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Sample records for cyclotron heating system

  1. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on Aditya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bora; Sunil Kumar; Raj Singh; S V Kulkarni; A Mukherjee; J P Singh; Raguraj Singh; S Dani; A Patel; Sai Kumar; V George; Y S S Srinivas; P Khilar; M Kushwah; P Shah; H M Jadav; Rajnish Kumar; S Gangopadhyay; H Machhar; B Kadia; K Parmar; A Bhardwaj; Suresh Adav; D Rathi; D S Bhattacharya

    2005-02-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system has been designed, fabricated indigenously and commissioned on Tokamak Aditya. The system has been commissioned to operate between 20·0 and 47·0 MHz at a maximum power of 200 kW continuous wave (CW). Duration of 500 ms is sufficient for operation on Aditya, however, the same system feeds the final stage of the 1·5 MW ICRH system being prepared for the steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) for a duration of 1000 s. Radio frequency (RF) power (225 kW) has been generated and successfully tested on a dummy load for 100s at 30·0 MHz. Lower powers have been coupled to Aditya in a breakdown experiment. We describe the system in detail in this work.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; D Bora

    2004-09-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the first two ECR surfaces ( = 875.0 G and = 437.5 G) reside in the system. ECR plasma is produced with hydrogen with typical plasma density e as 3.2 × 1010 cm-3 and plasma temperature e between 9 and 15 eV. Various cut-off and resonance positions are identified in the plasma system. ECR heating (ECRH) of the plasma is observed experimentally. This heating is because of the mode conversion of X-wave to electron Bernstein wave (EBW) at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer. The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be 0.85 for this system. The experimental results are presented in this paper.

  3. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J. [eds.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  4. Design of the Eelectron Cyclotron Resonance Heating Transmission System for HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 刘永

    2004-01-01

    HL-2A will be equipped with a 75 GHz/1 MW/1s electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system. The paper describes the design of the transmission system, which is made up of a transmission line, an equatorial launcher and a measureing system. The paper describes in detail the design of main components of the system such as, waveguides, ellipsoidal surface mirrors, chemical vapor (CVD) diamond window, steering mirror, and new directional coupler with a k-spectrometer. The newly-designed launcher can make the beam steer poloidally to deposit energy in different locations.

  5. Steerable beam systems for electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, J.

    1985-08-31

    Several methods are discussed for steering a 200 kW pencil beam of electromagnetic waves in the 60 GHz to 200 GHz frequency range. These include methods incorporating swivelling mirrors, phased arrays, mode converters, and optical materials. It is found that for the near term, the mechanical systems are best, capable of steering times of 3 ms to 100 ms and losses of less than 5%. Optical methods, as yet virtually uninvestigated, appear to offer the only means of beam-steering in the 5..mu..s to 100..mu..s range necessary for MHD mode tracking.

  6. Status of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbos, Caroline; Albajar, Ferran; Bonicelli, Tullio; Carannante, Giuseppe; Cavinato, Mario; Cismondi, Fabio; Denisov, Grigory; Farina, Daniela; Gagliardi, Mario; Gandini, Franco; Gassmann, Thibault; Goodman, Timothy; Hanson, Gregory; Henderson, Mark A.; Kajiwara, Ken; McElhaney, Karen; Nousiainen, Risto; Oda, Yasuhisa; Omori, Toshimichi; Oustinov, Alexander; Parmar, Darshankumar; Popov, Vladimir L.; Purohit, Dharmesh; Rao, Shambhu Laxmikanth; Rasmussen, David; Rathod, Vipal; Ronden, Dennis M. S.; Saibene, Gabriella; Sakamoto, Keishi; Sartori, Filippo; Scherer, Theo; Singh, Narinder Pal; Strauß, Dirk; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (H&CD) system developed for the ITER is made of 12 sets of high-voltage power supplies feeding 24 gyrotrons connected through 24 transmission lines (TL), to five launchers, four located in upper ports and one at the equatorial level. Nearly all procurements are in-kind, following general ITER philosophy, and will come from Europe, India, Japan, Russia and the USA. The full system is designed to couple to the plasma 20 MW among the 24 MW generated power, at the frequency of 170 GHz, for various physics applications such as plasma start-up, central H&CD and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity control. The design takes present day technology and extends toward high-power continuous operation, which represents a large step forward as compared to the present state of the art. The ITER EC system will be a stepping stone to future EC systems for DEMO and beyond.

  7. Electron cyclotron resonance heating on TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Hoekzema, J. A.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Schüller, F. C.; Barth, C. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Donne, A. J. H.; Dumortier, P.; van der Grift, A. F.; van Gorkom, J. C.; Kalupin, D.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Kruijt, O. G.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Mantica, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Merkulov, A.; Messiaen, A.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Oyevaar, T.; Poelman, A. J.; Polman, R. W.; Prins, P. R.; Scholten, J.; Sterk, A. B.; Tito, C. J.; Udintsev, V.S.; Unterberg, B.; Vervier, M.; van Wassenhove, G.

    2003-01-01

    The 110 GHz and the new 140 GHz gyrotron systems for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ECCD on TEXTOR are described and results of ECRH experiments with the 110 GHz system are reported. Central ECRH on Ohmic plasmas shows the presence of an internal electron transport barrier near q =

  8. Study and design of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Messiaen, A.; Van Eester, D.; Schweer, B.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Kazakov, Ye. O.; Louche, F.; Vervier, M.; Koch, R.; Krivska, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Van Schoor, M.; Wauters, T.; Borsuk, V.; Neubauer, O.; Schmitz, O.; Offermans, G.; Altenburg, Y.; Baylard, C.; Birus, D.; Bozhenkov, S.; Hartmann, D. A.; Kallmeyer, J. P.; Renard, S.; Wolf, R. C.; Fülöp, T.

    2014-06-01

    The current status of the mechanical and electromagnetic design for the ICRF antenna system for W7-X is presented. Two antenna plugins are discussed: one consisting of a pair of straps with pre-matching to cover the first frequency band, 25-38 MHz, and a second one consisting of two short strap triplets to cover a frequency band around 76 MHz. This paper focusses on the two strap antenna for the lower frequency band. Power coupling of the antenna to a reference plasma profile is studied with the help of the codes TOPICA and Microwave Studio that deliver the scattering matrix needed for the optimization of the geometric parameters of the straps and antenna box. Radiation power spectra for different phasings of the two straps are obtained using the code ANTITER II and different heating scenario are discussed. The potential for heating, fast particle generation, and current drive is discussed. The problem of RF coupling through the plasma edge and of edge power deposition is summarized. Important elements of the complete ion cyclotron resonance heating system are discussed: a resonator circuit with tap feed to limit the maximum voltage in the system, and a decoupler to counterbalance the large mutual coupling between the 2 straps. The mechanical design highlights the challenges encountered with this antenna: adaptation to a large variety of plasma configurations, the limited space within the port to accommodate the necessary matching components and the watercooling needed for long pulse operation.

  9. The targeted heating and current drive applications for the ITER electron cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M.; Darbos, C.; Gandini, F.; Gassmann, T.; Loarte, A.; Omori, T.; Purohit, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Saibene, G.; Gagliardi, M. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Farina, D.; Figini, L. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, 20125 Milano (Italy); Hanson, G. [US ITER Project Office, ORNL, 1055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Poli, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Takahashi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    A 24 MW Electron Cyclotron (EC) system operating at 170 GHz and 3600 s pulse length is to be installed on ITER. The EC plant shall deliver 20 MW of this power to the plasma for Heating and Current Drive (H and CD) applications. The EC system is designed for plasma initiation, central heating, current drive, current profile tailoring, and Magneto-hydrodynamic control (in particular, sawteeth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode) in the flat-top phase of the plasma. A preliminary design review was performed in 2012, which identified a need for extended application of the EC system to the plasma ramp-up, flattop, and ramp down phases of ITER plasma pulse. The various functionalities are prioritized based on those applications, which can be uniquely addressed with the EC system in contrast to other H and CD systems. An initial attempt has been developed at prioritizing the allocated H and CD applications for the three scenarios envisioned: ELMy H-mode (15 MA), Hybrid (∼12 MA), and Advanced (∼9 MA) scenarios. This leads to the finalization of the design requirements for the EC sub-systems.

  10. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Ion cyclotron resonance heating systems upgrade toward high power and CW operations in WEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillairet, Julien, E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr; Mollard, Patrick; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Argouarch, Arnaud; Berger-By, Gilles; Charabot, Nicolas; Colas, Laurent; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc; Ekedahl, Annika; Fedorczak, Nicolas; Ferlay, Fabien; Goniche, Marc; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Helou, Walid; Jacquot, Jonathan; Joffrin, Emmanuel; Litaudon, Xavier; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Patterlini, Jean-Claude [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-12-10

    The design of the WEST (Tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) Ion cyclotron resonance heating antennas is based on a previously tested conjugate-T Resonant Double Loops prototype equipped with internal vacuum matching capacitors. The design and construction of three new WEST ICRH antennas are being carried out in close collaboration with ASIPP, within the framework of the Associated Laboratory in the fusion field between IRFM and ASIPP. The coupling performance to the plasma and the load-tolerance have been improved, while adding Continuous Wave operation capability by introducing water cooling in the entire antenna. On the generator side, the operation class of the high power tetrodes is changed from AB to B in order to allow high power operation (up to 3 MW per antenna) under higher VSWR (up to 2:1). Reliability of the generators is also improved by increasing the cavity breakdown voltage. The control and data acquisition system is also upgraded in order to resolve and react on fast events, such as ELMs. A new optical arc detection system comes in reinforcement of the V{sub r}/V{sub f} and SHAD systems.

  12. High power millimeter wave experiment of ITER relevant electron cyclotron heating and current drive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Kajiwara, K; Oda, Y; Kasugai, A; Kobayashi, N; Sakamoto, K; Doane, J; Olstad, R; Henderson, M

    2011-06-01

    High power, long pulse millimeter (mm) wave experiments of the RF test stand (RFTS) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) were performed. The system consists of a 1 MW/170 GHz gyrotron, a long and short distance transmission line (TL), and an equatorial launcher (EL) mock-up. The RFTS has an ITER-relevant configuration, i.e., consisted by a 1 MW-170 GHz gyrotron, a mm wave TL, and an EL mock-up. The TL is composed of a matching optics unit, evacuated circular corrugated waveguides, 6-miter bends, an in-line waveguide switch, and an isolation valve. The EL-mock-up is fabricated according to the current design of the ITER launcher. The Gaussian-like beam radiation with the steering capability of 20°-40° from the EL mock-up was also successfully proved. The high power, long pulse power transmission test was conducted with the metallic load replaced by the EL mock-up, and the transmission of 1 MW/800 s and 0.5 MW/1000 s was successfully demonstrated with no arcing and no damages. The transmission efficiency of the TL was 96%. The results prove the feasibility of the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive system.

  13. Component development for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Transmission Line and Matching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Gray, S. L.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Sanabria, R. M.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.

    2013-10-01

    The transmission line and matching network for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System feeds two equatorial launchers, each with 24 phased current straps combined into groups of three, and each designed to couple up to 20 MW into ELMy H-mode plasmas in the frequency range 40-55 MHz, for pulse lengths up to 3600 s. The network includes > 1 km of 50 Ohm 300 mm diameter transmission line carrying up to 6 MW net power per line at VSWR = 1.5. In addition, there are 8 power splitters, 32 hybrid phase shifters incorporating 64 tuning stubs, 32 additional tuning stubs, and 36 vacuum capacitors, which are configured to provide pre-matching in the port cell region adjacent to the antenna, final matching, decoupling of mutual inductances between antenna elements, and passive ELM resilience. The development and design of the various system components will be discussed. High power tests of components have begun, and the latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Ion cyclotron resonance heating systems upgrade toward high power and CW operations in WEST

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, Julien; Zhao, Yanping; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Song, Yuntao; Argouarch, Arnaud; Berger-By, Gilles; Charabot, Nicolas; Chen, Gen; Chen, Zhaoxi; Colas, Laurent; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc; Dumortier, Pierre; Durodié, Frédéric; Ekedahl, Annika; Fedorczak, Nicolas; Ferlay, Fabien; Goniche, Marc; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Helou, Walid; Jacquot, Jonathan; Joffrin, Emmanuel; Litaudon, Xavier; Lombard, Gilles; Maggiora, Riccardo; Magne, Roland; Milanesio, Daniele; Patterlini, Jean-Claude; Prou, Marc; Verger, Jean-Marc; Volpe, Robert; Vulliez, Karl; Wang, Yongsheng; Winkler, Konstantin; Yang, Qingxi; Yuan, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    The design of the WEST (Tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) Ion cyclotron resonance heating antennas is based on a previously tested conjugate-T Resonant Double Loops prototype equipped with internal vacuum matching capacitors. The design and construction of three new WEST ICRH antennas are being carried out in close collaboration with ASIPP, within the framework of the Associated Laboratory in the fusion field between IRFM and ASIPP. The coupling performance to the plasma and the load-tolerance have been improved, while adding Continuous Wave operation capability by introducing water cooling in the entire antenna. On the generator side, the operation class of the high power tetrodes is changed from AB to B in order to allow high power operation (up to 3 MW per antenna) under higher VSWR (up to 2:1). Reliability of the generators is also improved by increasing the cavity breakdown voltage. The control and data acquisition system is also upgraded in order to resolve and react on fast events, such a...

  15. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma heating and non-inductive current drive by waves in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies are reviewed. Both theoretical aspects concerning wave properties, heating and current drive mechanisms, as well as the major experimental results are summarized.

  16. Integral staggered point-matching method for millimeter-wave reflective diffraction gratings on electron cyclotron heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Donghui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Huang, Mei [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Wang, Zhijiang, E-mail: wangzj@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Feng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.

  17. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  18. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ropponen, T; Suominen, P; Koponen, T K; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2008-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  19. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Suominen, P. [CERN Geneve 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Koponen, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Nanoscience Center, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2008-03-11

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  20. Ion Cyclotron Heating on Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J. F.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H. B.; Showers, M. A.; Piotrowicz, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion cyclotron heating will be used on Proto-MPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment) to increase heat flux to the target, to produce varying ion energies without substrate biasing, and to vary the extent of the magnetic pre-sheath for the case of a tilted target. A 25 cm long, 9 cm diameter dual half-turn helical ion cyclotron antenna has been installed in the device located at the magnetic field maximum. It couples power to ions via single pass damping of the slow wave at the fundamental resonance, and operates with ω 0.8ωci at the antenna location. It is designed to operate at power levels up to 30 kW, with a later 200 kW upgrade planned. Near term experiments include measuring RF loading at low power as a function of frequency and antenna gap. The plasma is generated by a helicon plasma source that has achieved ne > 5 ×1019m-3 operating with deuterium, as measured downstream from the ion cyclotron antenna location. Measurements will be compared with 1-D and 2-D models of RF coupling. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...

  3. Fusion Reactivity in the Case of Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞国扬; 常永斌; 沈林芳

    2003-01-01

    By applying the integral-variable-change technique,an explicit expression of deuterium-tritium fusion reactivity in the case of second harmonic ion cyclotron resonant heating on deuterium is obtained.

  4. Cryogenic system for VECC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, G; Bhattacharyya, T K; Bhandari, R K

    2009-01-01

    VEC Centre, Kolkata in India is at an advanced stage of commissioning a K500 superconducting cyclotron. The superconducting coil of the magnet for cyclotron is cooled by liquid helium. Three liquid helium cooled cryopanels, placed inside the Dees of the radiofrequency system, maintain the vacuum in the acceleration region of the superconducting cyclotron. The cryogenic system for magnet for cyclotron has been tested by cooling the coil and energizing the magnet. The cryogenic system for cryopanels has also been tested. Heater and temperature sensor were placed on the liquid helium cold head for cryopanel. The temperature of the cold head was observed to be below 20 K upto a heat load of 11.7 watt.

  5. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.;

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam...

  6. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova st., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova st., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-08-15

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities.

  7. THE DEMINERALIZED WATER SYSTEM FOR THE NRL CYCLOTRON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    handling system was considered impractical to handle this heat load. Therefore, the demineralized water system for the NRL Sector-Focusing Cyclotron...decided to run the water system on a continuous basis. Continuous operation can be dangerous, because it can cause a large leak to occur, but this

  8. Restoration of the plasma discharge during density limit disruptions in the T-10 tokamak using electron cyclotron heating and ohmic power supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrukhin, P. V.; Shestakov, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments in the T-10 tokamak [Alikaev et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 381 (1988)] have demonstrated the possibility of control of the plasma current and prevention of formation of the non-thermal (Eγ > 150 keV) electron beams after an energy quench at the density limit disruption using electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) and controlled operation of the Ohmic power supply system. Quasi-stable plasma operation with repetitive sawtooth oscillations can be restored after an energy quench using high auxiliary power Pec > 2-5 Poh. Optimal conditions of the plasma discharge recovery after an energy quench using auxiliary heating are identified. At high auxiliary power, restoration of the plasma discharge can be provided with the location of the EC resonance zone within the whole plasma cross section. The auxiliary power required for discharge restoration is minimal when the power is deposited around the m = 2, n = 1 magnetic island (here m and n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers). The threshold ECRH power increases linearly with plasma current. Prevention of the non-thermal electron beams during density limit disruption is associated with stabilization of bursts of the magnetohydrodynamic modes, creation of the saturated magnetic islands, and heating of the background plasma using ECRH. Plasma discharge recovery after an energy quench in a tokamak reactor using auxiliary heating and controllable reduction of the plasma current is discussed.

  9. Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prater, R.; Farina, D.; Gribov, Y.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Poli, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Volpe, F.; Westerhof, E.; Zvonkovo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories wor

  10. Fokker-Planck Study of Tokamak Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBingren; LONGYongxing; DONGJiaqi; LIWenzhong; JIAOYiming; WANGAike

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we add a subroutine for describing the electron cyclotron resonant heating calculation to the Fokker-Planck code. By analyzing the wave-particle resonance condition in tokamak plasma and the fast motion of electrons along magnetic field lines, suitable quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are given.

