the field lines at f=f FM . The resulting radial oscillation of the electron linear and non linear pressure can be considered to act as a source term for the ion wave. A localized virtual antenna is thereby created inside the plasma. Measurements of the ion dielectric response (interferograms and perturbed distribution functions) via laser induced fluorescence identify the two branches (forward, or ion-acoustic-like, and backward, or Bernstein, modes) of the electrostatic dispersion relation in the ion cyclotron frequency range. By changing the modulation bandwidth, and thus the spatial excursion of the oscillating resonant layer, a control on the perpendicular wavelength of the excited mode can be exerted. In particular, the possibility of selective excitation of the ion Bernstein wave is demonstrated experimentally. (author) 38 refs., 13 figs

  2. Diamagnetic (cyclotron) resonance in semiconductors using strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosniak, J

    1962-07-01

    Diamagnetic (cyclotron) resonance experiments have been carried out in the semiconductors indium-antimonide (InSb), the indium-arsenide (InAs). Pulsed magnetic fields up to 300,000 gauss and monochromatic infrared radiation of 9 to 13.5 microns wavelength were used to measure the effective mass of the conduction electrons in those materials. The samples were n-type single crystals, with a room temperature electron concentration of 1.9 x 10{sup 16} and 6 x 10{sup 16} per cm{sup 3} in InSb and InAs respectively. Both the InSb and InAs samples showed a strong dependence of the effective mass on the magnetic field. The results show that the conduction bands in those solids are highly non-parabolic. Measurements were also made of the resonance absorption coefficients, which were found to be considerably smaller than the values obtained from simple theory. The effect is explained by assuming that the magnetic field reduces the intrinsic electron density, and that the absorption coefficient depends on the shape of the conduction band. It is postulated as a consequence that the relaxation time of diamagnetic energy levels at high magnetic fields does not differ appreciably from the relaxation time used in the description of conduction processes. (author)

  3. Heating of Solar Wind Ions via Cyclotron Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, R.; Moya, P. S.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Munoz, V.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Remote and in situ observations in the solar wind show that ion and electron velocity distributions persistently deviate from thermal equilibrium in the form of relative streaming between species components, temperature anisotropy, etc. These non-thermal features represent a source of free energy for the excitation of kinetic instabilities and fluctuations in the plasma. In this regard, it is believed that plasma particles can be heated, through a second order Fermi acceleration process, by multiple resonances with unstable counter-propagating field-aligned Ion-cyclotron waves. For multi-species plasmas, several collective wave modes participate in this process. In this work, we test this model by studying the percentage of ions that resonate with the waves modes described by the proper kinetic multi-species dispersion relation in a solar-wind-like plasma composed of electrons, protons, and alpha particles. Numerical results are compared with WIND spacecraft data to test its relevance for the existence of thresholds for the preferential perpendicular heating of He+2 ions as observed in the solar wind fast streams.

  4. Polarization reversal of electron cyclotron wave due to radial boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kaneko, T.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cyclotron wave is an important plasma wave in the fields of basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion. Propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) frequency are experimentally and theoretically investigated for the case of inhomogeneously magnetized plasma column with peripheral vacuum layer, when a left-hand polarized wave (LHPW) is selectively launched. The polarization reversal from the LHPW to the right-hand polarized wave is found to occur near the ECR point. As a result, it is clarified that the LHPW, which has been considered not to be absorbed at the ECR point, is absorbed near the ECR point. The phenomena can be explained by taking into account the effects of the radial boundary conditions. In addition, it is found that the polarization reversal point can be adjusted by the external parameters, for example, plasma radius. (authors)

  5. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linear cylindrical system with four different gases – hydrogen, helium, argon and ... The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental .... p being the operating pressure in mbar. λe for various gases at different ...

  6. Ion cyclotron resonant heating 2 x 1700 loop antenna for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C.A.; Ferguson, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanical design and improvements that have taken place on the loop type ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas that are located in the center cell region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

  7. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for complex thiophenic mixture analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim; Andersson, Jan T.; Mö ller, Isabelle; Amad, Maan H.; Witt, Matthí as; Sarathy, Mani

    2013-01-01

    oil (VGO) and injected using the same method. The samples were analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). RESULTS PASH model analytes were successfully ionized and mainly [M + H]+ ions were produced. The same

  8. Design of the compact permanent-magnet ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ahn, J. K.; Lee, H. S.; Won, M. S.; Lee, B. S.; Bae, J. S.; Bang, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) for multiply charged ion beams keep regularly improving and expanding since the pioneer time of R. Geller and his coworkers about twenty years age. It has been widely utilized in a variety of research areas ranging from atomic and nuclear physics to material sciences. Because of the unique capability of producing highly charged ion beams, the ECR ion source has become increasingly popular in heavy-ion accelerators where the principle of acceleration sensitively depends on the charge-to-mass ratio (q=M) of the injected positive ion beam. The potential usages of beam based research development is still developing and there are plenty of rooms to be part of it. On the basis of ECR ion source technology, we will explore possible applications in the field of plasma technology, radiation technology, plastic deformation, adding more and new functionality by implantation, MEMS applications, developing new generation mass analysis system, fast neutron radiography system, etc

  9. Self-consistent modeling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.; Lecot, C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to predict the performances of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), it is necessary to perfectly model the different parts of these sources: (i) magnetic configuration; (ii) plasma characteristics; (iii) extraction system. The magnetic configuration is easily calculated via commercial codes; different codes also simulate the ion extraction, either in two dimension, or even in three dimension (to take into account the shape of the plasma at the extraction influenced by the hexapole). However the characteristics of the plasma are not always mastered. This article describes the self-consistent modeling of ECRIS: we have developed a code which takes into account the most important construction parameters: the size of the plasma (length, diameter), the mirror ratio and axial magnetic profile, whether a biased probe is installed or not. These input parameters are used to feed a self-consistent code, which calculates the characteristics of the plasma: electron density and energy, charge state distribution, plasma potential. The code is briefly described, and some of its most interesting results are presented. Comparisons are made between the calculations and the results obtained experimentally

  10. Self-consistent modeling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.; Lécot, C.

    2004-05-01

    In order to predict the performances of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), it is necessary to perfectly model the different parts of these sources: (i) magnetic configuration; (ii) plasma characteristics; (iii) extraction system. The magnetic configuration is easily calculated via commercial codes; different codes also simulate the ion extraction, either in two dimension, or even in three dimension (to take into account the shape of the plasma at the extraction influenced by the hexapole). However the characteristics of the plasma are not always mastered. This article describes the self-consistent modeling of ECRIS: we have developed a code which takes into account the most important construction parameters: the size of the plasma (length, diameter), the mirror ratio and axial magnetic profile, whether a biased probe is installed or not. These input parameters are used to feed a self-consistent code, which calculates the characteristics of the plasma: electron density and energy, charge state distribution, plasma potential. The code is briefly described, and some of its most interesting results are presented. Comparisons are made between the calculations and the results obtained experimentally.

  11. Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.

    1983-06-01

    Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement

  12. Effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of ion beams extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Koivisto, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the effect of gas mixing on the production efficiency of ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source has been studied with the JYFL 6.4 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). It was found that the gas mixing affects strongly the confinement of ions in the plasma of the ECRIS. The information obtained can be used to minimize the consumption of expensive materials or isotopes and to reduce contamination of the plasma chamber. It was observed that the carbon contamination, which is built up when the MIVOC method is used could be decreased with the aid of the gas mixing technique. The best mixing gas for this purpose was found to be oxygen

  13. Influence of Substrate Biasing on (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Prepared by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Niino, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Yasunori; Misawa, Tatsuya; Yonesu, Akira; Fujita, Hiroharu; Miyake, Shoji

    2004-03-01

    (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering with mirror confinement. DC bias voltage was applied to Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates during deposition to vary the intensity of bombardment of energetic ions and to modify film properties. BST films deposited on the substrates at floating potential (approximately +20 V) were found to be amorphous, while films deposited on +40 V-biased substrates were crystalline in spite of a low substrate temperature below 648 K. In addition, atomic diffusion, which causes deterioration in the electrical properties of the films, was hardly observed in the crystallized films deposited with +40 V bias perhaps due to the low substrate temperature. Plasma diagnoses revealed that application of a positive bias to the substrate reduced the energy of ion bombardment and increased the density of excited neutral particles, which was assumed to result in the promotion of chemical reactions during deposition and the crystallization of BST films at a low temperature.

  14. Design and investigations of the superconducting magnet system for the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinschert, K; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P; Komorowski, P; Meyer-Reumers, M; Krischel, D; Fischer, B; Ciavola, G; Gammino, S; Celona, L

    2012-02-01

    The production of intense beams of heavy ions with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) is an important request at many accelerators. According to the ECR condition and considering semi-empirical scaling laws, it is essential to increase the microwave frequency together with the magnetic flux density of the ECRIS magnet system. A useful frequency of 28 GHz, therefore, requires magnetic flux densities above 2.2 T implying the use of superconducting magnets. A cooperation of European institutions initiated a project to build a multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS) in order to achieve an increase of the performances in the order of a factor of ten. After a first design of the superconducting magnet system for the MS-ECRIS, the respective cold testing of the built magnet system reveals a lack of mechanical performance due to the strong interaction of the magnetic field of the three solenoids with the sextupole field and the magnetization of the magnetic iron collar. Comprehensive structural analysis, magnetic field calculations, and calculations of the force pattern confirm thereafter these strong interactions, especially of the iron collar with the solenoidal fields. The investigations on the structural analysis as well as suggestions for a possible mechanical design solution are given.

  15. Characteristics of MINI ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A very compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (MINI ECR) was manufactured to extend available energy ranges of ion beams by applying multiply charged ions to electrostatic accelerators. The magnetic field to confine a plasma is formed only by small permanent magnets and the microwave power up to 15 W is generated by a compact transistor amplifier in order to install the ion source at a narrow high-voltage terminal where the electrical power feed is restricted. The magnet assembly is 12 cm in length and 11 cm in diameter, and forms a mirror field with the maximum strength of 0.55 T. The total power consumption of the source is below 160 W. The performance of the source was tested in a bench stand. The results of Ar, Xe, O, and N ion generation are reported in this paper. (author)

  16. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Sheng, L. S.; Zhang, G. B.; Tian, Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources--LECR2M and SECRAL--was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied

  17. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-07-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar16+. (orig.)

  18. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar 16+ . (orig.)

  19. Summary of EC-17: the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (Deurne, The Netherlands, 7-10 May 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Austin, M. E.; Kubo, S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Plaum, B.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of the papers presented at the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The meeting covered all aspects of the research field ranging from theory to enabling technologies. From the workshop, advanced control by

  20. Morphology and structure evolution of Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering with electron cyclotron resonance plasma assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Man, E-mail: man.nie@helmholtz-berlin.de; Ellmer, Klaus [Department of Solar Fuels and Energy Storage Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-28

    Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} (CIGS) films were deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced one-step reactive magnetron co-sputtering process (ECR-RMS). The crystalline quality and the morphology of the Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence. We also compared these CIGS films with films previously prepared without ECR assistance and find that the crystallinity of the CIGS films is correlated with the roughness evolution during deposition. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the surface topography and to derive one-dimensional power spectral densities (1DPSD). All 1DPSD spectra of CIGS films exhibit no characteristic peak which is typical for the scaling of a self-affine surface. The growth exponent β, characterizing the roughness R{sub q} evolution during the film growth as R{sub q} ∼ d{sup β}, changes with film thickness. The root-mean-square roughness at low temperatures increases only slightly with a growth exponent β = 0.013 in the initial growth stage, while R{sub q} increases with a much higher exponent β = 0.584 when the film thickness is larger than about 270 nm. Additionally, we found that the H{sub 2}S content of the sputtering atmosphere and the Cu- to-(In + Ga) ratio has a strong influence of the morphology of the CIGS films in this one-step ECR-RMS process.

  1. The permittivity of a plasma at cyclotron resonance in large amplitude e.m. fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.

    1970-01-01

    The permittivity of a collisionless plasma as a function of field parameters is measured in standing and in travelling waves. In both experiments the permittivity remains finite at cyclotron resonance; the resonance is broadened and shifted towards higher values of the magnetic field strength. The

  2. A New ECR Ion Source for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaratto, John M.

    2008-10-01

    The Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is a low energy facility designed to study nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest at energies which are important for nucleosysthesis. In general, these reactions have extremely small cross sections, requiring intense beams and efficient detection systems. Recently, a new, high intensity electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source has been constructed (based on a design by Wills et al.[1]), which represents a substantial improvement in the capabilities of LENA. Beam is extracted from an ECR plasma excited at 2.45 GHz and confined by an array of permanent magnets. It has produced H^+ beams in excess of 1 mA on target over the energy range 100 - 200 keV, which greatly increases our ability to measure small cross sections. Initial measurements will focus on the ^23Na(p,γ)^24Mg reaction, which is of interest in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. The present uncertainty in the rate of this reaction is the result of an unobserved resonance expected at Elab =144 keV, which should be detectable using beams from the new ECR source. In collaboration with Arthur E. Champagne and Thomas B. Clegg, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and TUNL. [3pt] [1] J. S. C. Wills et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 65 (1999).

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source for high currents of mono- and multicharged ion and general purpose unlimited lifetime application on implantation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieth, C.; Bouly, J. L.; Curdy, J. C.; Kantas, S.; Sortais, P.; Sole, P.; Vieux-Rochaz, J. L.

    2000-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were originally developed for high energy physic applications. They are used as injectors on linear accelerators and cyclotrons to further increase the particle energy via high charge state ions. This ECR technology is well suited for sources placed on a high voltage platform where ac power available is limited by insulated transformers. The PANTECHNIK family of ion source with its wide range of ion beam (various charge states with various beam currents) offers new possibilities and perspectives in the field of ion implantation. In addition to all these possibilities, the PANTECHNIK ion sources have many other advantages like: a very long lifetime without maintenance expense, good stability, efficiency of ionization close to 100% (this improves the lifetime of the pumping system and other equipment), the possibility of producing ion beams with different energies, and a very good reproducibility. The main characteristics of sources like Nanogan or SuperNanogan will be recalled. We will especially present the results obtained with the new Microgan 10 GHz source that can be optimized for the production of high currents of monocharged ion, including reactive gas like BF3 (2 mA e of B+) or medium currents of low charge state like 0.5 mA e of Ar4+. The latest results obtained with Microgan 10 GHz show that it is possible to drive the source up to 30 mA e of total current, with an emittance of 150 π mm mrad at 40 kV and also to maintain the production of multicharged ions like Ar8+.

  4. Differentiating Fragmentation Pathways of Cholesterol by Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agthoven, Maria A; Barrow, Mark P; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a data-independent analytical method that records the fragmentation patterns of all the compounds in a sample. This study shows the implementation of atmospheric pressure photoionization with two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated. This study shows the use of fragment ion lines, precursor ion lines, and neutral loss lines in the 2D mass spectrum to determine fragmentation mechanisms of known compounds and to gain information on unknown ion species in the spectrum. In concert with high resolution mass spectrometry, 2D Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry can be a useful tool for the structural analysis of small molecules. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Superconducting magnets for the RAON electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Kim, Y; Hong, I S; Jeon, D

    2014-02-01

    The RAON linear accelerator of Rare Isotope Science Project has been developed since 2011, and the superconducting magnet for ECRIS was designed. The RAON ECR ion source was considered as a 3rd generation source. The fully superconducting magnet has been designed for operating using 28 GHz radio frequency. The RAON ECRIS operates in a minimum B field configuration which means that a magnetic sextupole field for radial confinement is superimposed with a magnetic mirror field for axial confinement. The highest field strength reaches 3.5 T on axis and 2 T at the plasma chamber wall for operating frequency up to 28 GHz. In this paper, the design results are presented of optimized superconducting magnet consisting of four solenoids and sextupole. The prototype magnet for ECRIS was fabricated and tested to verify the feasibility of the design. On the basis of test results, a fully superconducting magnet will be fabricated and tested.

  6. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet (∼45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to other

  7. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  8. Use of a krypton isotope for rapid ion changeover at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-inch cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, George A.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1989-01-01

    An isotope of krypton, Kr86, has been combined with a mix of Ar, Ne, and N ions at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source, at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory cyclotron, to provide rapid ion changeover in Single Event Phenomena (SEP) testing. The new technique has been proved out successfully by a recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test in which it was found that there was no measurable contamination from other isotopes.

  9. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Kolchin, Pavel; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 100 times the ion beam density and at a length [similar]0.1 2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1 10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures [similar]10[minus sign]6 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10[minus sign]4 10[minus sign]1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 108 to 1011 cm[minus sign]3 have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source. This article also describes the wave damping mechanisms. At moderate pressures (> 1 mTorr), the wave damping is collisional, and at low pressures (< 1 mTorr) there is a distinct electron cyclotron resonance.

  10. 14 MV pelletron accelerator and superconducting ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR 14UD Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has completed more than two and a half decade of successful operation. The accelerator is primarily used for basic research in the fields of nuclear, atomic and molecular, condensed matter physics and material science. The application areas include accelerator mass spectrometry, production of track-etch membranes, radioisotopes production, radiation damage studies and secondary neutron production for cross section measurement etc. Over the years, numerous developmental activities have been carried out in-house that have resulted in improving the overall performance and uptime of the accelerator and has also made possible to initiate variety of application oriented programmes. Since the SF 6 pressure vessels have been in operation for about 29 years, a comprehensive refurbishment and retrofitting work is carried out to comply with the safety recommendations. Recently, the beam trials were conducted with 18 GHz superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) Ion Source system at Van-de-Graaff as per BARC Safety Council permission. Various ion beams with different charge states were extracted and mass analyzed and the beam quality was measured by recording their transverse emittance in situ. Experimental measurements pertaining to projectile X-rays Spectroscopy were carried out using variety of ion beams at variable energies. The superconducting Linac booster provides additional acceleration to the ions from Pelletron injector up to A ∼60 region with E∼5 MeV/A. In order to cover the entire mass range of the elements across the periodic table, an ECR based heavy ion accelerator was initiated under plan project. This heavy ion accelerator essentially comprises of a superconducting ECR ion source, room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by superconducting Niobium resonators as accelerating elements. This talk will provide an overview of the developmental activities and the safety features

  11. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Bhoraskar, V N; Mandale, A B; Sainkar, S R; Bhoraskar, S V

    2002-01-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ∼1x10 20 to ∼10x10 20 atom m -3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe

  12. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Mandale, A. B.; Sainkar, S. R.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ~1×1020 to ~10×1020 atom m-3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  13. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhoraskar, V N [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Mandale, A B [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Sainkar, S R [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Bhoraskar, S V [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from {approx}1x10{sup 20} to {approx}10x10{sup 20} atom m{sup -3} as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  14. Prospect for a 60 GHz multicharged ECR ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, T.; Bondoux, D.; Angot, J.; Baylac, M.; Froidefond, E.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Leduc, A.; Sole, P.; Debray, F.; Trophime, C.; Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.

    2018-05-01

    The conceptual design of a fourth generation hybrid electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source operated at 60 GHz is proposed. The axial magnetic mirror is generated with a set of three Nb3Sn coils, while the hexapole is made with room temperature (RT) copper coils. The motivations for such a hybrid development are to study further the ECR plasma physics and the intense multicharged ion beams' production and transport at a time when a superconducting (SC) hexapole appears unrealistic at 60 GHz. The RT hexapole coil designed is an evolution of the polyhelix technology developed at the French High Magnetic Field Facility. The axial magnetic field is generated by means of 3 Nb3Sn SC coils operated with a maximum current density of 350 A/mm2 and a maximum coil load line factor of 81%. The ECR plasma chamber resulting from the design features an inner radius of 94 mm and a length of 500 mm. The radial magnetic intensity is 4.1 T at the wall. Characteristic axial mirror peaks are 8 and 4.5 T, with 1.45 T minimum in between.

  15. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited using a microwave Ecr plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia H, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been widely applied to semiconductor devices, such as thin film transistors, solar cells and photosensitive devices. In this work, the first Si-H-Cl alloys (obtained at the National Institute for Nuclear Research of Mexico) were formed by a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (Ecr) plasma CVD method. Gaseous mixtures of silicon tetrachloride (Si Cl 4 ), hydrogen and argon were used. The Ecr plasma was generated by microwaves at 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field of 670 G was applied to maintain the discharge after resonance condition (occurring at 875 G). Si and Cl contents were analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). It was found that, increasing proportion of Si Cl 4 in the mixture or decreasing pressure, the silicon and chlorine percentages decrease. Optical gaps were obtained by spectrophotometry. Decreasing temperature, optical gap values increase from 1.4 to 1.5 eV. (Author)

  17. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie

    2008-02-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.

  18. Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Analysis of Large Polymerases Chain Reaction Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunschel, David S.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Feng, Bingbing; Smith, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    We have attempted to expand the size range of PCR products that can be analyzed by electroscopy ionization (ESI) Fourier transformion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. The mass measurement accuracy obtained illustrates that a signel base substitution could be identified at the size of PCR product with a 7 tesla ESI-FTICR

  19. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  20. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of 61 Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of 61 Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given

  1. Three-wave interaction during electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Hansen, Søren Kjer

    2016-01-01

    Non-linear wave-wave interactions in fusion plasmas, such as the parametric decay instability (PDI) of gyrotron radiation, can potentially hamper the use of microwave diagnostics. Here we report on anomalous scattering in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak during electron cyclotron resonance heating...... experiments. The observations can be linked to parametric decay of the gyrotron radiation at the second harmonic upper hybrid resonance layer....

  2. Effects of magnetic configuration on hot electrons in highly charged ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Wang, H; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Zh; Li, X X; Ma, X W; Zhu, Y H; Lu, W; Shang, Y; Xie, D Z

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the hot electrons in highly charged electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, Bremsstrahlung radiations were measured on two ECR ion sources at the Institute of Modern Physics. Used as a comparative index of the mean energy of the hot electrons, a spectral temperature, T spe , is derived through a linear fitting of the spectra in a semi-logarithmic representation. The influences of the external source parameters, especially the magnetic configuration, on the hot electrons are studied systematically. This study has experimentally demonstrated the importance of high microwave frequency and high magnetic field in the electron resonance heating to produce a high density of hot electrons, which is consistent with the empirical ECR scaling laws. The experimental results have again shown that a good compromise is needed between the ion extraction and the plasma confinement for an efficient production of highly charged ion beams. In addition, this investigation has shown that the correlation between the mean energy of the hot electrons and the magnetic field gradient at the ECR is well in agreement with the theoretical models.

  3. Energy transport in mirror machine LISA at electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Rapozo, C. da; Serbeto, A.; Torres-Silva, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that a classical transport calculation is adequate to predict the steady state temperature of the RF produced plasma in LISA machine for both large and small resonant volumes. Temperature anisotropy ranging from 55 to 305 was found which was larger for small resonant volume, and the temperature relaxation was larger at large resonant one. This agrees with the fact that there is a Coulomb relaxation ν c which is proportional to T e -3/2 . It is also shown that the fitting parameter alpha is larger for large resonant volume than for small resonant one. (L.C.J.A.)

  4. Fast wave absorption at the Alfven resonance during ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.A.; Hellsten, T.; Alava, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    For ICRH scenarii where the majority cyclotron resonance intersects the plasma core, mode conversion of the fast magnetosonic wave to an Alfven wave takes place at the plasma boundary on the high field side. Simple analytical estimates of the converted power for this mode conversion process are derived and compared with numerical calculations including finite electron inertia and kinetic effects. The converted power is found to depend on the local value of the wave field as well as on plasma parameters at the Alfven wave resonance. The interference with the reflected wave will therefore modify the mode conversion. If the conversion layer is localized near the wall, the conversion will be strongly reduced. The conversion coefficient is found to be strongest for small density gradients and high density and it is sensitive to the value of the parallel wave number. Whether it increases or decreases with the latter depends on the ion composition. Analysis of this problem for ICRH in JET predicts that a large fraction of the power is mode converted at the plasma boundary for first harmonic heating of tritium in a deuterium-tritium plasma. (author). 13 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  5. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well.

  6. Design of an ion cyclotron resonance heating system for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugo, J.J.; Goranson, P.L.; Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Vesey, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) requires 10-20 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power to raise the plasma temperature to ignition. The initial ICRH system will provide 10 MW of power to the plasma, utilizing a total of six rf power units feeding six current straps in three ports. The systems may be expanded to 20 MW with additional rf power units, antennas, and ports. Plasma heating will be achieved through coupling to the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance of a 3 He minority species (also the second harmonic of tritium). The proposed antenna is a resonant double loop (RDL) structure with vacuum, shorted stubs at each end for tuning and impedance matching. The antennas are of modular, compact construction for installation and removal through the midplane port. Remote maintainability and the reactorlike operating environment have a major impact on the design of the launcher for this machine. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Electron Cloud Cyclotron Resonances in the Presence of a Short-bunch-length Relativistic Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Wu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations using the 2D code 'POSINST' were used to study the formation of the electron cloud in the wiggler section of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider. In order to simulate an x-y slice of the wiggler (i.e., a slice perpendicular to the beam velocity), each simulation assumed a constant vertical magnetic field. At values of the magnetic field where the cyclotron frequency was an integral multiple of the bunch frequency, and where the field strength was less than approximately 0.6 T, equilibrium average electron densities were up to three times the density found at other neighboring field values. Effects of this resonance between the bunch and cyclotron frequency are expected to be non-negligible when the beam bunch length is much less than the product of the electron cyclotron period and the beam

  8. Gyrokinetic theory of perpendicular cyclotron resonance in a nonuniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Dendy, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    The extension of gyrokinetic theory to arbitrary frequencies by Chen and Tsai [Phys. Fluids 26, 141 (1983); Plasma Phys. 25, 349 (1983)] is used to study cyclotron absorption in a straight magnetic field with a perpendicular, linear gradient in strength. The analysis includes the effects of magnetic field variation across the Larmor orbit and is restricted to propagation perpendicular to the field. It yields the following results for propagation into the field gradient. The standard optical depths for the fundamental O-mode and second harmonic X-mode resonances are obtained from the absorption profiles given in this paper, without invoking relativistic mass variation [see also Antonsen and Manheimer, Phys. Fluids 21, 2295 (1978)]. The compressional Alfven wave is shown to undergo perpendicular cyclotron damping at the fundamental minority resonance in a two-ion species plasma and at second harmonic resonance in a single-ion species plasma. Ion Bernstein waves propagating into the second harmonic resonance are no longer unattenuated, but are increasingly damped as they approach the resonance. It is shown how the kinetic power flow affects absorption profiles, yielding information previously obtainable only from full-wave theory. In all cases, the perpendicular cyclotron damping arises from the inclusion of magnetic field variation across the Larmor orbit

  9. Electron-cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filone, I.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron-cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. the general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D-III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (author) 8 fig. 13 ref

  10. Study of hot electrons in a ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barue, C.

    1992-12-01

    The perfecting of diagnosis connected with hot electrons of plasma, and then the behaviour of measured parameters of plasma according to parameters of source working are the purpose of this thesis. The experimental results obtained give new information on hot electrons of an ECR ion source. This thesis is divided in 4 parts: the first part presents an ECR source and the experimental configuration (ECRIS physics, minimafios GHz, diagnosis used); the second part, the diagnosis (computer code of cyclotron emission and calibration); the third part gives experimental results in continuous regime (emission cyclotron diagnosis, bremsstrahlung); the fourth part, experimental results in pulsed regime (emission cyclotron diagnosis, diamagnetism) calibration)

  11. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report contains descriptions of research programs carried out by Institute staff, as well as progress on new instrumentation during the period, April 1, 1990, to March 31, 1991. The K500 cyclotron and ECR source provided beam for 4140 hours during the period. The beam was actually available for experiments 1927.50 hours and 1110.50 hours was devoted to developing new beams and exploring cyclotron performance. A wide range of beams from protons to Xe with energies from 2.4 MeV/u to 60 MeV/U have been used in experiments. The highest total energy beam accelerated was 35 MeV/u 63 Cu. The ECR source, made a tremendous improvement in accelerator performance and reliability. Substantial amounts of beam time were devoted to investigations of hot nuclei, electron-positron, giant resonances, atomic effects of high velocity ion beams, astrophysics related reactions and proton and alpha bremsstrahlung. Scientific accomplishments included determination of the heat capacity of nuclei through new insight into the level densities and establishing a lower limit for electron positron resonances a factor of ten better than previous measurements. The proton spectrometer, constructed for studies of the Gamow-Teller interaction is complete, and initial physics measurements will be made in the next few months. All of the BaF 2 crystals have been delivered and acceptance tests are underway. A K=315 MDM spectrometer has been obtained from Oxford University and is scheduled for installation in Spring 1992, after removal of the K=150 Enge split pole spectrometer. Institute groups continue participation in MEGA, instrumentation projects for RHIC, and few nucleon studies at LAMPF and KEK. Reports of these activities are included

  12. Epitaxial growth of Si1−xGex alloys and Ge on Si(100) by electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma chemical vapor deposition without substrate heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Naofumi; Sakuraba, Masao; Murota, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    By using electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) Ar-plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) without substrate heating, the epitaxial growth process of Si 1−x Ge x alloy and Ge films deposited directly on dilute-HF-treated Si(100) was investigated. From the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns of the deposited Si 1−x Ge x alloy (x = 0.50, 0.75) and Ge films on Si(100), it is confirmed that epitaxial growth can be realized without substrate heating, and that crystallinity degradation at larger film thickness is observed. The X-ray diffraction peak of the epitaxial films reveals the existence of large compressive strain, which is induced by lattice matching with the Si(100) substrate at smaller film thicknesses, as well as strain relaxation behavior at larger film thicknesses. The Ge fraction of Si 1−x Ge x thin film is in good agreement with the normalized GeH 4 partial pressure. The Si 1−x Ge x deposition rate increases with an increase of GeH 4 partial pressure. The GeH 4 partial pressure dependence of partial deposition rates [(Si or Ge fraction) × (Si 1−x Ge x thickness) / (deposition time)] shows that the Si partial deposition rate is slightly enhanced by the existence of Ge. From these results, it is proposed that the ECR-plasma CVD process can be utilized for Ge fraction control in highly-strained heterostructure formation of group IV semiconductors. - Highlights: • Si 1−x Ge x alloy and Ge were epitaxially grown on Si(100) without substrate heating. • Large strain and its relaxation behavior can be observed by X-ray diffraction. • Ge fraction of Si 1−x Ge x is equal to normalized GeH 4 partial pressure. • Si partial deposition rate is slightly enhanced by existence of Ge

  13. Investigation of the role of electron cyclotron resonance heating and magnetic configuration on the suprathermal ion population in the stellarator TJ-II using a luminescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Tribaldos, V.

    2018-02-01

    Numerous observation exist of a population of high energetic ions with energies well above the corresponding thermal values in plasmas generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in TJ-II stellarator and in other magnetically confined plasmas devices. In this work we study the impact of ECR heating different conditions (positions and powers) on fast ions escaping from plasmas in the TJ-II stellarator. For this study, an ion luminescent probe operated in counting mode is used to measure the energy distribution of suprathermal ions, in the range from 1 to 30 keV. It is observed that some suprathermal ions characteristics (such as temperature, particle and energy fluxes) are related directly with the gyrotron power and focus position of the heating beam in the plasma. Moreover, it is found that suprathermal ion characteristics vary during a magnetic configuration scan (performed along a single discharge). By investigating the suprathermal ions escaping from plasmas generated using two gyrotrons, one with fixed power and the other modulated (on/off) at low frequency (10 Hz), the de-confinement time of the suprathermal ions can be measured, which is of the order of a few milliseconds (power balance is used to understand the de-confinement times in terms of the interaction of suprathermal ions and plasma components. This model also can be used to interpret experimental results of energy loss due to suprathermal ions. Finally, observations of increases (peaks) in the population of escaping suprathermal ions, which are well localized at discrete energies, is documented, these peaks being observed in the energy distributions along a discharge.

  14. Computer simulations of upper-hybrid and electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Lin, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    A 2 1/2 -dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle code is used to investigate the dynamic behavior of electron heating around the electron cyclotron and upper-hybrid layers when an extraordinary wave is obliquely launched from the high-field side into a magnetized plasma. With a large angle of incidence most of the radiation wave energy converts into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper-hybrid layer. These mode-converted waves propagate back to the cyclotron layer and deposit their energy in the electrons through resonant interactions dominated first by the Doppler broadening and later by the relativistic mass correction. The line shape for both mechanisms has been observed in the simulations. At a later stage, the relativistic resonance effects shift the peak of the temperature profile to the high-field side. The heating ultimately causes the extraordinary wave to be substantially absorbed by the high-energy electrons. The steep temperature gradient created by the electron cyclotron heating eventually reflects a substantial part of the incident wave energy. The diamagnetic effects due to the gradient of the mode-converted Bernstein wave pressure enhance the spreading of the electron heating from the original electron cyclotron layer

  15. Methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance and ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Akansha

    2014-01-01

    This thesis encompasses methodological developments in both nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The NMR section explores the effects of scalar relaxation on a coupled nucleus to measure fast exchange rates. In order to quantify these rates accurately, a precise knowledge of the chemical shifts of the labile protons and of the scalar couplings is normally required. We applied the method to histidine where no such information was available a priori, neither about the proton chemical shifts nor about the one-bond scalar coupling constants J( 1 H 15 N), since the protons were invisible due to fast exchange. We have measured the exchange rates of the protons of the imidazole ring and of amino protons in histidine by indirect detection via 15 N. Not only the exchange rate constants, but also the elusive chemical shifts of the protons and the coupling constants could be determined. For the mass spectrometry section, the ion isolation project was initiated to study the effect of phase change of radiofrequency pulses. Excitation of ions in the ICR cell is a linear process, so that the pulse voltage required for ejecting ions must be inversely proportional to the pulse duration. A continuous sweep pulse propels the ion to a higher radius, whereas a phase reversal causes the ion to come to the centre. This represents the principle of 'notch ejection', wherein the ion for which the phase is reversed is retained in the ICR cell, while the remaining ions are ejected. The manuscript also contains a theoretical chapter, wherein the ion trajectories are plotted by solving the Lorentzian equation for the three-pulse scheme used for two-dimensional ICR. Through our simulations we mapped the ion trajectories for different pulse durations and for different phase relations. (author)

  16. Design of a resonator for a flat-top acceleration system in the RIKEN AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shigeo; Miyazawa, Yoshitoshi; Kamigaito, Osamu; Goto, Akira

    1997-01-01

    A resonator for a flat-top acceleration system in the RIKEN AVF cyclotron is designed to improve the extraction efficiency and the energy spread of a beam. In order to generate the flat-top accelerating voltage on the dee, an additional resonator or a transmission line is capacitively coupled to the AVF resonator with a coupling capacitor. The flat-top accelerating voltage is obtained by the superimposition of the fundamental frequency and the fifth-harmonic-frequency voltages. Length of the additional resonator is 90 cm and capacitance of the coupling capacitor 30 pF. The frequency range of the AVF resonator is from 12 to 23 MHz. Structure and rf characteristics of the resonator designed for the flat-top acceleration system is described. (author)

  17. A study on the design of hexapole in an 18-GHz ECR ion source for heavy ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wei, Shaoqing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk Jin [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    High charge state electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is important on the performance of heavy ion accelerators. In this paper, a low temperature superconductor (LTS) was used to make a hexapole coil for an 18-GHz ECR ion source. Several hexapole structures, including racetrack, graded racetrack, and saddle were implemented and analyzed for the hexapole-in-solenoid ECR ion source system. Under the appropriate radial confinement field, the smaller outer radius of hexapole can be better for the solenoid design. Saddle hexapole was selected by comparing the wire length, maximum outer radius of the hexapole, the Lorentz force at the end part of the hexapole and the maximum magnetic field in the coil. Based on saddle hexapole, a new design for hexapoles, the snake hexapole, was developed in this paper. By comparative analysis of the Lorentz force at the end part of the saddle and snake hexapoles, the snake hexapole is much better in the ECR ion source system. The suggested design for the ECR ion source with the snake hexapole is presented in this paper.

  18. Design of the compact ECR ion source for heavy-ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.; Sato, Y.; Yamada, S.; Hattori, T.; Shibuya, S.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy ion cancer treatment is successfully being done at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Design philosophy for the ion sources for medical facilities are as follows: sufficient beam intensity, a few hundred eμA; long lifetime with good stability; easy operation and easy maintenance; and compactness. In order to develop such source for future heavy-ion facilities, we have tested compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources using permanent magnets both for axial and radial confinement of hot electrons. Since the yield of C 2+ ion in the firstly-developed source (2.45 GHz ECR) was 15 eμA and far below the medical requirement (-150 eμA for the HIMAC), a new source has been proposed, having the frequency of 10 GHz. The extracted intensity of C 4+ (and C 2+ ) ions is expected to be higher than 200 eμA. (author)

  19. Magnetic Parameters Of A NB3SN Superconducting Magnet For A 56 HGz ECR Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G.L.; Todd, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Third generation Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources operate at microwave frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz and employ NbTi superconducting magnets with a conductor peak field of 6-7 T. A significant gain in performance can be achieved by replacing NbTi with Nb 3 Sn, allowing solenoids and sextupole coils to reach a field of 15 T in the windings. In this paper we describe the design of a Nb 3 Sn superconducting magnet for a fourth generation ECR source operating at a microwave frequency of 56 GHz. The magnet design features a configuration with an internal sextupole magnet surrounded by three solenoids. A finite element magnetic model has been used to investigate conductor peak fields and the operational margins. Results of the numerical analysis are presented and discussed.

  20. MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF A NB3SN SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET FOR A 56 HGz ECR ION SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Todd, D. S.

    2009-05-04

    Third generation Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources operate at microwave frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz and employ NbTi superconducting magnets with a conductor peak field of 6-7 T. A significant gain in performance can be achieved by replacing NbTi with Nb{sub 3}Sn, allowing solenoids and sextupole coils to reach a field of 15 T in the windings. In this paper we describe the design of a Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet for a fourth generation ECR source operating at a microwave frequency of 56 GHz. The magnet design features a configuration with an internal sextupole magnet surrounded by three solenoids. A finite element magnetic model has been used to investigate conductor peak fields and the operational margins. Results of the numerical analysis are presented and discussed.

  1. Crystalline silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licai Wang

    1999-07-01

    This thesis describes the background, motivation and work carried out towards this PhD programme entitled 'Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by ECR Plasma CVD for Solar Cells'. The fundamental principles of silicon solar cells are introduced with a review of silicon thin film and bulk solar cells. The development and prospects for thin film silicon solar cells are described. Some results of a modelling study on thin film single crystalline solar cells are given which has been carried out using a commercially available solar cell simulation package (PC-1D). This is followed by a description of thin film deposition techniques. These include Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Plasma-Assisted CVD (PACVD). The basic theory and technology of the emerging technique of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) PACVD, which was used in this research, are introduced and the potential advantages summarised. Some of the basic methods of material and cell characterisation are briefly described, together with the work carried out in this research. The growth by ECR PACVD at temperatures 2 illumination. The best efficiency in the ECR grown structures was 13.76% using an epitaxial emitter. Cell performance was analysed in detail and the factors controlling performance identified by fitting self-consistently the fight and dark current-voltage and spectral response data using PC-1D. Finally, the conclusions for this research and suggestions for further work are outlined. (author)

  2. The effects of varying plasma parameters on silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, S.; Reehal, H.S.; Shirkoohi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    The technique of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is increasingly being used in electronic and photonic device applications. ECR offers a number of advantages including improved control of the deposition process, less damage to the growing film and the possibility of high deposition rates. ECR occurs in a plasma under appropriate magnetic and electric field conditions. In most cases, as in our system, this is achieved with a combination of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and a 0.0875 T magnetic field, due to the use of standardized microwave supplies. We have studied the effects on silicon film growth of changing the magnetic field configuration to produce one or more planes of ECR within the system, and of changing the positions of the plane(s) relative to the deposition substrate. The films were grown in silane-hydrogen discharges. The magnetic field in our system was provided by two electromagnets. It was measured experimentally for a number of operating current values and then a detailed profile achieved by modelling using a proprietary software package. A process condition discharge under identical magnetic field configurations to growth was analysed by the use of a Langmuir probe and the results correlated with film properties determined by Raman spectroscopy and Dektak profilometry. (author)

  3. MM-wave cyclotron auto-resonance maser for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccuzzi, S.; Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.; Mirizzi, F.; Spassovsky, I.; Ravera, G. L.; Surrenti, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Heating and Current Drive systems are of outstanding relevance in fusion plasmas, magnetically confined in tokamak devices, as they provide the tools to reach, sustain and control burning conditions. Heating systems based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) have been extensively exploited on past and present machines DEMO, and the future reactor will require high frequencies. Therefore, high power (≥1MW) RF sources with output frequency in the 200 - 300 GHz range would be necessary. A promising source is the so called Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Maser (CARM). Preliminary results of the conceptual design of a CARM device for plasma heating, carried out at ENEA-Frascati will be presented together with the planned R&D development.

  4. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  5. Gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (chapter 2 contains a short description of this method). Three chapters are mainly concerned with mechanistic aspects of gas phase ion/molecule reactions. An equally important aspect of the thesis is the stability and reactivity of α-thio carbanions, dipole stabilized carbanions and homoenolate anions, dealt with in the other four chapters. (Auth.)

  6. Cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb quantum wells in magnetic fields up to 45 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirin, K. E., E-mail: spirink@ipmras.ru; Krishtopenko, S. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Sadofyev, Yu. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Drachenko, O. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magn’etiques Intenses (France); Helm, M. [Forschungszentrum Dresden–Rossendorf, Dresden High-Magnetic-Field Laboratory and Institute of Ion-Beam Physics and Materials Research (Germany); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [GIS-TERALAB Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR CNRS 5221 (L2C) (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb heterostructures with quantum wells of various widths in pulsed magnetic fields up to 45 T are investigated. Our experimental cyclotron energies are in satisfactory agreement with the results of theoretical calculations performed using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The shift of the cyclotron resonance (CR) line, which corresponds to the transition from the lowest Landau level to the low magnetic-field region, is found upon varying the electron concentration due to the negative persistent photoconductivity effect. It is shown that the observed shift of the CR lines is associated with the finite width of the density of states at the Landau levels.

  7. A workstation based spectrometry application for ECR ion source [Paper No.: G5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Babu, R.M.; . PS Div.)

    1993-01-01

    A program for an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source beam diagnostics application in a X-Windows/Motif based workstation environment is discussed. The application program controls the hardware and acquires data via a front end computer across a local area network. The data is subsequently processed for displaying on the workstation console. The timing for data acquisition and control is determined by the particle source timing. The user interface has been implemented using the Motif widget set and the actions have been implemented through call back routines. The equipment interface is through a set of database driven calls across the network. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  8. Production of a large diameter ECR plasma with low electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mayuko; Hishikawa, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    A large diameter plasma over 300 mm in diameter is produced by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges using a cylindrical vacuum chamber of 400 mm in inner diameter. It is found that the plasma uniformity is improved by adding the nitrogen gas to pure Ar plasma. The electron temperature is decreased by adding the nitrogen gas. It is considered that the electron energy is absorbed in the vibrational energy of nitrogen molecules and the electron temperature decreases. Therefore, the adjunction of the nitrogen gas is considered to be effective for producing uniform and low electron temperature plasma

  9. Hydrogen and deuterium pellet injection into ohmically and additionally ECR-heated TFR plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ablation clouds of hydrogen and deuterium pellets injected into ohmically and electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) plasmas of the Fontenay-aux-Roses tokamak TFR have been photographed, their emission has been measured photoelectrically. Without ECRH the pellets penetrate deeply into the plasma, the clouds are striated. Injection during ECRH leads to ablation in the outer plasma region. The position of the ECR layer has no influence on the penetration depth which is only a few centimeters. The ablation clouds show no particular structure when ECRH is applied

  10. Power requirements for electron cyclotron current drive and ion cyclotron resonance heating for sawtooth control in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, I. T.; Graves, J. P.; Sauter, O.; Zucca, C.; Asunta, O.; Buttery, R. J.; Coda, S.; Goodman, T.; Igochine, V.; Johnson, T.; Jucker, M.; La Haye, R. J.; Lennholm, M.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-06-01

    13 MW of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) power deposited inside the q = 1 surface is likely to reduce the sawtooth period in ITER baseline scenario below the level empirically predicted to trigger neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). However, since the ECCD control scheme is solely predicated upon changing the local magnetic shear, it is prudent to plan to use a complementary scheme which directly decreases the potential energy of the kink mode in order to reduce the sawtooth period. In the event that the natural sawtooth period is longer than expected, due to enhanced α particle stabilization for instance, this ancillary sawtooth control can be provided from >10MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power with a resonance just inside the q = 1 surface. Both ECCD and ICRH control schemes would benefit greatly from active feedback of the deposition with respect to the rational surface. If the q = 1 surface can be maintained closer to the magnetic axis, the efficacy of ECCD and ICRH schemes significantly increases, the negative effect on the fusion gain is reduced, and off-axis negative-ion neutral beam injection (NNBI) can also be considered for sawtooth control. Consequently, schemes to reduce the q = 1 radius are highly desirable, such as early heating to delay the current penetration and, of course, active sawtooth destabilization to mediate small frequent sawteeth and retain a small q = 1 radius. Finally, there remains a residual risk that the ECCD + ICRH control actuators cannot keep the sawtooth period below the threshold for triggering NTMs (since this is derived only from empirical scaling and the control modelling has numerous caveats). If this is the case, a secondary control scheme of sawtooth stabilization via ECCD + ICRH + NNBI, interspersed with deliberate triggering of a crash through auxiliary power reduction and simultaneous pre-emptive NTM control by off-axis ECCD has been considered, permitting long transient periods with high fusion

  11. ECR plasma diagnostics with Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenez, L.; Biri, S.; Valek, A.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source is a tool to generate highly charged ions. The ion beam is extracted from the plasma chamber of the ECRIS. Higher charge states and beam intensities are the main objectives of ECR research. The heart of an ion source is the confined plasma which should be well known to reach those objectives. Information about the plasma can be obtained by plasma diagnostics methods. Langmuir probes were successfully used in case of other plasmas, e.g. TOKAMAK. Until last year plasma diagnostics at the ATOMKI ECRIS was performed by X-ray and visible light measurements. While X-ray measurements give global information, the Langmuir probe method can give information on the local plasma parameters. This is an advantage because the local parameters are not known in detail. By Langmuir probe measurements it is possible to get information on plasma density, plasma potential and partly on the electron temperature. From the experimental point of view a Langmuir probe is very simple. However, the precise positioning of the probe in the plasma chamber (HV platform, strong magnetic field, RF waves) is a difficult task. Also the theory of probes is complicated: the ECR plasma is a special one because the confining magnetic field is inhomogeneous, beside hot electrons it contains cold ions with different charge states and it is heated with high frequency EM waves. What can be measured with a probe is a voltage-current (U-I) characteristics. Figure 1 shows a typical U-I curve measured in our lab. As it can be seen in the figure the diagram has three main parts. An ion saturation current region (I.), an electron saturation current region (III.) and a transition region (II.) between them. These measurements were performed using two different power supplies to bias the probe to positive and negative voltage. To perform more precise U-I measurements we need a special power supply which is presently being built in

  12. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Ter 18/c (Hungary); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C{sub 60} ion beam production.

  13. Tearing modes induced by perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating in the KSTAR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Seol, J.; Aydemir, A. Y.; Bae, C.; Yoo, J. W.; Na, Y. S.; Kim, H. S.; Woo, M. H.; Kim, J.; Joung, M.; You, K. I.; Park, B. H.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports on experimental evidence that shows perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can trigger classical tearing modes when deposited near a rational flux surface. The complex evolution of an m = 2 island is followed during current ramp-up in KSTAR plasmas, from its initial onset as the rational surface enters the ECRH resonance layer to its eventual lock on the wall after the rational surface leaves the layer. Stability analysis coupled to a transport calculation of the current profile with ECRH shows that the perpendicular ECRH may play a significant role in triggering and destabilizing classical m = 2 tearing modes, in agreement with our experimental observation.

  14. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Mandale, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H 2 and 75% N 2 . Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping

  15. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mandale, A. B.

    2002-07-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H 2 and 75% N 2. Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping.

  16. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an ECR plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S.V. E-mail: svb@physics.unipune.ernet.in; Mandale, A.B

    2002-07-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H{sub 2} and 75% N{sub 2}. Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping.

  17. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an Ecr plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Mandale, A.B

    2004-01-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H 2 and 75% N 2 . Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping. (author)

  18. Microwave Coupling to ECR and Alternative Heating Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, L.

    2013-12-16

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) is nowadays the most effective device that can feed particle accelerators in a continuous and reliable way, providing high-current beams of low- and medium-charge-state ions and relatively intense currents for highly charged ions. The ECRIS is an important tool for research with ion beams (in surface, atomic, and nuclear science) while, on the other hand, it implies plasma under extreme conditions and thus constitutes an object of scientific interest in itself. The fundamental aspect of the coupling between the electromagnetic wave and the plasma is hereinafter treated together with some variations to the classical ECR heating mechanism, with particular attention being paid to the frequency tuning effect and two-frequency heating. Considerations of electron and ion dynamics will be presented together with some recent observations connecting the beam shape with the frequency of the electromagnetic wave feeding the cavity. The future challenges of higher-charg...

  19. Low Temperature (180°C Growth of Smooth Surface Germanium Epilayers on Silicon Substrates Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Hsiang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method to grow thin germanium (Ge epilayers (40 nm on c-Si substrates at a low growth temperature of 180°C using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD process. The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the Ge (004 in X-ray diffraction pattern and the compressive stain in a Ge epilayer of 683 arcsec and 0.12% can be achieved. Moreover, the Ge/Si interface is observed by transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate the epitaxial growth of Ge on Si and the surface roughness is 0.342 nm. The thin-thickness and smooth surface of Ge epilayer grown on Si in this study is suitable to be a virtual substrate for developing the low cost and high efficiency III-V/Si tandem solar cells in our opinion. Furthermore, the low temperature process can not only decrease costs but can also reduce the restriction of high temperature processes on device manufacturing.

  20. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  1. 3D-full wave and kinetics numerical modelling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources plasma: steps towards self-consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, G.; Sorbello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion Sources are the most performing machines for the production of intense beams of multi-charged ions in fundamental science, applied physics and industry. Investigation of plasma dynamics in ECRIS still remains a challenge. A better comprehension of electron heating, ionization and diffusion processes, ion confinement and ion beam formation is mandatory in order to increase ECRIS performances both in terms of output beams currents, charge states, beam quality (emittance minimization, beam halos suppression, etc.). Numerical solution of Vlasov equation via kinetic codes coupled to FEM solvers is ongoing at INFN-LNS, based on a PIC strategy. Preliminary results of the modeling will be shown about wave-plasma interaction and electron-ion confinement: the obtained results are very helpful to better understand the influence of the different parameters (especially RF frequency and power) on the ion beam formation mechanism. The most important clues coming out from the simulations are that although vacuum field RF field distribution (that is a cavity, modal field distribution) is perturbed by the plasma medium, the non-uniformity in the electric field amplitude still persists in the plasma filled cavity. This non-uniformity can be correlated with non-uniform plasma distribution, explaining a number of experimental observations

  2. Wave propagation near cyclotron resonance in the presence of large Larmor radius particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Holt, H.; McDonald, D.C.

    1995-02-01

    Absorption of waves propagating across an inhomogeneous magnetic field is of crucial importance for cyclotron resonance heating. When the Larmor radius of the resonant particles is small compared to the wavelength, then the propagation can be described by differential equations. These have been derived by a considerable number of authors, but a comparatively simple method of obtaining them has recently been given by Cairns et al [Phys. Fluids B3, 2953 (1991)] and, for the relativistic case which is relevant to electron cyclotron heating, by McDonald et al [Phys. Plasmas 1, 842 (1994)]. In a fusion plasma there may be a significant number of hot ions for which the Larmor radius is comparable to or larger than the perpendicular wavelength. It is important to be able to calculate the effect of these ions on ion cyclotron phenomena. In this case the system is described by integro-differential equations, the structure of which is essentially determined by the fact that the response at a given position is determined by the wave amplitude over a region whose width is of the order of a Larmor radius. The equations describing this situation have been obtained by Sauter and Vaclavik [Theory of Fusion Plasmas, Editrice Compositori, Bologna (1990) p. 403] and by Brambilla [Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 33, 1029 (1991)]. Here we show how the simplified method referred to above can be adapted to this case and used to find various alternative forms for the equations. (author)

  3. INTERACTION OF NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTED FAST IONS WITH ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE FREQUENCY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOI, M.; CHAN, V.S.; CHIU, S.C.; OMELCHENKO, Y.A.; SENTOKU, Y.; STJOH, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 INTERACTION OF NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTED FAST IONS WITH CYCLOTRON RESONANCE FREQUENCY WAVES. Existing tokamaks such as DIII-D and future experiments like ITER employ both NB injection (NBI) and ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) for auxiliary heating and current drive. The presence of energetic particles produced by NBI can result in absorption of the Ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) power. ICRF can also interact with the energetic beam ions to alter the characteristics of NBI momentum deposition and resultant impact on current drive and plasma rotation. To study the synergism between NBI and ICRF, a simple physical model for the slowing-down of NB injected fast ions is implemented in a Monte-Carlo rf orbit code. This paper presents the first results. The velocity space distributions of energetic ions generated by ICRF and NBI are calculated and compared. The change in mechanical momentum of the beam and an estimate of its impact on the NB-driven current are presented and compared with ONETWO simulation results

  4. 400 kV injector compact ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.; Catana, D.; Macovei, M.; Ivanov, E.

    1997-01-01

    Obtaining multiple ionised ions is a fundamental problem for some applications and research. Multiple ionised ions can be produced from electronic bombardment, when n·τ≥5·10 9 cm -3 · s, where n is the density of electrons (in cm -3 ) and τ is the time of interaction between electrons and ions . The relative speed of electrons and ions determines the equilibrium between the stripping process of the atom's electrons and their capture. An ion source with high ionisation efficiency and large output current is the ECR source (Electron Cyclotron Resonance). Using an ECR source with permanent magnets as ion source for the injector will lead to following advantages: - the possibility to obtain multiple ionised particles; - an increase of ion beam intensities; - the expanding of accelerator activities; - a longer working time, due to magnetron lifetime. The ECR ion source is robust, compact and capable of high intensities of extracted ion current. The large functional domain for the residual gas pressure allows the production of multiple charged ions. The source can be easily integrated in the TRILAC's injection structure. We realised a compact microwave ion source which has an axial magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet of Co-Sm. 1200 G magnetic field is greater than the 875 G magnetic field corresponding to the electron-cyclotron frequency of 2.45 GHz. The microwave generator is a magnetron (2.45 GHz and 200 W in continuos wave). The microwave is fed through a coaxial connector on the top of flange. The test was made on He gas at a pressure between 8· 10 -4 and 5·10 -2 torr. The ion beam current was measured vs. extracted potential from 3 kV to 10 kV and has a dependence according to U 3/2 law. A maximal ion current of 300 μA at 10 kV extraction potential was measured. Dimension of ECR ion source, including Einzel lens are φ=12 cm and h=16 cm. (authors)

  5. Quasi-linear theory for a tokamak plasma in the presence of cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, V.S.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-linear diffusion equations for the distribution function of trapped and circulating particles interacting with waves in a tokamak by means of cyclotron resonance are derived. The resulting equations reveal new features of quasi-linear diffusion and are of two kinds, one which involves bounce resonances overlapping in velocity space and one with well separated bounce resonances. These two cases correspond to situations where the phase of the wave-particle interaction between successive resonances can be considered as random or deterministic, respectively. An analysis of the conditions of applicability of the new equations is carried out and previous well-known forms of the quasi-linear diffusion equations are shown to be recovered in the proper limits. (10 refs., 3 figs.)

  6. Parallel gradient effects on ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects on Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating of parallel nonuniformity in the magnetic field which arises from the poloidal field in a tokamak and the universal (major radius)/sup /minus/1/ scaling of the cyclotron frequency. The goal of the analysis is the macroscopic warm plasma current including temperature in the sense of the finite Larmor radius expansion and the quasilocal approximation of the parallel guiding center motion. A 1-D numerical application of the fully nonlocal integral dielectric is performed. Parallel gradient effects are studied for He-3 minority, 2nd harmonic deuterium, and hydrogen minority heating in tokamaks. The results show quite significant alteration of the toroidal wavenumber absorption spectrum, and a wealth of new behavior on the local propagation scale. 95 refs., 37 figs

  7. Influence of the electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement on reducing the bremsstrahlung production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with metal-dielectric structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2009-01-01

    The influence of metal-dielectric (MD) layers (MD structures) inserted into the plasma chamber of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) onto the production of electron bremsstrahlung radiation has been studied in a series of dedicated experiments at the 14 GHz ECRIS of the Institut für Kernphysik der Universität Frankfurt. The IKF-ECRIS was equipped with a MD liner, covering the inner walls of the plasma chamber, and a MD electrode, covering the plasma-facing side of the extraction electrode. On the basis of similar extracted currents of highly charged ions, significantly reduced yields of bremsstrahlung radiation for the "MD source" as compared to the standard (stainless steel) source have been measured and can be explained by the significantly better plasma confinement in a MD source as compared to an "all stainless steel" ECRIS.

  8. Influence of the electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement on reducing the bremsstrahlung production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with metal-dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of metal-dielectric (MD) layers (MD structures) inserted into the plasma chamber of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) onto the production of electron bremsstrahlung radiation has been studied in a series of dedicated experiments at the 14 GHz ECRIS of the Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet Frankfurt. The IKF-ECRIS was equipped with a MD liner, covering the inner walls of the plasma chamber, and a MD electrode, covering the plasma-facing side of the extraction electrode. On the basis of similar extracted currents of highly charged ions, significantly reduced yields of bremsstrahlung radiation for the 'MD source' as compared to the standard (stainless steel) source have been measured and can be explained by the significantly better plasma confinement in a MD source as compared to an ''all stainless steel'' ECRIS.

  9. Status of ECR ion sources at JAERI

    CERN Document Server

    Yokota, W; Nara, T; Ishi, Y; Arakawa, K; Ohkoshi, K

    1999-01-01

    At the Takasaki site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, four ECR ion sources were purchased or developed so far. This paper will report their performance, modification and status. The outlines for each source are as follows; 1. OCTOPUS purchased from IBA s.a. has been in use with a cyclotron since 1990. The gas feed system was modified to change gas species within 10 minutes to avoid impurity ions in the cocktail beam acceleration technique of the cyclotron. 2. ECR-18 with 18-GHz microwave has a solenoid coil between a pair of mirror coils to change mirror ratio in a wide range. A bump between mirror peaks in the original axial field distribution was removed by halving the solenoid length. The performance in generating high charge state ions was significantly improved as a result. 3. HYPERNANOGAN was purchased from PANTECHNIK s.a. and installed in the cyclotron system this year. Test operation was successfully made with generation of Ar, Pb and Ta ions. 4. MINI ECR is a full permanent magnet source wi...