  11. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron power in toroidal plasmas. We have investigated the use of electron cyclotron resonance heating for bringing compact tokamaks (BPX) to ignition-like parameters. This requires that we continue to refine the modeling capability of the TORCH code linked with the BALDUR 1 {1/2} D transport code. Using this computational tool, we have examined the dependence of ignition on heating and transport employing both theoretical (multi-mode) and empirically based transport models. The work on current drive focused on the suppression of tearing modes near the q = 2 surface and sawteeth near the q = 1 surface. Electron cyclotron current drive in CIT near the q =2 surface was evaluated for a launch scenario where electron cyclotron power was launched near the equatorial plane. The work on suppression of sawteeth has been oriented toward understanding the suppression that has been observed in a number of tokamaks, in particular, in the WT-3 tokamak in Kyoto. To evaluate the changes in current profile (shear) near the q =1 surface, simulations have been carried out using the linked BALDUR-TORCH code. We consider effects on shear resulting both from wave-induced current as well as from changes in conductivity associated with changes in local temperature. Abstracts and a paper relating to this work is included in Appendix A.

  12. MM-wave cyclotron auto-resonance maser for plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccuzzi, S.; Ravera, G. L.; Tuccillo, A. A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.; Spassovsky, I.; Surrenti, V. [ENEA UTAPRAD, C.R. Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Mirizzi, F. [Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    Heating and Current Drive systems are of outstanding relevance in fusion plasmas, magnetically confined in tokamak devices, as they provide the tools to reach, sustain and control burning conditions. Heating systems based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) have been extensively exploited on past and present machines DEMO, and the future reactor will require high frequencies. Therefore, high power (≥1MW) RF sources with output frequency in the 200 - 300 GHz range would be necessary. A promising source is the so called Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Maser (CARM). Preliminary results of the conceptual design of a CARM device for plasma heating, carried out at ENEA-Frascati will be presented together with the planned R and D development.

  13. MM-wave cyclotron auto-resonance maser for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccuzzi, S.; Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.; Mirizzi, F.; Spassovsky, I.; Ravera, G. L.; Surrenti, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Heating and Current Drive systems are of outstanding relevance in fusion plasmas, magnetically confined in tokamak devices, as they provide the tools to reach, sustain and control burning conditions. Heating systems based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) have been extensively exploited on past and present machines DEMO, and the future reactor will require high frequencies. Therefore, high power (≥1MW) RF sources with output frequency in the 200 - 300 GHz range would be necessary. A promising source is the so called Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Maser (CARM). Preliminary results of the conceptual design of a CARM device for plasma heating, carried out at ENEA-Frascati will be presented together with the planned R&D development.

  14. Fundamental ion cyclotron resonance heating of JET deuterium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasilnikov, A. V. [Troitsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (TRINITI), Russia; Van Eester, D. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Lerche, E. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Ongena, J. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Amosov, V. N. [Troitsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (TRINITI), Russia; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Bonheure, G. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Crombe, K. [Ghent University, Belgium; Ericsson, G. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Esposito, Basilio [ENEA, Frascati; Giacomelli, L. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hellesen, C. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hjalmarsson, A. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Jachmich, S. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Kallne, J. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Kaschuck, Yu A [Troitsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (TRINITI), Russia; Kiptily, V. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Leggate, H. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Mailloux, J. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Marocco, D. [ENEA, Frascati; Mayoral, M.-L. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Popovichev, S. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Riva, M. [ENEA, Frascati; Santala, M. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Stamp, M. F. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Vdovin, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Walden, A. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK

    2009-03-01

    Radio frequency heating of majority ions is of prime importance for understanding the basic role of auxiliary heating in the activated D T phase of ITER. Majority deuterium ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) experiments at the fundamental cyclotron frequency were performed in JET. In spite of the poor antenna coupling at 25 MHz, this heating scheme proved promising when adopted in combination with D neutral beam injection (NBI). The effect of fundamental ICRH of a D population was clearly demonstrated in these experiments: by adding ~25% of heating power the fusion power was increased up to 30 50%, depending on the type of NBI adopted. At this power level, the ion and electron temperatures increased from Ti ~ 4.0 keV and Te ~ 4.5 keV (NBI-only phase) to Ti ~ 5.5 keV and Te ~ 5.2 keV (ICRH + NBI phase), respectively. The increase in the neutron yield was stronger when 80 keV rather than 130 keV deuterons were injected in the plasma. It is shown that the neutron rate, the diamagnetic energy and the electron as well as the ion temperature scale roughly linearly with the applied RF power. A synergistic effect of the combined use of ICRF and NBI heating was observed: (i) the number of neutron counts measured by the neutron camera during the combined ICRF + NBI phases of the discharges exceeded the sum of the individual counts of the NBI-only and ICRF-only phases; (ii) a substantial increase in the number of slowing-down beam ions was detected by the time of flight neutron spectrometer when ICRF power was switched on; (iii) a small D subpopulation with energies slightly above the NBI launch energy was detected by the neutral particle analyzer and -ray spectroscopy.

  15. Studies for the ion cyclotron range of frequency heating in a tokamak fusion experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency heating has been investigated as an efficient additional plasma heating and non-inductive current driving methods in a tokamak type fusion experimental device. At first, an ICRF antenna coupling code was developed for the estimation of the coupling properties of phased antenna array, so that the ICRF antennas were designed for JT-60 and JT-60U ICRF heating systems using the coupling codes. The ICRF heating experiments had been performed in JT-60 and JT-60U. The coupling properties of ICRF antenna, the physics of peripheral plasma and energy confinement by ICRF heating in various heating regimes have been investigated. Next, the Toroidicity induced Alfven Eigen (TAE) mode have been studied using minority ICRF heating for producing energetic ions which can excite TAE mode. The TAE mode could be suppressed by current profile control using current ramp operation and lower hybrid current drive. (author) 74 refs.

  16. RF sources for ITER Ion Cyclotron H and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, F., E-mail: fabienne.kazarian@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Sain-Paul-Les-Durance (France); Beaumont, B.; Arambhadiya, B.; Gassmann, T.; Lamalle, Ph.; Rathi, D. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Sain-Paul-Les-Durance (France); Mukherjee, A.; Ajesh, P.; Machchhar, H.; Patadia, D.; Patel, M.; Rajnish, K.; Singh, R.; Suthar, G.; Trivedi, R. [ITER India, IPR, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (IC H and CD) system for ITER will provide 20 MW to the plasma. The associated Radio Frequency (RF) source system has to be compliant with all operation modes foreseen in that frame. Their specifications are fully described in this paper and constraints on IC RF source components are detailed, in particular concerning the final stage tube of the amplifier. Results of tests performed under a collaborative work at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) facility are presented. Consequences on the procurement process by ITER India (II) are deduced.

  17. Observations of rotation in JET plasmas with electron heating by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T. J.; Van Eester, D.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of L-mode plasmas in the JET tokamak heated by waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) damped on electrons, is reported. The plasma in the core is found to rotate in the counter-current direction with a high shear and in the outer part of the plasma with an almost...... constant angular rotation. The core rotation is stronger in magnitude than observed for scenarios with dominating ion cyclotron absorption. Two scenarios are considered: the inverted mode conversion scenarios and heating at the second harmonic He-3 cyclotron resonance in H plasmas. In the latter case......, electron absorption of the fast magnetosonic wave by transit time magnetic pumping and electron Landau damping (TTMP/ELD) is the dominating absorption mechanism. Inverted mode conversion is done in (He-3)-H plasmas where the mode converted waves are essentially absorbed by electron Landau damping. Similar...

  18. Observations of rotation in JET plasmas with electron heating by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T. J.; Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Lin, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Ongena, J.; Calabro, G.; Crombe, K.; Frigione, D.; Giroud, C.; Lennholm, M.; Mantica, P.; Nave, M. F. F.; Naulin, V.; Sozzi, C.; Studholme, W.; Tala, T.; Versloot, T.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of L-mode plasmas in the JET tokamak heated by waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) damped on electrons, is reported. The plasma in the core is found to rotate in the counter-current direction with a high shear and in the outer part of the plasma with an almost constan

  19. Capabilities of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Equatorial Launcher for Heating and Current Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramponi G.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ITER Electron Cyclotron Equatorial Launcher is designed to be one of the heating systems to assist and sustain the development of various ITER plasma scenarios starting with the very first plasma operation. Here the capabilities for Heating and Current Drive of this system are reviewed. In particular, the optimum launching conditions are investigated for two scenarios at burn, comparing toroidal and poloidal steering options. Then, the EC capabilities are investigated for different plasma parameters corresponding to various phases of the ITER plasma discharge, from current ramp-up up to burn, and for a wide range of magnetic field, focusing in particular on the EC potential for heating and for L to H-mode assist. It is found that the EC system can contribute to a wide range of heating scenarios during the ramp-up of the magnetic field, significantly increasing the applicable range as a function of magnetic field.

  20. Major results of the electron cyclotron heating experiment in the PDX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsuan, H.; Bol, K.; Bowen, N.; Boyd, D.; Cavallo, A.; Dimits, A.; Doane, J.; Elder, G.; Goldman, M.; Grek, B.

    1984-07-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) experiments on PDX have been carried out with two 60 GHz pulsed gyrotrons each yielding up to approximately 100 kW. The ECH system used two waveguide runs each about 30 meters long. One run included 5 bends and the other, 7 bends. Predetermined waveguide modes were transmitted. The electron cyclotron waves were launched in narrow beams from both the high field and the low field sides of the plasma torus. The major new physics results are: (1) efficient central electron heating for both ohmic and neutral beam heated target plasmas; (2) alteration of MHD behavior using ECH; (3) identification of the trapped electron population with ECH; and (4) signature of velocity-space time evolution during ECH. In the best heating results obtained, Thomson scattering data indicated a central temperature increase from less than or equal to 1.5 keV to greater than or equal to 2.5 keV. This occurred with an average density of about 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and approximately 80 kW outside-launch ordinary-mode heating.

  1. Electron-cyclotron heating in the Constance 2 mirror experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauel, Michael E.

    1982-09-01

    Electron cyclotron heating of a highly-ionized plasma in mirror geometry is investigated. The experimental diagnosis of the electron energy distribution and the comparison of the results of this diagnosis with a two dimensional, time-dependent Fokker-Planck simulation are accomplished in four steps. (1) First, the power balance of the heated and unheated Constance 2 plasma is analyzed experimentally. It is concluded that the heated electrons escape the mirror at a rate dominated by a combination of the influx of cool electrons from outside the mirror and the increased loss rate of the ions. (2) The microwave parameters at the resonance zones are then calculated by cold-plasma ray tracing. High N/sub parallel/ waves are launched and for these waves, strong first-pass absorption is predicted. The absorption strength is qualitatively checked in the experiment by surrounding the plasma with non-reflecting liners. (3) A simplified quasilinear theory including the effect of N/sub parallel/ is developed to model the electrons. An analytic expression is derived for the RF-induced pump-out of the magnetically-confined warm electrons. Results of the Fokker-Planck simulations show the development of the electron energy distribution for several plasma conditions and verify the scaling of the analytic expression for RF-induced diffusion into the loss cone. (4) Sample x-ray and endloss data are presented, and the overall comparison between the simulation and experiment is discussed. The x-ray signals indicate that, for greater RF power, the hot electrondensity increases more rapidly than its temperature. The time history of the endloss data, illustrating RF-enhancement, suggests the predicted scaling for warm-electron pump-out. Finally, a comparison between the measured and predicted energy distribution shows that the bulk, warm and hot components of the heated Constance 2 electrons are indeed reproduced by the simulation.

  2. Design of the ion cyclotron system for TPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.; Shipley, S.; Yugo, J.; Goulding, R.; Batchelor, D.; Stallings, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fredd, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1993-06-01

    The TPX experiment will operate for very long pulse times ({ge} 1000 s) and will require current drive of several different types to explore the advanced physics operating modes as one of its main missions. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) using ion cyclotron waves in the 40--80 MHz range will be used as one of the main current-drive mechanisms. For initial operation, 8 MW of rf will be supplied, along with 8 MW of neutral beams and 1.5 MW of lower hybrid power. The ion cyclotron (IC) system is a major part of the TPX heating and current drive system. The IC system must: supply 8 MW of power through two main horizontal ports; be upgradable to provide up to 12 MW of rf power through two ports; operate, for 1000-s pulses every 75 min; drive current using FWCD with high reliability; be bakeable to 350{degree}C for cleaning; and incorporate shielding to attenuate the neutron and gamma flux from DD operation so that hands-on maintenance can be performed exterior to the vacuum vessel. The system will consist of four modified FMIT power units that will be upgraded to deliver 2 MW each to the plasma. Two antennas, each with six current straps, will be located in adjacent ports. A sophisticated matching system is needed to provide experimental flexibility and reliability.

  3. Design of the ion cyclotron system for TPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.; Shipley, S.; Yugo, J.; Goulding, R.; Batchelor, D.; Stallings, D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Fredd, E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    The TPX experiment will operate for very long pulse times ([ge] 1000 s) and will require current drive of several different types to explore the advanced physics operating modes as one of its main missions. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) using ion cyclotron waves in the 40--80 MHz range will be used as one of the main current-drive mechanisms. For initial operation, 8 MW of rf will be supplied, along with 8 MW of neutral beams and 1.5 MW of lower hybrid power. The ion cyclotron (IC) system is a major part of the TPX heating and current drive system. The IC system must: supply 8 MW of power through two main horizontal ports; be upgradable to provide up to 12 MW of rf power through two ports; operate, for 1000-s pulses every 75 min; drive current using FWCD with high reliability; be bakeable to 350[degree]C for cleaning; and incorporate shielding to attenuate the neutron and gamma flux from DD operation so that hands-on maintenance can be performed exterior to the vacuum vessel. The system will consist of four modified FMIT power units that will be upgraded to deliver 2 MW each to the plasma. Two antennas, each with six current straps, will be located in adjacent ports. A sophisticated matching system is needed to provide experimental flexibility and reliability.

  4. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of Aditya tokamak plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asim Kumar Chattopadhyay; S V Kulkarni; R Srinivasan; Aditya Team

    2015-10-01

    Plasma heating with the fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the auxiliary heating schemes of Aditya tokamak. Numerical simulation of second-harmonic resonance heating scenarios in low-temperature, low-density Aditya plasma has been carried out for fast magnetosonic wave absorption in ICRF range, using full-wave ion cyclotron heating code TORIC combined with Fokker–Planck quasilinear solver SSFPQL and the results are explained. In such low-temperature, low-density plasma, ion absorption for second-harmonic resonance heating is less but significant amount of direct electron heating is observed.

  5. Radiation Monitoring System of 30 MeV Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Hur, Min-Goo; Jeong, Gyosung; Kim, Jongil

    2017-09-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation monitoring system was implemented at KAERI for a 30-MeV cyclotron. This system consists of several types of radiation measuring systems for ambient dose equivalent rate measurements of outside photon and neutron areas as well as inside the cyclotron, and monitors the alpha and beta particulates released from a stack, as well as the results of worker contamination at the portal of the cyclotron. In addition, an automatic alarm system is also mounted if there are alarms in the measuring systems.

  6. Remote-Steering Antennas for 140 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating of the Stellarator W7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechte C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For electron cyclotron resonance heating of the stellarator W7-X at IPP Greifswald, a 140 GHz/10 MW cw millimeter wave system has been built. Two out of 12 launchers will employ a remote-steering design. This paper describes the overall design of the two launchers, and design issues like input coupling structures, manufacturing of corrugated waveguides, optimization of the steering range, integration of vacuum windows, mitrebends and vacuum valves into the launchers, as well as low power tests of the finished waveguides.

  7. Lower hybrid current drive favoured by electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesario, R.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Tuccillo, A. A. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Amicucci, L.; Galli, A. [Università di Roma Sapienza, Dipartimento Ingegneria Elettronica, Rome (Italy); Giruzzi, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Napoli, F.; Schettini, G. [Università di Roma Tre, Dipartimento Ingegneria Elettronica, Rome (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap a fraction of non-inductive plasma current, which would be controlled for obtaining and optimizing steady-state profiles, can be reached by using the Current Drive produced by Lower Hybrid waves (LHCD). FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) experiments demonstrated, indeed, that LHCD is effective at reactor-graded high plasma density, and the LH spectral broadening is reduced, operating with higher electron temperature in the outer region of plasma column (T{sub e-periphery}). This method was obtained following the guidelines of theoretical predictions indicating that the broadening of launched spectrum produced by parametric instability (PI) should be reduced, and the LHCD effect at high density consequently enabled, under higher (T{sub e-periphery}). In FTU, the temperature increase in the outer plasma region was obtained by operating with reduced particle recycling, lithized walls and deep gas fuelling by means of fast pellet. Heating plasma periphery with electron cyclotron resonant waves (ECRH) will provide a further tool for achieving steady-state operations. New FTU experimental results are presented here, demonstrating that temperature effect at the plasma periphery, affecting LH penetration, occurs in a range of plasma parameters broader than in previous work. New information is also shown on the modelling assessing frequencies and growth rates of the PI coupled modes responsible of spectral broadening. Finally, we present the design of an experiment scheduled on FTU next campaign, where ECRH power is used to slightly increase the electron temperature in the outer plasma region of a high-density discharge aiming at restoring LHCD. Consequent to model results, by operating with a toroidal magnetic field of 6.3 T, useful for locating the electron cyclotron resonant layer at the periphery of the plasma column (r/a∼0.8, f{sub 0}=144 GHz), an increase of T{sub e} in the outer plasma (from 40 eV to 80 eV at r/a∼0.8) is

  8. Heating and Current Drive by Electron Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, R.

    2003-10-01

    The physics model of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) is becoming well validated through systematic comparisons of theory and experiment. Work has shown that ECCD can be highly localized and robustly controlled, leading to applications including stabilization of MHD instabilities like neoclassical tearing modes, control and sustainment of desired profiles of current density and plasma pressure, and studies of localized transport. These physics applications and the study of the basic physics of ECH and ECCD were enabled by the advent of the gyrotron in the 1980s and of the diamond window for megawatt gyrotrons in the 1990s. The experimental work stimulated a broad base of theory based on first principles which is encapsulated in linear ray tracing codes and fully relativistic quasilinear Fokker-Planck codes. Recent experiments use measurements of the local poloidal magnetic field through the motional Stark effect to determine the magnitude and profile of the locally driven current. The subtle balance between wave-induced diffusion and Coulomb relaxation in velocity space provides an understanding of the effects of trapping of current-carrying electrons in the magnetic well, an effect which can be used to advantage. Strong quasilinear effects and radial transport of electrons which may broaden the driven current profile have also been observed under some conditions and appear to be consistent with theory, but in large devices these are usually insignificant. Additional advantages of ECH compared with other rf heating methods are that the antenna can be far removed from the plasma and the power density can be very high. The agreement of theory and experiment, the broad base of established applications, and the technical advantages of ECH support the application of ECH in next-step tokamaks and stellarators.