  10. Particle behavior in an ECR plasma etch tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.G.; Tipton, G.D.; Holber, W.M.; Westerfield, P.L.; Maxwell, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Sources of particles in a close-coupled electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) polysilicon plasma etch source include flaking of films deposited on chamber surfaces, and shedding of material from electrostatic wafer chucks. A large, episodic increase in the number of particles added to a wafer in a clean system is observed more frequently for a plasma-on than for a gas-only source condition. For polymer forming process conditions, particles were added to wafers by a polymer film which was observed to fracture and flake away from chamber surfaces. The presence of a plasma, especially when rf bias is applied to the wafer, caused more particles to be ejected from the walls and added to wafers than the gas-only condition; however, no significant influence was observed with different microwave powers. A study of effect of electrode temperatures on particles added showed that thermophoretic forces are not significant for this ECR configuration. Particles originating from the electrostatic chuck were observed to be deposited on wafers in much larger numbers in the presence of the plasma as compared to gas-only conditions

  11. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Gammino, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  12. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Caliri, C; Romano, F P; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  13. Program for computing inhomogeneous coaxial resonators and accelerating systems of the U-400 and ITs-100 cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Ivanov, Eh.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ''Line'' computer code for computing inhomogeneous coaxial resonators is described. The results obtained for the resonators of the U-400 cyclotron made it possible to increase the energy of accelerated ions up to 27 MeV/nucl. The computations fot eh ITs-100 cyclic implantator gave the opportunity to build a compact design with a low value of consumed RF power

  14. Electron acceleration at Jupiter: input from cyclotron-resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.

  15. Observation of fast-ion Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with shear Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Vincena, S.; Carter, T. A.; Gekelman, W.; Leneman, D.; Pribyl, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance (ω-k z v z =Ω f ) between fast ions and shear Alfven waves is experimentally investigated (ω, wave frequency; k z , axial wavenumber; v z , fast-ion axial speed; Ω f , fast-ion cyclotron frequency). A test particle beam of fast ions is launched by a Li + source in the helium plasma of the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], with shear Alfven waves (SAW) (amplitude δ B/B up to 1%) launched by a loop antenna. A collimated fast-ion energy analyzer measures the nonclassical spreading of the beam, which is proportional to the resonance with the wave. A resonance spectrum is observed by launching SAWs at 0.3-0.8ω ci . Both the magnitude and frequency dependence of the beam-spreading are in agreement with the theoretical prediction using a Monte Carlo Lorentz code that launches fast ions with an initial spread in real/velocity space and random phases relative to the wave. Measured wave magnetic field data are used in the simulation.

  16. Self-consistent Study of Fast Particle Redistribution by Alfven Eigenmodes During Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergkvist, T.; Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.

    2006-01-01

    Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) excited by fusion born α particles can degrade the heating efficiency of a burning plasma and throw out αs. To experimentally study the effects of excitation of AEs and the redistribution of the fast ions, ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is often used. The distribution function of thermonuclear αs in a reactor is expected to be isotropic and constantly renewed through DT reactions. The distribution function of cyclotron heated ions is strongly anisotropic, and the ICRH do not only renew the distribution function but also provide a strong decorrelation mechanism between the fast ions and the AE. Because of the sensitivity of the AE dynamics on the details of the distribution function, the location of the resonance surfaces in phase space and the extent of the overlapping resonant regions for different AEs, a self-consistent treatment of the AE excitation and the ICRH is necessary. Interactions of fast ions with AEs during ICRH has been implemented in the SELFO code. Simulations are in good agreement with the experimentally observer pitch-fork splitting and rapid damping of the AE as ICRH is turned off. The redistribution of fast ions have been studied in the presence of several driven AEs. (author)

  17. Cyclotron resonant gas breakdown with a 1.22-nm 13CH3F laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Lax, B.; Metz, R.N.; Temkin, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclotron-resonant laser-induced gas breakdown has been studied for the first time in the transverse geometry, using 1.222-nm 13 CH 3 F laser radiation propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field axis. The line shape of absorbed laser radiation versus magnetic field near electron cyclotron resonance (87.75 kG) indicates a strong dependence of the line shape on the focused laser intensity. This dependence is not predicted by the standard equilibrium theory of high-frequency gas breakdown in a magnetic field. We have developed an analytic theory to explain the observed line shapes. The theory takes into account the laser propagation characteristics, in particular that there is nonuniform ionization due to strong resonant absorption of the laser radiation in a length comparable to or shorter than that of the laser focal volume. The transverse geometry simplifies the theoretical analysis because the observed line shapes are not significantly affected by Doppler broadening. Extensive data have been obtained on the fraction of laser pulse energy absorbed in the gas breakdown volume as a function of magnetic field, helium gas pressure, and incident laser pulse energy. Good quantitative agreement is obtained between the observed laser pulse absorption line shapes and the nonuniform ionization theory

  18. A numerical model of the mirror electron cyclotron resonance MECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellblom, G.

    1986-03-01

    Results from numerical modeling of a new type of ion source are presented. The plasma in this source is produced by electron cyclotron resonance in a strong conversion magnetic field. Experiments have shown that a well-defined plasma column, extended along the magnetic field (z-axis) can be produced. The electron temperature and the densities of the various plasma particles have been found to have a strong z-position dependence. With the numerical model, a simulation of the evolution of the composition of the plasma as a function of z is made. A qualitative agreement with experimental data can be obtained for certain parameter regimes. (author)

  19. The optical/ultraviolet excess of isolated neutron stars in the resonant cyclotron scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Xu, Ren-Xin; Song, Li-Ming

    2011-12-01

    X-ray dim isolated neutron stars are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, optical/ultraviolet (UV) excess is a long standing problem. Recently Kaplan et al. measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may be due to contributions from the bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.

  20. Circular waveguide systems for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive use of electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) requires continuous development of components to improve efficiency, increase reliability, and deliver power to new locations with respect to the plasma. We have used rectangular waveguide components on the experiment and have developed, tested, and installed circular waveguide components. We replaced the rectangular with the circular components because of the greater transmission efficiency and power-handling capability of the circular ones. Design, fabrication, and testing of all components are complete for all systems. In this paper we describe the design criteria for the system

  1. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Asaji, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C{sub 60} using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  2. Quasilinear theory of the ordinary-mode electron-cyclotron resonance in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Hsuan, H.; Taylor, G.

    1983-11-01

    A coupled set of equations, one describing the time evolution of the ordinary-mode wave energy and the other describing the time evolution of the electron distribution function is presented. The wave damping is mainly determined by T/sub parallel/ while the radiative equilibrium is mainly an equipartition with T/sub perpendicular/. The time rate of change of T/sub perpendicular/, T/sub parallel/, particle (N 0 ), and current (J/sub parellel/) densities are examined for finite k/sub parallel/ electron-cyclotron-resonance heating of plasmas

  3. Ion cyclotron resonance study of reactions of ions with hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpas, Z.; Anicich, V.; Huntress, W.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Reactions of H 2 + , HeH + , and CO 2 + ions with hydrogen atoms, and the reactions of D 2 + , CO 2 + , CO + , N 2 + and HCN + with deuterium atoms, were studied using ion cyclotron resonance techniques. These reactions proceed predominantly via a charge transfer mechanism. The rate constants measured are: 6.4, 9.1, 1.1, 5.0, 0.84, 0.90, 1.2, and 0.37 x 10 -10 cm 3 /sec, respectively. Hydrocarbon ions of the types CH/sub n/ + and C 2 H/sub n/ + , where n=2--4, do not react with H or D atoms

  4. Effects of frequency mismatch on a self-consistent arbitrary amplitude cyclotron resonance laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakter, R.; Schneider, R.S.; Rizzato, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance laser accelerator (CRLA), where a coherent electromagnetic wave may transfer a large amount of energy to a beam of electrons gravitating in a guide magnetic field is studied. This large amount of transferred energy takes place due to the autoresonance mechanism where, under some ideal conditions, an initial wave-particle synchronism is self-sustained throughout the accelerating period. An improved analysis of the mentioned self-consistent wave-particle interaction, taking into account a possible frequency mismatch between wave and particles. It is also shown how the frequency mismatch can compensate the dispersion effects. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. A 250-GHz CARM [Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser] oscillator experiment driven by an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.; Bubp, D.G.; McDermott, D.; Luhmann, N.

    1990-01-01

    A 250-GHz Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator has been designed and constructed and will be tested using a 1-kA, 2-MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the Accelerator Research Center (ARC) facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The oscillator circuit was made to operate in the TE 11 mode at ten times cutoff using waveguide Bragg reflectors to create an external cavity Q of 8000. Theory predicts cavity fill times of less than 30 ns (pulse length) and efficiencies approaching 20% is sufficiently low transverse electron velocity spreads are maintained (2%)

  6. Design of an induction linac driven CARM [Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser] oscillator at 250 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.

    1990-01-01

    We present the design of a 250 GHz, 400 MW Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator driven by a 1 KA, 2 MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the ARC facility of LLNL. The oscillator circuit is designed as a feedback amplifier operating in the TE 11 mode at ten times cutoff terminated at each end with Bragg reflectors. Theory and cold test results are in good agreement for a manufactured Bragg reflector using 50 μm corrugations to ensure mode purity. The CARM is to be operational by February 1990. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Studies of gas phase ion/molecule reactions by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingeld, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    An important field in which Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance has useful applications is that of gas phase ion chemistry, the subject of this thesis. First, the general picture of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase is discussed. Next, some positive ion-molecule reactions are described, whereas the remaining chapters deal with negative ion-molecule reactions. Most of these studies have been performed using the FT-ICR method. Reactions involving H 3 O - and NH 4 - ions are described whereas the other chapters deal with larger organic complexes. (Auth.)

  8. High-power ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.

    1983-05-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with the application of 500 kW of rf power into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 density plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun injected plasmas

  9. Hollow density profile on electron cyclotron resonance heating JFT-2M plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kawashima, Hisato; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawakami, Tomohide; Shiina, Tomio; Ishige, Youichi

    1998-01-01

    The first hollow electron density profile in the central region on the JAERI Fusion Torus-2M (JFT-2M) is measured during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) with a TV Thomson scattering system (TVTS). The peripheral region is not hollow but is accumulated due to pump-out from the central region. The hollowness increases with time but is saturated at ∼40 ms and maintains a constant hollow ratio. The hollowness is strongly related to the steep temperature gradient of the heated zone. (author)

  10. The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source: presentation and analysis of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Briand, P.; Gaudart, G.; Klein, J.P.; Bourg, F.; Debernardi, J.; Mathonnet, J.M.; Melin, G.; Su, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been especially designed to permit physical studies of the plasma; this paper describes the source itself (which has been operated at 10 GHz in a first step), its preliminary performances, and the different diagnostics involved, which mainly concern the electron population (ECE, X rays, diamagnetism, microwave interferometer, and electron analyser). The results are presented and discussed: there is of course a close relationship between the parameters of the plasma and the performances of the source; this point will be discussed in the article. (authors). 5 refs., 9 figs

  11. Calculating method for confinement time and charge distribution of ions in electron cyclotron resonance sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D.; Umnov, A.M.; Kutner, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is common knowledge that the electrostatic pit in a core plasma of electron cyclotron resonance sources exerts strict control over generation of ions in high charge states. This work is aimed at finding a dependence of the lifetime of ions on their charge states in the core region and to elaborate a numerical model of ion charge dispersion not only for the core plasmas but for extracted beams as well. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental results on charge distributions and magnitudes for currents of beams extracted from the 14 GHz DECRIS source. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Generation of auroral hectometer radio emission at the laser cyclotron resonance (ωp≥ωH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    Generation of auroral hectometer (AHR) and kilometer (AKR) radio emission at a maser cyclotron resonance (MCR) in a relatively dense plasma (ω p ≥ω H ) is theoretically studied. The conclusion is made that availability of two-dimensional small-scale inhomogeneity of plasma density is the basic condition for the AHR generation at the MCR by auroral electron beams. The small-scale inhomogeneity of the auroral plasma, measured on satelites, meets by its parameters the conditions for the generation of auroral radio emission

  13. Precision mass measurements using the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance detection technique

    CERN Document Server

    Karthein, Jonas

    This thesis presents the implementation and improvement of the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance (PI-ICR) detection technique at the ISOLTRAP experiment, located at the ISOLDE / CERN, with the purpose of on-line high-precision and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Extensive simulation studies were performed with the aim of improving the phase-imaging resolution and finding the optimal position for detector placement. Following the outcome of these simulations, the detector was moved out of a region of electric-field distortion and closer to the center of the Penning trap, showing a dramatic improvement in the quality and reproducibility of the phase-imaging measurements. A new image reconstitution and analysis software for the MCP-PS detector was written in Python and ROOT and introduced in the framework of PI-ICR mass measurements. The state of the art in the field of time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements is illustrated through an analysis of on-line measurements of the mirror nuclei $...

  14. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  15. Anisotropic distribution function of minority tail ions generated by strong ion-cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Colestock, P.

    1989-05-01

    The highly anisotropic particle distribution function of minority tail ions driven by ion-cyclotron resonance heating at the fundamental harmonic is calculated in a two-dimensional velocity space. It is assumed that the heating is strong enough to drive most of the resonant ions above the in-electron critical slowing-down energy. Simple analytic expressions for the tail distribution are obtained fro the case when the Doppler effect is sufficiently large to flatten the sharp pitch angle dependence in the bounce averaged qualilinear heating coefficient, D/sub b/, and for the case when D/sub b/ is assumed to be constant in pitch angle and energy. It is found that a simple constant-D/sub b/ solution can be used instead of the more complicated sharp-D/sub b/ solution for many analytic purposes. 4 refs., 4 figs

  16. Tearing modes induced by perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating in the KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.H.; Lee, S.G.; Seol, J.; Aydemir, A.Y.; Bae, C.; Woo, M.H.; Kim, J.; Joung, M.; You, K.I.; Park, B.H.; Yoo, J.W.; Na, Y.S.; Kim, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental evidence that shows perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can trigger classical tearing modes when deposited near a rational flux surface. The complex evolution of an m = 2 island is followed during current ramp-up in KSTAR plasmas, from its initial onset as the rational surface enters the ECRH resonance layer to its eventual lock on the wall after the rational surface leaves the layer. Stability analysis coupled to a transport calculation of the current profile with ECRH shows that the perpendicular ECRH may play a significant role in triggering and destabilizing classical m = 2 tearing modes, in agreement with our experimental observation. (paper)

  17. Poloidal field effects on fundamental minority ion cyclotron resonance heating in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, S. C.; Imre, Kaya; Stevens, D. C.; Weitzner, Harold; Chang, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Minority ion fundamental cyclotron resonance is studied in a large tokamak in which the geometrical optics approximation applies off resonance and the minority average speed is less than the wave phase speeds. Poloidal equilibrium magnetic field effects are included, which lead to nontrivially nonlocal integrodifferential equations for the wave fields. Exact reciprocity relation is given as well as explicit analytic solutions for the transmission coefficients for both the high and low field side incidences. Numerical solutions are needed only for the high field side incident reflection coefficient. Numerical schemes are described and numerical results are presented together with a reliable error bound. Typically, energy absorption increases with poloidal field. The energy absorption increases with minority density at low values of minority density. However, it decreases at high minority density. Poloidal field effects weaken the dependence of energy absorption on the toroidal wave number. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Simulation study on ion extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.

    1994-04-01

    In order to study beam optics of NIRS-ECR ion source used in the HIMAC project, the EGUN code has been modified to make it capable of modeling ion extraction from a plasma. Two versions of the modified code are worked out with two different methods in which 1D and 2D sheath theories are used, respectively. Convergence problem of the strong nonlinear self-consistent equations is investigated. Simulations on NIRS-ECR ion source and HYPER-ECR ion source are presented in this paper, exhibiting an agreement with the experiment results.

  19. Correlation of III/V semiconductor etch results with physical parameters of high-density reactive plasmas excited by electron cyclotron resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, FRANZ; Ralf, MEYER; Markus-Christian, AMANN

    2017-12-01

    Reactive ion etching is the interaction of reactive plasmas with surfaces. To obtain a detailed understanding of this process, significant properties of reactive composite low-pressure plasmas driven by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) were investigated and compared with the radial uniformity of the etch rate. The determination of the electronic properties of chlorine- and hydrogen-containing plasmas enabled the understanding of the pressure-dependent behavior of the plasma density and provided better insights into the electronic parameters of reactive etch gases. From the electrical evaluation of I(V) characteristics obtained using a Langmuir probe, plasmas of different compositions were investigated. The standard method of Druyvesteyn to derive the electron energy distribution functions by the second derivative of the I(V) characteristics was replaced by a mathematical model which has been evolved to be more robust against noise, mainly, because the first derivative of the I(V) characteristics is used. Special attention was given to the power of the energy dependence in the exponent. In particular, for plasmas that are generated by ECR with EM modes, the existence of Maxwellian distribution functions is not to be taken as a self-evident fact, but the bi-Maxwellian distribution was proven for Ar- and Kr-stabilized plasmas. In addition to the electron temperature, the global uniform discharge model has been shown to be useful for calculating the neutral gas temperature. To what extent the invasive method of using a Langmuir probe could be replaced with the non-invasive optical method of emission spectroscopy, particularly actinometry, was investigated, and the resulting data exhibited the same relative behavior as the Langmuir data. The correlation with etchrate data reveals the large chemical part of the removal process—most striking when the data is compared with etching in pure argon. Although the relative amount of the radial variation of plasma density and

  20. Backscattering of gyrotron radiation and short-wavelength turbulence during electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D., E-mail: tinborz@gmail.com; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    Backscattering of gyrotron radiation ({theta} = {pi}) by short-wavelength density fluctuations (k{sub Up-Tack} = 30 cm{sup -1}) in the plasma of the L-2M stellarator was studied under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma heating at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (75 GHz). The scattering of the O-wave emerging due to the splitting of the linearly polarized gyrotron radiation into the X- and O-waves was analyzed. The signal obtained after homodyne detection of scattered radiation is a result of interference of the reference signal, the quasi-steady component, and the fast oscillating component. The coefficients of reflection of the quasi-steady component, R{sub =}{sup 2}(Y), and fast oscillating component, R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y), of scattered radiation are estimated. The growth of the R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y) coefficient from 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} with increasing ECR heating power from 190 to 430 kW is found to correlate with the decrease in the energy lifetime from 1.9 to 1.46 ms. The relative density of short-wavelength fluctuations is estimated to be Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub {approx}}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket / Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub e}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. It is shown that the frequencies of short-wavelength fluctuations are in the range 10-150 kHz. The recorded short-wavelength fluctuations can be interpreted as structural turbulence, the energy of which comprises {approx}10% of the total fluctuations energy. Simulations of transport processes show that neoclassical heat fluxes are much smaller than anomalous ones. It is suggested that short-wavelength turbulence plays a decisive role in the anomalous heat transport.

  1. Design of a New Acceleration System for High-Current Pulsed Proton Beams from an ECR Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew L.; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Surbrook, Jason T.; Kelly, Keegan J.; Carlin, Bret P.; Champagne, Arthur E.; Clegg, Thomas B.

    2014-03-01

    A primary objective for accelerators at TUNL's Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is to maximize target beam intensity to ensure a high rate of nuclear events during each experiment. Average proton target currents of several mA are needed from LENA's electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source because nuclear cross sections decrease substantially at energies of interest tube structures; and provide better heat dissipation by using deionized water to provide the current drain needed to establish the accelerating tube's voltage gradient. Details of beam optical modeling calculations, proposed accelerating tube design, and initial beam pulsing tests will be described. Work supported in part by USDOE Office of HE and Nuclear Physics.

  2. Development of the balance equations model for calculation of ion charge-state distribution in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.; Shirkov, G.D.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Barbarino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the widespread model for the calculation of ion charge-state distributions (CSD) in electron cyclotron-resonance ion source based on the set of balance equations is given. The modification of this model that allows one to describe the confinement and accumulation processes of highly charged ions in ECR plasma for gas mixing case more precisely is discussed. The new approach for the time confinement calculation (ions and electrons) based on the theory of Pastukhov is offered, viz. - calculation of confinement times during two step minimization of special type functionals. The results obtained by this approach have been compared with available experimental data

  3. Kinetic plasma simulation of ion beam extraction from an ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.M.; White, E.K.; Simkin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Designing optimized ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion beam sources can be streamlined by the accurate simulation of beam optical properties in order to predict ion extraction behavior. The complexity of these models, however, can make PIC-based simulations time-consuming. In this paper, we first describe a simple kinetic plasma finite element simulation of extraction of a proton beam from a permanent magnet hexapole ECR ion source. Second, we analyze the influence of secondary electrons generated by ion collisions in the residual gas on the space charge of a proton beam of a dual-solenoid ECR ion source. The finite element method (FEM) offers a fast modeling environment, allowing analysis of ion beam behavior under conditions of varying current density, electrode potential, and gas pressure. The new version of SCALA/TOSCA v14 permits the making of simulations in tens of minutes to a few hours on standard computer platforms without the need of particle-in-cell methods. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  4. Optimization of electron-cyclotron-resonance charge-breeder ions : Final CRADA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of 1+ beam properties and associated performance of ECR Charge Breeder source determined by total efficiency measurement and charge state distributions from the ECR Charge Breeder. These results were communicated to Far-Tech personnel who used them to benchmark the newly developed programs that model ion capture and charge breeding in the ECR Charge Breeder Source. Providing the basic data described above and in the discussion below to Far-Tech allowed them to improve and refine their calculational tools for ECR ion sources. These new tools will be offered for sale to industry and will also provide important guidance to other research labs developing Charge Breeding ion sources for radioactive beam physics research.

  5. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V. G.

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay and Cité Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number kz is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the kz spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of ion-ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B0, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer.

  6. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Cite Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number k z is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the k z spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge--Kutta method. The influence of ion--ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B 0 , and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44 Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Cyclotron resonant scattering feature simulations. II. Description of the CRSF simulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, F.-W.; Ballhausen, R.; Falkner, S.; Schönherr, G.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wolff, M. T.; Becker, P. A.; Fürst, F.; Marcu-Cheatham, D. M.; Hemphill, P. B.; Sokolova-Lapa, E.; Dauser, T.; Klochkov, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Wilms, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are formed by scattering of X-ray photons off quantized plasma electrons in the strong magnetic field (of the order 1012 G) close to the surface of an accreting X-ray pulsar. Due to the complex scattering cross-sections, the line profiles of CRSFs cannot be described by an analytic expression. Numerical methods, such as Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the scattering processes, are required in order to predict precise line shapes for a given physical setup, which can be compared to observations to gain information about the underlying physics in these systems. Aims: A versatile simulation code is needed for the generation of synthetic cyclotron lines. Sophisticated geometries should be investigatable by making their simulation possible for the first time. Methods: The simulation utilizes the mean free path tables described in the first paper of this series for the fast interpolation of propagation lengths. The code is parallelized to make the very time-consuming simulations possible on convenient time scales. Furthermore, it can generate responses to monoenergetic photon injections, producing Green's functions, which can be used later to generate spectra for arbitrary continua. Results: We develop a new simulation code to generate synthetic cyclotron lines for complex scenarios, allowing for unprecedented physical interpretation of the observed data. An associated XSPEC model implementation is used to fit synthetic line profiles to NuSTAR data of Cep X-4. The code has been developed with the main goal of overcoming previous geometrical constraints in MC simulations of CRSFs. By applying this code also to more simple, classic geometries used in previous works, we furthermore address issues of code verification and cross-comparison of various models. The XSPEC model and the Green's function tables are available online (see link in footnote, page 1).

  8. Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited using a microwave Ecr plasma; Propiedades del a-Si:H depositado utilizando un plasma de microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia H, J A

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been widely applied to semiconductor devices, such as thin film transistors, solar cells and photosensitive devices. In this work, the first Si-H-Cl alloys (obtained at the National Institute for Nuclear Research of Mexico) were formed by a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (Ecr) plasma CVD method. Gaseous mixtures of silicon tetrachloride (Si Cl{sub 4}), hydrogen and argon were used. The Ecr plasma was generated by microwaves at 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field of 670 G was applied to maintain the discharge after resonance condition (occurring at 875 G). Si and Cl contents were analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). It was found that, increasing proportion of Si Cl{sub 4} in the mixture or decreasing pressure, the silicon and chlorine percentages decrease. Optical gaps were obtained by spectrophotometry. Decreasing temperature, optical gap values increase from 1.4 to 1.5 eV. (Author).

  9. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  10. Theory of peak coalescence in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldin, Ivan A; Nikolaev, Eugene N

    2009-10-01

    Peak coalescence, i.e. the merging of two close peaks in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrum at a high number of ions, plays an important role in various FTICR experiments. In order to describe the coalescence phenomenon we would like to propose a new theory of motion for ion clouds with close mass-to-charge ratios, driven by a uniform magnetic field and Coulomb interactions between the clouds. We describe the motion of the ion clouds in terms of their averaged drift motion in crossed magnetic and electric fields. The ion clouds are considered to be of constant size and their motion is studied in two dimensions. The theory deals with the first-order approximation of the equations of motion in relation to dm/m, where dm is the mass difference and m is the mass of a single ion. The analysis was done for an arbitrary inter-cloud interaction potential, which makes it possible to analyze finite-size ion clouds of any shape. The final analytical expression for the condition of the onset of coalescence is found for the case of uniformly charged spheres. An algorithm for finding this condition for an arbitrary interaction potential is proposed. The critical number of ions for the peak coalescence to take place is shown to depend quadratically on the magnetic field strength and to be proportional to the cyclotron radius and inversely proportional to the ion masses. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Spatial Steering of Cyclotron-Resonance Maser Array Antenna by Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, A.; Jerby, E.

    2001-01-01

    The novel concept of radiation lobe generation and steering by cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) array is presented. In this scheme the gain and phase of each CRM-element in the array are tuned by magnetic fields which control the cyclotron synchronism condition and the pitch-ratio of each CRM-element. These operating parameters are controlled by the magnetic fields of the solenoid and the kicker, respectively. A numerical example of a CRM-array operating in a gyro-TWT mode is presented. The radiation pattern of a 10-element CRM phased array (15 kV, 1A each) is calculated. The radiation lobe steering by the magnetic field controls is demonstrated in this analysis. A 40 lobe steering range is shown for the 10-element CRM-array at 7.3 GHz. An experimental device is built in our laboratory to demonstrate the active CRM-array antenna concept. Preliminary experimental results of gain and phase-delay of a single CRM-element, as function of electron-beam parameters are presented. These results are compared to the numerical model

  12. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the plasma near electron cyclotron resonance: Undulator-induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations

  13. Production of hydrogen and deuterium negative ions in an electron cyclotron resonance driven plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Industrial Univ. of Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2001-04-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance source with driven plasma rings for hydrogen isotope ion production is studied. Extracted currents of positive and negative ions depending on gas pressure, microwave power value and extraction voltage are obtained. The study shows that the negative ion yield is an order of magnitude higher than the yield of positive particles when a driven ring is in contact with the surface of the plasma electrode. The production of negative ions of deuterium, D{sup -}, is close to the production of negative ions of light hydrogen isotope, H{sup -}. The comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows that the most probable process of the H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion formation in the electron cyclotron driven plasma is dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules in high Rydberg states. For hydrogen ions and ions of deuterium, the negative current at a microwave power of 200 W through a 3-mm aperture and 8 kV extraction voltage are 4.7 mA and 3.1 mA respectively. (orig.)

  14. Production of hydrogen and deuterium negative ions in an electron cyclotron resonance driven plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance source with driven plasma rings for hydrogen isotope ion production is studied. Extracted currents of positive and negative ions depending on gas pressure, microwave power value and extraction voltage are obtained. The study shows that the negative ion yield is an order of magnitude higher than the yield of positive particles when a driven ring is in contact with the surface of the plasma electrode. The production of negative ions of deuterium, D - , is close to the production of negative ions of light hydrogen isotope, H - . The comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows that the most probable process of the H - and D - ion formation in the electron cyclotron driven plasma is dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules in high Rydberg states. For hydrogen ions and ions of deuterium, the negative current at a microwave power of 200 W through a 3-mm aperture and 8 kV extraction voltage are 4.7 mA and 3.1 mA respectively. (orig.)

  15. Fast wave heating of two-ion plasmas in the Princeton large torus through minority cyclotron resonance damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Bernabei, S.; Colestock, P.

    1979-07-01

    Strong minority proton heating is produced in PLT through ion cyclotron resonance damping of fast waves at moderate rf power levels. In addition to demonstrating good proton confinement, the proton energy distribution is consistent with Fokker--Planck theory which provides the prescription for extrapolation of this heating regime to higher rf power levels

  16. The spectral energy distributions of isolated neutron stars in the resonant cyclotron scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Xu, Renxin

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their very well Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, the optical/UV excess is a long standing problem. Recently, Kaplan et al. (2011) have measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may due to contribution from bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.

  17. ECRH [electron-cyclotron resonance heating]-heated distributions in thermal-barrier tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; LoDestro, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution function is calculated for electrons subjected to strong electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at the plug and barrier in a tandem-mirror thermal-barrier cell. When ECRH diffusion locally dominates over collisions and a boundary condition (associated with electrons passing to the center cell) imposes variations on the distribution function rapid compared to the variation of the ECRH and collisional diffusion coefficients, the kinetic equation can be reduced approximately to Laplace's equation. For the typical case where velocity space is divided into distinct regions in which plug and barrier ECRH dominate, the solution in each region can be expressed in terms of the plasma dispersion function or exponential integrals, according to whether the passing electrons are dominated by collisions or ECRH, respectively. The analytic results agree well with Fokker-Planck code results, in terms of both velocity-space structure and values of moments. 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, D.Q.; Wang, J.C.L.; Loredo, T.J.; Wasserman, I.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the GB880205 gamma-ray bursts are presented that have implications for the nature of gamma-ray burst sources. It is shown that cyclotron resonant scattering and Raman scattering account well for the positions, strengths, and shapes of the relative strengths of the first and second harmonics and their narrow widths. These results imply the existence of a superstrong (B of about 2 x 10 to the 12th G) magnetic field in the vicinity of the X-ray emission region of GB880205. Such a superstrong magnetic field points to a strongly magnetic neutron star as the origin of gamma-ray bursts, and to the fact that the gamma-ray sources belong to the Galaxy. 59 refs

  19. Application of Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to metabolic profiling and metabolite identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Daisaku; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2010-02-01

    Metabolomics, as an essential part of genomics studies, intends holistic understanding of metabolic networks through simultaneous analysis of a myriad of both known and unknown metabolites occurring in living organisms. The initial stage of metabolomics was designed for the reproducible analyses of known metabolites based on their comparison to available authentic compounds. Such metabolomics platforms were mostly based on mass spectrometry (MS) technologies enabled by a combination of different ionization methods together with a variety of separation steps including LC, GC, and CE. Among these, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance MS (FT-ICR/MS) is distinguished from other MS technologies by its ultrahigh resolution power in mass to charge ratio (m/z). The potential of FT-ICR/MS as a distinctive metabolomics tool has been demonstrated in nontargeted metabolic profiling and functional characterization of novel genes. Here, we discuss both the advantages and difficulties encountered in the FT-ICR/MS metabolomics studies.

  20. Photoionization and ion cyclotron resonance studies of the ion chemistry of ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corderman, R. R.; Williamson, A. D.; Lebreton, P. R.; Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of the ethylene oxide molecular ion and its subsequent ion-molecule reactions leading to the products C2H5O(+) and C3H5O(+) have been studied using time-resolved photoionization mass spectroscopy, ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. An examination of the effects of internal energy on reactivity shows that the ratio of C3H5O(+) to C2H5O(+) increases by an order of magnitude with a single quantum of vibrational energy. The formation of (C2H4O/+/)-asterisk in a collision-induced isomerization is found which yields a ring-opened structure by C-C bond cleavage. The relaxed ring-opened C2H4O(+) ion reacts with neutral ethylene oxide by CH2(+) transfer to yield an intermediate product ion C3H6O(+) which gives C3H5O(+) by loss of H.

  1. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be ∼70 π mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was ∼25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data

  2. Manufacturing of a superconducting magnet system for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at KBSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B S; Choi, S; Yoon, J H; Park, J Y; Won, M S

    2012-02-01

    A magnet system for a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source is being developed by the Korea Basic Science Institute. The configuration of the magnet system consists of 3 solenoid coils for a mirror magnetic field and 6 racetrack coils for a hexapole magnetic field. They can generate axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the beam injection part and 2.2 T at the extraction part. A radial magnetic field of 2.1 T is achievable at the plasma chamber wall. A step type winding process was employed in fabricating the hexapole coil. The winding technique was confirmed through repeated cooling tests. Superconducting magnets and a cryostat system are currently being manufactured.

  3. On ion-cyclotron-resonance heating of the corona and solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concisely summarizes and critically reviews recent work by the authors on models of the heating of the solar corona by resonance of ions with high-frequency waves (up to the proton cyclotron frequency. The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is presented in connection with relevant solar wind proton observations. Hybrid fluid-kinetic model equations, which include wave-particle interactions and collisions, are derived. Numerical solutions are discussed, representative of the inner corona and near-Sun solar wind. A semi-kinetic model for reduced velocity distributions is presented, yielding kinetic results for heavy ions in the solar corona. It is concluded that a self-consistent treatment of particle distributions and wave spectra is required, in order to adequately describe coronal physics and to obtain agreement with observations.

  4. Two-ion hybrid resonances and ion cyclotron absorption in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Ottaviani, M.

    1983-11-01

    The behaviour of IC waves near resonances in tokamak geometry is investigated in details. For this purpose, a one-dimensional model is proposed, which takes into account the orientation of the incident wavefronts with respect both to the singular layer and to the magnetic surfaces. The differential equations describing the waves are derived again from Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the finite Larmor radius approximation; they are shown to conserve the wave power flux in the absence of dissipation, and to reproduce the local dispersion relation in the WKB limit. These equations are solved exactly in some important situations, and with the Green-function technique in the general case. The amount of power coupled to Bernstein waves and absorbed by cyclotron damping is explicitly evaluated. (orig.)

  5. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  6. Poloidal rotation driven by electron cyclotron resonance wave in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The poloidal electric filed, which is the drive field of poloidal rotation, has been observed and increases obviously after the injection of electron cyclotron resonance wave in HL-2A experiment, and the amplitude of the poloidal electric field is in the order of 103 V/m. Through theoretical analysis using Stringer rotation model, the observed poloidal electric field is of the same order as the theoretical calculation value. In addition, the magnetic pump damping which would damp the poloidal rotation is calculated numerically and the calculation results show that the closer to the core plasmas, the stronger the magnetic pump damping will be. Meanwhile, according to the value of the calculated magnetic pump damping, the threshold of the poloidal electric field which could overcome magnetic pump damping and drive poloidal rotation in tokamak plasmas is given out. Finally, the poloidal rotation velocity over time at different minor radius is studied theoretically.

  7. Ultra High-Mass Resolution Paper Spray by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Quinn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper Spray Ionization is an atmospheric pressure ionization technique that utilizes an offline electro-osmotic flow to generate ions off a paper medium. This technique can be performed on a Bruker SolariX Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer by modifying the existing nanospray source. High-resolution paper spray spectra were obtained for both organic and biological samples to demonstrate the benefit of linking the technique with a high-resolution mass analyzer. Error values in the range 0.23 to 2.14 ppm were obtained for calf lung surfactant extract with broadband mass resolving power (m/Δm50% above 60,000 utilizing an external calibration standard.

  8. Optimization of a coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma thruster with an analytical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannat, F., E-mail: felix.cannat@onera.fr, E-mail: felix.cannat@gmail.com; Lafleur, T. [Physics and Instrumentation Department, Onera -The French Aerospace Lab, Palaiseau, Cedex 91123 (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Jarrige, J.; Elias, P.-Q.; Packan, D. [Physics and Instrumentation Department, Onera -The French Aerospace Lab, Palaiseau, Cedex 91123 (France); Chabert, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-05-15

    A new cathodeless plasma thruster currently under development at Onera is presented and characterized experimentally and analytically. The coaxial thruster consists of a microwave antenna immersed in a magnetic field, which allows electron heating via cyclotron resonance. The magnetic field diverges at the thruster exit and forms a nozzle that accelerates the quasi-neutral plasma to generate a thrust. Different thruster configurations are tested, and in particular, the influence of the source diameter on the thruster performance is investigated. At microwave powers of about 30 W and a xenon flow rate of 0.1 mg/s (1 SCCM), a mass utilization of 60% and a thrust of 1 mN are estimated based on angular electrostatic probe measurements performed downstream of the thruster in the exhaust plume. Results are found to be in fair agreement with a recent analytical helicon thruster model that has been adapted for the coaxial geometry used here.

  9. Nearly perpendicular wave propagation at the fundamental electron-cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.

    1985-01-01

    Waves propagating nearly perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetic field across the fundamental cyclotron resonance layer are studied by a boundary layer analysis for a weakly relativistic, inhomogeneous Vlasov plasma. The plasma is assumed to be perpendicularly stratified. It is found that the wave energy associated with the ordinary mode transmitted through the layer is independent of the relativistic corrections and is given by a geometrical optics formula. It is also found that there is no reflected energy associated with this mode when it is incident from the high-field side. These results are the same as the nonrelativistic case with purely perpendicular propagation. Relativistic effects produce a significant reduction of the reflection coefficient for low-field side incidence from the nonrelativistic value. Correspondingly, for this mode there is a considerable increase in the absorption rate for sufficiently high, but moderate, electron density and temperature

  10. Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of tantalum for x-ray mask absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Akira; Yoshihara, Hideo

    1993-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of Ta film was investigated for preparing x-ray mask absorber patterns. Ta is etched by the system at a high rate and with high selectivity. Using Cl 2 as etching gas, the etch rate decreases rapidly with decreasing pattern width below 0.5 μm and large undercutting is observed. The problems are reduced by adding Ar or O 2 gas to the Cl 2 . Etching with a mixture of Cl 2 and O 2 produces highly accurate Ta absorber patterns for x-ray masks. The pattern width dependence of the etch rate and the undercutting were simulated with a model that takes account of the angular distribution of active species incident on the sample. The experimental results agree well with those calculated assuming that the incidence angles are distributed between -36 degrees and 36 degrees. The addition of O 2 or Ar enhances ion assisted etching. 16 refs., 16 figs

  11. Resonant cyclotron scattering in pulsar magnetospheres and its application to isolated neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hao; Peng Qiuhe; Xu, Ren-Xin; Song Liming

    2010-01-01

    Resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) in pulsar magnetospheres is considered. The photon diffusion equation (Kompaneets equation) for RCS is derived. The photon system is modeled three dimensionally. Numerical calculations show that there exist not only up scattering but also down scattering of RCS, depending on the parameter space. RCS's possible applications to spectral energy distributions of magnetar candidates and radio quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) are pointed out. The optical/UV excess of INSs may be caused by the down scattering of RCS. The calculations for RX J1856.5-3754 and RX J0720.4-3125 are presented and compared with their observational data. In our model, the INSs are proposed to be normal neutron stars, although the quark star hypothesis is still possible. The low pulsation amplitude of INSs is a natural consequence in the RCS model. (letters)

  12. Operational upgrades to the DIII-D 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.E.; Cary, W.P.

    1993-10-01

    One of the primary components of the DIII-D radio frequency (rf) program over the past seven years has been the 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system. The system now consists of eight units capable of operating and controlling eight Varian VGE-8006 60 GHz, 200 kW gyrotrons along with their associated waveguide components. This paper will discuss the operational upgrades and the overall system performance. Many modifications were instituted to enhance the system operation and performance. Modifications discussed in this paper include an improved gyrotron tube-fault response network, a computer controlled pulse-timing and sequencing system, and an improved high-voltage power supply control interface. The discussion on overall system performance will include operating techniques used to improve system operations and reliability. The techniques discussed apply to system start-up procedures, operating the system in a conditioning mode, and operating the system during DIII-D plasma operations

  13. Interaction-induced shift of the cyclotron resonance of graphene using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E A; Cadden-Zimansky, P; Jiang, Z; Li, Z Q; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2010-02-12

    We report a study of the cyclotron resonance (CR) transitions to and from the unusual n=0 Landau level (LL) in monolayer graphene. Unexpectedly, we find the CR transition energy exhibits large (up to 10%) and nonmonotonic shifts as a function of the LL filling factor, with the energy being largest at half filling of the n=0 level. The magnitude of these shifts, and their magnetic field dependence, suggests that an interaction-enhanced energy gap opens in the n=0 level at high magnetic fields. Such interaction effects normally have a limited impact on the CR due to Kohn's theorem [W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. 123, 1242 (1961)], which does not apply in graphene as a consequence of the underlying linear band structure.

  14. Plasma potential in a magnetic mirror with electron-cyclotron-resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the ECRH plasma in the University of Wisconsin DE Machine magnetic mirror have been undertaken. Typical plasma parameters in these experiments were T/sub e/ - 10 to 30 eV, T/sub i/ - 4 eV, V/sub po/ (plasma potential at midplane) - 20 to 50 V, midplane plasma density n 0 - 10 16 m - 3 , B 0 (magnetic field strength on axis at midplane) - .005 to .01 T, mirror ratio R - 5 to 20. The principal experimental findings were the appearance of strong density peaks (approx. 2 x background) and notable V/sub f/ dips (approx. kT/sub e//e) in a narrow (approx. 1 cm) region near the axial positions of cyclotron resonance. The properties of these dips do not change greatly over the range of operating parameters, but are narrower at higher pressures

  15. Materials tests and analyses of Faraday shield tubes for ICRF [ion cyclotron resonant frequency] antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.F.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Walls, J.C.; Taylor, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas for heating fusion plasmas require careful analysis of the materials selected for the design and the successful fabrication of high integrity braze bonds. Graphite tiles are brazed to Inconel 625 Faraday shield tubes to protect the antenna from the plasma. The bond between the graphite and Inconel tube is difficult to achieve due to the different coefficients of thermal expansion. A 2-D stress analysis showed the graphite could be bonded to Inconel with a Ag-Cu-Ti braze alloy without cracking the graphite. Brazing procedures and nondestructive examination methods have been developed for these joints. This paper presents the results of our joining development and proof testing. 2 refs., 3 figs

  16. Simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J.; Chen, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the deposited power and deposited position of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) on Peeling-Ballooning (P-B) modes are simulated using BOUT++ code in this paper. The simulation results show that as the deposited position moves from the top to the bottom of the pedestal, the edge localized mode (ELM) size decreases first and then increases, finally decreases again. For ECRH with different deposited power, the effects on P-B modes are similar if they have the same peak value of the power deposition profile. These results show that the effects of ECRH on P-B modes are primarily determined by the change in pressure profile caused by ECRH. As long as ECRH can lead to large enough change in pressure profile, ECRH can efficiently affect the dynamics of P-B modes.

  17. Simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The effects of the deposited power and deposited position of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) on Peeling-Ballooning (P-B) modes are simulated using BOUT++ code in this paper. The simulation results show that as the deposited position moves from the top to the bottom of the pedestal, the edge localized mode (ELM) size decreases first and then increases, finally decreases again. For ECRH with different deposited power, the effects on P-B modes are similar if they have the same peak value of the power deposition profile. These results show that the effects of ECRH on P-B modes are primarily determined by the change in pressure profile caused by ECRH. As long as ECRH can lead to large enough change in pressure profile, ECRH can efficiently affect the dynamics of P-B modes.

  18. First plasma of the A-PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuillier, T.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Angot, J.

    2008-01-01

    A-PHOENIX is a new compact hybrid electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a large permanent magnet hexapole (1.92 T at the magnet surface) and high temperature superconducting Solenoids (3 T) to make min-vertical bar B vertical bar structure suitable for 28 GHz cw operation. The final assembly of the source was achieved at the end of June 2007. The first plasma of A-PHOENIX at 18 GHz was done on the 16th of August, 2007. The technological specificities of A-PHOENIX are presented. The large hexapole built is presented and experimental magnetic measurements show that it is nominal with respect to simulation. A fake plasma chamber prototype including thin iron inserts showed that the predicted radial magnetic confinement can be fulfilled up to 2.15 T at the plasma chamber wall. Scheduled planning of experiments until the end of 2008 is presented

  19. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current-drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Efficiency of current drive by electron cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code to ellucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk-electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. (author)

  20. Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.

  1. Comparison between off-resonance and electron Bernstein waves heating regime in a microwave discharge ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.; Di Giugno, R.; Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Lanaia, D.; Ciavola, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F. [Universita di Messina, Ctr. da Papardo-Sperone, 98100 Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); IET-Institute of Energy Technology, LEC-Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    A microwave discharge ion source (MDIS) operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania has been used to compare the traditional electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with an innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on the electrostatic Bernstein waves (EBW). EBW are obtained via the inner plasma electromagnetic-to-electrostatic wave conversion and they are absorbed by the plasma at cyclotron resonance harmonics. The heating of plasma by means of EBW at particular frequencies enabled us to reach densities much larger than the cutoff ones. Evidences of EBW generation and absorption together with X-ray emissions due to high energy electrons will be shown. A characterization of the discharge heating process in MDISs as a generalization of the ECR heating mechanism by means of ray tracing will be shown in order to highlight the fundamental physical differences between ECR and EBW heating.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance heating on the W VII A-stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Erckmann, V.; Janzen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma build-up and heating of OH-current free plasmas by ECR-wave irradiation were investigated on the WENDELSTEIN VII-A stellarator using three kinds of wave launching: direct irradiation of the gyrotron modes from the low field side, or advanced wave launching in 0-mode polarization from the low field side, the nonabsorbed fraction being reflected back to the plasma from the high field side in X-mode polarization. An increase of the central electron temperature from 0.7 keV (TE 02 mode) to 1.2 keV (TE 11 , HE 11 mode) was observed which is explained by the narrow and well centred power deposition profiles for TE 11 , HE 11 modes. However, there is only a slight increase of the heating efficiency from 40% to 50%. The reflected X-mode fraction does not contribute to bulk plasma heating via Bernstein wave conversion and absorption as expected. The reason seems to be local absorption of the arising electron Bernstein waves due to a macroscopically turbulent structure around the upper hybrid resonance layer. Correlated with X-mode irradiation direct ion heating was observed (500 eV ion tail), possibly due to low frequency decay waves. In all ECRH experiments a toroidal plasma current was generated due to asymmetrically confined fast electrons. Optimum confinement in the shearless l=2 configuration was achieved at most irrational values of the rotational transform with small toroidal net current. It can be concluded from a numerical 1D-transport analysis that neoclassical electron confinement seems to be dominant in the hot central plasma core

  3. Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons through Landau Resonance with Obliquely Propagating Whistler Mode Chorus Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Y.; Hsieh, Y. K.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Kletzing, C.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    A recent test particle simulation of obliquely propagating whistler mode wave-particle interaction [Hsieh and Omura, 2017] shows that the perpendicular wave electric field can play a significant role in trapping and accelerating relativistic electrons through Landau resonance. A further theoretical and numerical investigation verifies that there occurs nonlinear wave trapping of relativistic electrons by the nonlinear Lorentz force of the perpendicular wave magnetic field. An electron moving with a parallel velocity equal to the parallel phase velocity of an obliquely propagating wave basically see a stationary wave phase. Since the electron position is displaced from its gyrocenter by a distance ρ*sin(φ), where ρ is the gyroradius and φ is the gyrophase, the wave phase is modulated with the gyromotion, and the stationary wave fields as seen by the electron are expanded as series of Bessel functions Jn with phase variations n*φ. The J1 components of the wave electric and magnetic fields rotate in the right-hand direction with the gyrofrequency, and they can be in resonance with the electron undergoing the gyromotion, resulting in effective electron acceleration and pitch angle scattering. We have performed a subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms observed by the Van Allen Probes [Foster et al., 2017], and calculated the energy gain by the cyclotron acceleration through Landau resonance. We compare the efficiencies of accelerations by cyclotron and Landau resonances in typical events of rapid electron acceleration observed by the Van Allen Probes.References:[1] Hsieh, Y.-K., and Y. Omura (2017), Nonlinear dynamics of electrons interacting with oblique whistler mode chorus in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 675-694, doi:10.1002/2016JA023255.[2] Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, Y. Omura, D. N. Baker, C. A. Kletzing, and S. G. Claudepierre (2017), Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear

  4. An enhanced production of highly charged ions in the ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaechter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Badescu- Singureanu, Al.I.; Stiebing, K.E.; Runkel, S.; Hohn, O.; Schmidt, L.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt - Boecking, H.

    2000-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (ECRIS) are the ideal sources of highly charged heavy ions. Highly charged heavy ions are widely used in atomic physics research where they constitute a very efficient tool due to their very high electric potential of collision. The highly charged ions are also used in fusion plasma physics studies, in solid state surface physics investigations and are very efficient when injected in particle accelerators. More than 50 ECR ion sources are presently working in the whole world. Stable and intense highly charged heavy ions beams are extracted from ECR ion sources, in a wide range of ion species. RECRIS, the Romanian 14 GHz ECR Ion Source, developed in IFIN-HH, designed as a facility for atomic physics and materials studies, has been recently completed. The research field concerning the development of advanced ECRIS and the study of the physical processes of the ECR plasma are presently very dynamical , a fact well proved by the great number of scientific published works and the numerous dedicated international conferences and workshops. It is well established that the performance of ECRIS can substantially be enhanced if special techniques like a 'biased disk' or a special wall coating of the plasma chamber are employed. In the frame of a cooperation project between IFIN-HH ,Bucharest, Romania and the Institut fuer Kernphysik of the J. W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany we developed, on the basis of previous research carried out in IFIN-HH, a new method to strongly increase the intensity of the ion beams extracted from the 14.4 GHz ECRIS in Frankfurt. In our method a special metal-dielectric structure (MD cylinder) was introduced in the ECRIS plasma chamber. In the experiment analyzed beams of Ar 16+ ions were increased in intensity by a factor of 50 as compared to the standard set up with stainless steel chamber. These results have been communicated at the International Conference on Ion Sources held at

  5. Ion cyclotron resonance heating systems upgrade toward high power and CW operations in WEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillairet, Julien, E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr; Mollard, Patrick; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Argouarch, Arnaud; Berger-By, Gilles; Charabot, Nicolas; Colas, Laurent; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc; Ekedahl, Annika; Fedorczak, Nicolas; Ferlay, Fabien; Goniche, Marc; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Helou, Walid; Jacquot, Jonathan; Joffrin, Emmanuel; Litaudon, Xavier; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Patterlini, Jean-Claude [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-12-10

    The design of the WEST (Tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) Ion cyclotron resonance heating antennas is based on a previously tested conjugate-T Resonant Double Loops prototype equipped with internal vacuum matching capacitors. The design and construction of three new WEST ICRH antennas are being carried out in close collaboration with ASIPP, within the framework of the Associated Laboratory in the fusion field between IRFM and ASIPP. The coupling performance to the plasma and the load-tolerance have been improved, while adding Continuous Wave operation capability by introducing water cooling in the entire antenna. On the generator side, the operation class of the high power tetrodes is changed from AB to B in order to allow high power operation (up to 3 MW per antenna) under higher VSWR (up to 2:1). Reliability of the generators is also improved by increasing the cavity breakdown voltage. The control and data acquisition system is also upgraded in order to resolve and react on fast events, such as ELMs. A new optical arc detection system comes in reinforcement of the V{sub r}/V{sub f} and SHAD systems.

  6. Resonant Scattering of Relativistic Outer Zone Electrons by Plasmaspheric Plume Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen-Peng, Su; Hui-Nan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The bounce-averaged Fokker–Planck equation is solved to study the relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) evolution in the outer radiation belt due to resonant interactions with plasmaspheric plume electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. It is found that the PSDs of relativistic electrons can be depleted by 1–3 orders of magnitude in 5h, supporting the previous finding that resonant interactions with EMIC waves may account for the frequently observed relativistic electron flux dropouts in the outer radiation belt during the main phase of a storm. The significant precipitation loss of ∼MeV electrons is primarily induced by the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands. The rapid remove of highly relativistic electrons (> 5 MeV) is mainly driven by the EMIC waves in O + band at lower pitch-angles, as well as the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands at larger pitch-angles. Moreover, a stronger depletion of relativistic electrons is found to occur over a wider pitch angle range when EMIC waves are centering relatively higher in the band

  7. Ion heating at the cyclotron resonance in plasmas magnetically confined in a toroidal octupole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Ion temperatures as high as 600 eV have been produced using rf wave heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency in a toroidal octupole magnetic field. Rf is coupled to the plasma with an externally driven ''fifth'' hoop which forms the inductive leg of an oscillator tank circuit. Power levels up to 1 MW at 1 to 3 MHz have been applied for periods up to 2 msec. Plasmas produced either by ECRH or by gun injection are simulated with a computer program in which known particle and energy production and loss mechanisms are used to predict the spatially averaged time behaviour of the plasma in the presence of the applied ion heating. The program can be used to calculate the consequences of the heating model in the presence of many cooling mechanisms which may each have a separate dependence on instantaneous plasma parameters. Experimental quantities compared to computer predictions include density, ion temperature, and loading of the hoop by the plasma, both resistive and reactive, and neutral reflux from the wall by electron and ion impact. Wave penetration to the resonance zone is good up to the highest densities available (6 x 10 12 cm -3 by gun injection) in good agreement with theory. Neutral reflux from the walls and the large charge exchange cooling which results is the dominant loss mechanism at the higher hoop voltages

  8. Magneto-optical and cyclotron resonance studies of semiconductors and their nanostructures in pulsed high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We present a review on the recent advances in physics of magneto-optical spectroscopy in the visible range and of infrared cyclotron resonance in pulsed high magnetic fields, which are produced by electromagnetic flux compression up to 500T, by the single-turn coil technique up to 200T or by conventional non-destructive long pulse magnets up to 50T. We discuss the recent results on the spectroscopy of low dimensional excitons in quantum wells and short period superlattices. In very high fields up to 500T, we observed anomalous field dependence of the exciton absorption lines and the 2D - 3D cross-over effects in GaAs/AlAs quantum wells. In GaP/AlP short period superlattices, it was found that the exciton photoluminescence intensity shows a dramatic decrease and the diamagnetic shift was negative when high magnetic fields were applied parallel to the growth direction. We observed also remarkable effects of uniaxial stress, which are ascribed to the cross-over effect between the two inequivalent valleys at the X points. Cyclotron resonance was measured by using various molecular gas lasers as radiation sources in the range 5 - 119 m . We present the results of cyclotron resonance in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with tilted magnetic fields from the growth direction. It was found that the resonant field and the peak intensity show many different features depending on the extent of the Landau level-subband coupling and on the relation between the photon energy and the barrier height. A large hysteresis was observed between the rising and the falling sweeps of the magnetic field, when the cyclotron resonance energy became comparable with the subband spacing. In a diluted magnetic semiconductor CdFeS, we observed anomalous temperature dependence of the effective mass, suggestive of the magnetic polaron effect

  9. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delferriere, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  10. Electron precipitation and VLF emissions associated with cyclotron resonance interactions near the plasmapause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Rosenberg, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    Correlated bursts of bremsstrahlung X rays and VLF emissions were recorded for approx.25 min at Siple Station, Antarctica, on January 2, 1971. The burst occurred quasi-periodically with spectral power predominantly in the period range 4--12 s. A typical VLF burst consisted of 3--5 rising elements of approx.0.1-s duration separated by approx.0.15 s and was confined to the frequency range 1.5--3.8 kHz. Evidence is presented to show that the bursts were triggered by the low-frequency tail of whistlers propagating from the northern hemisphere. The interpretation of the observations in terms of an equatorial cyclotron resonance interaction occurring at the outer edge of the plasmapause on the L=4.2 field line, offered initially by Rosenberg et al. (1971), is given further support by the more extensive analysis presented here of the electron energy-wave frequency relationship in the bursts and the propagation times for the resonant waves and electrons. It is inferred from the X ray data that the equatorial flux of trapped electrons was probably anisotropic and near the stable trapping limit at the time of this event. It is suggested that an important effect of the trigger signal is the increase of the anisotropy of the resonant electrons. Wave growth rates calculated in the random phase approximation for electron pitch angle distributions that might apply in this event can explain certain features of the VLF and precipitation data during and between the bursts

  11. A high intensity Stern-Gerlach polarized hydrogen source for the Munich MP-Tandem laboratory using ECR ionization and charge exchange in cesium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertenberger, R.; Eisermann, Y.; Metz, A.; Schiemenz, P.; Graw, G.

    2001-01-01

    The 14 year old Lamb-Shift hydrogen source of the Munich Tandem laboratory is presently replaced by a newly developed Stern-Gerlach type atomic beam source (ABS) with electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ionization and subsequent double charge exchange in a supersonic cesium vapor jet target. The atomic beam source provides an intensity of 6.4*10 16 atoms/sec of polarized hydrogen and of about 5*10 16 atoms/sec of polarized deuterium. Beam intensities larger than 100 μA were observed for positive H-vector + and D-vector + ion beams after ECR ionization and intensities larger than 10 μA for negative D-vector - ion beams in three magnetic substates

  12. Investigation of the performances of an ECR charge breeder at ISOLDE: a study of the 1$^{+}\\to$n$^{+}$ scenario for the next generation ISOL facilities.

    CERN Document Server

    MARIE-JEANNE, M; Delahaye, P

    2009-01-01

    The work described here was performed at ISOLDE, CERN. It aimed at giving an objective report of the current performances of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources used as charge breeders, with both stable and radioactive ion beams. As a prerequisite, some technical developments were undertaken during the PhD thesis to improve the setup and to lead the tests with optimal conditions. A major part of these developments concerns beam purity, and is detailed in this thesis. Then, measurements of the charge breeding efficiencies of various isotopes were completed with different charge breeding modes. Results of these experiments are analyzed and compared to the current performances of other types of charge breeding methods. At the end, some conclusions are drawn from this investigation in perspective of the choices to make for future ISOL postaccelerators. The discussion is extended to the immediate application of ECR charge bred radioactive ion beams to physics experiments.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of electron behavior in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge sustained by circular TM11 mode fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.C.; Kuo, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Electron behavior in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge sustained by TM 11 mode fields of a cylindrical waveguide has been investigated via a Monte Carlo simulation. The time averaged, spatially dependent electron energy distribution is computed self-consistently. At low pressures (∼0.5 mTorr), the temperature of the tail portion of the electron energy distribution exceeds 40 eV, and the sheath potential is about -250 V. These results, which are about twice as high as the previous results for TM 01 mode fields [S. C. Kuo, E. E. Kunhardt, and S. P. Kuo, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4197 (1993)], suggest that TM 11 mode fields have a stronger electron cyclotron resonance effect than TM 01 mode fields in a cylindrical waveguide. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Cyclotron resonance study of the two-dimensional electron layers and double layers in tilted magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncharuk, Natalya; Smrčka, Ludvík; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2004), s. 590-593 ISSN 1386-9477. [International Conference on Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems /15./. Nara, 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : single layer * double layer * two-dimensional electron system * cyclotron resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2004

  15. Reconstruction of high temporal resolution Thomson scattering data during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating using conditional averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ida, K.; Itoh, K.; Moon, C.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Inagaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a software application of the sampling scope concept for fusion research. The time evolution of Thomson scattering data is reconstructed with a high temporal resolution during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating (MECH) phase. The amplitude profile and the delay time profile of the heat pulse propagation are obtained from the reconstructed signal for discharges having on-axis and off-axis MECH depositions. The results are found to be consistent with the MECH deposition.

  16. Reconstruction of high temporal resolution Thomson scattering data during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating using conditional averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T., E-mail: kobayashi.tatsuya@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Yoshinuma, M.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Moon, C.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsujimura, T. I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Inagaki, S. [Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    This paper provides a software application of the sampling scope concept for fusion research. The time evolution of Thomson scattering data is reconstructed with a high temporal resolution during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating (MECH) phase. The amplitude profile and the delay time profile of the heat pulse propagation are obtained from the reconstructed signal for discharges having on-axis and off-axis MECH depositions. The results are found to be consistent with the MECH deposition.

  17. Enhanced production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by exciting selective microwave mode on a large-bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Daiju; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    We are constructing a tandem type ECRIS. The first stage is large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped magnet. We optimize the ion beam current and ion saturation current by a mobile plate tuner. They change by the position of the plate tuner for 2.45 GHz, 11-13 GHz, and multi-frequencies. The peak positions of them are close to the position where the microwave mode forms standing wave between the plate tuner and the extractor. The absorbed powers are estimated for each mode. We show a new guiding principle, which the number of efficient microwave mode should be selected to fit to that of multipole of the comb-shaped magnets. We obtained the excitation of the selective modes using new mobile plate tuner to enhance ECR efficiency.

  18. Enhanced production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by exciting selective microwave mode on a large-bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Daiju, E-mail: kimura@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem type ECRIS. The first stage is large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped magnet. We optimize the ion beam current and ion saturation current by a mobile plate tuner. They change by the position of the plate tuner for 2.45 GHz, 11–13 GHz, and multi-frequencies. The peak positions of them are close to the position where the microwave mode forms standing wave between the plate tuner and the extractor. The absorbed powers are estimated for each mode. We show a new guiding principle, which the number of efficient microwave mode should be selected to fit to that of multipole of the comb-shaped magnets. We obtained the excitation of the selective modes using new mobile plate tuner to enhance ECR efficiency.