  9. Main-ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements based on scattering of electron cyclotron heating waves in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...... temperature and plasma rotation velocity. This demonstrates that ECRH systems can be exploited for diagnostic purposes alongside their primary heating purpose in a reactor relevant scenario....

  10. Main-ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements based on scattering of electron cyclotron heating waves in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejner, M.; Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, S. K.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; McDermott, R. M.; Salewski, M.; Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D. H.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity. This demonstrates that ECRH systems can be exploited for diagnostic purposes alongside their primary heating purpose in a reactor relevant scenario.

  11. Summary of EC-17: the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (Deurne, The Netherlands, 7-10 May 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Austin, M. E.; Kubo, S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Plaum, B.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of the papers presented at the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The meeting covered all aspects of the research field ranging from theory to enabling technologies. From the workshop, advanced control by ele

  12. Multi-Species Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating at High Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, A. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andre, M.; Chang, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Crew, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Observations of ion distributions and plasma waves obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the high-altitude, nightside auroral zone are used to study ion energization for three ion species. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to account for the transverse heating of these ion populations. One of these, the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) mechanism, explains ion conic formation through ion cyclotron resonance with broadband electromagnetic wave turbulence in the vicinity of the characteristic ion cyclotron frequency. The cyclotron resonant heating of the ions by low-frequency electromagnetic waves is an important energy source for the transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. In this paper we test the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to three simultaneously heated and accelerated ion species by modelling the ion conic formation in terms of a resonant wave-particle interaction in which the ions extract energy from the portion of the broadband electromagnetic wave spectrum which includes the ion cyclotron frequency. Using a Monte Carlo technique we evaluate the ion heating produced by the electromagnetic turbulence at low frequencies and find that the wave amplitudes near the ion cyclotron frequencies are sufficient to explain the observed ion energies.

  13. Design and installation of the electron cyclotron wave system for the TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, T.P.; Alberti, S.; Henderson, M.A.; Pochelon, A.; Tran, M.Q. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-10-01

    The design of a combined 82.7 GHz and 118 GHz, 4.5 MW, 2.0 s electron cyclotron wave (ECW) system for heating and current drive on TCV is described. Low and high power test results of the RF source, transmission line and launching antenna are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Recent Results on Ion-Cyclotron and Combined Heating of Textor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, R.; Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Vannieuwenhove, R.; Van Oost, G.; van Wassenhove, G.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Vandenplas, P. E.; Vanesteer, D.; Vervier, M.; Weynants, R. R.; Finken, K.H.; Euringer, H.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.; Unterberg, B.; Winter, J.; Bertschinger, G.; Esser, H. G.; Fuchs, G.; Giesen, B.; Hintz, E.; Hoenen, F.; Hutteman, P.; Konen, L.; Korten, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; KramerFlecken, A.; Lochter, M.; Mank, G.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Schweer, B.; Soltwisch, H.; Telesca, G.; Uhlemann, R.; Waidmann, G.; Wolf, G. H.; Boedo, J.; Gray, D.; Hillis, D. L.; Oyevaar, T.; Tammen, H. F.; Tanabe, T.; Ueda, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The recent experimental activity in the field of auxiliary heating and related topics on TEXTOR is reviewed. TEXTOR is equipped with up to 4 MW of ion cyclotron heating power and 3.4 MW of neutral beam injection. The combination of the radiating boundary concept with high auxiliary power has

  15. Asymmetric Wave Transmission During Electron-Cyclotron Resonant Heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.G.; Smits, F. M. A.; Giruzzi, G.; Oomens, A. A. M.; Westerhof, E.

    1995-01-01

    In low density plasmas in the RTP tokamak the single-pass absorption of O-mode waves at the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance is observed to be toroidally asymmetric. The absorption is highest for waves travelling in the direction opposite to the toroidal plasma current. Fokker-Planck

  16. Conceptual design of CFETR electron cyclotron wave system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yunying, E-mail: yytang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Fukun; Zhang, Liyuan; Wei, Wei; Xu, Handong; Xu, Weiye; Wu, Dajun; Feng, Jianqiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The conceptual design of 170 GHz/20 MW electron cyclotron wave system was introduced. • The layout of RF sources was given. • The design and layout of transmission lines were shown and series of microwave components were introduced. • The structure of launcher was described in detail. • By the optic calculation and optimization of RF propagation inside the launcher, the quasi-optical parameters for launcher design were given. And then temperature distribution and thermal-stress of the injection mirror were analyzed. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a test tokamak which is built for magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. The electron cyclotron (EC) wave system of CFETR is designed to inject 20 MW RF power into the plasma for heating and current drive (H&CD) applications. The EC wave system consists of RF sources, twenty transmission lines (TLs) and one equatorial launcher. RF sources contain twenty gyrotrons with the output power 1 MW. There are series of microwave components distributed along the TL and the percentage of power losses of each TL is about 8.7%. In the equatorial launcher, five RF beams are injected into one focusing mirror and then reflected to the plasma via one injection mirror. The focusing mirror is spherical to focus Gaussian beam and the injection mirror which is flat can steer in the toroidal direction. After optic calculation and optimization, all the quasi-optical parameters for launcher design are given. Combining with the thermal stress analysis, the chosen inner diameter of water channel of injection mirror is 12 mm and the suggested water velocity is 3 m/s.

  17. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-01

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push-pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  18. 基于 FPGA 的 EAST -ICRH 天线相位测量研究%Research of Measurement of Antenna Phase for EAST Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating System Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈照; 赵燕平; 程艳; 陈根

    2015-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Wave Resonant Heating ( ICRH) is one of the most important methods to heat plasma for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak( EAST) , and the relationship of phase difference between the straps on ICRH antenna affect the heating efficiency of the antenna.In this paper ,we propose a new design method to measure the antenna phase for EAST-ICRH system based on FPGA by using double AD8302 and new algorithm ,which can solve the problem of non-uniqueness and nonlinear error ,and achieve high preci-sion.In addition, the advantage of FPGA makes the system more concise, extensible, and flexible.%离子回旋波加热( ICRH)是EAST超导托卡马克核聚变实验装置加热等离子体的重要手段之一,而离子回旋加热天线电流带之间的相位关系影响到天线的加热效果。论文提出了一种基于FPGA的ICRH天线相位测量方案,采用双AD8302模块以及新的算法解决了相位测量的二值性和非线性误差问题,测量精度高。同时利用FPGA可编程的特点,使得系统的设计变得简洁灵活,便于后期功能的扩展。

  19. First results of ion cyclotron resonance heating on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noterdaeme, J.; Hoffmann, C.; Brambilla, M.; Buechl, K.; Eberhagen, A.; Field, A.; Fuchs, C.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hermann, A.; Hofmeister, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Lieder, G.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; de Pena Hempel, S.; Poschenrieder, W.; Richter, T.; Ryter, F.; Salmon, N.; Salzmann, H.; Schneider, W.; Wesner, F.; Zehrfeld, H.; Zohm, H. (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1994-10-15

    ASDEX Upgrade is equipped with an ICRH system consisting of 4 generators of 2 MW power each and 4 double loop antennas. The generators, tuneable in frequency from 30 to 120 MHz, cover several heating scenarios over a wide range of magnetic fields (1 T[lt]B[sub t][lt]3.9 T): minority heating of H and He[sub 3] and second harmonic heating of H and D. ICRH-heated discharges in ASDEX Upgrade were so far carried out mainly at 30 MHz and a magnetic field of 2 T (H minority in D and He). Peak powers of 2.4 MW and pulse length up to 2.5 s were achieved (total energy 3.75 MJ). In L-mode, the density on turn-on of the ICRH stays constant, or even decreases. The ratio of radiated power to total input power is unchanged (60% in an unboronized machine, 30% in a freshly boronized machine) between Ohmic and ICRH phases. The electron temperature increases with 0.9 MW from 1 to 1.25 keV, the loop voltage drops. Transitions to the H-mode were easily and reliably achieved with ICRH alone (necessary ICRH power as low as 0.9 MW) and the length of the ELMy H-mode phases was limited only by the applied ICRH pulse length (ELMy H-mode phases of up to 2 s were achieved). The paper presents further results on heating and confinement in L and H-mode, antenna and edge studies and on divertor measurements. Preliminary experiments, performed with a combination of H minority heating (30 MHz) and H second harmonic (60 MHz) in 600 kA He and D discharges (H minority in the 5 to 20% range) at 2 T, and with non-resonant heating (30 MHz and 60 MHz at 1.35 T) are briefly discussed.

  20. Sensitive test for ion-cyclotron resonant heating in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C; Maruca, Bennett A; Stevens, Michael L; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Plasma carrying a spectrum of counterpropagating field-aligned ion-cyclotron waves can strongly and preferentially heat ions through a stochastic Fermi mechanism. Such a process has been proposed to explain the extreme temperatures, temperature anisotropies, and speeds of ions in the solar corona and solar wind. We quantify how differential flow between ion species results in a Doppler shift in the wave spectrum that can prevent this strong heating. Two critical values of differential flow are derived for strong heating of the core and tail of a given ion distribution function. Our comparison of these predictions to observations from the Wind spacecraft reveals excellent agreement. Solar wind helium that meets the condition for strong core heating is nearly 7 times hotter than hydrogen on average. Ion-cyclotron resonance contributes to heating in the solar wind, and there is a close link between heating, differential flow, and temperature anisotropy.

  1. Status of the ITER Ion Cyclotron H and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamalle, P., E-mail: philippe.lamalle@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beaumont, B.; Kazarian, F.; Gassmann, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy, Carrer Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Ajesh, P. [ITER India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382424, Gujarat (India); Alonzo, T. [Solution F, Allée du Verdon, 13770 Venelles (France); Arambhadiya, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, A. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bamber, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J.-M.; Brun, C. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carpentier, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Courtois, X. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Davis, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dechelle, C.; Doceul, L. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We summarize the progress and outstanding issues in the development of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (IC H and CD) system. ► The system is designed to robustly couple 20 MW in quasi-CW operation for a broad range of plasma scenarios, and is upgradeable to up to 40 MW. ► The design is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject. ► R and D is ongoing to validate key antenna components, and to qualify the radio-frequency (RF) sources and the transmission and matching components. ► Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. -- Abstract: The ongoing design of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive system (20 MW, 40–55 MHz) is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject, several of which are conflicting and/or still in a high state of flux. These requirements include operation over a broad range of plasma scenarios and magnetic fields (which prompts usage of wide-band phased antenna arrays), high radio-frequency (RF) power density at the first wall (and associated operation close to voltage and current limits), resilience to ELM-induced load variations, intense thermal and mechanical loads, long pulse operation, high system availability, efficient nuclear shielding, high density of antenna services, remote-handling ability, tight installation tolerances, and nuclear safety function as tritium confinement barrier. R and D activities are ongoing or in preparation to validate critical antenna components (plasma-facing Faraday screen, RF sliding contacts, RF vacuum windows), as well as to qualify the RF power sources and the transmission and matching components. Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. The paper

  2. Ensemble Simulations of Proton Heating in the Solar Wind via Turbulence and Ion Cyclotron Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Protons in the solar corona and heliosphere exhibit anisotropic velocity distributions, violation of magnetic moment conservation, and a general lack of thermal equilibrium with the other particle species. There is no agreement about the identity of the physical processes that energize non-Maxwellian protons in the solar wind, but a traditional favorite has been the dissipation of ion cyclotron resonant Alfven waves. This paper presents kinetic models of how ion cyclotron waves heat protons on their journey from the corona to interplanetary space. It also derives a wide range of new solutions for the relevant dispersion relations, marginal stability boundaries, and nonresonant velocity-space diffusion rates. A phenomenological model containing both cyclotron damping and turbulent cascade is constructed to explain the suppression of proton heating at low alpha-proton differential flow speeds. These effects are implemented in a large-scale model of proton thermal evolution from the corona to 1 AU. A Monte Carlo...

  3. Power requirements for electron cyclotron current drive and ion cyclotron resonance heating for sawtooth control in ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, I T; Sauter, O; Zucca, C; Asunta, O; Buttery, R J; Coda, S; Goodman, T; Igochine, V; Johnson, T; Jucker, M; La Haye, R J; Lennholm, M; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    13MW of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) power deposited inside the q = 1 surface is likely to reduce the sawtooth period in ITER baseline scenario below the level empirically predicted to trigger neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs). However, since the ECCD control scheme is solely predicated upon changing the local magnetic shear, it is prudent to plan to use a complementary scheme which directly decreases the potential energy of the kink mode in order to reduce the sawtooth period. In the event that the natural sawtooth period is longer than expected, due to enhanced alpha particle stabilisation for instance, this ancillary sawtooth control can be provided from > 10MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power with a resonance just inside the q = 1 surface. Both ECCD and ICRH control schemes would benefit greatly from active feedback of the deposition with respect to the rational surface. If the q = 1 surface can be maintained closer to the magnetic axis, the efficacy of ECCD and ICRH schemes sig...

  4. Robust Matching System for the ITER Ion Cyclotron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D.; Goulding, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.

    2008-11-01

    The ITER ion cyclotron system is required to deliver 20 MW to the ITER plasma under a number of different operating scenarios. The EU will fabricate the antenna, the US will supply the matching system and transmission lines, and India will deliver the rf sources and high-voltage power supplies. A brief description of the complete ion cyclotron system will be presented, and different design options for the matching system will be discussed. Emphasis will be on analyzing the ability of the system to operate effectively during sudden changes caused by plasma perturbations (e. g., ELMs), and on the robustness of matching algorithms. Particular challenges are: the possibility of relatively low loading of the antenna by the plasma because of a large plasma-antenna distance; the resulting high voltages in the matching system (which must be minimized by good system design); the need to install a number of large matching components in the tight space available near the tokamak; and the requirement for operation and maintenance in a radiation environment.

  5. Three-wave interaction during electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Hansen, Søren Kjer

    2016-01-01

    Non-linear wave-wave interactions in fusion plasmas, such as the parametric decay instability (PDI) of gyrotron radiation, can potentially hamper the use of microwave diagnostics. Here we report on anomalous scattering in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak during electron cyclotron resonance heating...

  6. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-21

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog–digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  7. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-01

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog-digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  8. Excitation of ion-cyclotron harmonic waves in lower-hybrid heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, E.

    1981-06-01

    The parametric excitation of ion-cyclotron waves by a lower-hybrid pump field is studied in the assumption that the magnitude of the pump is constant. The spatial amplification factor is given as a function of the wavenumber mismatch as produced by the plasma density gradient, and of the linear damping rates of the excited ion-cyclotron and sideband waves. The analysis is applied to plasma edge parameters relevant to the JFT2 heating experiment. It is found that ion-cyclotron harmonic modes are excited depending on pump frequency and plasma density. These modes are shown to have finite damping rates. The parallel refractive indices n1z of the excited sideband fields are found to be always larger than that of the driven pump field. Transition to quasi-mode decay occurs either by decreasing the pump frequency or by increasing the applied RF-power.

  9. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron power in toroidal plasmas. We have investigated the use of electron cyclotron resonance heating for bringing compact tokamaks (BPX) to ignition-like parameters. This requires that we continue to refine the modeling capability of the TORCH code linked with the BALDUR 1 {1/2} D transport code. Using this computational tool, we have examined the dependence of ignition on heating and transport employing both theoretical (multi-mode) and empirically based transport models. The work on current drive focused on the suppression of tearing modes near the q = 2 surface and sawteeth near the q = 1 surface. Electron cyclotron current drive in CIT near the q =2 surface was evaluated for a launch scenario where electron cyclotron power was launched near the equatorial plane. The work on suppression of sawteeth has been oriented toward understanding the suppression that has been observed in a number of tokamaks, in particular, in the WT-3 tokamak in Kyoto. To evaluate the changes in current profile (shear) near the q =1 surface, simulations have been carried out using the linked BALDUR-TORCH code. We consider effects on shear resulting both from wave-induced current as well as from changes in conductivity associated with changes in local temperature. Abstracts and a paper relating to this work is included in Appendix A.

  10. Commissioning results of the 0.5 MW/68 GHz/1.0 s gyrotron on HL-2A electron cyclotron resonance heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He, E-mail: wangh@swip.ac.cn; Rao, Jun; Huang, Mei; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Chao; Kang, Zihua; Wang, Mingwei; Feng, Kun; Chen, Gangyu; Lu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A test stand for the test of gyrotron is introduced. • Test results show that the output power of gyrotron has a close relation to the high voltage, magnet current and heater power. • The measurement method of operation frequency and output power of gyrotron is introduced. - Abstract: To obtain the optimum operation status of gyrotrons, it is necessary to commissioning the gyrotrons before EC wave injected into plasma for ECRH system on HL-2A tokamak. A test stand has been set up for conditioning the 0.5 MW/68 GHz/1.0 s gyrotrons. The specific test results of gyrotrons are described and discussed in this paper, which include measuring the beam profile by using burn paper at the outlet of MOU and calorimetric dummy load, testing the maximum output power and pulse width on dummy load and getting the dependence between output power and magnetic field current, filament power and high voltage powers. Meanwhile, the operation frequency of gyrotron is also measured in the test.

  11. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D. W.; Baity, F. W.; Bigelow, T. S.; Ryan, P. M.; Goulding, R. H.; Carter, M. D.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1996-02-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10-20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher that can meet the new requirements are presented.

  12. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Bigelow, T.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Goulding, R.H.; Carter, M.D.; Stallings, D.C.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10{endash}20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher that can meet the new requirements are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Bigelow, T.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Goulding, R.H.; Carter, M.D.; Stallings, D.C.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10--20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher than can meet the new requirements are presented.

  14. Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Observations of improved radio frequency (RF) heating efficiency in high-confinement (H-) mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. We present the first full-wave simulation to couple kinetic physics of the well confined core plasma to the poorly confined scrape-off plasma. The new simulation is used to scan the launched fast-wave spectrum and examine the steady-state electric wave field structure for experimental scenarios corresponding to both reduced, and improved RF heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave-numbers that required for fast-wave propagation excites large amplitude (kVm 1 ) coaxial standing modes in the wave electric field between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggest these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency. Also, the H-mode density pedestal and fast-wave cutoff within the confined plasma allow for the excitation of whispering gallery type eigenmodes localised to the plasma edge.

  15. An analytical approach of thermodynamic behavior in a gas target system on a medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Pouyan; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Buckley, Ken; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Martinez, D Mark; Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of gas targets used to produce medical isotopes, assuming that the system reaches steady-state. It is based on an integral analysis of the mass and energy balance of the gas-target system, the ideal gas law, and the deformation of the foil. The heat transfer coefficients for different target bodies and gases have been calculated. Excellent agreement is observed between experiments performed at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron and the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclotrons: 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron. (GHT)

  17. Electron cyclotron resonance heating by magnetic filter field in a negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, June Young, E-mail: beacoolguy@snu.ac.kr; Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The influence of magnetic filter field on plasma properties in the heating region has been investigated in a planar-type inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) H{sup −} ion source. Besides filtering high energy electrons near the extraction region, the magnetic filter field is clearly observed to increase the electron temperature in the heating region at low pressure discharge. With increasing the operating pressure, enhancement of electron temperature in the heating region is reduced. The possibility of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in the heating region due to stray magnetic field generated by a filter magnet located at the extraction region is examined. It is found that ECR heating by RF wave field in the discharge region, where the strength of an axial magnetic field is approximately ∼4.8 G, can effectively heat low energy electrons. Depletion of low energy electrons in the electron energy distribution function measured at the heating region supports the occurrence of ECR heating. The present study suggests that addition of axial magnetic field as small as several G by an external electromagnet or permanent magnets can greatly increase the generation of highly ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region, thus improving the performance of H{sup −} ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  18. Role of quantum heat bath and confinement in the low-temperature thermodynamics of cyclotron motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2010-04-01

    In this Brief Report we show how the low-temperature thermodynamics of the dissipative motion of an electron in a magnetic field is sensitive to the nature of the spectral density function, J(omega), of the quantum heat bath. In all cases of couplings considered here the free energy and the entropy of the cyclotron motion of the electron fall off to zero as power law in conformity with the third law of thermodynamics. The power of the power law however depends on the nature of J(omega). We also separately discuss the influence of confinement.

  19. Benchmarking of electron cyclotron heating and current drive codes on ITER scenarios within the European Integrated Tokamak Modelling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peysson Y.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD are used to heat the plasma, to tailor the current profiles and to achieve different operating regimes of tokamak plasmas. Plasmas with ECRH/ECCD are characterized by non-thermal electrons, which cannot be described by a Maxwellian distribution. Non-thermal electrons are also generated during MHD activity, like sawteeth crashes. Quantifying the non-thermal electron distribution is therefore a key for understanding EC heated fusion plasmas. For this purpose a vertical electron cyclotron emission (V-ECE diagnostic is being installed at TCV. The diagnostic layout, the calibration, the analysis technique for data interpretation, the physics potentials and limitations are discussed.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; K Sathyanarayana; D Bora

    2008-03-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma breakdown is studied in a small linear cylindrical system with four different gases - hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ± 0.02 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extra-ordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( = 875.0 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay time and plasma decay time from plasma density measurements are carried out at the centre using a Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 mbar) and input microwave power (160{800 W) are varied and the corresponding effect on the breakdown parameters is studied. The experimental results obtained are presented in this paper.

  1. Reversed Shear Alfv'en Eigenmode Stabilization by Localized Electron Cyclotron Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, M. A.; Lohr, J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Nazikian, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kramer, G. J.; Austin, M. E.; Rhodes, T. L.; Holcomb, C.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.; Sharapov, S. E.

    2007-11-01

    Reversed shear Alfv'en eigenmode (RSAE) activity in DIII-D is observed to be stabilized by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the minimum of the safety factor (qmin) in neutral beam heated discharges with reversed magnetic shear. The degree of RSAE stabilization and the volume averaged neutron production (Sn) are highly dependent on ECH deposition location relative to qmin. Ideal MHD simulations predict RSAE existence during ECH, indicating that the mode disappearance is due to kinetic effects not taken into account by the ideal MHD model. While discharges with ECH stabilization of RSAEs have higher Sn than discharges with significant RSAE activity, neutron production remains strongly reduced (up to 60%), indicating the bulk of the deficit is not due to RSAEs alone.

  2. Turbulent transport of MeV range cyclotron heated minorities as compared to alpha particles

    CERN Document Server

    Pusztai, István; Kazakov, Yevgen O; Fülöp, Tünde

    2016-01-01

    We study the turbulent transport of an ion cyclotron resonance heated (ICRH), MeV range minority ion species in tokamak plasmas. Such highly energetic minorities, which can be produced in the three ion minority heating scheme [Ye. O. Kazakov et al. (2015) Nucl. Fusion 55, 032001], have been proposed to be used to experimentally study the confinement properties of fast ions without the generation of fusion alphas. We compare the turbulent transport properties of ICRH ions with that of fusion born alpha particles. Our results indicate that care must be taken when conclusions are drawn from experimental results: While the effect of turbulence on these particles is similar in terms of transport coefficients, differences in their distribution functions - ultimately their generation processes - make the resulting turbulent fluxes different.

  3. Proton Heating by Pick-up Ion Driven Cyclotron Waves in the Outer Heliosphere: Hybrid Expanding Box Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-11-01

    Using a one-dimensional hybrid expanding box model, we investigate properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. We assume a proton-electron plasma with a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field and, aside from the expansion, we take into account the influence of a continuous injection of cold pick-up protons through the charge-exchange process between the solar wind protons and hydrogen of interstellar origin. The injected cold pick-up protons form a ring distribution function, which rapidly becomes unstable, and generate Alfvén cyclotron waves. The Alfvén cyclotron waves scatter pick-up protons to a spherical shell distribution function that thickens over that time owing to the expansion-driven cooling. The Alfvén cyclotron waves heat solar wind protons in the perpendicular direction (with respect to the ambient magnetic field) through cyclotron resonance. At later times, the Alfvén cyclotron waves become parametrically unstable and the generated ion-acoustic waves heat protons in the parallel direction through Landau resonance. The resulting heating of the solar wind protons is efficient on the expansion timescale.

  4. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1999-06-01

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  5. Ion heating by strong electrostatic ion cyclotron turbulence. [in auroral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, R. L.; Hudson, M. K.; Temerin, M.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of the ion heating due to electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) waves in the auroral zone is presented. Due to the slowly convecting nature of the EIC mode, quasi-linear plateau formation cannot stabilize the waves, and growth occurs until the nonlinear mechanisms of ion resonance broadening and electron trapping provide saturation. The large amplitude and coherent nature of the resulting wave imply that quasi-linear theory provides only a lower limit to the ion heating. An upper bound on the heating rate is derived using a time-average model of ion dynamics in the coherent waves. The effects of ion heating in the presence of the magnetic gradient force and parallel electric fields are considered, with the result that perpendicular energies over 100 eV are easily attainable from a 1 eV source plasma. Perpendicular heating in the absence of a parallel electric field yields conical ion distributions, which in the presence of an electric field become field-aligned beams.

  6. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V. G.

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay and Cité Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number kz is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the kz spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of ion-ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B0, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer.

  7. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compant La Fontaine, A. [Direction du Cycle du Combustible/Departement des Procedes d` Enrichissement, Service de Physique, d` Experimentation et d` Analyse, Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Pashkovsky, V.G. [Molecular Physics Institute, RRC Kurchatov Institute 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} 2{ital nd} {ital Workshop} {ital on} {ital Separation} {ital Phenomena} {ital in} {ital Liquids} {ital and} {ital Gases}, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Cite Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii {ital et} {ital al}., Plasma Phys. Rep. {bold 19}, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number {ital k}{sub {ital z}} is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the {ital k}{sub {ital z}} spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge--Kutta method. The influence of ion--ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field {ital B}{sub 0}, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope {sup 44}Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Wave solutions of ion cyclotron heated plasmas with self-consistent velocity distributions in a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Wright, John; Bonoli, Paul; Harvey, Robert

    2015-11-01

    We describe a numerical model for the propagation and absorption of ion cyclotron waves in a tokamak with a non-Maxwellian velocity space distribution function. The non-Maxwellian distribution is calculated by solving Maxwell's equations and the Fokker-Plank equation self-consistently. This approach will be useful to interpret measurements of minority hydrogen tail formation during ICRF heating experiments in Alcator C-Mod. To couple the Maxwell equation solver with Fokker-Plank equation solver, the quasilinear diffusion coefficients for the fundamental ion cyclotron absorption and the first harmonic absorption are calculated. In a previous study, the all-orders spectral algorithm wave solver (AORSA) was coupled with the Fokker-Plank code (CQL3D) to find the self-consistent non-Maxwellian distribution. We derive the modified quasilinear diffusion coefficients for the finite Larmor radius (FLR) approximation using a significantly faster wave solver (TORIC) following the approach by Jaeger. The coupled TORIC-CQL3D model will be compared against results from AORSA-CQL3D in order to verify the accuracy of the reduced FLR physics in TORIC. Work supported by US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC02-01ER54648.

  9. Proton heating by pick-up ion driven cyclotron waves in the outer heliosphere: Hybrid expanding box simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hellinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Using one-dimensional hybrid expanding box model we investigate properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. We assume a proton-electron plasma with a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field and, beside the expansion, we take into account influence of a continuous injection of cold pick-up protons through the charge-exchange process between the solar wind protons and hydrogen of interstellar origin. The injected cold pick-up protons form a ring distribution function that rapidly becomes unstable and generate Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves. The Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves scatter pick-up protons to a spherical shell distribution function that thickens over that time owing to the expansion-driven cooling. The Alf\\'ven cyclotron waves heat solar wind protons in the perpendicular direction (with respect to the ambient magnetic field) through the cyclotron resonance. At later times, the Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves become parametrically unstable and the generated ion acoustic waves heat protons in the parallel dir...

  10. Sawtooth control in JET with ITER relevant low field side resonance ion cyclotron resonance heating and ITER-like wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, J. P.; Lennholm, M.; Chapman, I.T.; Lerche, E.; Reich, M.; Alper, B.; Bobkov, V.; Dumont, R.; Faustin, J. M.; Jacquet, P.; Jaulmes, F.; Johnson, T.; Keeling, D. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Nicolas, T.; Tholerus, S.; Blackman, T.; Carvalho, I. S.; Coelho, R.; Van Eester, D.; Felton, R.; Goniche, M.; Kiptily, V.; Monakhov, I.; Nave, M. F. F.; von Thun, Perez; Sabot, R.; Sozzi, C.; Tsalas, M.

    2015-01-01

    New experiments at JET with the ITER-like wall show for the first time that ITER-relevant low field side resonance first harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) can be used to control sawteeth that have been initially lengthened by fast particles. In contrast to previous (Graves et al 2012

  11. Phase-space resolved measurement of 2nd harmonic ion cyclotron heating using FIDA tomography at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiland, M.; Bilato, R.; Geiger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Recent upgrades to the FIDA (fast-ion D-alpha) diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade allow to reconstruct the fast-ion phase space at several radial positions with decent energy and pitch resolution. These new diagnostic capabilities are applied to study the physics of 2nd harmonic ion cyclotron heating, w...

  12. Quasilinear diffusion coefficients in a finite Larmor radius expansion for ion cyclotron heated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Wright, John; Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, Erwin F.; Valeo, Ernest; Harvey, Robert; Bonoli, Paul

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a reduced model of quasilinear velocity diffusion by a small Larmor radius approximation is derived to couple the Maxwell's equations and the Fokker Planck equation self-consistently for the ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in a tokamak. The reduced model ensures the important properties of the full model by Kennel-Engelmann diffusion, such as diffusion directions, wave polarizations, and H-theorem. The kinetic energy change ( W ˙ ) is used to derive the reduced model diffusion coefficients for the fundamental damping (n = 1) and the second harmonic damping (n = 2) to the lowest order of the finite Larmor radius expansion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficients are implemented in a coupled code (TORIC-CQL3D) with the equivalent reduced model of the dielectric tensor. We also present the simulations of the ITER minority heating scenario, in which the reduced model is verified within the allowable errors from the full model results.

  13. On ion-cyclotron-resonance heating of the corona and solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concisely summarizes and critically reviews recent work by the authors on models of the heating of the solar corona by resonance of ions with high-frequency waves (up to the proton cyclotron frequency. The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is presented in connection with relevant solar wind proton observations. Hybrid fluid-kinetic model equations, which include wave-particle interactions and collisions, are derived. Numerical solutions are discussed, representative of the inner corona and near-Sun solar wind. A semi-kinetic model for reduced velocity distributions is presented, yielding kinetic results for heavy ions in the solar corona. It is concluded that a self-consistent treatment of particle distributions and wave spectra is required, in order to adequately describe coronal physics and to obtain agreement with observations.

  14. The Influence of Neutral Beam Injection on the Heating and Current Drive with Electron Cyclotron Wave on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pengxiang; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Yingying; Wang, Xiaoguang; Xu, Handong; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Hailin; Hao, Baolong; Yang, Zhen; Zheng, Ting; Hu, Chundong

    2016-11-01

    Both neutral beam injection (NBI) and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have been applied on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in the 2015 campaign. In order to achieve more effective heating and current drive, the effects of NBI on the heating and current drive with electron cyclotron wave (ECW) are analyzed utilizing the code TORAY and experimental data in the shot #54411 and #54417. According to the experimental and simulated results, for the heating with ECW, NBI can improve the heating efficiency and move the power deposition place towards the inside of the plasma. On the other hand, for the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), NBI can also improve the efficiency of ECCD and move the place of ECCD inward. These results will be valuable for the center heating, the achievement of fully non-inductive current drive operation and the suppression of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities with ECW on EAST or ITER with many auxiliary heating methods. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB101001 and 2014DFG61950) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405212 and 11175211)

  15. Stochastic heating in the cyclotron resonance of electrons; Calentamiento estocastico en la resonancia ciclotronica de los electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The study of the different schemes of plasma heating by radiofrequency waves is a very actual problem related with the plasma heating in different machines and the particle acceleration mechanisms. In this work, it is obtained the expression for the temporal evolution of the energy absorbed in the cyclotron resonance of electrons where it is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. It is obtained the stochastic criteria in a magnetic configuration of an Ecr type plasma source. (Author)

  16. On RF heating of inhomogeneous collisional plasma under ion-cyclotron resonance conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, A. V., E-mail: Timofeev-AV@nrcki.ru [Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    During ion-cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating of plasma by the magnetic beach method, as well as in some other versions of ICR heating, it is necessary to excite Alfvén oscillations. In this case, it is difficult to avoid the phenomenon of the Alfvén resonance, in which Alfvén oscillations transform into lower hybrid oscillations. The latter efficiently interact with electrons, due to which most of the deposited RF energy is spent on electron (rather than ion) heating. The Alfvén resonance takes place due to plasma inhomogeneity across the external magnetic field. Therefore, it could be expected that variations in the plasma density profile would substantially affect the efficiency of the interaction of RF fields with charged particles. However, the results obtained for different plasma density profiles proved to be nearly the same. In the present work, a plasma is considered the parameters of which correspond to those planned in future ICR plasma heating experiments on the PS-1 facility at the Kurchatov Institute. When analyzing the interaction of RF fields with charged particles, both the collisionless resonance interaction and the interaction caused by Coulomb collisions are taken into account, because, in those experiments, the Coulomb collision frequency will be comparable with the frequency of the heating field. Antennas used for ICR heating excite RF oscillations with a wide spectrum of wavenumbers along the magnetic field. After averaging over the spectrum, the absorbed RF energy calculated with allowance for collisions turns out to be close to that absorbed in collisionless plasma, the energy fraction absorbed by electrons being substantially larger than that absorbed by ions.