  19. Reactions of metal ions and their clusters in the gas phase using laser ionization: ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiser, B.S.

    1981-04-01

    Two subjects are discussed in this report: advances in proposed studies on metal ion chemistry and expansion of laboratory facilities. The development of a combined pulsed laser source-ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer has proven to be a convenient and powerful method for generating metal ions and for studying their subsequent chemistry in the gas phase. The main emphasis of this research has been on the application of metal ions as a selective chemical ionization reagents and progress in this area are discussed. The goal is to identify trends in reactivity i.e. mechanisms useful in interpreting the chemical ionization spectra of unknown compounds and to test for the functional group selectivity of the various metal ions. The feasibility of these goals have been demonstrated in extensive studies on Cu + with esters and ketones, on Fe + with ethers, ketones, and hydrocarbons, and on Ti + with hydrocarbons. In addition, preliminary results on sulfur containing compounds and on a variety of other metallic ions have been obtained. Laboratory facilities were expanded from one ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometer to two, plus a third instrument the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) spectrometer

  20. Plasma studies of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H T; Peng, S X; Xu, Y; Zhao, J; Lu, P N; Chen, J; Zhang, A L; Zhang, T; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2014-02-01

    At Peking University (PKU) we have developed several 2.45 GHz Permanent Magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources for PKUNIFTY, SFRFQ, Coupled RFQ&SFRFQ, and Dielectric-Wall Accelerator (DWA) projects (respectively, 50 mA of D(+), 10 mA of O(+), 10 mA of He(+), and 50 mA of H(+)). In order to improve performance of these ion sources, it is necessary to better understand the principal factors that influence the plasma density and the atomic ion fraction. Theoretical analysis about microwave transmission and cut-off inside the discharge chamber were carried out to study the influence of the discharge chamber diameters. As a consequence, experimental studies on plasma density and ion fraction with different discharge chamber sizes have been carried out. Due to the difficulties in measuring plasma density inside the discharge chamber, the output beam current was measured to reflect the plasma density. Experimental results show that the plasma density increases to the maximum and then decreases significantly as the diameter changed from 64 mm to 30 mm, and the atomic ion fraction has the same tendency. The maximum beam intensity was obtained with the diameter of 35 mm, but the maximum atomic ion fraction with a diameter of 40 mm. The experimental results are basically accordant with the theoretical calculation. Details are presented in this paper.

  1. Plasma studies of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Xu, Y.; Zhao, J.; Lu, P. N.; Chen, J.; Zhang, A. L.; Zhang, T.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-15

    At Peking University (PKU) we have developed several 2.45 GHz Permanent Magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources for PKUNIFTY, SFRFQ, Coupled RFQ and SFRFQ, and Dielectric-Wall Accelerator (DWA) projects (respectively, 50 mA of D{sup +}, 10 mA of O{sup +}, 10 mA of He{sup +}, and 50 mA of H{sup +}). In order to improve performance of these ion sources, it is necessary to better understand the principal factors that influence the plasma density and the atomic ion fraction. Theoretical analysis about microwave transmission and cut-off inside the discharge chamber were carried out to study the influence of the discharge chamber diameters. As a consequence, experimental studies on plasma density and ion fraction with different discharge chamber sizes have been carried out. Due to the difficulties in measuring plasma density inside the discharge chamber, the output beam current was measured to reflect the plasma density. Experimental results show that the plasma density increases to the maximum and then decreases significantly as the diameter changed from 64 mm to 30 mm, and the atomic ion fraction has the same tendency. The maximum beam intensity was obtained with the diameter of 35 mm, but the maximum atomic ion fraction with a diameter of 40 mm. The experimental results are basically accordant with the theoretical calculation. Details are presented in this paper.

  2. Ray-tracing analysis of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating in straight stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.

    1983-05-01

    A ray-tracing computer code is developed and implemented to simulate electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in stellarators. A straight stellarator model is developed to simulate the confinement geometry. Following a review of ECRH, a cold plasma model is used to define the dispersion relation. To calculate the wave power deposition, a finite temperature damping approximation is used. 3-D ray equations in cylindrical coordinates are derived and put into suitable forms for computation. The three computer codes, MAC, HERA, and GROUT, developed for this research, are described next. ECRH simulation is then carried out for three models including Heliotron E and Wendelstein VII A. Investigated aspects include launching position and mode scan, frequency detuning, helical effects, start-up, and toroidal effects. Results indicate: (1) an elliptical waveguide radiation pattern, with its long axis oriented half-way between the toroidal axis and the saddle point line, is more efficient than a circular one; and (2) mid-plane, high field side launch is favored for both O- and X-waves

  3. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: the analytical tool for heavy oil and bitumen characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Thomas B.P; Brown, Melisa; Hsieh, Ben; Larter, Steve [Petroleum Reservoir Group (prg), Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICRMS), developed in the 1970's by Marshall and Comisarow at the University of British Columbia, has become a commercially available tool capable of analyzing several hundred thousand components in a petroleum mixture at once. This analytical technology will probably usher a dramatic revolution in geochemical capability, equal to or greater than the molecular revolution that occurred when GCMS technologies became cheaply available. The molecular resolution and information content given by the FTICRMS petroleum analysis can be compared to the information in the human genome. With current GCMS-based petroleum geochemical protocols perhaps a few hundred components can be quantitatively determined, but with FTICRMS, 1000 times this number of components could possibly be resolved. However, fluid and other properties depend on interaction of this multitude of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon components, not the components themselves, and access to the full potential of this new petroleomics will depend on the definition of this interactome.

  4. Fourier Transfrom Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-03-01

    At high magnetic field (9.4 tesla at NHMFL), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry performance improves dramatically: mass resolving power, axialization efficiency, and scan speed (each proportional to B), maximum ion mass, dynamic range, ion trapping period, kinetic energy, and electron self-cooling rate for sympathetic cooling (each proportional to B^2), and ion coalescence tendency (proportional 1/B^2). These advantages may apply singly (e.g., unit mass resolution for proteins of >100,000 Da), or compound (e.g., 10-fold improvement in S/N ratio for 9.4 T vs. 6 T at the same resolving power). Examples range from direct determination of molecular formulas of diesel fuel components by accurate mass measurement (=B10.1 ppm) to protein structure and dynamics probed by H/D exchange. This work was supported by N.S.F. (CHE-93-22824; CHE-94-13008), N.I.H. (GM-31683), Florida State University, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL.

  5. Third harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating on TCV using top launch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porte, L.; Alberti, S.; Arnoux, G.; Martin, Y.; Hogge, J.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.; Nelson-Melby, E.; Pochelon, A.; Tran, M.Q.

    2003-01-01

    A third harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating system (X3) has been installed, commissioned and brought into service on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV). It comprises three 118 GHz, 0.5 MW gyrotrons designed to produce pulses up to 2 seconds long. In the present configuration, 1.0MW is launched vertically from the top of the vessel into the plasma and the remaining 0.5MW is launched horizontally from the low field side. X3 has been used to heat plasmas at density exceeding the 2 nd harmonic cut-off significantly extending the operational space of additionally heated TCV plasmas. Studies have been performed to determine the optimal plasma/launcher configuration for X3 absorption for various plasma conditions and to find methods for real time feedback control of the X3 launcher. First experiments have been performed aimed at heating H-mode plasmas on TCV. First results show that the ELMs in TCV ohmic H-mode plasmas exhibit all characteristics of Type III ELMs. If, at moderate X3 power ( 0.45MW) the Type III ELMs disappear and the H-mode discharge exhibits different MHD phenomena eventually disrupting. (author)

  6. Phase and gain measurements in a distributed-loss cyclotron-resonance maser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The control of gain and phase delay in a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) amplifier is essential for a variety of applications. In this experiment, the gain and phase-delay variations are measured with respect to controlling parameters; the electron-beam current and the axial magnetic field. Following Chu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1103 (1995)], the CRM amplifier comprises of a distributed-loss waveguide to enable high gain without oscillations. Our experiment yields an amplification up to 26 dB, and a phase-delay control range of 360 deg. In order to keep a fixed gain with the varying phase delay, the two controlling parameters (i.e., the solenoid field and the beam current) are operated together in a compensating mode. The experiment is conducted in a frequency of 7.3 GHz, with an electron beam of 18-kV voltage and 0.25-0.4-A current. The experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. Practical implementations of gain and phase control in CRM devices are discussed

  7. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for complex thiophenic mixture analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2013-10-01

    Rationale Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) are detrimental species for refining processes in petroleum industry. Current mass spectrometric Methods that determine their composition are often preceded by derivatization and dopant addition approaches. Different ionization Methods have different impact on the molecular assignment of complex PASHs. The analysis of such species under atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is still considered limited due to uncontrolled ion generation with low- and high-mass PASHs. Methods The ionization behavior of a model mixture of five selected PASH standards was investigated using an APCI source with nitrogen as the reagent gas. A complex thiophenic fraction was separated from a vacuum gas oil (VGO) and injected using the same method. The samples were analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). RESULTS PASH model analytes were successfully ionized and mainly [M + H]+ ions were produced. The same ionization pattern was observed for the real thiophenic sample. It was found that S1 class species were the major sulfur-containing species found in the VGO sample. These species indicated the presence of alkylated benzothiophenic (BT), dibenzothiophenic (DBT) and benzonaphthothiophenic (BNT) series that were detected by APCI-FTICR MS. CONCLUSIONS This study provides an established APCI-FTICR MS method for the analysis of complex PASHs. PASHs were detected without using any derivatization and without fragmentation. The method can be used for the analysis of S-containing crude oil samples. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Ion cyclotron resonance heating for tungsten control in various JET H-mode scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniche, M.; Dumont, R. J.; Bobkov, V.; Buratti, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Challis, C.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Drewelow, P.; Fedorczak, N.; Garcia, J.; Giroud, C.; Graham, M.; Graves, J. P.; Hobirk, J.; Jacquet, P.; Lerche, E.; Mantica, P.; Monakhov, I.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Nave, M. F. F.; Noble, C.; Nunes, I.; Pütterich, T.; Rimini, F.; Sertoli, M.; Valisa, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET

    2017-05-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the hydrogen minority scheme provides central ion heating and acts favorably on the core tungsten transport. Full wave modeling shows that, at medium power level (4 MW), after collisional redistribution, the ratio of power transferred to the ions and the electrons vary little with the minority (hydrogen) concentration n H/n e but the high-Z impurity screening provided by the fast ions temperature increases with the concentration. The power radiated by tungsten in the core of the JET discharges has been analyzed on a large database covering the 2013-2014 campaign. In the baseline scenario with moderate plasma current (I p = 2.5 MA) ICRH modifies efficiently tungsten transport to avoid its accumulation in the plasma centre and, when the ICRH power is increased, the tungsten radiation peaking evolves as predicted by the neo-classical theory. At higher current (3-4 MA), tungsten accumulation can be only avoided with 5 MW of ICRH power with high gas injection rate. For discharges in the hybrid scenario, the strong initial peaking of the density leads to strong tungsten accumulation. When this initial density peaking is slightly reduced, with an ICRH power in excess of 4 MW,very low tungsten concentration in the core (˜10-5) is maintained for 3 s. MHD activity plays a key role in tungsten transport and modulation of the tungsten radiation during a sawtooth cycle is correlated to the fishbone activity triggered by the fast ion pressure gradient.

  9. First results with the yin-yang type electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Koivisto, H.

    2007-01-01

    Highly charged heavy-ion beams are often produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). The so-called conventional minimum-B ECRIS design includes two solenoid magnets and a multipole magnet (usually a hexapole). A minimum-B configuration can also be formed with 'yin-yang' ('baseball') type coils. Such a magnetic field configuration has been extensively tested in magnetic fusion experiments but not for the production of highly charged heavy ions. The application of the afore-mentioned coil structure to the production of multiply charged ion beams was studied. In this paper we present a design of a yin-yang type ion source known as the ARC-ECRIS and some preliminary experimental results. As a result of this work it was found that the ARC-ECRIS plasma is stable and capable of producing multiply charged ions. Many compromises were made in order to keep the costs of the prototype low. As a consequence, significant improvement can be expected in performance if the plasma size is increased and magnetic confinement is improved. At the end of this article an evolution model of the ARC-ECRIS and some future prospects are presented

  10. Control of composition and crystallinity in hydroxyapatite films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering under a simultaneous flow of H2O vapor gas. Crystallization during sputter-deposition at elevated temperatures and solid-phase crystallization of amorphous films were compared in terms of film properties. When HAp films were deposited with Ar sputtering gas at temperatures above 460 °C, CaO byproducts precipitated with HAp crystallites. Using Xe instead of Ar resolved the compositional problem, yielding a single HAp phase. Preferentially c-axis-oriented HAp films were obtained at substrate temperatures between 460 and 500 °C and H2O pressures higher than 1×10-2 Pa. The absorption signal of the asymmetric stretching mode of the PO43- unit (ν3) in the Fourier-transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) spectra was the narrowest for films as-crystallized during deposition with Xe, but widest for solid-phase crystallized films. While the symmetric stretching mode of PO43- (ν1) is theoretically IR-inactive, this signal emerged in the FT-IR spectra of solid-phase crystallized films, but was absent for as-crystallized films, indicating superior crystallinity for the latter. The Raman scattering signal corresponding to ν1 PO43- sensitively reflected this crystallinity. The surface hardness of as-crystallized films evaluated by a pencil hardness test was higher than that of solid-phase crystallized films.

  11. Science Court on ICRH [ion cyclotron resonance heating] modeling of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Sadowski, W.L.

    1987-10-01

    The Applied Plasma Physics (APP) Theory program in the Office of Fusion Energy is charged with supporting the development of advanced physics models for fusion research. One such effort is ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), which has seen substantial progress recently. However, due to serious questions about the adequacy of present models for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak), a Science Court was formed to assess ICRH models, including: validity of theoretical and computational approximations; underlying physics assumptions and corresponding limits on the results; self-consistency; any subsidiary issues needing resolution (e.g., new computer tools); adequacy of the models in simulating experiments (especially CIT); and new or improved experiments to validate and refine the models. The Court did not review work by specific individuals, institutions, or programs, thereby avoiding any biases along these lines. Rather, the Science Court was carefully structured as a technical review of ICRH theory and modeling in the US. This paper discusses the Science Court process, findings, and conclusions

  12. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-10-12

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8,158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with RMS error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apotransferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g. 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1M at m/z =2,700).

  13. Response of a core coherent density oscillation on electron cyclotron resonance heating in Heliotron J plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lu, X. X.; Kenmochi, N.; Ida, K.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Kado, S.; Kokubu, D.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Otani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2018-01-01

    We report properties of a coherent density oscillation observed in the core region and its response to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in Heliotron J plasma. The measurement was performed using a multi-channel beam emission spectroscopy system. The density oscillation is observed in a radial region between the core and the half radius. The poloidal mode number is found to be 1 (or 2). By modulating the ECH power with 100 Hz, repetition of formation and deformation of a strong electron temperature gradient, which is likely ascribed to be an electron internal transport barrier, is realized. Amplitude and rotation frequency of the coherent density oscillation sitting at the strong electron temperature gradient location are modulated by the ECH, while the poloidal mode structure remains almost unchanged. The change in the rotation velocity in the laboratory frame is derived. Assuming that the change of the rotation velocity is given by the background E × B velocity, a possible time evolution of the radial electric field was deduced.

  14. A gain and bandwidth enhanced transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the ion signal from a 12-T Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and the electronic noise were studied to further understand the electronic detection limit. At minimal cost, a new transimpedance preamplifier was designed, computer simulated, built, and tested. The preamplifier design pushes the electronic signal-to-noise performance at room temperature to the limit, because of its enhanced tolerance of the capacitance of the detection device, lower intrinsic noise, and larger flat mid-band gain (input current noise spectral density of around 1 pA/√(Hz) when the transimpedance is about 85 dBΩ). The designed preamplifier has a bandwidth of ∼3 kHz to 10 MHz, which corresponds to the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of approximately 18 to 61 k at 12 T. The transimpedance and the bandwidth can be easily adjusted by changing the value of passive components. The feedback limitation of the circuit is discussed. With the maximum possible transimpedance of 5.3 MΩ when using an 0402 surface mount resistor, the preamplifier was estimated to be able to detect ∼110 charges in a single scan.

  15. Dioxin analysis by gas chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-FTICRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Vince Y; Nieckarz, Robert J; Clement, Ray E; Krolik, Stefan; Williams, Robert

    2010-11-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a gas chromatograph-tandem quadrupole-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS-FTICRMS) to analyze chlorinated-dioxins/furans (CDDs/CDFs) and mixed halogenated dioxins/furans (HDDs/HDFs) was investigated by operating the system in the GC-FTICRMS mode. CDDs/CDFs and mixed HDDs/HDFs could be analyzed at 50,000 to 100,000 resolving power (RP) on the capillary gas chromatographic time scale. Initial experiments demonstrated that 1 pg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 5 pg of 2-bromo-3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (BTrCDD) could be detected. The feasibility of utilizing an FTICRMS for screening of CDDs/CDFs, HDDs/HDFs and related compounds was also investigated by analyzing an extract from vegetation exposed to fall-out from an industrial fire. CDDs/CDFs, chlorinated pyrenes and chlorinated tetracenes could be detected from a Kendrick plot analysis of the ultrahigh resolution mass spectra. Mass accuracies were of the order of 0.5 ppm on standards with external mass calibration and 1 ppm on a sample with internal mass calibration. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating 2 X 1700 loop antenna for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C.A.; Ferguson, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanical design and improvements that have taken place on the loop type ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas that are located in the center cell region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). A computer code (JASON) was used to design getter-shielded antenna supports that will hold off very high voltages (83 kV, DC) over a small insulator distance (2.25 inches) in a vacuum of 10/sup -5/ Torr. The authors also added corona shields on the ceramic-to-metal joints of the matching network capacitors. The system now operates reliably with peak radio frequency (RF) voltages of 40 kV at 2-to-4- MHz frequency and power levels up to 200 kW. The authors have just installed a new loop antenna in the east part of the central cell where the slot antenna was located. This antenna uses two of the slot's internal coax lines and the external matching network. The feedthroughs designed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were replaced with two high-voltage RF feedthroughs designed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

  17. Generation of a auroral kilometer radiowaves at a maser cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    A linear mechanism of auroral kilometer radiowave (AKR) generation at a maser cyclotron resonance (MCR) in non-homogeneous non-monodimensional plasma is developed. Model distribution functions introduced for longitudinal and transverse electron beasms allow one to obtain x- and o-mode increments in the form of elementary functions. The key concept of work consists in MCR time, taking account of the complex of all processes leading to wave outlet from the MCR. It is shown that MCR time can be sufficient for AKR generation only in certain region of auroral plasma. For x-mode these are such plasma sections where the longitudinal geomagnetic field gradient is compensated by plasma density gradient. O-mode is generated only in those local regions where the plasma density longitudinal gradient is very low. The theoretical minimal width of AKR spectrum line obtained coincides with the minimal measured line width equal to 5Hz. A conclusion is made that the discrete AKR spectrum appears to be the reflection of the auroral plasma inhomogeneous structure

  18. Generation of auroral kilometric radio emission at the cyclotron maser resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    A linear mechanism of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) generation at the maser cyclotron resonance (MCR) in an inhomogeneous multidimensional plasma is developed. The model distribution functions introduced by the author for longitudinal and transverse electron beams allow one to obtain x- and O-mode growth rates in the form of elementary functions. The key idea of the study is the MCR time taking into account all processes leading to the emission of waves from the MCR. It is shown that the MCR time can be sufficient for AKR generation in isolated regions of the auroral plasma. For the X-mode these are the parts of the plasma where the longitudinal gradient of the geomagnetic field is compensated by the plasma density gradient. The O-mode is generated only in those local regions where there is an extremely small longitudinal plasma density gradient. The theoretical minimum width of the AKR spectral line obtained coincides with the minimal measured line width of 5 Hz. It is concluded that the discrete AKR spectrum is related to the inhomogeneous structure of the auroral plasma

  19. Spatial profiling of ion and neutral excitation in noble gas electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, R.L.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Optical emission from neutrals and ions of several noble gases has been profiled in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. In argon plasmas with a net microwave power of 750 W, the neutral (696.5-nm) and ion (488-nm) emission profiles are slightly center peaked at 0.32 mTorr and gradually shift to a hollow appearance at 2.5 mTorr. Neon profiles show a similar trend from 2.5 to 10.0 mTorr. For the noble gases, transition pressure scales with the ionization potential of the gas, which is consistent with neutral depletion. Studies of noble gas mixtures, however, indicate that neutral depletion is not always dominant in the formation of hollow profiles. For Kr/Ar, Ar/Ne, and Ne/He plasmas, the majority gas tends to set the overall shape of the profile at any given pressure. For the conditions of the current system, plasma density appears to be more dominant than electron temperature in the formation of hollow profiles. The general method described is also a straightforward, inexpensive technique for measuring the spatial distribution of power deposited in plasmas, particularly where absolute scale can be calibrated by some other means

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J. [Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona (Colombia); Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2004-07-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H - and D - ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  2. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiency of current drive by electron-cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-average Fokker-Planck code to elucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Gammino, Santo [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, Gino [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Isernia, Tommaso [University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called “frequency sweep” method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  4. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Sorbello, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  5. Development of 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Hoon, Oh; Sang-Ryul, In; Kwang-Won, Lee; Chang Seog, Seo; Jung-Tae, Jin; Dae-Sik, Chang; Seong Ho, Jeong; Chul-Kew Hwang

    2012-01-01

    A 14.5 GHz ECRIS has been designed and fabricated at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to produce multi-charged ion beam (especially for C 6+ ion beam) for medical application. The magnet system has copper conductor solenoid coils and a permanent magnet hexapole. A welded tube with aluminium and stainless steel is used for an ECR plasma chamber to improve the production of secondary electron. A klystron supplies microwave energy to the plasma. A movable beam extractor with 8 mm aperture covers different species and different charge numbers of the beam. Fabrication and initial experimental results on ECR plasma are discussed in this paper. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  6. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper

  7. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Hajdu, P; Pálinkás, J

    2014-02-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the "big" ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  8. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary)

    2014-02-15

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  9. R&D activities on RF contacts for the ITER ion cyclotron resonance heating launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillairet, Julien, E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, Arnaud [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bamber, Rob [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Beaumont, Bertrand [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bernard, Jean-Michel; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Durodié, Frédéric [Laboratory for Plasmas Physics, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lamalle, Philippe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lombard, Gilles [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Nicholls, Keith; Shannon, Mark [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vulliez, Karl [Maestral Laboratory, Technetics Group, Pierrelatte (France); Cantone, Vincent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Larroque, Sébastien; Lebourg, Philippe; Martinez, André; Mollard, Patrick; Mouyon, David; Pagano, Marco [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • CEA have developed a dedicated test-bed for testing RF contact in ITER relevant conditions (vacuum, temperature, RF current). • A prototype of RF contacts have been designed and manufactured, with copper lamellas brazed on a titanium holder. • This RF contact prototype failed at RF current larger than 1.8 kA. • Extensive R&D is foreseen with new RF contact designs. - Abstract: Embedded RF contacts are integrated within the ITER ICRH launcher to allow assembling, sliding and to lower the thermo-mechanical stress. They have to withstand a peak RF current up to 2.5 kA at 55 MHz in steady-state conditions, in the vacuum environment of the machine. The contacts have to sustain a temperature up to 250 °C during several days in baking operations and have to be reliable during the whole life of the launcher without degradation. The RF contacts are critical components for the launcher performance and intensive R&D is therefore required, since no RF contacts have so far been qualified at these specifications. In order to test and validate the anticipated RF contacts in operational conditions, CEA has prepared a test platform consisting of a steady-state vacuum pumped RF resonator. In collaboration with ITER Organization and the CYCLE consortium (CYclotron CLuster for Europe), an R&D program has been conducted to develop RF contacts that meet the ITER ICRH launcher specifications. A design proposed by CYCLE consortium, using brazed lamellas supported by a spring to improve thermal exchange efficiency while guaranteeing high contact force, was tested successfully in the T-resonator up to 1.7 kA during 1200 s, but failed for larger current values due to a degradation of the contacts. Details concerning the manufacturing of the brazed contacts on its titanium holder, the RF tests results performed on the resonator and the non-destructive tests analysis of the contacts are given in this paper.

  10. Present status of FLNR (JINR) ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, S.; Efremov, A.; Loginov, V.; Lebedev, A.; Yazvitsy, N.; Bekhterev, V.; Kostukhov, Y.; Gulbekian, G.; Gikal, B.; Drobin, V.; Seleznev, V.; Seleznev, V.

    2012-01-01

    Six ECR ion sources have been operated in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR). Two 14 GHz ECR ion sources (ECR4M and DECRIS-2) supply various ion species for the U400 and U400M cyclotrons correspondingly for experiments on the synthesis of heavy and exotic nuclei using ion beams of stable and radioactive isotopes. The 18 GHz DECRIS-SC ion source with superconducting magnet system produces ions from Ar up to W for solid state physics experiments and polymer membrane fabrication at the IC-100 cyclotron. The third 14 GHz ion source DECRIS-4 with 'flat' minimum of the axial magnetic field is used as a stand alone machine for test experiments and also for experiments on ion modification of materials. The other two compact ECR ion sources with all permanent magnet configuration have been developed for the production of single charged ions and are used at the DRIBs installation and at the MASHA mass-spectrometer. In this paper, present status of the ion sources, recent developments and plans for modernization are reported. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  11. A phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique for mass measurements of short-lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, Sergey; Blaum, Klaus; Doerr, Andreas; Eronen, Tommi; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Ramirez, Enrique Minaya; Simon, Vanessa [Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Block, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Chenmarev, Stanislav; Filjanin, Pavel; Nesterenko, Dmitriy; Novikov, Yuri [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Droese, Christian; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A novel approach to mass measurements on the sub-ppb level even for short-lived nuclides with half-lives well below one second is presented. It is based on the projection of the radial ion motion in a Penning trap onto a position sensitive detector. Compared to the presently employed time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique, the novel approach is 25-times faster and provides a 40-fold gain in resolving power. With the new technique low-lying isomeric states with excitation energy on the 10-keV level can be separated from the ground state. Moreover, the new technique possesses a substantially higher sensitivity since just two ions are sufficient to determine the ion cyclotron frequency. A measurement of the mass difference of singly charged ions of {sup 132}Xe and {sup 131}Xe with an uncertainty of 25 eV has demonstrated the great potential of the new approach.

  12. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantsinen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  13. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1999-06-01

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  14. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-05-11

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10/sup 12/cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-01-01

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10 12 cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-01-01

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). This analyzer indicates an increase in ion temperature from ∼20 eV before ICRH to ∼150 eV during ICRH, with ∼60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial integral of n i T i as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma potential is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat, as the plasma conditions varied over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U

  17. 1+-n+ ECR ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENT TEST STAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald P. May

    2006-01-01

    A test stand for the investigation of 1+-n+ charge boosting using an ECR ion sources is currently being assembled at the Texas A and M Cyclotron Institute. The ultimate goal is to relate the charge-boosting of ions of stable species to possible charge-boosting of ions of radioactive species extracted from the diverse, low-charge-state ion sources developed for radioactive ion beams

  18. Preriminary operation results of JAERI ECR ion source OCTOPUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, W.; Arakawa, K.; Tachikawa, T.; Satoh, T.; Dupont, C.; Jongen, Y.

    1990-01-01

    An ECR ion source, new OCTOPUS, was built for and AVF cyclotron of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki. The design of this source is almost identical to the first built OCTOPUS, except for the RF frequency for the 2nd stage. The first operation of the new OCTOPUS was performed. High intensity of X-ray leakage was measured outside the lead shield wall of the source. (author)

  19. Measurement of the 60 GHz ECR ion source using megawatt magnets - SEISM magnetic field map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Jeanne, M.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Debray, F.; Matera, J.; Pfister, R.; Trophine, C.

    2012-01-01

    LPSC has developed a 60 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source prototype called SEISM. The magnetic structure uses resistive poly-helix coils designed in collaboration with the French National High Magnetic Fields Facility (LNCMI) to produce a CUSP magnetic configuration. A dedicated test bench and appropriate electrical and water cooling environments were built to study the validity of the mechanics, the thermal behaviour and magnetic field characteristics obtained at various current intensities. During the last months, measurements were performed for several magnetic configurations, with up to 7000 A applied on the injection and extraction coils sets. The magnetic field achieved at 13000 A is expected to allow 28 GHz ECR condition, so by extrapolation 60 GHz should be possible at about 28000 A. However, cavitation issues that appeared around 7000 A are to be solved before carrying on with the tests. This contribution will recall some of the crucial steps in the prototype fabrication, and show preliminary results from the measurements at 7000 A. Possible explanations for the differences observed between the results and the simulation will be given. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  20. Design of a 4D emittance measurement device for high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yangyang; Yang Yao; Zhao Hongwei; Sun Liangting; Cao Yun; Wang Yun

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of on-line beam quality diagnostics and transverse emittance coupling investigation of the ion beams delivered by an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, a real-time 4D Pepper Pot type emittance scanner is under development at IMP (Institute of Moden Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The high charge state ECR ion source at IMP could produce CW or pulsed heavy ion beam intensities in the range of 1 eμA∼1 emA with the kinetic energy of 10∼35 keV/q, which needs the design of the Pepper Pot scanner to be optimized accordingly. The Pepper Pot scanner has many features, such as very short response time and wide dynamic working range that the device could be applied. Since intense heavy ion beam bombardment is expected for this device, the structure and the material selection for the device is specially considered during the design, and a feasible solution to analyze the pictures acquired after the data acquisition is also made. (authors)

  1. Influence of ECR-RF plasma modification on surface and thermal properties of polyester copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray Miroslawa El

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a study on influence of radio-frequency (RF plasma induced with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR on multiblock copolymer containing butylene terephthalate hard segments (PBT and butylene dilinoleate (BDLA soft segments. The changes in thermal properties were studied by DSC. The changes in wettability of PBT-BDLA surfaces were studied by water contact angle (WCA. We found that ECR-RF plasma surface treatment for 60 s led to decrease of WCA, while prolonged exposure of plasma led to increase of WCA after N2 and N2O2 treatment up to 70°–80°. The O2 reduced the WCA to 50°–56°. IR measurements confirmed that the N2O2 plasma led to formation of polar groups. SEM investigations showed that plasma treatment led to minor surfaces changes. Collectively, plasma treatment, especially O2, induced surface hydrophilicity what could be beneficial for increased cell adhesion in future biomedical applications of these materials.