  17. On RF heating of inhomogeneous collisional plasma under ion-cyclotron resonance conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    During ion-cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating of plasma by the magnetic beach method, as well as in some other versions of ICR heating, it is necessary to excite Alfvén oscillations. In this case, it is difficult to avoid the phenomenon of the Alfvén resonance, in which Alfvén oscillations transform into lower hybrid oscillations. The latter efficiently interact with electrons, due to which most of the deposited RF energy is spent on electron (rather than ion) heating. The Alfvén resonance takes place due to plasma inhomogeneity across the external magnetic field. Therefore, it could be expected that variations in the plasma density profile would substantially affect the efficiency of the interaction of RF fields with charged particles. However, the results obtained for different plasma density profiles proved to be nearly the same. In the present work, a plasma is considered the parameters of which correspond to those planned in future ICR plasma heating experiments on the PS-1 facility at the Kurchatov Institute. When analyzing the interaction of RF fields with charged particles, both the collisionless resonance interaction and the interaction caused by Coulomb collisions are taken into account, because, in those experiments, the Coulomb collision frequency will be comparable with the frequency of the heating field. Antennas used for ICR heating excite RF oscillations with a wide spectrum of wavenumbers along the magnetic field. After averaging over the spectrum, the absorbed RF energy calculated with allowance for collisions turns out to be close to that absorbed in collisionless plasma, the energy fraction absorbed by electrons being substantially larger than that absorbed by ions.

  18. An overview of control system for the ITER electron cyclotron system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purohit, D.; Bigelow, T.; Billava, D.; Bonicelli, T.; Caughman, J.; Darbos, C.; Denisov, G.; Gandini, F.; Gassmann, T.; Henderson, M.; Journeux, J. Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Nazare, C.; Oda, Y.; Omori, T.; Rao, S. L.; Rasmussen, D.; Ronden, D.; Saibene, G.; Sakamoto, K.; Sartori, F.; Takahashi, K.; Temkin, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) system having capability of up to 26 MW generated power at 170 GHz is being procured by 5 domestic agencies via 10 procurement arrangements. This implies diverse types of equipment and complex interface management. It also places a challenge on control system archite

  19. Recent advances in physics and technology of ion cyclotron resonance heating in view of future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Messiaen, A.; Kazakov, Ye O.; Koch, R.; Ragona, R.; Bobkov, V.; Crombé, K.; Durodié, F.; Goniche, M.; Krivska, A.; Lerche, E.; Louche, F.; Lyssoivan, A.; Vervier, M.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Wauters, T.; Wright, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2017-05-01

    Ion temperatures of over 100 million degrees need to be reached in future fusion reactors for the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction to work. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is a method that has the capability to directly heat ions to such high temperatures, via a resonant interaction between the plasma ions and radiofrequency waves launched in the plasma. This paper gives an overview of recent developments in this field. In particular a novel and recently developed three-ion heating scenario will be highlighted. It is a flexible scheme with the potential to accelerate heavy ions to high energies in high density plasmas as expected for future fusion reactors. New antenna designs will be needed for next step large future devices like DEMO, to deliver steady-state high power levels, cope with fast variations in coupling due to fast changes in the edge density and to reduce the possibility for impurity production. Such a new design is the traveling wave antenna (TWA) consisting of an array of straps distributed around the circumference of the machine, which is intrinsically resilient to edge density variations and has an optimized power coupling to the plasma. The structure of the paper is as follows: to provide the general reader with a basis for a good understanding of the later sections, an overview is given of wave propagation, coupling and RF power absorption in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, including a brief summary of the traditionally used heating scenarios. A special highlight is the newly developed three-ion scenario together with its promising applications. A next section discusses recent developments to study edge-wave interaction and reduce impurity influx from ICRH: the dedicated devices IShTAR and Aline, field aligned and three-strap antenna concepts. The principles behind and the use of ICRH as an important option for first wall conditioning in devices with a permanent magnetic field is discussed next. The final section presents ongoing

  20. Intelligent Low-level RF System by Non-destructive Beam Monitoring Device for Cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Malafeh, M S Sharifi Asadi; Afarideh, H; Chai, J S

    2015-01-01

    The project of a10MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF suitable for Most of the AVF cyclotron accelerators was designed by the beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, for the RF phase detection does not need to signal processing by microcontroller

  1. Ion cyclotron resonance heating for tungsten control in various JET H-mode scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniche, M.; Dumont, R. J.; Bobkov, V.; Buratti, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Challis, C.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Drewelow, P.; Fedorczak, N.; Garcia, J.; Giroud, C.; Graham, M.; Graves, J. P.; Hobirk, J.; Jacquet, P.; Lerche, E.; Mantica, P.; Monakhov, I.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Nave, M. F. F.; Noble, C.; Nunes, I.; Pütterich, T.; Rimini, F.; Sertoli, M.; Valisa, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET

    2017-05-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the hydrogen minority scheme provides central ion heating and acts favorably on the core tungsten transport. Full wave modeling shows that, at medium power level (4 MW), after collisional redistribution, the ratio of power transferred to the ions and the electrons vary little with the minority (hydrogen) concentration n H/n e but the high-Z impurity screening provided by the fast ions temperature increases with the concentration. The power radiated by tungsten in the core of the JET discharges has been analyzed on a large database covering the 2013-2014 campaign. In the baseline scenario with moderate plasma current (I p = 2.5 MA) ICRH modifies efficiently tungsten transport to avoid its accumulation in the plasma centre and, when the ICRH power is increased, the tungsten radiation peaking evolves as predicted by the neo-classical theory. At higher current (3-4 MA), tungsten accumulation can be only avoided with 5 MW of ICRH power with high gas injection rate. For discharges in the hybrid scenario, the strong initial peaking of the density leads to strong tungsten accumulation. When this initial density peaking is slightly reduced, with an ICRH power in excess of 4 MW,very low tungsten concentration in the core (˜10-5) is maintained for 3 s. MHD activity plays a key role in tungsten transport and modulation of the tungsten radiation during a sawtooth cycle is correlated to the fishbone activity triggered by the fast ion pressure gradient.

  2. Ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating in JET during initial operations with the ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: philippe.jacquet@ccfe.ac.uk; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Graham, M.; Meigs, A.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Devaux, S.; Drewelow, P.; Pütterich, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Czarnecka, A. [Association Euratom-IPPLM, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Lerche, E.; Van-Eester, D. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, ERM-KMS, Brussels (Belgium); Mayoral, M.-L. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [IEK-4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Klepper, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); and others

    2014-06-15

    In 2011/12, JET started operation with its new ITER-Like Wall (ILW) made of a tungsten (W) divertor and a beryllium (Be) main chamber wall. The impact of the new wall materials on the JET Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) operation is assessed and some important properties of JET plasmas heated with ICRF are highlighted. A ∼ 20% reduction of the antenna coupling resistance is observed with the ILW as compared with the JET carbon (JET-C) wall. Heat-fluxes on the protecting limiters close the antennas, quantified using Infra-Red thermography (maximum 4.5 MW/m{sup 2} in current drive phasing), are within the wall power load handling capabilities. A simple RF sheath rectification model using the antenna near-fields calculated with the TOPICA code can reproduce the heat-flux pattern around the antennas. ICRF heating results in larger tungsten and nickel (Ni) contents in the plasma and in a larger core radiation when compared to Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating. The location of the tungsten ICRF specific source could not be identified but some experimental observations indicate that main-chamber W components could be an important impurity source: for example, the divertor W influx deduced from spectroscopy is comparable when using RF or NBI at same power and comparable divertor conditions, and Be evaporation in the main chamber results in a strong reduction of the impurity level. In L-mode plasmas, the ICRF specific high-Z impurity content decreased when operating at higher plasma density and when increasing the hydrogen concentration from 5% to 15%. Despite the higher plasma bulk radiation, ICRF exhibited overall good plasma heating performance; the power is typically deposited at the plasma centre while the radiation is mainly from the outer part of the plasma bulk. Application of ICRF heating in H-mode plasmas has started, and the beneficial effect of ICRF central electron heating to prevent W accumulation in the plasma core has been observed.

  3. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-05-11

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10/sup 12/cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. A proposal for a novel H ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance heating and surface ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurennoy, Sergey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A design for a novel H{sup -} ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE{sub 111} eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H{sup -} ion beam is further 'self-extracted' through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H{sup -} ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  5. A Proposal for a Novel H- Ion Source Based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Heating and Surface Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O.; Kurennoy, S.

    2009-03-01

    A design for a novel H- ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE111 eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H- ion beam is further "self-extracted" through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H- ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  6. Formation of a conical distribution and intense ion heating in the presence of hydrogen cyclotron waves. [in earth ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the considered investigation, it is assumed that the field aligned currents are responsible for producing electrostatic harmonic cyclotron waves (EHC). Using a one-dimensional simulation model in which the electron velocity distribution is maintained by a constant injection of the initial distribution, it is shown that, in contrast to earlier initial value simulations, EHC waves grow to a large amplitude, resulting in the formation of an anisotropic ion velocity distribution. Both the heating rate and the anisotropy are in reasonable agreement with the quasi-linear theory, taking into account the cyclotron resonance. The results show that the saturation is due to the combined effects of wave induced diffusion in an electron velocity space and the heating of ions perpendicularly. Both these effects reduce the growth rate.

  7. A new RF system for a rejuvenated Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The Synchro-cyclotron is shown here shortly after the completion of the improvement programme, which left the steel magnet yoke as almost the only remaining component of the original machine. On the left can be seen the rotary condenser which produces the frequency modulation required for the acceleration (one of a pair available -in this instance ROTCO II). (see photo 7506015)

  8. Millimeter-wave, megawatt gyrotron development for ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jory, H.; Felch, K.; Hess, C.; Huey, H.; Jongewaard, E.; Neilson, J.; Pendleton, R.; Tsirulnikov, M. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-09-17

    To address the electron cyclotron heating requirements of planned fusion experiments such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), Varian is developing gyrotrons at frequencies ranging from 100--300 GHz with output power capabilities up to 1 MW CW. Experimental gyrotrons have been built at frequencies between 100--140 GHz, and a study program has addressed the critical elements of designing 280--300 GHz gyrotrons capable of generating CW power levels up to 1 MW. Initial test vehicles at 140 GHz have utilized TE{sub 15,2,1} interaction cavities, and have been designed to generate short-pulse (up to 20 ms) power levels of 1 MW and up to 400 kW CW. Recently, short-pulse power levels of 1040 kW at 38% efficiency have been obtained and average powers of 200 kW have been achieved. Long-pulse operation has been extended to pulse durations of 0.5 seconds at power levels of 400 kW. Gyrotron oscillators capable of generating output powers of 500 kW CW at a frequency of 110 GHz have recently been designed and a prototype is currently being tested. Design work for a 1 MW CW gyrotron at 110 GHz, is in progress. The 1 MW CW tube will employ an output coupling approach where the microwave output is separated from the microwave output. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Modification of argon impurity transport by electron cyclotron heating in KSTAR H-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joohwan; Henderson, S. S.; Kim, Kimin; Seon, C. R.; Song, Inwoo; Lee, H. Y.; Jang, Juhyeok; Park, Jae Sun; Lee, S. G.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Seung Hun; Hong, Suk-Ho; Choe, Wonho

    2017-03-01

    Experiments with a small amount of Ar gas injection as a trace impurity were conducted in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) H-mode plasma ({{B}\\text{T}}   =  2.8 T, {{I}\\text{P}}   =  0.6 MA, and {{P}\\text{NBI}}   =  4.0 MW). 170 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) at 600 and 800 kW was focused along the mid-plane with a fixed major radial position of R   =  1.66 m. The emissivity of the Ar16+ (3.949 {\\mathring{\\text{A}}} ) and Ar15+ (353.860 {\\mathring{\\text{A}}} ) spectral lines were measured by x-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy (XICS) and a vacuum UV (VUV) spectrometer, respectively. ECH reduces the peak Ar15+ emission and increases the Ar16+ emission, an effect largest with 800 kW. The ADAS-SANCO impurity transport code was used to evaluate the Ar transport coefficients. It was found that the inward convective velocity found in the plasma core without ECH was decreased with ECH, while diffusion remained approximately constant resulting in a less-peaked Ar density profile. Theoretical results from the NEO code suggest that neoclassical transport is not responsible for the change in transport, while the microstability analysis using GKW predicts a dominant ITG mode during both ECH and non-ECH plasmas.

  10. Electron cyclotron heating and core intrinsic rotation reversal in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassie, J. S. de, E-mail: degrassie@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Boedo, J. A. [University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 94550 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    The effect of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) on the intrinsic rotation profile in DIII-D is shown experimentally. Former DIII-D experiments have shown that ECH tends to cause an interior reduction in the normally co-Ip directed intrinsic rotation profile, and this core rotation can be fully reversed to the opposite direction. This effect is due to a turbulent rearrangement of the interior rotation profile. Here, we show results that there is more than one mechanism causing this. We compare two low density L-mode discharges where the only operational difference is the location of the ECH deposition. At low ECH power, comparable to the Ohmic power, the primary change is in the q-profile accompanied by a reversal of the core intrinsic rotation direction for the more off-axis deposition. The change in the shear of the q-profile fits well with a recent theoretical prediction for this rotation reversal. At higher ECH power, the primary change is in the core electron temperature, Te, accompanied by a hollowing of the rotation profile near the magnetic axis. This effect appears to be due to the change in electron collisionality, consistent with another theoretical, gyrokinetic prediction. The variety of phenomena that could allow ECH to modify the intrinsic rotation profile give some expectation that regions of large velocity shear in the interior could be generated, with the possibility of triggering internal transport barriers.

  11. Characteristics of heat flux and electromagnetic electron-cyclotron instabilities driven by solar wind electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Yoon, P. H.; Sarfraz, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-04-01

    In situ observations reveal the existence of electron velocity distribution function in the solar wind, where the net distribution can be modelled by a combination of core, halo and strahl. These components often possess a relative drift and with respective temperature anisotropies. The relative drift between the core and halo components leads to heat flux (HF) instability, while temperature anisotropies drive electromagnetic electron-cyclotron (EMEC) instability. These instabilities have been separately studied in the literature, but for the first time, the present study combines both unstable modes in the presence of two free energy sources, namely, excessive parallel pressure and excessive perpendicular temperature. HF instability (which is a left-hand circularly polarized mode) is effectively similar to electron firehose instability, except that the free energy is provided by net relative drift among two component electrons in the background of protons. The HF instability is discussed here along with (the right-hand polarized) EMEC instability driven by temperature anisotropy. The unstable HF mode is conventionally termed the 'whistler' HF instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. EMEC mode, on the other hand, reduces to the proper whistler wave in the absence of free energy source. The present combined analysis clarifies the polarization characteristics of these two modes in an unambiguous manner.

  12. Fast- and slow-wave heating of ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutoh, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    Wave-heating at the fundamental ion-cyclotron frequency was applied to a hydrogen plasma in the Large Helical Device (LHD) over a range of plasma densities from 0.2-8x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Substantial heating was observed for all densities. In the low-density plasma (less than 0.4x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) ion-cyclotron-wave (shear Alfven wave) heating was effective. For high-density plasmas, a fast-wave should be excited, and in this case also, effective heating was observed with the presence of the NBI beam component. The wave damping mechanism may be attributed to the finite gyro-radius effect on beam ions by the right-handed polarized wave. The experimental results were compared with an analysis using the full-wave code. The heating performance was a little worse than that of the usual two-ion hybrid-heating mode. (author)

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Measurement of effect of electron cyclotron heating in a tandem mirror plasma using a semiconductor detector array and an electrostatic energy analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, R.; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Uehara, M.; Tsumura, K.; Ebashi, Y.; Kajino, S.; Endo, Y.; Nakashima, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray and end-loss-electron analyses of the electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using a semiconductor detector array and an electrostatic energy analyzer in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The flux and the energy spectrum of the end loss electrons are measured by a multi-grid energy analyzer. Recently, the electron cyclotron heating power modulation experiments have been started in order to generate and control the high heat flux and to make the edge localized mode-like intermittent heat load pattern for the divertor simulation studies by the use of these detectors for electron properties.

  15. Dissipation of parallel and oblique Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves: implications for minor ion heating in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Maneva, Y G; Moya, Pablo S; Wicks, R; Poedts, S

    2015-01-01

    We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations with massless fluid electrons and kinetic particle-in-cell ions to study the temporal evolution of ion temperatures, temperature anisotropies and velocity distribution functions in relation to the dissipation and turbulent evolution of a broad-band spectrum of parallel and obliquely propagating Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the relative role of parallel versus oblique Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves in the observed heating and acceleration of minor ions in the fast solar wind. We consider collisionless homogeneous multi-species plasma, consisting of isothermal electrons, isotropic protons and a minor component of drifting $\\alpha$ particles in a finite-$\\beta$ fast stream near the Earth. The kinetic ions are modeled by initially isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution functions, which develop non-thermal features and temperature anisotropies when a broad-band spectrum of low-frequency non-resonant, $\\omega \\leq 0.34 \\Omega_p$, Alfv\\'en-cyclotron...

  16. Buncher Power Source Monitoring System of 100 MeV Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Jun-yi; FU; Xiao-liang; GUO; Juan-juan; ZHANG; Yi-wang; CAO; Xue-long; YIN; Zhi-guo; JI; Bin

    2015-01-01

    The 100MeV cyclotron provides 70-100MeV and 200μA proton beam,which can be used in astrophysics,medical,defense,energy and other fields.Buncher system can enhance the beam intensity and expand the scope of application of the accelerator.Buncher system is one part of the

  17. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-07-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  18. Cyclotron resonance in two-dimensional electron system with self-organized antidots

    CERN Document Server

    Suchalkin, S D; Zundel, M; Nachtwei, G; Klitzing, K V; Eberl, K

    2001-01-01

    The data on the experimental study on the cyclotron resonance in the two-dimensional electron system with the random scattering potential, conditioned by the massif of the AlInAs self-organized quantum islands, formed in the AlGaAs/GaAs heterotransition plane, are presented. The sharp narrowing of the cyclotron resonance with increase in the magnetic field, explained by the charge scattering peculiarities in the given potential is established. The obtained results suggest the strongly correlated electron state in the strong magnetic fields by the carriers concentrations lesser than the antidots concentrations

  19. Component tests for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Transmission Line and Matching System - Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Deibele, C. E.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Campbell, I. H.; Gray, S. L.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Sanabria, R. M.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2015-11-01

    New Z0 = 50 Ω gas-cooled component designs for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System have been successfully tested at high RF power levels. They include two types featuring spoke-ring assembly (SRA) inner conductor supports: 20° elbows, and variable length assembly bellows, both achieving RF voltages > 35 kV peak, and currents ~ 760 A peak during quasi-steady state operation. The SRA utilizes mechanically preloaded fused quartz spokes, increasing lateral load handling capability. Components with SRA supports have been seismically tested, with no variation in low power electrical performance detected after testing. A 3 MW four-port switch has also been successfully tested at high RF power, and tests of a 6 MW hybrid power splitter are planned in the near future. Latest results will be presented. Plans for arc localization tests in a 60 m SRA transmission line run, and RF tests of Z0 = 50 Ω and Z0 = 20 Ω matching components with water-cooled inner conductors will also be discussed. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. The hydraulic lifting system for the main magnets of CYCIAE-30 cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Zhen Lu; Chen Rong Fan; Chu Cheng Jie

    2002-01-01

    The oil-line structure, control system and their working principles of the hydraulic lifting system for the main magnets of CYCIAE-30 cyclotron are introduced. The six years practice proves that the specification of the system matches the requirements: the oil cylinder maximum stroke of 850 mm, the eight slot positioning dowels repositioning accuracy of +-0.01 mm, the two oil cylinders moving in step accuracy of 5-10 mm. The system is safe, reliable and easy to be operated

  1. Design study of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron system for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-No; Shin, Seung-Wook; Song, Hoseung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Chai, Jong-Seo

    2013-06-01

    A cyclotron is an accelerator which can be applied to both cancer diagnosis and treatment. Among commercially sold cyclotrons, the major energy is used for positron emission tomography (PET) ranges from 10 to 20 MeV. In this research, 9 MeV compact cyclotron for PET was designed. The research was conducted on the response cross section and the yield for the energy distribution to decide the design features. Also, it was determined the specifications on the basis of the fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) maximum dose. The machine, which has a 20 uA beam current, is designed to be installed in small-to-medium-sized hospitals in local cities because of its relatively light weight (6 tons). This compact cyclotron, which provides 9-MeV proton beams, is composed of a azimuthally varying field (AVF) electromagnet, 83-MHz RF systems with a 20 kW amplifier, a panning ion gauge (PIG) type ion-source for negative hydrogen, and a double-stage high-vacuum system. The basic model design was done by using 3-D CAD program, CATIA and all the field calculations were performed using commercial electromagnetic field analysis code, OPERA-3D TOSCA. From this research, we expect a time reduction for FDG production, a decrease of radioactive exposure for workers, and an equipment cost reduction.

  2. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, R; Imai, T; Kariya, T; Numakura, T; Eguchi, T; Kawarasaki, R; Nakazawa, K; Kato, T; Sato, F; Nanzai, H; Uehara, M; Endo, Y; Ichimura, M

    2014-11-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  3. Improvement of efficiency and temperature control of induction heating vapor source on electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, T; Kiriyama, R; Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A; Uchida, T; Kurisu, Y; Nozaki, D; Yano, K; Yoshida, Y; Sato, F; Kato, Y; Iida, T

    2012-02-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is used to generate multicharged ions for many kinds of the fields. We have developed an evaporator by using induction heating method that can generate pure vapor from solid state materials in ECRIS. We develop the new matching and protecting circuit by which we can precisely control the temperature of the induction heating evaporator. We can control the temperature within ±15 °C around 1400 °C under the operation pressure about 10(-4) Pa. We are able to use this evaporator for experiment of synthesizing process to need pure vapor under enough low pressure, e.g., experiment of generation of endohedral Fe-fullerene at the ECRIS.

  4. Laboratory modeling of pulsed regimes of cyclotron instability in an ECR heated mirror-confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Dmitry; Viktorov, Mikhail; Golubev, Sergey; Vodopyanov, Alexander

    Despite more than half a century history, the studies of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and particles in magnetoactive plasma under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions still remain topical. One of the most interesting ECR manifestations is the generation of bursts of electromagnetic radiation that are related to the explosive growth of cyclotron instabilities of the magnetoactive plasma confined in magnetic traps of various kinds and that are accompanied by particle precipitations from the trap. Such phenomena are observed in a wide range of plasma parameters under various conditions: in the magnetospheres of the Earth and planets, in solar coronal loops, and in laboratory magnetic traps. We demonstrate the use of a laboratory setup based on a magnetic mirror trap with plasma sustained by a gyrotron radiation under ECR conditions for investigation of the cyclotron instabilities similar to the ones which take place in space plasmas. Three stages of pulsed ECR discharge offer the opportunity to study wave-particles interactions for essentially different plasma parameters: the initial stage, when the density of hot (relativistic) electrons (Nh) exceeds the density of cold electrons (Nc), the developed discharge (NhZ- or X- mode), propagating across the external magnetic field. The detailed investigation of spectral and temporal characteristics of non-stationary bursts of electromagnetic emission is presented. The interrelationship between the observed time-frequency spectrograms of electromagnetic emission with similar effects occurring in the inner magnetosphere is discussed in report.

  5. Design and Installation of a 10 MeV Small Medical Cyclotron Electrical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Hong-ru; GE; Tao; WU; Long-cheng; LI; Zheng-guo; LIU; Geng-shou

    2012-01-01

    <正>The electrical and pneumatic system of the 10 MeV small medical cyclotron is to provide safe and reliable power supply and relay protection to ensure the stable operation of equipments as well as personnel safety. Based on the equipment installation and operation status of the machine, the computational load of electrical system is designed to be 130 kW. The load grade is three-level, which adopts three-phase

  6. Development of electron cyclotron emission imaging system on Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, D.; Tsuji-Iio, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Sugito, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Akaki, K.; Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A combined system of microwave imaging reflectometry and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging has been developed for the Large Helical Device. This system includes a wide-band two-dimensional horn-antenna mixer array (HMA). The HMA consists of horn antennas, waveguides, mixers, and intermediate frequency circuits. The frequency response of the HMA is between 50 and 110 GHz. The ECE signal is selected using a 95 GHz local oscillator and a 93 GHz high-pass filter.

  7. Installation and Test of 100 MeV Cyclotron Safety Interlock System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Shi-gang; SONG; Guo-fang; LI; Zhen-guo; WANG; Feng; LV; Yin-long; XING; Jian-sheng; CAI; Hong-ru; YIN; Zhi-guo; WU; Long-cheng; XIE; Huai-dong; GE; Tao; CAO; Lei; FU; Xiao-liang; WEN; Li-peng

    2013-01-01

    The safety system is an important part of BRIF project,which will play a key role for protection of staff,and equipments.100 MeV cyclotron will deliver proton beam of 200μA with energy of 100 MeV.Radiation caused by beam loss will be occurred when the machine running or commissioning,which is hazard to staff and device,so a set of interlock system is designed for protecting people and apparatus.

  8. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  9. Cerenkov and cyclotron Cerenkov instabilities in a dielectric loaded parallel plate waveguide sheet electron beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ding; Ding Yaogen [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A dielectric loaded parallel plate waveguide sheet electron beam system can be taken as a reliable model for the practical dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide sheet beam system that has a transverse cross section with a large width to height ratio. By using kinetic theory, the dispersion equations for Cerenkov and cyclotron Cerenkov instabilities in the parallel plate waveguide sheet beam system have been obtained rigorously. The dependences of the growth rate of both instabilities on the electric and structural parameters have also been investigated in detail through numerical calculations. It is worthwhile to point out that adopting an electron beam with transverse velocity can evidently improve the growth rate of Cerenkov instability, which seems like the case of cyclotron Cerenkov instability.

  10. Electron Heating by the Ion Cyclotron Instability in Collisionless Accretion Flows. I. Compression-driven Instabilities and the Electron Heating Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    In systems accreting well below the Eddington rate, such as the central black hole in the Milky Way (Sgr A*), the plasma in the innermost regions of the disk is believed to be collisionless and have two temperatures, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. However, whether a collisionless faster-than-Coulomb energy transfer mechanism exists in two-temperature accretion flows is still an open question. We study the physics of electron heating during the growth of ion velocity-space instabilities by means of multidimensional, fully kinetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A background large-scale compression—embedded in a novel form of the PIC equations—continuously amplifies the field. This constantly drives a pressure anisotropy P > P ∥ because of the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. We find that, for ion plasma beta values β0i ~ 5-30 appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows (here, β0i is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), mirror modes dominate if the electron-to-proton temperature ratio is T 0e /T 0i >~ 0.2, whereas for T 0e /T 0i ~ 2 me /mi —governed by the conservation of the particle magnetic moment in the growing fields of the instability—is proportional to the initial electron temperature, and it scales with the magnetic energy of ion cyclotron waves. Our results have implications for two-temperature accretion flows as well as for solar wind and intracluster plasmas.

  11. Magnetic field turbulence, electron heating, magnetic holes, proton cyclotron waves, and the onsets of bipolar pulse (electron hole events: a possible unifying scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two electron heating events have been identified on 20 May 1996 when Polar was in the polar cap/polar cusp boundary layer. The electron heating events were located within magnetic holes/cavities/bubbles and were accompanied by nonlinear ± 14 nT peak-to-peak (f ~ 0.6 to 0.7 fcp obliquely propagating proton cyclotron waves. The electrons appear to be heated isotropically. Electric bipolar pulse (electron hole onset events were also detected within the heating events. We propose a scenario which can link the above phenomena. Nonlinear Alfvén waves, generated through cusp magnetic reconnection, propagate down magnetic field lines and locally heat electrons through the ponderomotive force. The magnetic cavity is created through the diamagnetic effect of the heated electrons. Ion heating also occurs through ponderomotive acceleration (but much less than the electrons and the protons generate the electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves through the loss cone instability. The obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves accelerate bi-streaming electrons, which are the source of free energy for the electron holes.

  12. Study of electronic heat transport in plasma through diagnosis based on modulated electron cyclotron heating; Etudes de transport de la chaleur electronique par injection modulee d'ondes a la frequence cyclotronique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemencon, A.; Guivarch, C

    2003-07-01

    In order to make nuclear fusion energetically profitable, it is crucial to heat and confine the plasma efficiently. Studying the behavior of the heat diffusion coefficient is a key issue in this matter. The use of modulated electron cyclotron heating as a diagnostic has suggested the existence of a transport barrier under certain plasma conditions. We have determined the solution to the heat transport equation, for several heat diffusion coefficient profiles. By comparing the analytical solutions with experimental data; we are able to study the heat diffusion coefficient profile. Thus, in certain experiments, we can confirm that the heat diffusion coefficient switches from low to high values at the radius where the electron cyclotron heat deposition is made. (authors)

  13. Induction Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

  14. Advances in intense beams, beam delivery, targetry, and radiochemistry at advanced cyclotron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada)]. E-mail: djohnson@advancedcyclotron.com; Watt, R. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Kovac, B. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Zyuzin, A. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Van Lier, E. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Erdman, K.L. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Gyles, Wm. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Sabaiduc, V. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); McQuarrie, S.A. [Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Wilson, J. [Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Backhouse, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Gelbart, Wm. [Advanced System Design, C22, S6, RR1, Garden Bay, BC, V0N 1S0 (Canada); Kuo, T. [4654 N. Larwin Ave., Concorde, CA 94521 United States (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The increasing demand for radionuclides for PET and SPECT has resulted in ACSI system improvements starting from the cyclotron and proceeding to the Radiochemistry Modules. With more TR30 cyclotrons installed and operating at full capacity, emphasis has been placed on improving the operational components to reduce both the incidence of failure and subsequent maintenance time. A cyclotron system has been developed that meets the needs of a regional radiopharmacy that supplies both positron and single photon emitters that would not otherwise be available. This new system has been named the TR24. In order to deal with some of the challenges of high currents, a method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil during high current irradiation of a water target used to produce F-18. A method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil to reduce unwanted chemical species that interfere with radiopharmaceutical production. Preliminary results for novel radioiodine production technique using the TR19/9 are also discussed.

  15. Proton heating and beam formation via parametrically unstable Alfven-cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Eckart; Araneda, Jaime; -Vinas, Adolfo F.

    Vlasov theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to study the effects that compressible fluctuations driven by parametric instabilities of Alfvén/cyclotron waves have on proe ton velocity distributions. Field-aligned proton beams are generated during the saturation phase of the wave-particle interaction, with a drift speed which is slightly greater than the Alfvén speed and is maintained until the end of the simulation. The main part of the dise tribution becomes anisotropic due to phase mixing as is typically observed in the velocity distributions measured in the fast solar wind. We identify the key instabilities and also find that even in the parameter regime, where fluid theory appears to be appropriate, strong kinetic effects still prevail.

  16. Induction heating pure vapor source of high temperature melting point materials on electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsumi, Osamu; Kato, Yushi; Matsui, Yuuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Uchida, Takashi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    Multicharged ions that are needed are produced from solid pure material with high melting point in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating (IH) with multilayer induction coil, which is made from bare molybdenum or tungsten wire without water cooling and surrounding the pure vaporized material. We optimize the shapes of induction coil and vaporized materials and operation of rf power supply. We conduct experiment to investigate the reproducibility and stability in the operation and heating efficiency. IH evaporator produces pure material vapor because materials directly heated by eddy currents have no contact with insulated materials, which are usually impurity gas sources. The power and the frequency of the induction currents range from 100 to 900 W and from 48 to 23 kHz, respectively. The working pressure is about 10(-4)-10(-3) Pa. We measure the temperature of the vaporized materials with different shapes, and compare them with the result of modeling. We estimate the efficiency of the IH vapor source. We are aiming at the evaporator's higher melting point material than that of iron.

  17. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

    2012-02-01

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 μs) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  18. New compact and efficient local oscillator optic system for the KSTAR electron cyclotron emission imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y. B.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.

    2016-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic on Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research utilizes quasi-optical heterodyne-detection method to measure 2D (vertical and radial) Te fluctuations from two toroidally separated poloidal cross section of the plasma. A cylindrical lens local oscillator (LO) optics with optical path length (OPL) 2-2.5 m has been used in the current ECEI system to couple the LO source to the 24 vertically aligned array of ECE detectors. For efficient and compact LO optics employing the Powell lens is proposed so that the OPL of the LO source is significantly reduced from ˜2.0 m to 0.4 m with new optics. The coupling efficiency of the LO source is expected to be improved especially at the edge channels. Results from the optical simulation together with the laboratory test of the prototype optics will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Heat Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  20. Heat rejection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  1. Influence of Alfven eigenmodes and ion cyclotron heating on the fast-ion distribution in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Markus; Geiger, Benedikt; Bilato, Roberto; Schneider, Philip; Tardini, Giovanni; Lauber, Philipp; Ryter, Francois; Schneller, Mirjam [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Fast, supra-thermal ions are created in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and they are needed for plasma heating and current drive. A possibility to study them is the spectroscopic observation of line radiation (fast-ion D-alpha, FIDA), which emerges from charge exchange reactions. Here, the fast ions can be distinguished from the thermal particles through there strong Doppler-shift, and their radial density profile can be measured and compared to theoretical models. An analysis of the whole Doppler spectrum yields information about the 2D velocity distribution f(v {sub parallel}, v {sub perpendicular} {sub to}). Observation from different viewing angles allows consequently a tomographic reconstruction of f(v {sub parallel}, v {sub perpendicular} {sub to}). For this purpose, the FIDA diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade has been extended from two to five views, and the spectrometer setup was improved to allow a simultaneous measurement of blue and red Doppler shifts. These recently developed diagnostic capabilities are used to study changes in the fast-ion distribution, which are caused by Alfven eigenmodes. Moreover, the further acceleration of fast ions through 2{sup nd} harmonic ICRH is investigated and compared to theoretical predictions.

  2. R&D activities on RF contacts for the ITER ion cyclotron resonance heating launcher

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, Julien; Bamber, Rob; Beaumont, Bertrand; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc; Durodié, Frédéric; Lamalle, Philippe; Lombard, Gilles; Nicholls, Keith; Shannon, Mark; Vulliez, Karl; Cantone, Vincent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Lebourg, Philippe; Martinez, André; Mollard, Patrick; Mouyon, David; Pagano, Marco; Patterlini, Jean-Claude; Soler, Bernard; Thouvenin, Didier; Toulouse, Lionel; Verger, Jean-Marc; Vigne, Terence; Volpe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Embedded RF contacts are integrated within the ITER ICRH launcher to allow assembling, sliding and to lower the thermo-mechanical stress. They have to withstand a peak RF current up to 2.5 kA at 55 MHz in steady-state conditions, in the vacuum environment of themachine.The contacts have to sustain a temperature up to 250{\\textdegree}Cduring several days in baking operations and have to be reliable during the whole life of the launcher without degradation. The RF contacts are critical components for the launcher performance and intensive R&D is therefore required, since no RF contactshave so far been qualified at these specifications. In order to test and validate the anticipated RF contacts in operational conditions, CEA has prepared a test platform consisting of a steady-state vacuum pumped RF resonator. In collaboration with ITER Organization and the CYCLE consortium (CYclotronCLuster for Europe), an R&D program has been conducted to develop RF contacts that meet the ITER ICRH launcher specification...

  3. Development of KSTAR in-vessel components and heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.L., E-mail: hlyang@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Y.M.; Bae, Y.S.; Kim, H.K.; Kim, K.M.; Lee, K.S.; Bang, E.N.; Kim, H.T.; Lee, H.J.; Kwag, S.W.; Chang, Y.B.; Song, N.H.; Park, H.T.; Joung, M.; Kim, J.S.; Han, W.S.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.I.; Do, H.J.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    In-vessel components of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) were developed for 2010 campaign to provide a crucial circumstance for achieving the strongly shaped and diverted plasma. Moreover, the in-vessel components such as limiter, divertor, passive stabilizer, in-vessel control coil (IVCC) system demonstrated good performances satisfying the original design concepts. In addition to the plasma facing components and the IVCC, in-vessel cryo-pump (IVCP) system was also installed to leverage divertor operation. Besides the in-vessel components, there have been substantial progresses in development of the heating and current drive system. The KSTAR heating and current drive system includes all kinds of the major heating systems such as neutral beam injection (NBI), ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF), electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECH and ECCD), lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems. As an initial stage for full equipment of the heating systems to total power of 26 MW, several key systems such as 1st NBI (called NBI-1), ICRF, and ECH-assisted startup system successfully demonstrated their excellent feasibilities in the design and performances for dedication to the 2010 campaign.