  2. AMS of heavy elements with an ECR ion source and the ATLAS linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, M; Ahmad, I; Borasi, F; Caggiano, J; Davids, C N; Greene, J P; Harss, B; Heinz, A; Henderson, D J; Henning, W F; Jiang, C L; Pardo, R C; Rehm, K E; Rejoub, R; Seweryniak, D; Sonzogni, A; Uusitalo, J; Vondrasek, R C

    2000-01-01

    Detection of heavy elements by accelerator mass spectrometry with the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, Argonne linear accelerator and fragment mass analyzer (ECRIS-ATLAS-FMA) system has been developed. The use of the ECR-ATLAS system for AMS of heavy elements has two interesting features: (i) the efficient production of high-charge state ions in the ECR source ensures the elimination of molecular ions at the source stage, a highly attractive feature for any mass-spectrometric use not exploited so far; (ii) the linear acceleration based on velocity matching and the beam transport system act as a powerful mass filter for background suppression. We have shown that our system reaches an abundance sensitivity of 1x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 for Pb isotopes. The sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U detection sensitivity is sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U/U > or approx. 1x10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 , limited mainly by the ion source output.

  3. Electron cloud simulation of the ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The plasma of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) of ATOMKI is being continuously investigated by different diagnostic methods: using small-sized probes or taking X-ray and visible light photographs. In 2011 three articles were published by our team in a special edition of the IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science (Special Issue on Images in Plasma Science) describing our X-ray and visible light measurements and plasma modeling and simulating studies. Simulation is in many cases the base for the analysis of the photographs. The outcomes of the X-ray and visible light experiments were presented already in earlier issues of the Atomki Annual Report, therefore in this year we concentrate on the results of the simulating studies. The spatial distribution of the three main electron components (cold, warm and hot electron clouds) of the ECR plasmas was simulated by TrapCAD code. TrapCAD is a 'limited' plasma simulation code. The spatial and energy evolution of a large number of electrons can be realistically followed; however, these particles are independent, and no particle interactions are included. In ECRISs, the magnetic trap confines the electrons which keep together the ion component by their space charge. The electrons gain high energies while the ions remain very cold throughout the whole process. Thus, the spatial and energy simulation of the electron component gives much important and numerical information even for the ions. The electron components of ECRISs can artificially be grouped into three populations: cold, warm, and hot electrons. Cold electrons (1-200 eV) have not been heated by the microwave; they are mainly responsible for the visible light emission of the plasma. The energized warm electrons (several kiloelectronvolts) are able to ionize atoms and ions and they are mainly responsible for the characteristic Xray photons emitted by the plasma. Electrons having much higher energy than necessary for

  4. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  5. Pitch-angle diffusion coefficients from resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves in planetary magnetospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tripathi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitch-angle diffusion coefficients have been calculated for resonant interaction with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH waves in the magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Calculations have been performed at two radial distances of each planet. It is found that observed wave electric field amplitudes in the magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter are sufficient to put electrons on strong diffusion in the energy range of less than 100 eV. However, for Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, the observed ECH wave amplitude are insufficient to put electrons on strong diffusion at any radial distance.

  6. Control of neoclassical tearing mode by electron cyclotron current drive and non-resonant helical field application in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Kozo; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Arimoto, Hideki; Shoji, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    On tokamak plasmas like ITER, it is necessary to stabilize neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) because the NTM reduces plasma temperature and fusion power output. For the analysis of stabilizing NTM in fusion plasmas, the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and the non-resonant external helical field (NRHF) application are simulated using the 1.5-dimensional equilibrium/transport simulation code (TOTAL code). The 3/2 NTM is stabilized by only external helical field, but the 2/1 mode is not stabilized by only external helical field in the present model. The stabilization time becomes shorter by the combination of ECCD and NRHF than that by ECCD alone. (author)

  7. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T.

    2010-01-01

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm 2 (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 μA extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 π mm mrad at 15 kV (1σ) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon beams

  8. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie de Grenoble, UJF-CNRS/IN2P3 - INPG, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2} (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 {mu}A extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 {pi} mm mrad at 15 kV (1{sigma}) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon

  9. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the μ → eγ decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal μ decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Z projectile -- Z target combinations. Studies of the (α,2α) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references

  10. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance; Estocasticidad de la absorcion de energia en la resonancia electron-ciclotronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, O

    1998-07-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  11. Summary of experimental core turbulence characteristics in ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated discharges in T-10 tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershkov, V.A.; Shelukhin, D.A.; Soldatov, S.V.; Urazbaev, A.O.; Grashin, S.A.; Eliseev, L.G.; Melnikov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of experimental turbulence investigations carried out at T-10 for more than 10 years. The turbulence characteristics were investigated using correlation reflectometry, multipin Langmuir probe (MLP) and heavy ion beam probe diagnostics. The reflectometry capabilities were analysed using 2D full-wave simulations and verified by direct comparison using a MLP. The ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated discharges show the distinct transition from the core turbulence, having complex spectral structure, to the unstructured one in the scrape-off layer. The core turbulence includes 'broad band, quasi-coherent' features, arising due to the excitation of rational surfaces with high poloidal m-numbers, with a low frequency near zero and specific oscillations at 15-30 kHz. All experimentally measured properties of low frequency and high frequency quasi-coherent oscillations are in good agreement with predictions of linear theory for the ion temperature gradient/dissipative trapped electron mode instabilities. Significant local changes in the turbulence characteristics were observed at the edge velocity shear layer and in the core near q = 1 radius after switching off the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The local decrease in the electron heat conductivity and decrease in the turbulence level could be evidence of the formation of an electron internal transport barrier. The dynamic behaviour of the core turbulence was also investigated for the case of fast edge cooling and the beginning phase of ECRH

  12. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Palinkas, J. [University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  13. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used...... to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field...... in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O-2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  14. New operational spaces for the electron cyclotron resonance heating at ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehnle, Hendrik Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, new electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) scenarios were developed for an extension of the operational space at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade in view of ITER compatibility. In the last years, the first wall material at ASDEX Upgrade was changed from graphite to tungsten, and the ECRH is needed to control the tungsten concentration in the plasma core. But, in ITER-like plasma discharges at ASDEX Upgrade, the usage of the ECRH in the typically used second harmonic extraordinary polarised mode (X2 mode) is limited. In these ITER-scenarios a small safety factor should be achieved, which implements an increase of the plasma current at ASDEX Upgrade. A higher plasma current and a high confinement lead to a raised density and for the ITER scenario to an electron density above the cutoff of the X2 mode at ASDEX Upgrade. Therefore, the X2 mode is reflected at the cutoff layer and cannot be used for central heating and the control of the tungsten concentration. One possibility to overcome this problem is to apply the third harmonic mode at reduced magnetic field. Here the cutoff is increased by 33% due to the dependence on the magnetic field. However, at the reachable plasma parameters at the reduced field the absorption of the X3 mode is incomplete (60-70 %) and the shine-trough power can destroy microwave sensitive components in ASDEX Upgrade. To solve this problem the magnetic field has to be optimized. A slightly increased magnetic field from 1.7 T to 1.8 T moves the second harmonic resonance in the region of confined plasma with high temperatures and density, so that this resonance can act as beam dump. The deposition in the plasma core is still central enough for the tungsten control ability of the ECRH. The benefit of the beam dump was verified in experiments with two different magnetic fields (1.7 T and 1.8 T). In case of the higher magnetic field, the stray radiation was reduced; simultaneously the electron temperature was increased. In addition

  15. Influence of Microwave Power on the Properties of Hydrogenated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by ECR Plasma Enhanced DC Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru Lili; Huang Jianjun; Gao Liang; Qi Bing

    2010-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was applied to enhance the direct current magnetron sputtering to prepare hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) films. For different microwave powers, both argon and hydrogen gas are introduced separately as the ECR working gas to investigate the influence of microwave power on the microstructure and electrical property of the H-DLC films deposited on P-type silicon substrates. A series of characterization methods including the Raman spectrum and atomic force microscopy are used. Results show that, within a certain range, the increase in microwave power affects the properties of the thin films, namely the sp 3 ratio, the hardness, the nanoparticle size and the resistivity all increase while the roughness decreases with the increase in microwave power. The maximum of resistivity amounts to 1.1 x 10 9 Ω · cm. At the same time it is found that the influence of microwave power on the properties of H-DLC films is more pronounced when argon gas is applied as the ECR working gas, compared to hydrogen gas.

  16. Magnetic properties of Co-N films deposited by ECR nitrogen/argon plasma with DC negative-biased Co target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Yang, K.; Liu, H.X.; Zhu, X.D., E-mail: xdzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, H.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new method of synthesizing Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase. • Tunable magnetic properties achieved in ECR plasma CVD. • The change of magnetic properties is related to atoms mobility on substrate and the concentration of active species in plasma vapor. - Abstract: By introducing DC negative-biased Co target in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) nitrogen/argon plasma, the Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase were synthesized on Si(100) substrate. Effects of processing parameters on magnetic properties of the films are investigated. It is found that magnetic properties of Co-N films vary with N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio, substrate temperature, and target biasing voltage. The saturation magnetization M{sub s} decreased by increasing the N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio or decreasing target biasing voltage, while the coercive field H{sub c} increased, which is ascribed to the variation of relative concentration for N or Co active species in plasma vapor. The magnetic properties present complex dependency with growth temperature, which is related to the atom mobility on the substrate affected by the growth temperature. This study exhibits a potential of ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition to synthesize the interstitial compounds and tune magnetic properties of films.

  17. 11th ECR ion source workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains four articles concerning the commissioning of the 14 GHz ECR at the new Unilac injector, the status of the PuMa-ECR, the redesigned 14 GHz ECR ion source and test bench, and the simulation of ion beam extraction from an ECR source. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  18. Observations of rotation in JET plasmas with electron heating by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T. J.; Van Eester, D.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of L-mode plasmas in the JET tokamak heated by waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) damped on electrons, is reported. The plasma in the core is found to rotate in the counter-current direction with a high shear and in the outer part of the plasma with an almost......, electron absorption of the fast magnetosonic wave by transit time magnetic pumping and electron Landau damping (TTMP/ELD) is the dominating absorption mechanism. Inverted mode conversion is done in (He-3)-H plasmas where the mode converted waves are essentially absorbed by electron Landau damping. Similar...... rotation profiles are seen when heating at the second harmonic cyclotron frequency of He-3 and with mode conversion at high concentrations of He-3. The magnitude of the counter-rotation is found to decrease with an increasing plasma current. The correlation of the rotation with the electron temperature...

  19. Simulation of the electromagnetic field in a cylindrical cavity of an ECR ions source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán, A.; Orozco, E. A.; Dugar-Zhabon, V. D.; Murillo Acevedo, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Now there are numerous sources for multicharged ions production, each being designed for certain science or technological objectives. Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are best suited for designing heavy ion accelerators of very high energies, because they can generate multicharged ion beams at relatively great intensities. In these sources, plasma heating and its confinement are effected predominantly in minimum-B magnetic traps, this type of magnetic trap consist of two current coils used for the longitudinal magnetic confinement and a hexapole system around the cavity to generate a transversal confinement of the plasma. In an ECRIS, the electron cyclotron frequency and the microwave frequency are maintained equal on a quasi-ellipsoidal surface localized in the trap volume. It is crucial to heat electrons to energies sufficient to ionize K- and L-levels of heavy atoms. In this work, we present the preliminary numerical results concerning the space distribution of TE 111 microwave field in a cylindrical cavity. The 3D microwave field is calculated by solving the Maxwell equations through the Yee’s method. The magnetic field of minimum-B configuration is determined using the Biot-Savart law. The parameters of the magnetic system are that which guarantee the ECR surface location in a zone of a reasonably high microwave tension. Additionally, the accuracy of electric and magnetic fields calculations are checked.

  20. Status of the high current permanent magnet 2.45 GHz ECR ion source at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.X.; Song, Z.Z.; Yu, J.X.; Ren, H.T.; Zhang, M.; Yuan, Z.X.; Lu, P.N.; Zhao, J.; Chen, J.E.; Guo, Z.Y.; Lu, Y.R.

    2012-01-01

    Several compact 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) have been developed at Peking University for ion implantation, for the Separated Function Radio Frequency Quadrupole project (SFRFQ) and for the Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project (PKUNIFTY). Studies on 2.45 GHz ECR ion sources are concentrated on methods of microwave coupling and microwave window design, magnetic field generation and configuration, as well as the extraction electrodes structure. Investigation also covers the influence of the size of plasma chamber on the discharge efficiency and species factor. Up to now, our sources have produced 25 mA of O + ions, 40 mA of He + ions, 10 mA of N + ions, 100 mA of H + ions and 83 mA of D + ions, respectively. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  1. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Engelen, M.C. van; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R.

    2007-01-01

    An emerging trend is recognised in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based screening and confirmation towards accurate mass alternatives such as LC coupled with time-of-flight (TOF), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  2. Characterization of non-polar aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil using atmospheric pressure laser ionization and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APLI FT-ICR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Wolfgang; Panda, Saroj K; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2008-07-01

    We report on the successful application of the recently introduced atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) method as a novel tool for the analysis of crude oil and its components. Using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, unambiguous determination of key compounds in this complex matrix with unprecedented sensitivity is presented.

  3. Enhancement of Ar sup 8 sup + ion beam intensity from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source by optimizing the magnetic field configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Higurashi, Y; Kidera, M; Kase, M; Yano, Y; Aihara, T

    2003-01-01

    We successfully produced a 1.55 emA Ar sup 8 sup + ion beam using the RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at a microwave power of 700 W. To produce such an intense beam, we optimized the minimum magnetic field of mirror magnetic field and plasma electrode position. (author)

  4. An ICR study of ion-molecule reactions of PH(n)+ ions. [of importance to interstellar chemistry, using ion cyclotron resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    The reactions of PH(n)+ ions (n = 0-3) were examined with a number of neutrals using ion-cyclotron-resonance techniques. The reactions examined have significance for the distribution of phosphorus in interstellar molecules. The results indicate that interstellar molecules containing the P-O bond are likely to be more abundant than those containing the P-H bond.

  5. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  6. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

    2014-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  7. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode.

  8. Possible Detection of an Emission Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature from the Accretion-Powered Pulsar 4U 1626-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, W. B.; Terada, Y.; Tashiro, M. S.; Mihara, T.; Angelini, L.; Yamada, S.; Enoto, T.; Makishima, K.; Nakajima, M.; Yoshida, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present analysis of 4U 1626-67, a 7.7 s pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary system, observed with the hard X-ray detector of the Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku in 2006 March for a net exposure of 88 ks. The source was detected at an average 10-60 keY flux of approx 4 x 10-10 erg / sq cm/ s. The phase-averaged spectrum is reproduced well by combining a negative and positive power-law times exponential cutoff (NPEX) model modified at approx 37 keY by a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF). The phase-resolved analysis shows that the spectra at the bright phases are well fit by the NPEX with CRSF model. On the other hand. the spectrum in the dim phase lacks the NPEX high-energy cutoff component, and the CRSF can be reproduced by either an emission or an absorption profile. When fitting the dim phase spectrum with the NPEX plus Gaussian model. we find that the feature is better described in terms of an emission rather than an absorption profile. The statistical significance of this result, evaluated by means of an F test, is between 2.91 x 10(exp -3) and 1.53 x 10(exp -5), taking into account the systematic errors in the background evaluation of HXD-PIN. We find that the emission profile is more feasible than the absorption one for comparing the physical parameters in other phases. Therefore, we have possibly detected an emission line at the cyclotron resonance energy in the dim phase.

  9. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  10. Enhanced TiC/SiC Ohmic contacts by ECR hydrogen plasma pretreatment and low-temperature post-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bingbing; Qin, Fuwen; Wang, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-temperature ECR microwave hydrogen plasma were pretreated for moderately doped (1 × 10"1"8 cm"−"3) SiC surfaces. • The relationship among Ohmic properties, the SiC surface properties and TiC/SiC interface properties were established. • Interface band structures were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism by which the Ohmic contacts were formed. - Abstract: We proposed an electronic cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave hydrogen plasma pretreatment (HPT) for moderately doped (1 × 10"1"8 cm"−"3) SiC surfaces and formed ideal TiC/SiC Ohmic contacts with significantly low contact resistivity (1.5 × 10"−"5 Ω cm"2) after low-temperature annealing (600 °C). This is achieved by reducing barrier height at TiC/SiC interface because of the release of pinned Fermi level by surface flattening and SiC surface states reduction after HPT, as well as the generation of donor-type carbon vacancies, which reduced the depletion-layer width for electron tunneling after annealing. Interface band structures were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism of Ohmic contact formations.

  11. Characteristics of the resonant instability of surface electrostatic-ion-cyclotron waves in a semi-bounded warm magnetized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang, 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The influence of magnetic field and dust rotation on the resonant instability of surface electrostatic-ion-cyclotron wave is kinetically investigated in a semi-bounded warm magnetized dusty plasma. The dispersion relation and the temporal growth rate of the surface electrostatic-ion-cyclotron wave are derived by the specular-reflection boundary condition including the magnetic field and dust rotation effects. It is found that the instability domain decreases with an increase of the rotation frequency of elongated dust grain. It is also found that the dependence of the propagation wave number on the temporal growth rate is more significant for small ion cyclotron frequencies. In addition, it is shown that the scaled growth rate increases with an increase of the strength of magnetic field. The variation of the domain and magnitude of temporal growth rate due to the change of plasma parameters is also discussed. - Highlights: • The resonant instability of surface electrostatic-ion-cyclotron wave is investigated in a semi-bounded magnetized dusty plasma. • The dispersion relation and the temporal growth rate are derived by the specular-reflection condition. • The influence of magnetic field and dust rotation on the resonant instability is discussed.

  12. Performance and operation of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL at 24 GHza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Guo, J. W.; Cao, Y.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Sha, S.; Sun, L. T.; Xie, D. Z.

    2012-02-01

    SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) ion source has been in routine operation for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. To further enhance the SECRAL performance in order to satisfy the increasing demand for intensive highly charged ion beams, 3-5 kW high power 24 GHz single frequency and 24 GHz +18 GHz double frequency with an aluminum plasma chamber were tested, and some exciting results were produced with quite a few new record highly charged ion beam intensities, such as 129Xe35+ of 64 eμA, 129Xe42+ of 3 eμA, 209Bi41+ of 50 eμA, 209Bi50+ of 4.3 eμA and 209Bi54+ of 0.2 eμA. In most cases SECRAL is operated at 18 GHz to deliver highly charged heavy ion beams for the HIRFL accelerator, only for those very high charge states and very heavy ion beams such as 209Bi36+ and 209Bi41+, SECRAL has been operated at 24 GHz. The total operation beam time provided by SECRAL up to July 2011 has exceeded 7720 hours. In this paper, the latest performance, development, and operation status of SECRAL ion source are presented. The latest results and reliable long-term operation for the HIRFL accelerator have demonstrated that SECRAL performance for production of highly charged heavy ion beams remains improving at higher RF power with optimized tuning.

  13. Performance and operation of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL at 24 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Guo, J. W.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Sha, S.; Sun, L. T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.

    2012-01-01

    SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) ion source has been in routine operation for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. To further enhance the SECRAL performance in order to satisfy the increasing demand for intensive highly charged ion beams, 3-5 kW high power 24 GHz single frequency and 24 GHz +18 GHz double frequency with an aluminum plasma chamber were tested, and some exciting results were produced with quite a few new record highly charged ion beam intensities, such as 129 Xe 35+ of 64 eμA, 129 Xe 42+ of 3 eμA, 209 Bi 41+ of 50 eμA, 209 Bi 50+ of 4.3 eμA and 209 Bi 54+ of 0.2 eμA. In most cases SECRAL is operated at 18 GHz to deliver highly charged heavy ion beams for the HIRFL accelerator, only for those very high charge states and very heavy ion beams such as 209 Bi 36+ and 209 Bi 41+ , SECRAL has been operated at 24 GHz. The total operation beam time provided by SECRAL up to July 2011 has exceeded 7720 hours. In this paper, the latest performance, development, and operation status of SECRAL ion source are presented. The latest results and reliable long-term operation for the HIRFL accelerator have demonstrated that SECRAL performance for production of highly charged heavy ion beams remains improving at higher RF power with optimized tuning.

  14. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Resonant acceleration of alpha particles by ion cyclotron waves in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberoff, L.; Elgueta, R.

    1991-06-01

    Preferential acceleration of alpha particles interacting with left-hand polarized ion cyclotron waves is studied. It is shown that a small positive drift velocity between alpha particles and protons can lead to alpha particle velocities well in excess of the proton bulk velocity. During the acceleration process, which is assumed to take place at heliocentric distances less than 0.3 AU, the alpha particle drift velocity should exceed the proton bulk velocity, and then the gap which exists around the alpha particle gyrofrequency should disappear. It is also shown that for proton thermal anisotropies of the order of those observed in fast solar wind, the waves either grow or are not damped excessively, so that the waves can exist and might thus lead to the observed differential speeds. However, the way in which the alpha particles exceed the proton velocity remains unexplained.

  16. Control of alpha-particle transport by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper control of radial alpha-particle transport by using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. Spatially inhomogeneous ICRF wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transports of alpha particles at the speed of order v α ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 )ρ p , where R RF is the ICRF wave power density, n α is the alpha-particle density, ε 0 is the alpha-particle birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha-particle flux are discussed

  17. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R., E-mail: rthomae@tlabs.ac.za; Conradie, J.; Fourie, D.; Mira, J.; Nemulodi, F. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Kuechler, D.; Toivanen, V. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  18. Control of alpha particle transport by spatially inhomogeneous ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.

    1990-02-01

    Control of the radial alpha particle transport by using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. It is shown that spatially inhomogeneous ICRF-wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transport of alpha particles at the speed of order υ alpha ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 ) ρ p , where P RF is the ICRF-wave power density, n α is the alpha density, ε 0 is the alpha birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to ITER plasmas is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha particle flux are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Modeling of electron cyclotron resonance acceleration in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri D. Dougar-Jabon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cyclotron autoresonance acceleration of electrons in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field is studied. The trajectory and energy of electrons are found through a numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation by a finite difference method. The electrons move along a TE_{112} cylinder cavity in a steady-state magnetic field whose axis coincides with the cavity axis. The magnetic field profile is such that it keeps the phase difference between the electric microwave field and the electron velocity vector within the acceleration phase band. The microwaves amplitude of 6  kV/cm is used for numerical calculations. It is shown that an electron with an initial longitudinal energy of 8 keV can be accelerated up to 260 keV by 2.45 GHz microwaves at a distance of 17 cm.

  20. On dynamics of resonant charged particles in cyclotron electromagnetic wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, N.M.; Izhovkina, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The model of time and spatial separation of resonance and nonresonance particles with quasimonochromatic wave packets during their propagation in the magnetosphere is presented. In regions with elevated geomagnetic field gradients and.or in waveguide channels such separation can result in diffusion increase of resonance particles by the pitch angle and create ''little peaks'' in the distribution function tail

  1. Application of the laser induced fluorescence to the investigation of highly magnetized plasmas, heated by ion cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailloux, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been achieved in the frame of isotopic separation studies by in cyclotron resonance. For this purpose, in a highly magnetized (2 to 3 Tesla) and non-collisional (10 12 ions/cm 3 ) plasma, composed of metallic ions, a wave near the ion cyclotron frequency is thrown in order to heat selectively a given species. A laser induced fluorescence (LIP) has been developed on barium and gadolinium plasmas. The Larmor gyration of ions greatly modifies the interaction, which has been modelled through the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The obtained excitation probably has been integrated over all the ions excited in the measurement volume in order to check that the LIF still leads to the distribution function of ion velocities. The influence of the Larmor motion of ions on the spectral distribution of LIF has been derived both theoretically and experimentally. The LIF diagnostics has been achieved with a dye O'ring laser. The barium ion has been excited on the transition 6142 angstrom, using rhodamine 6G dye, and the gadolinium ion on the pseudo-triplet 3861 angstrom, using exalite dye. Data treatment has been developed taking into account the Zeeman effect and the different heating of isotopes. The ionic temperature (from 1 eV to some hundreds eV) has been measured as a function of radiofrequency heating. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the selective heating theory. Also, the ion velocity distribution function has been found locally Maxwellian. And the behaviour of the plasma has been studied as a function of control parameters of the plasma source. (author)

  2. ORNL TNS program: microwave start-up of tokamak plasmas near electron cyclotron and upper hybrid resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Borowski, S.K.

    1977-12-01

    The scenario of toroidal plasma start-up with microwave initiation and heating near the electron cyclotron frequency is suggested and examined here. We assume microwave irradiation from the high field side and an anomalously large absorption of the extraordinary waves near the upper hybrid resonance. The dominant electron energy losses are assumed to be due to magnetic field curvature and parallel drifts, ionization of neutrals, cooling by ions, and radiation by low Z impurities. It is shown by particle and energy balance considerations that electron temperatures around 250 eV and densities of 10 12 to 10 13 cm -3 can be maintained, at least in a narrow region near the upper hybrid resonance, with modest microwave powers in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) (120 kW at 28 GHz) and The Next Step (TNS) (0.57 MW at 120 GHz). The loop voltages required for start-up from these initial plasmas are also estimated. It is shown that the loop voltage can be reduced by a factor of five to ten from that for unassisted start-up without an increase in the resistive loss in volt-seconds. If this reduction in loop voltage is verified in the ISX experiments, substantial savings in the cost of power supplies for the ohmic heating (OH) and equilibrium field (EF) coils can be realized in future large tokamaks

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance heating assisted plasma startup in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucalossi, J.; Hertout, P.; Lennholm, M.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bouquey, F.; Darbos, C.; Traisnel, E.

    2009-04-01

    ECRH assisted plasma startup at fundamental resonance is investigated in Tore Supra in view of ITER operation. ECRH pre-ionisation is found to be very efficient allowing plasma initiation in a wide range of pre-fill pressure compared to ohmic startup. Reliable assisted startup has been achieved at the ITER reference toroidal electric field (0.3 V/m) with 160 kW of ECRH. Resonance location scan indicates that the plasma is initiated at the resonance location and that the plasma current channel position had to be real-time controlled since the very beginning of the discharge to obtain robust plasma startup. (authors)

  4. Characteristics of electron cyclotron waves creating field-aligned and transverse plasma-potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K; Kaneko, T; Hatakeyama, R; Fukuyama, A

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of electromagnetic waves of azimuthal mode number m = ±1 are investigated experimentally, analytically and numerically when the waves triggering the field-aligned and transverse plasma-potential structure modification near an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point are injected into an inhomogeneously magnetized plasma with high-speed ion flow. The waves of m = +1 and -1 modes generate an electric double layer near the ECR point at the radially central and peripheral areas of the plasma column, respectively, and the transverse electric fields are consequently formed. At these areas the waves have a right-handed polarization and are absorbed through the ECR mechanism, where the experimental and analytical results do show the polarization reversal along the radial axis. The numerical results by plasma analysis by finite element method (FEM)/wave analysis by FEM (PAF/WF) code show that the wave-absorption area is localized at the radially central and peripheral areas for m = +1 and -1 mode waves, respectively, being consistent with the experimental and analytical ones.

  5. Development of ECR ion source for VEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Mallik, C; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1997-12-01

    A 6.4 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) was developed at the VEC centre to enable acceleration of heavy ions with the K=130, Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC). Heavy ions which will be sufficiently energetic after acceleration from the cyclotron will be utilised to explore new fields of research. VEC ECRIS was first made operational in April 1991. Initially the stability and intensity of high charge state (z) beam were poor. Constant efforts were paid to improve source performance. Finally going to high field operation that is improving the plasma confinement, desired stability and high output current were achieved. At present stable {sup 16}O beam up to 50 e{mu}A maximum is available from VEC ECRIS. Many other high- z ion beam of gaseous species are also available. (author) 16 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Development of ECR ion source for VEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, D.K.; Taki, G.S.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Pal, G.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    A 6.4 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) was developed at the VEC centre to enable acceleration of heavy ions with the K=130, Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC). Heavy ions which will be sufficiently energetic after acceleration from the cyclotron will be utilised to explore new fields of research. VEC ECRIS was first made operational in April 1991. Initially the stability and intensity of high charge state (z) beam were poor. Constant efforts were paid to improve source performance. Finally going to high field operation that is improving the plasma confinement, desired stability and high output current were achieved. At present stable 16 O beam up to 50 eμA maximum is available from VEC ECRIS. Many other high- z ion beam of gaseous species are also available. (author)

  7. Intense beams from gases generated by a permanent magnet ECR ion source at PKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E. [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Yan, S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, Z. X.; Guo, Z. Y. [SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed for the production of high-current ion beams of various gaseous elements. At the Peking University (PKU), the primary study is focused on developing suitable permanent magnet ECR ion sources (PMECRs) for separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ) accelerator and for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility. Recently, other kinds of high-intensity ion beams are required for new acceleration structure demonstration, simulation of fusion reactor material irradiation, aviation bearing modification, and other applications. So we expanded the ion beam category from O{sup +}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +} to N{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and He{sup +}. Up to now, about 120 mA of H{sup +}, 83 mA of D{sup +}, 50 mA of O{sup +}, 63 mA of N{sup +}, 70 mA of Ar{sup +}, and 65 mA of He{sup +} extracted at 50 kV through a {phi} 6 mm aperture were produced by the PMECRs at PKU. Their rms emittances are less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. Tungsten samples were irradiated by H{sup +} or He{sup +} beam extracted from this ion source and H/He holes and bubbles have been observed on the samples. A method to produce a high intensity H/He mixed beam to study synergistic effect is developed for nuclear material irradiation. To design a He{sup +} beam injector for coupled radio frequency quadruple and SFRFQ cavity, He{sup +} beam transmission experiments were carried out on PKU low energy beam transport test bench and the transmission was less than 50%. It indicated that some electrode modifications must be done to decrease the divergence of He{sup +} beam.