  4. Dynamics of multiple flux tubes in sawtoothing KSTAR plasmas heated by electron cyclotron waves: I. Experimental analysis of the tube structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, G. H.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Bierwage, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Jeong, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; the KSTAR Team

    2015-01-01

    Multiple (two or more) flux tubes are commonly observed inside and/or near the q = 1 flux surface in KSTAR tokamak plasmas with localized electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECH/CD). Detailed 2D and quasi-3D images of the flux tubes obtained by an advanced imaging diagnostic system showed that the flux tubes are m/n = 1/1 field-aligned structures co-rotating around the magnetic axis. The flux tubes typically merge together and become like the internal kink mode of the usual sawtooth, which then collapses like a usual sawtooth crash. A systematic scan of ECH/CD beam position showed a strong correlation with the number of flux tubes. In the presence of multiple flux tubes close to the q = 1 surface, the radially outward heat transport was enhanced, which explains naturally temporal changes of electron temperature. We emphasize that the multiple flux tubes are a universal feature distinct from the internal kink instability and play a critical role in the control of sawteeth using ECH/CD.

  5. User requirements and conceptual design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carannante, Giuseppe, E-mail: Giuseppe.Carannante@F4E.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Cavinato, Mario [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Gandini, Franco [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Granucci, Gustavo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Henderson, Mark; Purohit, Dharmesh [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Saibene, Gabriella; Sartori, Filippo [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sozzi, Carlo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Electron Cyclotron (EC) plant is a complex system, essential for plasma operation. The system is being designed to supply up to 20 MW of power at 170 GHz; it consists of 24 RF sources (or Gyrotrons) connected by switchable transmission lines to four upper and one equatorial launcher. The complexity of the EC plant requires a Plant Controller, which provides the functional and operational interface with CODAC and the Plasma Control System and coordinates the various Subsystem Control Units, i.e. the local controllers of power supplies, Gyrotrons, transmission lines and launchers. A conceptual design of the Electron Cyclotron Control System (ECCS) was developed, starting from the collection of the user requirements, which have then been organized as a set of operational scenarios exploiting the EC system. The design consists in a thorough functional analysis, including also protection functions, and in the development of a conceptual I&C architecture. The main aim of the work was to identify the physics requirements and to translate them into control system requirements, in order to define the interfaces within the components of the ECCS. The definition of these interfaces is urgent because some of the subsystems are already in an advanced design phase. The present paper describes both the methodology used and the resulting design.

  6. Note: Upgrade of electron cyclotron emission imaging system and preliminary results on HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M., E-mail: jiangm@swip.ac.cn; Shi, Z. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Xu, Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Z. C. [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging system on the HL-2A tokamak has been upgraded to 24 (poloidally) × 16 (radially) channels based on the previous 24 × 8 array. The measurement region can be flexibly shifted due to the independence of the two local oscillator sources, and the field of view can be adjusted easily by changing the position of the zoom lenses. The temporal resolution is about 2.5 μs and the achievable spatial resolution is 1 cm. After laboratory calibration, it was installed on HL-2A tokamak in 2014, and the local 2D mode structures of MHD activities were obtained for the first time.

  7. Cyclotron resonant interactions in cosmic particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Terasawa, T; 10.1007/s11214-012-9878-0

    2012-01-01

    A review is given for cyclotron resonant interactions in space plasmas. After giving a simple formulation for the test particle approach, illustrative examples for resonant interactions are given. It is shown that for obliquely propagating whistler waves, not only fundamental cyclotron resonance, but also other resonances, such as transit-time resonance, anomalous cyclotron resonance, higher-harmonic cyclotron resonance, and even subharmonic resonance can come into play. A few recent topics of cyclotron resonant interactions, such as electron injection in shocks, cyclotron resonant heating of solar wind heavy ions, and relativistic modifications, are also reviewed.

  8. Compound Effect of Alfv\\'en Waves and Ion-cyclotron Waves on Heating/Acceleration of Minor Ions via the Pickup Process

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C B; Lee, L C

    2014-01-01

    A scenario is proposed to explain the preferential heating of minor ions and differential streaming velocity between minor ions and protons observed in the solar corona and in the solar wind. It is demonstrated by test particle simulations that minor ions can be nearly fully picked up by intrinsic Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves observed in the solar wind based on the observed wave energy density. Both high frequency ion-cyclotron waves and low frequency Alfv\\'en waves play crucial roles in the pickup process. A minor ion can first gain a high magnetic moment through the resonant wave-particle interaction with ion-cyclotron waves, and then this ion with a large magnetic moment can be trapped by magnetic mirror-like field structures in the presence of the lower-frequency Alfv\\'en waves. As a result, the ion is picked up by these Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves. However, minor ions can only be partially picked up in the corona due to low wave energy density and low plasma beta. During the pickup process, minor ions are stoch...

  9. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostic systems for electron temperature perturbation measurement in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayama, Akihiko; Isei, Nobuaki; Ishida, Shinichi; Sato, Minoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Three systems are now operational in JT-60U tokamak for the measurement of electron cyclotron emissions. They are the Fourier transform spectrometer, 20 channels grating polychrometer, and 24 channels heterodyne radiometer. The first system has been absolutely calibrated, and used in the relative calibration of remaining two systems. The paper describes major specifications and recent upgrading of each system. In JT-60U experiments, the heterodyne radiometer system is mainly used for electron temperature perturbations with high signal-to-noise ratio. One of the disadvantage of this system is that the measurement points uniquely determined by the toroidal field, and thus cannot be chosen freely. In the experiment the third system, grating polychrometer, which allows free choice of measurement points, is used to cover the wide cross-section of the JT-60U plasma. (author)

  10. Operation of the CAPRICE electron cyclotron resonance ion source applying frequency tuning and double frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Celona, L; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P

    2012-02-01

    The properties of the electromagnetic waves heating the electrons of the ECR ion sources (ECRIS) plasma affect the features of the extracted ion beams such as the emittance, the shape, and the current, in particular for higher charge states. The electron heating methods such as the frequency tuning effect and the double frequency heating are widely used for enhancing the performances of ECRIS or even for the routine operation during the beam production. In order to better investigate these effects the CAPRICE ECRIS has been operated using these techniques. The ion beam properties for highly charged ions have been measured with beam diagnostic tools. The reason of the observed variations of this performance can be related to the different electromagnetic field patterns, which are changing inside the plasma chamber when the frequency is varying.

  11. R&D activities on RF contacts for the ITER ion cyclotron resonance heating launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillairet, Julien, E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, Arnaud [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bamber, Rob [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Beaumont, Bertrand [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bernard, Jean-Michel; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Durodié, Frédéric [Laboratory for Plasmas Physics, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lamalle, Philippe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lombard, Gilles [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Nicholls, Keith; Shannon, Mark [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vulliez, Karl [Maestral Laboratory, Technetics Group, Pierrelatte (France); Cantone, Vincent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Larroque, Sébastien; Lebourg, Philippe; Martinez, André; Mollard, Patrick; Mouyon, David; Pagano, Marco [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • CEA have developed a dedicated test-bed for testing RF contact in ITER relevant conditions (vacuum, temperature, RF current). • A prototype of RF contacts have been designed and manufactured, with copper lamellas brazed on a titanium holder. • This RF contact prototype failed at RF current larger than 1.8 kA. • Extensive R&D is foreseen with new RF contact designs. - Abstract: Embedded RF contacts are integrated within the ITER ICRH launcher to allow assembling, sliding and to lower the thermo-mechanical stress. They have to withstand a peak RF current up to 2.5 kA at 55 MHz in steady-state conditions, in the vacuum environment of the machine. The contacts have to sustain a temperature up to 250 °C during several days in baking operations and have to be reliable during the whole life of the launcher without degradation. The RF contacts are critical components for the launcher performance and intensive R&D is therefore required, since no RF contacts have so far been qualified at these specifications. In order to test and validate the anticipated RF contacts in operational conditions, CEA has prepared a test platform consisting of a steady-state vacuum pumped RF resonator. In collaboration with ITER Organization and the CYCLE consortium (CYclotron CLuster for Europe), an R&D program has been conducted to develop RF contacts that meet the ITER ICRH launcher specifications. A design proposed by CYCLE consortium, using brazed lamellas supported by a spring to improve thermal exchange efficiency while guaranteeing high contact force, was tested successfully in the T-resonator up to 1.7 kA during 1200 s, but failed for larger current values due to a degradation of the contacts. Details concerning the manufacturing of the brazed contacts on its titanium holder, the RF tests results performed on the resonator and the non-destructive tests analysis of the contacts are given in this paper.

  12. Broad wavenumber turbulence and transport during Ohmic and electron cyclotron heating in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, T L [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); Peebles, W A [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); DeBoo, J C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Prater, R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Staebler, G M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Candy, J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bravenec, R V [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); De Grassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Doyle, E J [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); Gohil, P; Greenfield, C M; Groebner, R J; Lohr, J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Nguyen, X V [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); Petty, C C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); John, H E St; Zeeland, M A Van [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Wang, G.; Zeng, L [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The response of plasma parameters and broad wavenumber turbulence (1-39 cm{sup -1}, k{rho}{sub s} = 0.1-10, relevant to ion temperature gradient, trapped electron mode and electron temperature gradient mode turbulence, here {rho}{sub s} = ion gyroradius) to auxiliary electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is reported on. One fluid thermal fluxes and diffusivities increase appreciably with ECH. Significant changes to the density fluctuations over the full range of measured wavenumbers are observed, with an increase for lower wavenumbers and a more spatially complicated response at high k. Spatially resolved high k measurements (k = 39 cm{sup -1}, k{rho}{sub s} = 4-10) show a varying response to ECH, with n-bar decreasing at r/a = 0.35 and increasing at r/a = 0.6 and 1. These variations were found to have a positive correlation with {nabla}T{sub e} evaluated at nearby locations, consistent with a {nabla}T{sub e} drive. Comparison of the changes in high k fluctuation levels with linear gyrokinetic growth rates show qualitative agreement at the innermost location, r/a = 0.35 and disagreement at r/a = 0.6.

  13. Heating Systems Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This instructional package is intended for use in training Air Force personnel enrolled in a program for apprentice heating systems specialists. Training includes instruction in fundamentals and pipefitting; basic electricity; controls, troubleshooting, and oil burners; solid and gas fuel burners and warm air distribution systems; hot water…

  14. Solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes solar modular domestic-hot-water and space-heating system intended for use in small single family dwelling where roof-mounted collectors are not feasible. Contents include design, performance, and hardware specifications for assembly, installation, operation, and maintenance of system.

  15. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, A., E-mail: a-uchi@riken.jp; Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  16. Development of electron cyclotron emission imaging system on the HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M.; Shi, Z. B.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Li, J.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Che, Y. L.; Fu, B. Z.; Cui, Z. Y.; Sun, P.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Che, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Hu, X.; Spear, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been developed for measurement of electron temperature fluctuations in the HL-2A tokamak. It is comprised of a front-end 24 channel heterodyne imaging array with a tunable RF range spanning 75–110 GHz, and a set of back-end ECEI electronics that together generate 24 × 8 = 192 channel images of the 2nd harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron emission from the HL-2A plasma. The simulated performance of the local oscillator (LO) optics and radio frequency (RF) optics is presented, together with the laboratory characterization results. The Gaussian beams from the LO optics are observed to properly cover the entire detector array. The ECE signals from the plasma are mixed with the LO signal in the array box, then delivered to the electronics system by low-loss microwave cables, and finally to the digitizers. The ECEI system can achieve temporal resolutions of ∼μs, and spatial resolutions of 1 cm (radially) and 2 cm (poloidally)

  17. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Taguchi, Mitsumasa [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.

  18. Application of the laser induced fluorescence to the investigation of highly magnetized plasmas, heated by ion cyclotron resonance; Fluorescence induite par laser sur des plasmas fortement magnetises, chauffes par resonnance cyclotron ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pailloux, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement]|[Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-31

    This work has been achieved in the frame of isotopic separation studies by in cyclotron resonance. For this purpose, in a highly magnetized (2 to 3 Tesla) and non-collisional (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 3}) plasma, composed of metallic ions, a wave near the ion cyclotron frequency is thrown in order to heat selectively a given species. A laser induced fluorescence (LIP) has been developed on barium and gadolinium plasmas. The Larmor gyration of ions greatly modifies the interaction, which has been modelled through the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The obtained excitation probably has been integrated over all the ions excited in the measurement volume in order to check that the LIF still leads to the distribution function of ion velocities. The influence of the Larmor motion of ions on the spectral distribution of LIF has been derived both theoretically and experimentally. The LIF diagnostics has been achieved with a dye O`ring laser. The barium ion has been excited on the transition 6142 angstrom, using rhodamine 6G dye, and the gadolinium ion on the pseudo-triplet 3861 angstrom, using exalite dye. Data treatment has been developed taking into account the Zeeman effect and the different heating of isotopes. The ionic temperature (from 1 eV to some hundreds eV) has been measured as a function of radiofrequency heating. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the selective heating theory. Also, the ion velocity distribution function has been found locally Maxwellian. And the behaviour of the plasma has been studied as a function of control parameters of the plasma source. (author) 62 refs.

  19. A free-electron laser for cyclotron resonant heating in magnetic fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, H. P.; Read, M. E.; Jackson, R. H.; Pershing, D. E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1995-05-01

    A G-band free-electron laser designed for plasma heating is described using a coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler formed by insertion into a solenoid of a central rod and an outer ring of alternating ferrite and nonferrite spacers positioned so that the central ferrite (nonferrite) spacers are opposite the outer nonferrite (ferrite) spacers. The CHI wiggler provides for enhanced beam focusing and the ability to handle intense beams and high-power continuous wave radiation. Simulations indicate that a power/efficiency of 3.5 MW/13% are possible using a 690 kV/40 A beam. No beam loss was found in simulation.

  20. The design and construction of a pulsed beam generation system based on high intensity cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to perform the studies on a pulsed beam generation system based on a high intensity cyclotron, a test beam line with a pulsed beam generation for a 10 MeV compact cyclotron (CYCIAE-10) has been designed and constructed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A 70 MHz continuous H- beam can be pulsed to the pulse length of less than 10 ns with a repetition rate of 4.4 MHz. The sine waveform with a frequency of 2.2 MHz is adopted for the chopper and a mesh structure with single drift and dual gaps is used for the 70 MHz buncher. A helical resonator is designed and constructed based on simulations and experiments on the RF matching for the chopper. A helical inductance loop that is exceptionally large of its kind and equipped with water cooling for the resonator has been successfully wound and a 500 W solid RF amplifier has been manufactured. A special measuring device has been designed, which can be used to measure both the DC beam and the pulsed beam. The required pulsed beam was obtained after pulsed beam tuning.

  1. Non-inductive current built-up by local electron cyclotron heating and current drive with a 28 GHz focused beam on QUEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; Idei, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ohwada, Hiroaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Kariya, Tsuyoshi; Mishra, Kishore; Shikama, Taichi; Quest Team

    2016-10-01

    The plasma current can be driven solely by injecting electron cyclotron waves (ECWs) in spherical tokamak (ST) configuration. A system of 28 GHz gyrotron (maximum power: 270 kW) is renewed and reinstalled on QUEST. A focused ECW beam, whose diameter is about 5 cm at the second harmonic resonance, is injected for local ECW heating and current drive. The local power density at resonance exceeds 75 MW/m2 at an injection power of 150 kW. The incident ECW polarization can be adjusted employing the phase shifter consisting of two corrugated plates. During 1.25 second pulse of ECH, plasma current is built up to Ip = 70 kA fully non-inductively with a core electron density of ne > 1018 m-3. The closed flux in such ST plasma is determined at the inboard limiter on the center stack. Energetic electrons are also responsible for the pressure and equilibrium. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI (15H04231, 15K17800), NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUTR085, NIFS11KUTR069, NIFS16KUTR114).

  2. Geothermal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  3. Performances of the distributed control system of the Milan superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giove, D.; Aghion, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Milan Univ. (Italy)); Cuttone, G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy))

    1989-04-01

    A three-level network architecture has been implemented for the control system of the Milan superconducting cyclotron. The field level consists of microcontroller board interfaces (analog and digital) connected onto a serial SDLC-like bus (Bitbus) fitted inside each controllable component. At the second level a set of multicomputer-based stations are dedicated to the control of a particular accelerator subsystem. A console node, connected to a DEC microVax II, provides the plant supervisor functions and implements the third level. The main features of the control system will be discussed, with particular care to software architecture. Performances, measured during a preliminary test of the accelerator, will be presented. (orig.).

  4. Extraction and diagnostic systems of the CIME cyclotron for SPIRAL project; Systemes d`ejection et de diagnostics du cyclotron CIME du projet SPIRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibet, D.; Bourgarel, M.P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Laune, B.; Malard, M.; Mormiche, M.; Serafini, A.; Szott, Ph. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    The extraction of the CIME cyclotron of the SPIRAL R.I.B. facility is composed of two electrostatic deflectors followed by two magnetostatic channels. For the diagnostics, a radial probe carrying a plastic scintillator for the radioactive beams, has been built, as well as dedicated probes in front of each of the channels. A set of 15 electrostatic pick up probes will enable the phase tuning for the stable beams. All these elements have been built and fully tested at the IPN, prior to there final installation on the CIME cyclotron. (authors) 4 figs.