  8. Extraction of space-charge-dominated ion beams from an ECR ion source: Theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, G. D.; Bilheux, H.

    2004-05-01

    Extraction of high quality space-charge-dominated ion beams from plasma ion sources constitutes an optimization problem centered about finding an optimal concave plasma emission boundary that minimizes half-angular divergence for a given charge state, independent of the presence or lack thereof of a magnetic field in the extraction region. The curvature of the emission boundary acts to converge/diverge the low velocity beam during extraction. Beams of highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence, ω, is minimized. Under minimum half-angular divergence conditions, the plasma emission boundary has an optimum curvature and the perveance, P, current density, j+ext, and extraction gap, d, have optimum values for a given charge state, q. Optimum values for each of the independent variables (P, j+ext and d) are found to be in close agreement with those derived from elementary analytical theory for extraction with a simple two-electrode extraction system, independent of the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field only increases the emittances of beams through additional aberrational effects caused by increased angular divergences through coupling of the longitudinal to the transverse velocity components of particles as they pass though the mirror region of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. This article reviews the underlying theory of elementary extraction optics and presents results derived from simulation studies of extraction of space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams of varying mass, charge state, and intensity from an ECR ion source with emphasis on magnetic field induced effects.

  9. Extraction of space-charge-dominated ion beams from an ECR ion source: Theory and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, H.

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of high quality space-charge-dominated ion beams from plasma ion sources constitutes an optimization problem centered about finding an optimal concave plasma emission boundary that minimizes half-angular divergence for a given charge state, independent of the presence or lack thereof of a magnetic field in the extraction region. The curvature of the emission boundary acts to converge/diverge the low velocity beam during extraction. Beams of highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence, ω, is minimized. Under minimum half-angular divergence conditions, the plasma emission boundary has an optimum curvature and the perveance, P, current density, j +ext , and extraction gap, d, have optimum values for a given charge state, q. Optimum values for each of the independent variables (P, j +ext and d) are found to be in close agreement with those derived from elementary analytical theory for extraction with a simple two-electrode extraction system, independent of the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field only increases the emittances of beams through additional aberrational effects caused by increased angular divergences through coupling of the longitudinal to the transverse velocity components of particles as they pass though the mirror region of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. This article reviews the underlying theory of elementary extraction optics and presents results derived from simulation studies of extraction of space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams of varying mass, charge state, and intensity from an ECR ion source with emphasis on magnetic field induced effects

  10. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X.

    2016-01-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω 2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE 01 and HE 11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar 12+ , 0.92 emA Xe 27+ , and so on, will be presented

  11. An ECR table plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Bin, S.

    2012-01-01

    A compact ECR plasma device was built in our lab using the 'spare parts' of the ATOMKI ECR ion source. We call it 'ECR Table Plasma Generator'. It consists of a relatively big plasma chamber (ID=10 cm, L=40 cm) in a thin NdFeB hexapole magnet with independent vacuum and gas dosing systems. For microwave coupling two low power TWTAs (Travelling Wave tube amplifier) can be applied individually or simultaneously, operating in the 6-18 GHz range. There is no axial magnetic trap and there is no extraction. The technical details of the plasma generator and preliminary plasma photo study results are shown. This paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  12. Study of diffused particles by an electron cyclotron-resonance ions source plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    A double electrostatic analyser has been built mainly to study the loss cone electron population. The analysis of the ions can help to determine the plasma potential. The possibility of applying two analysing potentials along the extraction decaying magnetic filed allowed us to determine the anisotropy of the electron distribution function, of parallel temperature Tpar and perpendicular temperature Tper outside the plasma. The Tpar temperature remains constant at around 10 eV when Tper increases from 30 eV to 150 eV with improved confinement. The electron cyclotron heating provides mainly perpendicular energy to the electrons. The perpendicular electron energy is then converted to parallel energy predominantly by electron ion collisions and leave the plasma with a frequency depending on v per -3 . Taking a Maxwellian function of temperature T per cent to describe the electron function distribution f cent (v per ) in the center of the plasma is in line with the experimental electron characteristics obtained with a single electrostatic potential. Temperatures of 2 keV have been reached at 10 Ghz and 6 keV at 18 Ggz. Measurements of density and diamagnetism can complete the description of this warm population: the warm electrons dominate in number but leave the plasma quicker than the very hot electron population (analysed with the X ray diagnostic). For this reason the energy density of warm electrons is less than that of the very hot population by warm electrons consume most of the injected rf power. (author). 52 refs., 100 figs

  13. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steve R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2003-01-01

    VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The magnetic confinement configuration consists of three superconducting axial coils and six superconducting radial coils in a sextupole configuration. The nominal design fields of the axial magnets are 4T at injection and 3T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2T, making VENUS the world most powerful ECR plasma confinement structure. The magnetic field strength has been designed for optimum operation at 28 GHz. The four-year VENUS project has recently achieved two major milestones: The first plasma was ignited in June, the first mass-analyzed high charge state ion beam was extracted in September of 2002. The pa per describes the ongoing commissioning. Initial results including first emittance measurements are presented

  14. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B. F.; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Graham, D. M.; Beck, M.; Bartels, A.; Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 10 12  cm −2 and 9000 cm 2 V −1  s −1 at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m 0 .

  15. Future prospects for ECR ion sources with improved charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the steady advance in the technology of the ECR ion source, present art forms have not yet reached their full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width. single-frequency microwave radiation used to heat the plasma electrons. This article identifies fundamentally important methods which may enhance the performances of ECR ion sources through the use of: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration (spatial domain) in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR ''volume'' or (2) the use of broadband frequency domain techniques (variable-frequency, broad-band frequency, or multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation), derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma ''surfaces'' of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma ''volume''. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, thereby producing higher charge state ions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of' the source. The ECR ion source concepts described in this article offer exciting opportunities to significantly advance the-state-of-the-art of ECR technology and as a consequence, open new opportunities in fundamental and applied research and for a variety of industrial applications

  16. Simulation of the Plasma Density Evolution during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating at the T-10 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Vershkov, V. A.; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Zenin, V. N.; Lysenko, S. E.; Melnikov, A. V.; Shelukhin, D. A.; Subbotin, G. F.; Cherkasov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    In ohmically heated (OH) plasma with low recycling, an improved particle confinement (IPC) mode is established during gas puffing. However, after gas puffing is switched off, this mode is retained only for about 100 ms, after which an abrupt phase transition into the low particle confinement (LPC) mode occurs in the entire plasma cross section. During such a transition, energy transport due to heat conduction does not change. The phase transition in OH plasma is similar to the effect of density pump-out from the plasma core, which occurs after electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is switched on. Analysis of the measured plasma pressure profiles in the T-10 tokamak shows that, after gas puffing in the OH mode is switched off, the plasma pressure profile in the IPC stage becomes more peaked and, after the peakedness exceeds a certain critical value, the IPC-LPC transition occurs. Similar processes are also observed during ECH. If the pressure profile is insufficiently peaked during ECH, then the density pump-out effect comes into play only after the critical peakedness of the pressure profile is reached. In the plasma core, the density and pressure profiles are close to the corresponding canonical profiles. This allows one to derive an expression for the particle flux within the canonical profile model and formulate a criterion for the IPC-LPC transition. The time evolution of the plasma density profile during phase transitions was simulated for a number of T-10 shots with ECH and high recycling. The particle transport coefficients in the IPC and LPC phases, as well as the dependences of these coefficients on the ECH power, are determined.

  17. Laser scattering off of alpha particle cyclotron harmonic resonances: Annual performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The active probing of burning plasmas to quantitatively determine high energy alpha particle characteristics is the main purpose of the laser and gyroton scattering program. Progress to date includes a systematic evaluation of homogeneous results, analytical study of alpha particle harmonic resonances, and investigations of finite size detection systems

  18. Effect of electron-electron interaction on cyclotron resonance in high-mobility InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtopenko, S. S., E-mail: sergey.krishtopenko@mail.ru; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, GSP-105 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ikonnikov, A. V. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, GSP-105 (Russian Federation); Orlita, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI-G), CNRS, 25 rue des Martyrs, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Sadofyev, Yu. G. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, GSP-1, 53 Leninskiy Prospect (Russian Federation); Goiran, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI-T), CNRS, 143 Avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-21

    We report observation of electron-electron (e-e) interaction effect on cyclotron resonance (CR) in InAs/AlSb quantum well heterostructures. High mobility values allow us to observe strongly pronounced triple splitting of CR line at noninteger filling factors of Landau levels ν. At magnetic fields, corresponding to ν > 4, experimental values of CR energies are in good agreement with single-electron calculations on the basis of eight-band k ⋅ p Hamiltonian. In the range of filling factors 3 < ν < 4 pronounced, splitting of CR line, exceeding significantly the difference in single-electron CR energies, is discovered. The strength of the splitting increases when occupation of the partially filled Landau level tends to a half, being in qualitative agreement with previous prediction by MacDonald and Kallin [Phys. Rev. B 40, 5795 (1989)]. We demonstrate that such behaviour of CR modes can be quantitatively described if one takes into account both electron correlations and the mixing between conduction and valence bands in the calculations of matrix elements of e-e interaction.

  19. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  20. Weathering trend characterization of medium-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic disulfur heterocycles by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Abdelrahman H; Fathalla, Eiman M; Andersson, Jan T

    2014-09-01

    Different weathering factors act to change petroleum composition once it is spilled into the environment. n-Alkanes, biomarkers, low-molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocycles compositional changing in the environment have been extensively studied by different researchers and many parameters have been used for oil source identification and monitoring of weathering and biological degradation processes. In this work, we studied the fate of medium-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic disulfur heterocycles (PAS2Hs), up to ca. 900Da, of artificially weathered Flotta North Sea crude oil by ultra high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. It was found that PAS2Hs in studied crude oil having double bond equivalents (DBE) from 5 to 8 with a mass range from ca 316 to 582Da were less influenced even after six months artificial weathering experiment. However, compounds having DBEs 12, 11 and 10 were depleted after two, four and six months weathering, respectively. In addition, DBE 9 series was more susceptible to weathering than those of DBE 7 and 8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic profile of Kudiezi injection in rats by UHPLC coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Yangyang; Song, Aihua; Sun, Wei; Yin, Ran

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a reliable and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry method was developed for the systematic study of the metabolic profile of Kudiezi injection in rat plasma, bile, urine, and feces after intravenous administration of a single dose. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C 18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) and the identification of prototype components and metabolites was achieved on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T ultra-high resolution spectrometer in negative ion mode. Results indicated that a total of 76 constituents including 29 prototype compounds and 47 metabolites (10 phase I metabolites and 37 phase II metabolites) were tentatively identified. And the metabolic pathways of these prototype compounds including hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, and sulfate conjugation. In conclusion, the developed method with high resolution and sensitivity was effective for screening and identification of prototypes and metabolites of Kudiezi injection in vivo. Moreover, these results would provide significant information for further pharmacokinetic and pharmacological research of Kudiezi injection in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Extension of high T{sub e} regime with upgraded electron cyclotron resonance heating system in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H., E-mail: takahashi.hiromi@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Mutoh, T.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Yamada, I.; Nakano, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); and others

    2014-06-15

    Enhancement of the output power per gyrotron has been planned in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Three 77-GHz gyrotrons with an output power of more than 1 MW have been operated. In addition, a high power gyrotron with the frequency of 154 GHz (1 MW/5 s, 0.5 MW/CW) was newly installed in 2012, and the total injection power of Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) reached 4.6 MW. The operational regime of ECRH plasma on the LHD has been extended due to the upgraded ECRH system such as the central electron temperature of 13.5 keV with the line-averaged electron density n{sub e-fir} = 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. The electron thermal confinement clearly improved inside the electron internal transport barrier, and the electron thermal diffusivity reached neoclassical level. The global energy confinement time increased with increase of n{sub e-fir}. The plasma stored energy of 530 kJ with n{sub e-fir} = 3.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, which is 1.7 times larger than the previous record in the ECRH plasma in the LHD, has been successfully achieved.

  3. Design and fabrication of circular and rectangular components for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here

  4. Neoclassical transport of energetic minority tail ions generated by ion-cyclotron resonance heating in tokamak geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Hammett, G.W.; Goldston, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Neoclassical transport of energetic minority tail ions, which are generated by high powered electromagnetic waves of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) at the fundamental harmonic resonance, is studied analytically in tokamak geometry. The effect of Coulomb collisions on the tail ion transport is investigated in the present work. The total tail ion transport will be the sum of the present collision-driven transport and the wave-driven transport, which is due to the ICRF-wave scattering of the tail particles as reported in the literature. The transport coefficients have been calculated kinetically, and it is found that the large tail ion viscosity, driven by the localized ICRF-heating and Coulomb slowing-down collisions, induces purely convective particle transport of the tail species, while the energy transport is both convective and diffusive. The rate of radial particle transport is shown to be usually small, but the rate of radial energy transport is larger and may not be negligible compared to the Coulomb slowing-down rate. 18 refs., 2 figs

  5. An Automated High Performance Capillary Liquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer for High-Throughput Proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Wingerd, Mark A.; Udseth, Harold R.; Tang, Keqi; Prior, David C.; Swanson, Kenneth R.; Buschbach, Michael A.; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a fully automated 9.4 tesla Fourier transform ion resonance cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectrometer coupled to reverse-phase chromatography for high-throughput proteomic studies. Modifications made to the front-end of a commercial FTICR instrument--a dual-ESI-emitter ion source; dual-channel electrodynamic ion funnel; and collisional-cooling, selection and accumulation quadrupoles--significantly improved the sensitivity, dynamic range and mass measurement accuracy of the mass spectrometer. A high-pressure capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system was incorporated with an autosampler that enabled 24 h/day operation. A novel method for accumulating ions in the ICR cell was also developed. Unattended operation of the instrument revealed the exceptional reproducibility (1-5% deviation in elution times for peptides from a bacterial proteome), repeatability (10-20% deviation in detected abundances for peptides from the same aliquot analyzed a few weeks apart) and robustness (high-throughput operation for 5 months without downtime) of the LC/FTICR system. When combined with modulated-ion-energy gated trapping, the internal calibration of FTICR mass spectra decreased dispersion of mass measurement errors for peptide identifications in conjunction with high resolution capillary LC separations to < 5 ppm over a dynamic range for each spectrum of 10 3

  6. Simulation and modeling of whistler-mode wave growth through cyclotron resonance with energetic electrons in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    New models and simulations of wave growth experienced by electromagnetic waves propagating through the magnetosphere in the whistler mode are presented. For these waves, which have frequencies below the electron gyro and plasma frequencies, the magnetospheric plasma acts like a natural amplifier often amplifying the waves by ∼ 30 dB. The mechanism for growth is cyclotron resonance between the circularly polarized waves and the gyrating energetic electrons which make up the Van Allen radiation belts. The main emphasis is to simulate single-frequency wave pulses, in the 2-6 kHz range, that have been injected into the magnetosphere, near L ∼ 4, by the Stanford transmitting facility at Siple station, Antarctica. However, the results can also be applied to naturally occurring signals, signals from other transmitters, non-CW signals, and signals in other parts of the magnetosphere not probed by the Siple Station transmitter. Results show the importance of the transient aspects in the wave-growth process. The wave growth established as the wave propagates toward the equator, is given a spatially advancing wave phase structure by the geomagnetic inhomogeneity. Through the feedback of this radiation upon other electrons, conditions are set up that results in the linearly increasing output frequency with time

  7. Design and fabrication of circular and rectangular components for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.; Coffield, F.E.; Lang, D.D.; Rubert, R.R.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Stallard, B.W.; Gallagher, N.C. Jr.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1983-11-18

    The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here.

  8. Computer control and data acquisition system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating System (ICRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshire, D.L.; Thomas, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) large Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will employ an Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) system for plasma startup. As the MFTF-B Industrial Participant, TRW has responsibility for the ICRH system, including development of the data acquisition and control system. During the MFTF-B Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS). For subsystem development and checkout at TRW, and for verification and acceptance testing at LLNL, the system will be run from a stand-alone computer system designed to simulate the functions of SCDS. The ''SCDS Simulator'' was developed originally for the MFTF-B ECRH System; descriptions of the hardware and software are updated in this paper. The computer control and data acquisition functions implemented for ICRH are described, including development status, and test schedule at TRW and at LLNL. The application software is written for the SCDS Simulator, but it is programmed in PASCAL and designed to facilitate conversion for use on the SCDS computers

  9. Rapid characterization of the chemical constituents of Sijunzi decoction by UHPLC coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhibo; Wang, Miao; Cai, Yi; Yang, Hongmei; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Chunjie

    2018-06-01

    Sijunzi decoction, a renowned Chinese prescription has long been utilized to treat gastrointestinal problems. In the context of this research work, the use of Ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was made to separate and characterize the components of Sijunzi decoction. The performance of Liquid chromatography was carried out on a C8 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm); moreover, the mobile phase were consisted of 0.2% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B). In accordance with the findings, characterization of 120 chemical compounds was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The key constituents among them included ginsenosides (in Radix Ginseng), 16 triterpene carboxylic acids (in Poria), sesquiterpenes (in Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), triterpenesaponins (in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle) as well as flavonoids (in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle) in Sijunzi decoction. This research developed the bases for prospective research associated with Sijunzi decoction, together with being expected to be useful to rapidly extract and characterize the constituents in other Traditional Chinese herbal formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High temperature electron cyclotron resonance etching of GaN, InN, and AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul, R.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Hagerott Crawford, M.; Parmeter, J.E.; Vartuli, C.B.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance etch rates for GaN, InN, and AlN are reported as a function of temperature for Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar and Cl 2 /H 2 /Ar plasmas. Using Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar plasma chemistry, GaN etch rates remain relatively constant from 30 to 125 degree C and then increase to a maximum of 2340 A/min at 170 degree C. The InN etch rate decreases monotonically from 30 to 150 degree C and then rapidly increases to a maximum of 2300 A/min at 170 degree C. This is the highest etch rate reported for this material. The AlN etch rate decreases throughout the temperature range studied with a maximum of 960 A/min at 30 degree C. When CH 4 is removed from the plasma chemistry, the GaN and InN etch rates are slightly lower, with less dramatic changes with temperature. The surface composition of the III--V nitrides remains unchanged after exposure to the Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar plasma over the temperatures studied

  11. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Protein Complexes in a Hybrid Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jing; Zhou, Mowei; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Somogyi, Árpád; Pedder, Randall E.; Quintyn, Royston S.; Morrison, Lindsay J.; Easterling, Michael L.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2017-01-03

    Mass spectrometry continues to develop as a valuable tool in the analysis of proteins and protein complexes. In protein complex mass spectrometry studies, surface-induced dissociation (SID) has been successfully applied in quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. SID provides structural information on non-covalent protein complexes that is complementary to other techniques. However, the mass resolution of Q-TOF instruments can limit the information that can be obtained for protein complexes by SID. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) provides ultrahigh resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy measurements. In this study, an SID device was designed and successfully installed in a hybrid FT-ICR instrument in place of the standard gas collision cell. The SID-FT-ICR platform has been tested with several protein complex systems (homooligomers, a heterooligomer, and a protein-ligand complex, ranging from 53 kDa to 85 kDa), and the results are consistent with data previously acquired on Q-TOF platforms, matching predictions from known protein interface information. SID fragments with the same m/z but different charge states are well-resolved based on distinct spacing between adjacent isotope peaks, and the addition of metal cations and ligands can also be isotopically resolved with the ultrahigh mass resolution available in FT-ICR.

  12. Electron velocity-space diffusion in a micro-unstable ECRH [electron cyclotron resonance heated] mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.A.

    1987-09-01

    An experimental study of the velocity-space diffusion of electrons in an electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) mirror plasma, in the presence of micro-unstable whistler rf emission, is presented. It is found that the dominant loss mechanism for hot electrons is endloss produced by rf diffusion into the mirror loss cone. In a standard case with 4.5 kW of ECRH power, this loss limits the stored energy to 120 J with an energy confinement time of 40 ms. The energy confinement time associated with collisional scattering is 350 ms in this case. Whistler microinstability rf produces up to 25% of the rf-induced loss. The hot electron temperature is not limited by loss of adiabaticity, but by rf-induced loss of high energy electrons, and decreases with increasing rf power in strong diffusion regimes. Collisional loss is in agreement with standard scattering theory. No super-adiabatic effects are clearly seen. Experiments in which the vacuum chamber walls are lined with microwave absorber reveal that single pass absorption is limited to less than 60%, whereas experiments with reflecting walls exhibit up to 90% absorption. Stronger diffusion is seen in the latter, with a hot electron heating rate which is twice that of the absorber experiments. This increase in diffusion can be produced by two distinct aspects of wall-reflected rf: the broader spatial rf profile, which enlarges the resonant region in velocity space, or a reduction in super-adiabatic effects due to randomization of the electron gyrophase. Since no other aspects of super-adiabaticity are observed, the first mechanism appears more likely. 39 refs., 54 figs

  13. Study on ECR dry etching and selective MBE growth of AlGaN/GaN for fabrication of quantum nanostructures on GaN (0001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Sato, Taketomo; Hashizume, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to form AlGaN/GaN quantum wire (QWR) network structures on patterned GaN (0001) substrates by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Substrate patterns were prepared along - and -directions by electron cyclotron resonance assisted reactive-ion beam etching (ECR-RIBE) process. Selective growth was possible for both directions in the case of GaN growth, but only in the -direction in the case of AlGaN growth. A hexagonal QWR network was successfully grown on a hexagonal mesa pattern by combining the -direction and two other equivalent directions. AFM observation confirmed excellent surface morphology of the grown network. A clear cathodoluminescence (CL) peak coming from the embedded AlGaN/GaN QWR structure was clearly identified

  14. ECR ion source with electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zu Q.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  15. Experimental study and simulation of the extraction conditions of a multicharged ion beam from an electron cyclotron resonance source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandin, J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns the beam extraction studies of ECR Ion Sources for the SPIRAL project at GANIL (France). The optical properties (i.e. the emittances) of the radioactive ion beam production source is a crucial point in this project. We performed emittance measurements with a very high transport efficiency and developed a computer code for simulating the extraction and transport conditions. This simulation takes into account all the parameters acting on the extraction process: the characteristics of the ions and electrons emitted by the plasma, their space and energy distributions, the space charge, the magnetic filed of the source and the accelerating electric field. We explained the evolution of the emittances for two different types of ECR Ion Source. The simulation-experiment comparison showed us that the magnetic field and the intrinsic energy of the ions seem to be the most important parameters for explaining the overall emittance behaviour of the ECRIS. We precise their values and comment them. (author)

  16. Surface morphology changes to tungsten under exposure to He ions from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David; Maan, Anurag; Duran, Jonah; Buchenauer, Dean; Whaley, Josh

    2015-11-01

    Exposure of tungsten to low energy (ALMT ITER grade tungsten samples. A similar He plasma exposure stage has now been developed at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville with an improved compact ECR plasma source. Status of the new UTK exposure stage will be discussed as well as planned experiments and new material characterization techniques (EBSD, GIXRD). Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and the PSI Science Center.

  17. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS at 18 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steven R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde E.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation are now underway. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power. The ion source performance is very promising [1,2]. VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for Nuclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R and D injector is the production of 240e(micro)A of U 30+ , a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5e(micro)A of U 48+ , a low current, very high charge state beam. To meet these ambitious goals, VENUS has been designed for optimum operation at 28 GHz. This frequency choice has several design consequences. To achieve the required magnetic confinement, superconducting magnets have to be used. The size of the superconducting magnet structure implies a relatively large plasma volume. Consequently, high power microwave coupling becomes necessary to achieve sufficient plasma heating power densities. The 28 GHz power supply has been delivered in April 2004

  18. Radioanalytical prediction of radiative capture in 99Mo production via transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing by cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Pazirandeh, Ali; Tenreiro, Claudio; Kadi, Yacine

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing (TARC) concept was estimated in Mo-99 radioisotope production via radiative capture reaction in two designs. The TARC method was composed of moderating neutrons in lead or a composition of lead and water. Additionally, the target was surrounded by a moderator assembly and a graphite reflector district. Produced neutrons were investigated by (p,xn) interactions with 30 MeV and 300 mu A proton beam on tungsten, beryllium, and tantalum targets. The Mo-99 production yield was related to the moderator property, cross section, and sample positioning inside the distinct region of neutron storage as must be proper to achieve gains. Gathered thermal flux of neutrons can contribute to molybdenum isotope production. Moreover, the sample positioning to gain higher production yield was dependent on a greater flux in the length of thermal neutrons and region materials inside the moderator or reflector. When the sample radial distance from Be was 38 cm inside the...

  19. Long-term operation experience with 2 ECR ion sources and planned extensions at HIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-01-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first treatment facility at a hospital in Europe where patients can be treated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. The operating time is 330 days per year, our experience after three years of continuous operation will be presented. In the future a helium beam for patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line will be installed at a test-bench to commission and validate this section. Different test settings are foreseen to study helium operation as well as enhanced parameter sets for proton and carbon beams in combination with a modified beam transport line for higher transmission efficiency. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  20. Development of a compact ECR ion source for various ion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, M., E-mail: m-mura@nirs.go.jp; Hojo, S.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, N. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 19 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan); Sasaki, N.; Fukushima, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Sasano, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Hagino, S.; Nishiokada, T.; Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    There is a desire that a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility will produce various ion species for fundamental research. Although the present Kei2-type ion sources are dedicated for the carbon-ion production, a future ion source is expected that could provide: (1) carbon-ion production for medical use, (2) various ions with a charge-to-mass ratio of 1/3 for the existing Linac injector, and (3) low cost for modification. A prototype compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, named Kei3, based on the Kei series has been developed to correspond to the Kei2 type and to produce these various ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The Kei3 has an outer diameter of 280 mm and a length of 1120 mm. The magnetic field is formed by the same permanent magnet as Kei2. The movable extraction electrode has been installed in order to optimize the beam extraction with various current densities. The gas-injection side of the vacuum chamber has enough space for an oven system. We measured dependence of microwave frequency, extraction voltage, and puller position. Charge state distributions of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon were also measured.

  1. Electromagnetic diagnostics of ECR-Ion Sources plasmas: optical/X-ray imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Mazzaglia, M.; Romano, F. P.; Leone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Naselli, E.; Reitano, R.; Torrisi, G.; Celona, L.; Cosentino, L. G.; Giarrusso, M.; Gammino, S.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoplasmas in ECR-Ion Sources are excited from gaseous elements or vapours by microwaves in the range 2.45-28 GHz via Electron Cyclotron Resonance. A B-minimum, magnetohydrodynamic stable configuration is used for trapping the plasma. The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times are typically ne= 1011-1013 cm-3, 01 eVSilicon Drift detectors with high energy resolution of 125 eV at 5.9 keV have been used for the characterization of plasma emission at 02

  2. A Potential Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Feature in the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Pulsar NGC 300 ULX1 Seen by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Kennea, J.; Kosec, P.; Lau, R. M.; Madsen, K. K.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Steiner, J. F.; Webb, N.

    2018-04-01

    Based on phase-resolved broadband spectroscopy using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, we report on a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) at E ∼ 13 keV in the pulsed spectrum of the recently discovered ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 300 ULX1. If this interpretation is correct, the implied magnetic field of the central neutron star is B ∼ 1012 G (assuming scattering by electrons), similar to that estimated from the observed spin-up of the star, and also similar to known Galactic X-ray pulsars. We discuss the implications of this result for the connection between NGC 300 ULX1 and the other known ULX pulsars, particularly in light of the recent discovery of a likely proton cyclotron line in another ULX, M51 ULX-8.

  3. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Engbrodt, Ralph; Dittmar, Thorsten; Kattner, Gerhard

    2005-07-01

    The chemical structure of refractory marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still largely unknown. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS) was used to resolve the complex mixtures of DOM and provide valuable information on elemental compositions on a molecular scale. We characterized and compared DOM from two sharply contrasting aquatic environments, algal-derived DOM from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and terrigenous DOM from pore water of a tropical mangrove area in northern Brazil. Several thousand molecular formulas in the mass range of 300-600 Da were identified and reproduced in element ratio plots. On the basis of molecular elemental composition and double-bond equivalents (DBE) we calculated an average composition for marine DOM. O/C ratios in the marine samples were lower (0.36 ± 0.01) than in the mangrove pore-water sample (0.42). A small proportion of chemical formulas with higher molecular mass in the marine samples were characterized by very low O/C and H/C ratios probably reflecting amphiphilic properties. The average number of unsaturations in the marine samples was surprisingly high (DBE = 9.9; mangrove pore water: DBE = 9.4) most likely due to a significant contribution of carbonyl carbon. There was no significant difference in elemental composition between surface and deep-water DOM in the Weddell Sea. Although there were some molecules with unique marine elemental composition, there was a conspicuous degree of similarity between the terrigenous and algal-derived end members. Approximately one third of the molecular formulas were present in all marine as well as in the mangrove samples. We infer that different forms of microbial degradation ultimately lead to similar structural features that are intrinsically refractory, independent of the source of the organic matter and the environmental conditions where degradation took place.

  4. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Hongmei; Sugiyama, Yuko; Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ( 129 I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios ( 2 or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on 129 I migration. Highlights: ► IO 3 − reduced by lignin-, tannin-like compounds/carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules ► Condensed aromatic and lignin-like compounds generated after iodate-iodination ► Aliphatic and less aromatic compounds formed after iodide-iodination ► Organo-iodine identified as unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein ► Organo-iodine with low O/C ratios imply less environmental mobility

  5. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell for high-throughput metabolomics fingerprinting: control of data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, Baninia; Alves, Sandra; Jouan-Rimbaud Bouveresse, Delphine; Appenzeller, Brice; Paris, Alain; Rutledge, Douglas N; Rathahao-Paris, Estelle

    2018-01-01

    Due to the presence of pollutants in the environment and food, the assessment of human exposure is required. This necessitates high-throughput approaches enabling large-scale analysis and, as a consequence, the use of high-performance analytical instruments to obtain highly informative metabolomic profiles. In this study, direct introduction mass spectrometry (DIMS) was performed using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument equipped with a dynamically harmonized cell. Data quality was evaluated based on mass resolving power (RP), mass measurement accuracy, and ion intensity drifts from the repeated injections of quality control sample (QC) along the analytical process. The large DIMS data size entails the use of bioinformatic tools for the automatic selection of common ions found in all QC injections and for robustness assessment and correction of eventual technical drifts. RP values greater than 10 6 and mass measurement accuracy of lower than 1 ppm were obtained using broadband mode resulting in the detection of isotopic fine structure. Hence, a very accurate relative isotopic mass defect (RΔm) value was calculated. This reduces significantly the number of elemental composition (EC) candidates and greatly improves compound annotation. A very satisfactory estimate of repeatability of both peak intensity and mass measurement was demonstrated. Although, a non negligible ion intensity drift was observed for negative ion mode data, a normalization procedure was easily applied to correct this phenomenon. This study illustrates the performance and robustness of the dynamically harmonized FT-ICR cell to perform large-scale high-throughput metabolomic analyses in routine conditions. Graphical abstract Analytical performance of FT-ICR instrument equipped with a dynamically harmonized cell.

  7. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  8. Progress report: Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the progress report brings out the scientific and technical activities of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta during the year 1999. This includes brief review of the various R and D activities of the Centre and outside users of the cyclotron from the universities and other research institutes. The operational activities of the cyclotron with ECR ion sources, accelerator oriented research activities, activities on detector, target and electronics are reported. The activities of the Computer and Informatics group are described. The status report of the ongoing projects is also provided. The main activities of the superconducting cyclotron project, radioactive ion beam project, heavy ion experimental facility, advanced computational facility, recovery and analysis of helium from hot springs and material science research are described

  9. Investigation of the performances of an ECR charge breeder at ISOLDE: a study of the 1+ → n+ scenario for the next generation ISOL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Jeanne, M.

    2009-02-01

    The work I describe here was performed at ISOLDE, CERN. It aimed at giving an objective report of the current performances of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources used as charge breeders, with both stable and radioactive ion beams. As a prerequisite, some technical developments were undertaken to improve the setup and to lead the tests with optimal conditions. A major part of these developments concerns beam purity, and is detailed in this thesis. Then, the program of measurements of the charge breeding efficiencies of various isotopes was completed with different charge breeding modes. I analyzed the results of these experiments and compared them to the current performances of other types of charge breeding methods. At the end, some conclusions are drawn from this investigation in perspective of the choices to make for future ISOL post-accelerators. The discussion is extended to the immediate application of ECR charge bred radioactive ion beams to physics experiments, for which I proposed and performed additional tests. (author)

  10. Design studies for an advanced ECR ion source for multiply charged ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    An innovative technique: for increasing ion source intensity is described which, in principle, could lead to significant advances in ECR ion source technology for multiply charged ion beam formation. The advanced concept design uses a minimum-B magnetic mirror geometry which consists of a multi-cusp, magnetic field, to assist in confining the plasma radially, a flat central field for tuning to the ECR resonant condition, and specially tailored min-or fields in the end zones to confine the plasma in the axial direction. The magnetic field is designed to achieve an axially symmetric plasma ''volume'' with constant mod-B, which extends over the length of the central field region. This design, which strongly contrasts w h the ECR ''surfaces'' characteristic of conventional ECR ion sources, results in dramatic increases in the absorption of RF power, thereby increasing the electron temperature and ''hot'' electron population within the ionization volume of the source

  11. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  12. On the problem of negative dissipation of fast waves at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance and the accuracy of absorption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Pavlov, S.S.; Swanson, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Negative dissipation appears when ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating at first harmonic in a thermal plasma is estimated using some numerical schemes. The causes of the appearance of such a problem are investigated analytically and numerically in this work showing that the problem is connected with the accuracy with which the absorption coefficient at the first ICR harmonic is estimated. The corrections for the absorption estimation are presented for the case of quasiperpendicular propagation of fast wave in this frequency range. A method to solve the problem of negative dissipation is presented and, as a result, an enhancement of absorption is found for reactor-size plasmas

  13. Pilot-scale electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition system for the preparation of large-area fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bup Ju [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Shinhan University, 233-1, Sangpae-dong, Dongducheon, Gyeonggi-do 483-777 (Korea, Republic of); Hudaya, Chairul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Center for Energy Convergence, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, 176 Gajungro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, 176 Gajungro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The authors report the surface morphology, optical, electrical, thermal and humidity impacts, and electromagnetic interference properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F or “FTO”) thin films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate fabricated by a pilot-scale electron cyclotron resonance–metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PS ECR-MOCVD). The characteristics of large area FTO thin films were compared with a commercially available transparent conductive electrode made of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), prepared with an identical film and PET thickness of 125 nm and 188 μm, respectively. The results revealed that the as-prepared FTO thin films exhibited comparable performances with the incumbent ITO films, including a high optical transmittance of 97% (substrate-subtracted), low electrical resistivity of about 5 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, improved electrical and optical performances due to the external thermal and humidity impact, and an excellent shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic interference of nearly 2.3 dB. These excellent performances of the FTO thin films were strongly attributed to the design of the PS ECR-MOCVD, which enabled a uniform plasma environment resulting from a proper mixture of electromagnetic profiles and microwave power.

  14. Medical Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesel, D. L.; Antaya, T. A.

    Particle accelerators were initially developed to address specific scientific research goals, yet they were used for practical applications, particularly medical applications, within a few years of their invention. The cyclotron's potential for producing beams for cancer therapy and medical radioisotope production was realized with the early Lawrence cyclotrons and has continued with their more technically advanced successors — synchrocyclotrons, sector-focused cyclotrons and superconducting cyclotrons. While a variety of other accelerator technologies were developed to achieve today's high energy particles, this article will chronicle the development of one type of accelerator — the cyclotron, and its medical applications. These medical and industrial applications eventually led to the commercial manufacture of both small and large cyclotrons and facilities specifically designed for applications other than scientific research.

  15. Study of plasma start-up initiated by second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating on WEGA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Otte, M.; Stange, T.; Aßmus, D.; Wauters, T.

    2014-01-01

    Although both 1st harmonic ordinary mode (O1) and 2nd harmonic extra-ordinary mode (X2) have been successfully used to initiate pre-ionization and breakdown in many devices, a complete theoretical model is still missing to explain the success of this method. Moreover, some experimental observations are not completely understood, such as what occurs during the delay time between the turn-on of ECRH power and first signals of density or light measurements. Since during this free period the ECRH power has to be absorbed by in-vessel components, it is of prime importance to know what governs this delay time. Recently, dedicated start-up experiments have been performed on WEGA, using a 28 GHz ECRH system in X2-mode. This machine has the interesting capability to be run also as a tokamak allowing comparative experiments between stellarator (ι/2π > 0) and tokamak (ι/2π = 0) configurations. Different scans in heating power, neutral gas pressure, and rotational transform (ι) show clearly that the start-up is a two step process. A first step following the turn-on of the ECRH power during which no measurable electron density (or just above the noise level in some cases), ECE and radiated power is detected. Its duration depends strongly on the level of injected power. The second step corresponds to the gas ionization and plasma expansion phase, with a velocity of density build-up and filling-up of the vessel volume depending mainly on pressure, gas and rotational transform. Moreover, an interesting scenario of ECRH pre-ionization without loop voltage in tokamak configuration by applying a small optimal vertical field is relevant for start-up assistance on future experiments like ITER. The results from this experimental parametric study are useful for the modeling of the start-up assisted by the second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating. The aim of this work is to establish predictive scenarios for both ITER and W7-X operation

  16. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen66@tamu.edu [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Chen, Hongmei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Sugiyama, Yuko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); University of Hyogo, 1-1-12, Shinzaike-honcho, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Yeager, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Roberts, Kimberly A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Hatcher, Patrick G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Santschi, Peter H. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ({sup 129}I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios (< 0.2 or < 0.4) and yet some degree of un-saturation close to that of lignin, have multiple important environmental implications concerning possibly less sterically-hindered aromatic ring system for iodine to get access to and a lower hydrophilicity of the molecules thus to retard their migration in the natural aquatic systems. Lastly, ∼ 69% of the identified organo-iodine species contains nitrogen, which is presumably present as -NH{sub 2} or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on {sup 129}I migration. Highlights: ► IO{sub 3}{sup

  17. Study of plasma start-up initiated by second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating on WEGA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Otte, M.; Stange, T.; Aßmus, D. [Max Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Wauters, T. [Association Euratom-Belgian State, LPP-ERM/KMS, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-02-12

    Although both 1st harmonic ordinary mode (O1) and 2nd harmonic extra-ordinary mode (X2) have been successfully used to initiate pre-ionization and breakdown in many devices, a complete theoretical model is still missing to explain the success of this method. Moreover, some experimental observations are not completely understood, such as what occurs during the delay time between the turn-on of ECRH power and first signals of density or light measurements. Since during this free period the ECRH power has to be absorbed by in-vessel components, it is of prime importance to know what governs this delay time. Recently, dedicated start-up experiments have been performed on WEGA, using a 28 GHz ECRH system in X2-mode. This machine has the interesting capability to be run also as a tokamak allowing comparative experiments between stellarator (ι/2π > 0) and tokamak (ι/2π = 0) configurations. Different scans in heating power, neutral gas pressure, and rotational transform (ι) show clearly that the start-up is a two step process. A first step following the turn-on of the ECRH power during which no measurable electron density (or just above the noise level in some cases), ECE and radiated power is detected. Its duration depends strongly on the level of injected power. The second step corresponds to the gas ionization and plasma expansion phase, with a velocity of density build-up and filling-up of the vessel volume depending mainly on pressure, gas and rotational transform. Moreover, an interesting scenario of ECRH pre-ionization without loop voltage in tokamak configuration by applying a small optimal vertical field is relevant for start-up assistance on future experiments like ITER. The results from this experimental parametric study are useful for the modeling of the start-up assisted by the second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating. The aim of this work is to establish predictive scenarios for both ITER and W7-X operation.

  18. Comprehensive characterization of natural organic matter by MALDI- and ESI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Dong; Huang, Huogao; Hu, Ming; Cui, Lin; Geng, Fanglan; Rao, Ziyu; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Kang, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MALDI-FT-ICR-MS was firstly employed for molecular characterization of NOM. • 1,8-Bis(dimethyl-amino)-naphthalene (DMAN) was used as matrix. • Mass spectra of NOM generated by MALDI and ESI methods were compared. • Complementary molecular information of NOM was provided by MALDI. - Abstract: Natural organic matter (NOM) is a complex and non-uniform mixture of organic compounds which plays an important role in environmental processes. Due to the complexity, it is challenging to obtain fully detailed structural information about NOM. Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for providing molecular information about NOM, multiple ionization methods are needed for comprehensive characterization of NOM at the molecular level considering the ionizing selectivity of different ionization methods. This paper reports the first use of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method coupled with FT-ICR-MS for molecular characterization of NOM within a mass range of 200–800 Da. The mass spectral data obtained by MALDI were systematically compared with data generated by electrospray ionization (ESI). It showed that complementary molecular information about NOM which could not be detected by ESI, were provided by MALDI. More unsaturated and aromatic constituents of NOM with lower O/C ratio (O/C ratio < 0.5) were preferentially ionized in MALDI negative mode, whereas more polar constituents of NOM with higher O/C ratio were preferentially ionized in ESI negative mode. Molecular anions of NOM appearing at even m/z in MALDI negative ion mode were detected. The results show that NOM molecules with aromatic structures, moderate O/C ratio (0.7 > O/C ratio > 0.25) and lower H/C ratio were liable to form molecular anions at even m/z, whereas those with higher H/C ratio are more likely to form deprotonated ions at odd m/z. It is speculated that almost half of the NOM

  19. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  20. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  1. Automated system for efficient microwave power coupling in an S-band ECR ion source driven under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, L., E-mail: lmuguira@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Portilla, J. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Gonzalez, P.J.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Etxebarria, V. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Eguiraun, M.; Arredondo, I.; Miracoli, R.; Belver, D. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2014-03-21

    This article presents an automated system for optimizing the microwave power coupling to the plasma generated in a proton/deuteron Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source, based on a specific model of a rectangular waveguide triple-stub tuner and the integrated measurement and control electronics, helping to get stable plasma states. The control and improvement of the RF power absorption into the plasma is a complex process, essential for the ion source development and optimization under different operating conditions. A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed and, besides, different methods to accurately measure the power transfer in a waveguide RF system have been studied and deployed in the ESS-Bilbao ion source system. The different parts have been integrated through a controller, which allows to run an automatic plasma matching system in closed loop. The behavior of the system implemented for low and high power regimes has been tested under different conditions: with several load impedances, with plasma inside the chamber, in continuous wave and pulsed wave operation modes, demonstrating power absorption typically over 90% in all the ion source configurations. The developed system allows to achieve significant improvement in the ECR ion source power absorption efficiency, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The automatic tuning unit enhances the system operation finding an optimum solution much faster than manually, also behaving as an adaptive system able to respond in few pulses to ion source configuration changes to maintain the power coupling as high as possible. - Highlights: • An automated system optimizing plasma and microwave power interaction is presented. • A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed. • Different methods to measure the power transfer have been studied and deployed. • The system works for low or high power regimes under different ion source conditions.

  2. Automated system for efficient microwave power coupling in an S-band ECR ion source driven under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguira, L.; Portilla, J.; Gonzalez, P.J.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Etxebarria, V.; Eguiraun, M.; Arredondo, I.; Miracoli, R.; Belver, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an automated system for optimizing the microwave power coupling to the plasma generated in a proton/deuteron Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source, based on a specific model of a rectangular waveguide triple-stub tuner and the integrated measurement and control electronics, helping to get stable plasma states. The control and improvement of the RF power absorption into the plasma is a complex process, essential for the ion source development and optimization under different operating conditions. A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed and, besides, different methods to accurately measure the power transfer in a waveguide RF system have been studied and deployed in the ESS-Bilbao ion source system. The different parts have been integrated through a controller, which allows to run an automatic plasma matching system in closed loop. The behavior of the system implemented for low and high power regimes has been tested under different conditions: with several load impedances, with plasma inside the chamber, in continuous wave and pulsed wave operation modes, demonstrating power absorption typically over 90% in all the ion source configurations. The developed system allows to achieve significant improvement in the ECR ion source power absorption efficiency, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The automatic tuning unit enhances the system operation finding an optimum solution much faster than manually, also behaving as an adaptive system able to respond in few pulses to ion source configuration changes to maintain the power coupling as high as possible. - Highlights: • An automated system optimizing plasma and microwave power interaction is presented. • A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed. • Different methods to measure the power transfer have been studied and deployed. • The system works for low or high power regimes under different ion source conditions.

  3. Transport and emittance study for 18 GHz superconducting-ECR ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Kibayashi, M; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A

    2012-02-01

    As the upgrade program of the azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron is at the cyclotron facility of the RCNP, Osaka University for the improvement of the quality, stability, and intensity of accelerated beams, an 18 GHz superconducting (SC) ECR ion source has been installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions, especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by RCNP AVF cyclotron. The production development of several ions such as B, O, N, Ne, Ar, Ni, Kr, and Xe has been performed by Yorita et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311(2008); 81, 02A332 (2010)]. Further studies for the beam transport have been done in order to improve the beam current more for injection of cyclotron. The effect of field leakage of AVF main coil is not negligible and additional steering magnet has been installed and then beam transmission has been improved. The emittance monitor has also been developed for the purpose of investigating correlation between emittance of beam from ECR ion sources and injection efficiency. The monitor consists with BPM82 with rotating wire for fast measurement for efficient study.

  4. Conceptual design of pulsed high voltage and high precision power supply for a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zito, Pietro; Maffia, Giuseppe; Lampasi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM). • This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS). • The conceptual design answers to the performances requested for CARM HVPS. • The pulse transformer parameters were estimated according to IEEE standards. • PWM PID-based controller has been optimized to follow very fast rectangular pulses. - Abstract: Due to the high electron temperature during the plasma burning, both a higher power (>1 MW) and a higher frequency (up to 300 GHz) are required for plasma heating in future fusion experiments like DEMO. For this task, ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) able to produce an electron radiation in synchronism with the electromagnetic field and to transfer the electron beam kinetic energy to the plasma. This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS) with the following technical characteristics: variable output voltage up to 700 kV; variable pulse length in the range 5–50 μs; overshoot < 2%; rise time < 1 μs; voltage accuracy (including drop, ripple and stability) <0.1%. This paper describes the conceptual design and the technical solutions adopted to achieve the performance requested for the CARM HVPS.

  5. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B. F., E-mail: Ben.Spencer@manchester.ac.uk; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Graham, D. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Beck, M.; Bartels, A. [Laser Quantum GmbH, Max-Stromeyer-Str. 116, 78467 Konstanz (Germany); Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-23

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} and 9000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m{sub 0}.

  6. Conceptual design of pulsed high voltage and high precision power supply for a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) for plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.zito@enea.it; Maffia, Giuseppe; Lampasi, Alessandro

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM). • This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS). • The conceptual design answers to the performances requested for CARM HVPS. • The pulse transformer parameters were estimated according to IEEE standards. • PWM PID-based controller has been optimized to follow very fast rectangular pulses. - Abstract: Due to the high electron temperature during the plasma burning, both a higher power (>1 MW) and a higher frequency (up to 300 GHz) are required for plasma heating in future fusion experiments like DEMO. For this task, ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) able to produce an electron radiation in synchronism with the electromagnetic field and to transfer the electron beam kinetic energy to the plasma. This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS) with the following technical characteristics: variable output voltage up to 700 kV; variable pulse length in the range 5–50 μs; overshoot < 2%; rise time < 1 μs; voltage accuracy (including drop, ripple and stability) <0.1%. This paper describes the conceptual design and the technical solutions adopted to achieve the performance requested for the CARM HVPS.

  7. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I FC by the mobile plate tuner. The I FC is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I FC and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I FC when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner.

  8. Cyclotrons: 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron

  9. Application of the laser induced fluorescence to the investigation of highly magnetized plasmas, heated by ion cyclotron resonance; Fluorescence induite par laser sur des plasmas fortement magnetises, chauffes par resonnance cyclotron ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pailloux, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement]|[Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-31

    This work has been achieved in the frame of isotopic separation studies by in cyclotron resonance. For this purpose, in a highly magnetized (2 to 3 Tesla) and non-collisional (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 3}) plasma, composed of metallic ions, a wave near the ion cyclotron frequency is thrown in order to heat selectively a given species. A laser induced fluorescence (LIP) has been developed on barium and gadolinium plasmas. The Larmor gyration of ions greatly modifies the interaction, which has been modelled through the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The obtained excitation probably has been integrated over all the ions excited in the measurement volume in order to check that the LIF still leads to the distribution function of ion velocities. The influence of the Larmor motion of ions on the spectral distribution of LIF has been derived both theoretically and experimentally. The LIF diagnostics has been achieved with a dye O`ring laser. The barium ion has been excited on the transition 6142 angstrom, using rhodamine 6G dye, and the gadolinium ion on the pseudo-triplet 3861 angstrom, using exalite dye. Data treatment has been developed taking into account the Zeeman effect and the different heating of isotopes. The ionic temperature (from 1 eV to some hundreds eV) has been measured as a function of radiofrequency heating. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the selective heating theory. Also, the ion velocity distribution function has been found locally Maxwellian. And the behaviour of the plasma has been studied as a function of control parameters of the plasma source. (author) 62 refs.

  10. Linear theory of microwave absortion in fusion plasmas. A study of the electron cyclotron resonance and its particularization to a helical axis device for magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon M, F.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the Linear Theory microwave propagation and absorption in the the frequency range of electron cyclotron resonance, in a magnetized plasma, is developed. This study is particularized to the flexible heliac TJ-II, whose main characteristics are dsetailed in a memory chapter, as an interesting case example for its peculiar magnetic configuration. As a preliminary phase, a cold plasma model is useds to analyze the resonance accessibility and the approximated density limits which will be obtainable in each electron cyclotron resonance harmonic. This analysis was used to find the suitable positions for the microwave injection in TJ-II. An analytical weakly relativistic model for the dielectric tensor is developed, valid for oblique propagation, that takes account of the effect of superthermal electrons. Second order Larmor radius effects are included, so that the Quasi-Electrostatic branch of X mode can be studied. A numerical study is then presented on the absorption properties of TJ-II. Since the TJ-II geometry is complex and its magnetic field distribution is very different from that of a tokamak, ray tracing calculations are necessary to consider refraction effects. The ray tracing codse RAYS, developed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (U.S.A.), was take and adapted to the helical magnetic configuration of the TJ-II. The absorption model described above was then included in RAYS. For completeness, an introduction to the Quasi Linear Theory, natural prolongation of this work, is included at the end of the memory, ands the effects of taking into account the quasi linear evolution of the distribution function are described. (Author)

  11. Bioconversion of red ginseng saponins in the gastro-intestinal tract in vitro model studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, H.; Wang, M.; Venema, K.; Maathuis, A.; Heijden, R. van der; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTICR-MS) method was developed to investigate the metabolism of ginsenosides in in vitro models of the gastro-intestinal tract. The metabolites were identified by

  12. Design and field configuration for a 14.4 GHz ECR ion source in Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.H.; Bose, D.K.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    The K500 cyclotron under construction will be capable of accelerating ions like O 6+ , Ne 4+ , Ar 16+ , Kr 27+ etc. We aim to get ∼200 euA maximum intensity of the extracted beam of O 6+ from the ion source and decided to have >2B ECR magnetic field on the cylindrical surface and the injection ends of the plasma chamber (P Ch) and slightly less than this at the extraction end. The success of the high field operation of ECRs at other places (U-AECR at LBL) suggests generation of proper magnetic field configuration for the 14.4 GHz microwave heating. The absolute composite magnetic field have been evaluated due to the coils (C1,C2) at the two ends and a -ve coil (NC) at the mid-length and a Halbach type sextupole (PM-Hex)

  13. Microwave measurement test results of circular waveguide components for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.W.; Rubert, R.R.; Coffield, F.E.; Felker, B.; Stallard, B.W.; Taska, J.

    1983-01-01

    Development of high-power components for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) applications requires extensive testing. In this paper we describe the high-power testing of various circular waveguide components designed for application on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). These include a 2.5-in. vacuum valve, polarizing reflectors, directional couplers, mode converters, and flexible waveguides. All of these components were tested to 200 kW power level with 40-ms pulses. Cold tests were used to determine field distribution. The techniques used in these tests are illustrated. The new high-power test facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described and test procedures are discussed. We discuss the following test results: efficiency at high power of mode converters, comparison of high power vs low power for waveguide components, and full power tests of the waveguide system. We also explain the reasons behind selection of these systems for use on TMX-U

  14. Effect of the minority concentration on ion cyclotron resonance heating in presence of the ITER-like wall in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Crombé, K.; Jachmich, S. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Euratom-Belgian State, TEC Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Jacquet, P.; Graham, M.; Kiptily, V.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mc Cormick, K.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Rimini, F.; Solano, E. R. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Maggi, C.; Neu, R.; Pütterich, T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik Euratom Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Czarnecka, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Coenen, J. W. [IEK-4, EURATOM-FZJ, TEC Partner, Jülich (Germany); and others

    2014-02-12

    The most recent JET campaign has focused on characterizing operation with the 'ITER-like' wall. One of the questions that needed to be answered is whether the auxiliary heating methods do not lead to unacceptably high levels of impurity influx, preventing fusion-relevant operation. In view of its high single pass absorption, hydrogen minority fundamental cyclotron heating in a deuterium plasma was chosen as the reference wave heating scheme in the ion cyclotron domain of frequencies. The present paper discusses the plasma behavior as a function of the minority concentration X[H] in L-mode with up to 4MW of RF power. It was found that the tungsten concentration decreases by a factor of 4 when the minority concentration is increased from X[H] ≈ 5% to X[H] % 20% and that it remains at a similar level when X[H] is further increased to 30%; a monotonic decrease in Beryllium emission is simultaneously observed. The radiated power drops by a factor of 2 and reaches a minimum at X[H] ≈ 20%. It is discussed that poor single pass absorption at too high minority concentrations ultimately tailors the avoidance of the RF induced impurity influx. The edge density being different for different minority concentrations, it is argued that the impact ICRH has on the fate of heavy ions is not only a result of core (wave and transport) physics but also of edge dynamics and fueling.

  15. Cyclotron based nuclear science: Progress report, April 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains descriptions of research programs at the Institute, progress on construction of the K500 cyclotron, and descriptions of new experimental devices being built to take advantage of new beams that will be available. Several milestones were reached in construction of the new cyclotron during the period. In early summer, 1986, the magnet was completed with all trim coils and shimming iron in place. During July and August, the final field maps were made, which will be used for calculations of run parameters. In the spring, one rf amplifier was completed and tested over the full frequency and power range. Also in the spring, the computer control system successfully operated positioning controls and trim coil power supplies. Final assembly of the rf system including the dees, resonators and other 2 rf amplifiers is now underway. Initial attempts at getting beam are expected in September. The design of the ECR source was completed in the fall. A beam line configuration has been designed for the K500 cyclotron which will result initially in 3 lines, with a fourth to be added in 1988. With the eminent completion of the K500, there has been considerable instrumentation development. A 4π neutron calorimeter is under construction for heavy ion reaction studies, construction is beginning on a proton spectrometer for studies of Gamow-Teller matrix elements with the (d, 2 He) reaction, and several detector systems are being developed. During the year, the 88 inch cyclotron operated 4845 hours for research and beam development. Research programs in nuclear science scheduled 57% of the time. Atomic physics programs used 19% of the time, and a program in trace analysis scheduled 6%. An industrial testing laboratory used 18 hours. The remainder of the time was used for beam development, primarily for increasing the energy and/or intensity of heavy ion beams

  16. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Hitz, D. [CEA/DRFMC, 17 Av. Des Martyrs, 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kuechler, D. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  17. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M.; Hitz, D.; Kuechler, D.

    2012-01-01

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  18. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) start-up antenna for the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.M.; Romesser, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the ICRH start-up antenna on MFTF-B is to heat the plasma and control the ion distribution as the density increases during start-up. The antenna, consisting of two center fed half turn loops phased 180 0 apart, has been designed for 1 MW of input power, with a goal of coupling 400 kW into the ions. To vary the heating frequency relative to the local ion cyclotron frequency, the antenna is tunable over a range from 7.5 to 12.5 MHz. The thermal requirements common to low duty cycle ICRH antennas are especially severe for the MFTF-B antenna. The stress requirements are also unique, deriving from the possibility of seismic activity or JxB forces if the magnets unexpectedly quench. Considerable attention has been paid to contact control at high current bolt-up joints, and arranging geometries so as to minimize the possibility of voltage breakdown

  19. Perturbation analysis of cyclotron resonance in the electromagnetic field of a TE{sub 011} mode; Analyse par perturbation de la resonance cyclotronique dans le champ electromagnetique en mode TE{sub 011} mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The motion of an electron orbiting under the combined action of a static magnetic field and the AC azimuthal electric field of a cylindrical TE{sub 011} mode is analyzed with help of a perturbation technique. The first and second order perturbation results indicate that at cyclotron resonance the electron's center of gyration oscillates slowly at right angles to the magnetic field between two turning points. We find that superimposed upon this nearly static Exb drift the electron cyclically undergoes the process of cyclotron absorption and induced emission. Our results indicate that it is possible to insure maser action (i.e. induced emission rather than absorption) without special preparation of the electron's velocity provided that the electron is introduced into the field in certain special regions of space pervaded by the TE mode. This is a case where over-population of the upper state is accomplished through 'pumping' in real space. The relation between an electron cyclotron resonance maser based upon this principle and one based upon the principle of velocity space pumping, due to Twiss, is examined. This treatment provides physical interpretations and verifies the numerical results found earlier by Le Gardeur. (author) [French] Le mouvement d'un electron soumis a l'action combinee d'un champ magnetique statique et d'un champ electrique haute frequence azimutal engendre dans une cavite cylindrique en mode TE{sub 011} est analyse a partir d'une methode de perturbation. Les resultats des perturbations au premier et deuxieme ordre indiquent qu'a la resonance cyclotronique, le centre de giration de l'electron oscille lentement dans le plan perpendiculaire au champ magnetique entre deux points de rebroussement. En plus de la derivee quasi-statique ExB, l'electron passe par des etats d'absorption et emission cyclotronique. Les resultats du calcul confirment la possibilite d'avoir une action maser (c'est-a-dire: emission au lieu d'absorption) sans que la vitesse des

  20. Automated Gain Control and Internal Calibration With External Ion Accumulation Capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Mikhail E.(VISITORS); Zhang, Rui (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Strittmatter, Eric F.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Prior, David C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tang, Keqi (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-08-15

    When combined with capillary LC separations, Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS) has increasingly been applied for advanced characterization of proteolytic digests. Incorporation of external (to the ICR cell) ion accumulation multipoles with FTICR for ion pre selection and accumulation has enhanced the dynamic range, sensitivity and duty cycle of measurements. However, the highly variable ion production rate from an LC separation can result in overfilling of the external trap, resulting in m/z discrimination and fragmentation of peptide ions. An excessive space charge trapped in the ICR cell causes significant shifts in the detected ion cyclotron frequencies, reducing the achievable mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for protein identification. To eliminate m/z discrimination in the external ion trap, further increase the duty cycle and improve MMA, we developed a capability for data-dependent adjustment of ion accumulation times in the course of an LC separation, referred to as Automated Gain Control (AGC), in combination with low kinetic energy gated ion trapping and internal calibration using a dual-channel electrodynamic ion funnel. The system was initially evaluated in the analysis of a 0.5 mg/mL tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin. The implementation of LC/ESI/AGC/FTICR with internal calibration gave rise to a {approx} 10-fold increase in the number of identified tryptic peptides within mass measurement accuracy of 2 ppm as compared to that detected during the conventional LC/FTICR run with a fixed ion accumulation time and external calibration.