  5. Collective Thomson scattering of a high power electron cyclotron resonance heating beam in LHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system has been constructed at LHD making use of the high power ECRH system in LHD. The necessary features for CTS, high power probing beams and receiving beams, both with well defined Gaussian profile and with the fine controllability, are endowed in the ECRH...

  6. A small scale remote cooling system for a superconducting cyclotron magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.; Berkowitz Zamorra, D.; Michels, M.; Gomez Bosch, R.; Schmid, J.; Striebel, A.; Krueger, A.; Diez, M.; Jakob, M.; Keh, M.; Herberger, W.; Oesterle, D.

    2017-02-01

    Through a technology transfer program CERN is involved in the R&D of a compact superconducting cyclotron for future clinical radioisotope production, a project led by the Spanish research institute CIEMAT. For the remote cooling of the LTc superconducting magnet operating at 4.5 K, CERN has designed a small scale refrigeration system, the Cryogenic Supply System (CSS). This refrigeration system consists of a commercial two-stage 1.5 W @ 4.2 K GM cryocooler and a separate forced flow circuit. The forced flow circuit extracts the cooling power of the first and the second stage cold tips, respectively. Both units are installed in a common vacuum vessel and, at the final configuration, a low loss transfer line will provide the link to the magnet cryostat for the cooling of the thermal shield with helium at 40 K and the two superconducting coils with two-phase helium at 4.5 K. Currently the CSS is in the testing phase at CERN in stand-alone mode without the magnet and the transfer line. We have added a “validation unit” housed in the vacuum vessel of the CSS representing the thermo-hydraulic part of the cyclotron magnet. It is equipped with electrical heaters which allow the simulation of the thermal loads of the magnet cryostat. A cooling power of 1.4 W at 4.5 K and 25 W at the thermal shield temperature level has been measured. The data produced confirm the design principle of the CSS which could be validated.

  7. Electron Heating by the Ion Cyclotron Instability in Collisionless Accretion Flows. II. Electron Heating Efficiency as a Function of Flow Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the innermost regions of low-luminosity accretion flows, including Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy, the frequency of Coulomb collisions is so low that the plasma is two-temperature, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. This paradigm assumes that Coulomb collisions are the only channel for transferring the ion energy to the electrons. In this work, the second of a series, we assess the efficiency of electron heating by ion velocity-space instabilities in collisionless accretion flows. The instabilities are seeded by the pressure anisotropy induced by magnetic field amplification, coupled to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we showed in Paper I that if the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is < 0.2, the ion cyclotron instability is the dominant mode for values of ion beta_i ~ 5-30 (here, beta_i is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), as appropriate for the midplane of low-lumin...

  8. Management of radioactive waste gases from PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis using cost effective capture systems integrated with a cyclotron safety system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, D H R; Pringle, A J; Maillet, D; King, A R; Nevin, S T; Venkatachalam, T K; Reutens, D C; Bhalla, R

    2016-09-01

    The emphasis on the reduction of gaseous radioactive effluent associated with PET radiochemistry laboratories has increased. Various radioactive gas capture strategies have been employed historically including expensive automated compression systems. We have implemented a new cost-effective strategy employing gas capture bags with electronic feedback that are integrated with the cyclotron safety system. Our strategy is suitable for multiple automated (18)F radiosynthesis modules and individual automated (11)C radiosynthesis modules. We describe novel gas capture systems that minimize the risk of human error and are routinely used in our facility.

  9. Design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Waveguide Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.; Grunloh, H.; Koliner, J.

    2007-11-01

    The ITER ECH transmission line system is designed to deliver the power, from twenty-four 1 MW 170 GHz gyrotrons and three 1 MW 127.5 GHz gyrotrons, to the equatorial and upper launchers. The performance requirements, initial design of components and layout between the gyrotrons and the launchers is underway. Similar 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguide systems have been built and installed on several fusion experiments; however, none have operated at the high frequency and long-pulse required for ITER. Prototype components are being tested at low power to estimate ohmic and mode conversion losses. In order to develop and qualify the ITER components prior to procurement of the full set of 24 transmission lines, a 170 GHz high power test of a complete prototype transmission line is planned. Testing of the transmission line at 1-2 MW can be performed with a modest power (˜0.5 MW) tube with a low loss (10-20%) resonant ring configuration. A 140 GHz long pulse, 400 kW gyrotron will be used in the initial tests and a 170 GHz gyrotron will be used when it becomes available. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  10. Analysis of relay based valley coil system of K-130 Cyclotron and an approach to computer controlled system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoor, B.

    2016-09-11

    To overcome the first harmonic field imperfection in sector focused cyclotron, a set of coils placed in valleys are used to produce an opposite first harmonic effect. Usually, at the time of beam tuning the phase of the first harmonic is varied using a relay system. It can be shown analytically that magnitude of it changes simultaneously, when phase is changed. This is not desirable at the time of beam tuning. Moreover phase changes in long steps, which hampers accuracy of beam tuning. To overcome this, a computer controlled system is suggested where amplitude remains constant at the time of phase change. Moreover, phase can be changed continuously which gives better tuning accuracy.

  11. Progress on the heating and current drive systems for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J. [CEA, Cadarache, France; Beaumont, Bertrand [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Bora, D. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Campbell, D. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Darbos, Caroline [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Decamps, H. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Graceffa, J. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Gassmann, T. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Hemsworth, R. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Henderson, Mark [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Kobayashi, N. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Lamalle, Philippe [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Schunke, B. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Tanaka, M. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Tanga, A. [ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache; Albajar, F. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Bonicelli, T. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Sartori, R. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Becoulet, A. [CEA, Cadarache, France; Hoang, G. T. [CEA, Cadarache, France; Inoue, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Takahashi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Swain, David W [ORNL; Chakraborty, A. [ITER India - Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat; Mukherjee, A. [ITER India - Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat; Rao, S. L. [ITER India - Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat; Denisov, G. [Russian Academy of Science, Novgorod, Russia; Nightingale, M. [EURATOM / UKAEA, Abingdon, UK; Sonato, P. [EURATOM / ENEA, Italy

    2009-06-01

    The electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron (IC), heating-neutral beam (H-NB) and, although not in the day 1 baseline, lower hybrid (LH) systems intended for ITER have been reviewed in 2007/2008 in light of progress of physics and technology in the field. Although the overall specifications are unchanged, notable changes have been approved. Firstly, it has been emphasized that the H&CD systems are vital for the ITER programme. Consequently, the full 73 MW should be commissioned and available on a routine basis before the D/T phase. Secondly, significant changes have been approved at system level, most notably: the possibility to operate the heating beams at full power during the hydrogen phase requiring new shine through protection; the possibility to operate IC with 2 antennas with increased robustness (no moving parts); the possible increase to 2 MW of key components of the EC transmission systems in order to provide an easier upgrading of the EC power as may be required by the project; the addition of a building dedicated to the RF power sources and to a testing facility for acceptance of diagnostics and heating port plugs. Thirdly, the need of a plan for developing, in time for the active phase, a CD system such as LH suitable for very long pulse operation of ITER was recognised. The review describes these changes and their rationale.

  12. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on the large helical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; England, A.; Ito, Y.; Bretz, N.; McCarthy, M.; Taylor, G.; Doane, J.; Ikezi, H.; Edlington, T.; Tomas, J.

    1999-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic system is installed on the large helical device (LHD). The system includes the following instruments: a heterodyne radiometer, a Michelson spectrometer, and a grating polychromator. A 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide system is fully utilized. Large collection optics and notch filters at the frequency of the LHD electron cyclotron heating (ECH) were developed for this system. In addition to these filters, the rectangular waveguide notch filters, the ECE measurement with the radiometer has been successfully performed during the ECH.

  13. Development of multichannel intermediate frequency system for electron cyclotron emission radiometer on KSTAR Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Yuichiro; Sakoda, Takuya; Mase, Atsushi; Ito, Naoki; Yokota, Yuya; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Nagayama, Yoshio; Jeong, Seung H; Kwon, Myeun; Kawahata, Kazuo

    2008-10-01

    Plasma experiments on KSTAR are scheduled to start up this year (2008). We have developed an electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer to measure the radial electron temperature profiles in KSTAR experiments. The radiometer system consists, briefly, of two downconversion stages, amplifiers, bandpass filter banks, and video detectors. These components are made commercially or developed in house. The system detects ECE power in the frequency range from 110 to 196 GHz, the detected signal being resolved by means of 48 frequency windows. Before installation of this system on KSTAR, we installed a part of this system on large helical device (LHD) to study the system under similar plasma conditions. In this experiment, the signal amplitude, considered to be proportional to the electron temperature, is measured. The time-dependent traces of the electron temperature measured by this radiometer are in good agreement with those provided by the LHD Michelson spectrometer. The system noise level which limits the minimum measurable temperature (converted to the electron temperature) is about 30 eV.

  14. The effect of plasma shear flow on drift Alfven instabilities of a finite beta plasma and on anomalous heating of ions by ion cyclotron turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young Hyun; Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladimir V.; Mikhailenko, Vladimir S.

    2016-01-01

    It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows. The levels of the drift--Alfven turbulence, resulted from the development of both instabilities, are determined from the renormalized nonlinear dispersion equation, which accounts for the nonlinear effect of the scattering of ions by the electromagnetic turbulence. The renormalized quasilinear equation for the ion distribution function, which accounts for the same effect of the scattering of ions by electromagnetic turbulence, is derived and employed for the analysis of the ion viscosity and ions heating, resulted from the interactions of ions with drift-Alfven turbulence. In the same way, the phenomena of the ion cyclotron turbulence and anomalous anisotropic heating of ions by ion cyclotron plasma turbulence has numerous practical applications in physics of the near-Earth space plasmas. Using the methodology of the shearing modes, the kinetic theory of the ion cyclotron turbulence of the plasma with transverse current with strong velocity shear has been developed.

  15. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  16. Ventilation and Heat Recovering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bancea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects concerning the heat reducing for ventilation, achieved by using heat recovering components and a combined heating--ventilating system, assuring both comfort and human health are presented. The floor imbedded systems together with air outlets elements could fulfill all the aesthetically desires, as well as comfort and they are ideal for family houses.

  17. Development of target system for production of I-123 in Cyclotron 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Jae Jun; Jung, Hyun Woo; Kim, Byung Il and others

    2013-10-15

    This work was mainly focused on the development of target system for production of I-123 in Cyclotron 30. We have analyzed the original I-123 target system which is constructed by company in Canada and designed with solid works 3D CAD program. We have designed newly by changing cooling method of straight line into spiral line. We look forward to increase the cooling efficiency by decreasing water resistance inside the target chamber. The target system also is made by modular method which is possible to change target quickly. So, the radiation exposure to engineers when exchanging target will be minimized. Only KIRAMS can produce I-123 radiopharmaceuticals in Korea. So we need to acquire techniques not only supplementing drawbacks of the existing target, but also minimizing the radiation exposure during maintenance of target. The new water cooling system will hold the pressure of the target constantly. This will enhance the yield of I-123. The first development of Xe-124 target in Korea will result in more distributed environment of I-123 to diagnose thyroid gland cancer.

  18. Digital data acquisition system implementation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, C. J.; Liddick, S. N.; Abromeit, B. L.; Chemey, A. T.; Larson, N. R.; Suchyta, S.; Tompkins, J. R.

    2014-03-01

    A Digital Data Acquisition System (DDAS) composed of 16-channel FPGA-programmable modules running 12-bit 100 Mega-Samples Per Second (MSPS) ADCs has been implemented on three different experimental arrays at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) encompassing charged particle spectroscopy, high and low energy-resolution photon detection, and neutron time-of-flight measurements. DDAS has increased the experimental capabilities of each array by providing energy and time measurements with nearly zero dead-time, low energy thresholds, and large dynamic range. The performance of the DDAS Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC)s was characterized, and energy and time resolutions were compared with traditional analog systems. We have demonstrated a 14- to 15-bit peak-sensing equivalent resolution when applied to semiconductor detectors and 500 ps time resolution for LaBr3 detectors measuring coincident radiation with signal amplitudes of ≈13% of the input range of the ADC. Details regarding the operation of the system at NSCL including digital filtering, triggering, clock distribution, and event-building are discussed along with applications to selected detector systems.

  19. Digital data acquisition system implementation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokop, C.J., E-mail: prokop@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Liddick, S.N., E-mail: liddick@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Abromeit, B.L., E-mail: abromeit@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chemey, A.T., E-mail: chemeyal@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Larson, N.R., E-mail: larson@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Suchyta, S., E-mail: suchyta@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Tompkins, J.R., E-mail: tompkins@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    A Digital Data Acquisition System (DDAS) composed of 16-channel FPGA-programmable modules running 12-bit 100 Mega-Samples Per Second (MSPS) ADCs has been implemented on three different experimental arrays at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) encompassing charged particle spectroscopy, high and low energy-resolution photon detection, and neutron time-of-flight measurements. DDAS has increased the experimental capabilities of each array by providing energy and time measurements with nearly zero dead-time, low energy thresholds, and large dynamic range. The performance of the DDAS Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC)s was characterized, and energy and time resolutions were compared with traditional analog systems. We have demonstrated a 14- to 15-bit peak-sensing equivalent resolution when applied to semiconductor detectors and 500 ps time resolution for LaBr{sub 3} detectors measuring coincident radiation with signal amplitudes of ≈13% of the input range of the ADC. Details regarding the operation of the system at NSCL including digital filtering, triggering, clock distribution, and event-building are discussed along with applications to selected detector systems.

  20. Critical energy in the cyclotron heating of ions in a mirror machine; Energia critica en el calentamiento ciclotronico de los iones en una maquina espejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The problem of heating in the plasma sources where the geometry of the magnetic field forms a magnetic mirror as it is the case of the Ecr sources type, for maintaining the reload, it continues being an actual important problem. There are two methods for the analysis of this problem. The first of these methods is the stochastic mechanism of a particle where it is considered the existence of three characteristic frequencies as the cyclotron frequency, the electromagnetic field frequency and the transit frequency. The second method is that related with the non linear interaction of waves where the collective effects of the particles are the most important. In this work, in the Hamiltonian formalism, the stochastic mechanism in the cyclotron heating is analysed. It is considered the particular case of a plasma source with an external magnetic field, type mirror where a TE{sub 11} electromagnetic wave is injected. The critical energy in the resonance mixing is calculated by the Poincare mapping method. The heterogeneity of the magnetic field is analysed. (Author)

  1. A liquid-helium-free superconducting coil system forming a flat minimum-magnetic-field distribution of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yoshida.kennichi71@jaea.go.jp; Nara, Takayuki; Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A flat distribution of the minimum magnetic field (flat-B{sub min}) of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is expected to perform better in highly charged ion production than classical B{sub min}. To form a flat-B{sub min} structure with a liquid helium-free superconducting device, a coil system of seven coils with four current leads has been designed. The lead number was reduced by connecting the plural coils in series to maintain the flat-B{sub min} structure even when the coil currents are changed for adjustment. This coil system can be operated with a helium-free cryostat, since the estimation of heat from the leads to the coils is nearly equivalent to the existing superconducting ECRIS of a similar type.

  2. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  3. Development of gas pulsing system for electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sugiura, A.

    2008-02-01

    A gas-pulsing system for an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with all permanent magnets (Kei2 source) at NIRS has been developed and tested. The system consists of a small vessel (30ml) to reserve CH4 gas and two fast solenoid valves that are installed at both sides of the vessel. They are connected to each other and to the Kei2 source by using a stainless-steel pipe (4mm inner diameter), where the length of the pipe from the valve to the source is 60cm and the conductance is 1.2l /s. From the results of the test, almost 300eμA for a pulsed C4+12 beam was obtained at a Faraday cup in an extraction-beam channel with a pressure range of 4000Pa in the vessel. At this time, the valve has an open time of 10ms and the delay time between the valve open time and the application of microwave power is 100ms. In experiments, the conversion efficiency for input CH4 molecules to the quantity of extracted C4+12 ions in one beam pulse was found to be around 3% and the ratio of the total amount of the gas requirement was only 10% compared with the case of continuous gas provided in 3.3s of repetition in HIMAC.

  4. District Heating System Using Heat Pump Installations and CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating puThe article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating pumps, evaporators heating and hot water. Heat pumps use carbon dioxide as refrigerant. During the transitional period of the year, and the summer heat pump for preparing hot-water supply system uses the heat of the surrounding air. The heat of the ambient air is used in the intermediate heat exchanger between the first and second stages of the heat pump to cool the gas after the first stage of the compressor of the heat pump.

  5. Design and research of RF system for 10 MeV compact cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A 10 MeV compact cyclotron (CYCHU-10) has been developing in Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The RF system includes a 10 kW RF power generator and a resonance cavity. There is no automatic frequency tuning equipment in the cavity due to space limitations, so the generator must search and track the cavity resonant frequency. AD9850 synthesizer is used to generate RF signal in the experimental prototype, and a fine sinusoidal waveform around 99 MHz is obtained with the method of picking up a special aliased signal from the synthesizer’s output, and the output power level can be set by regulating the resistor connected to the Pin ’Rset’. The final stage amplifier based on tetrode operates in the grounded cathode configuration, and the schematic of the tetrode circuit is illustrated. The method of searching the resonant frequency is discussed in detail. For the sake of a compact and robust structure, the resonance cavity will adopt non-uniform characteristic impedance coaxial structure, and the magnet surface electroplated with copper will be used as dummy Dees. The precise shapes and dimensions of the cavity are designed and simulation results are carried out in this paper. The distributions of electromagnetic field are illustrated by means of numerical calculation analysis, and the wooden model test is preformed as well.

  6. Economics of heat pump systems for simultaneous heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat pumps can be incorporated advantageously into processes which require simultaneously both cooling and heating. The economics of heat pumps in India for simultaneous heat and cooling is assessed with respect to process, design and economic parameters. For the typical conditions of various parameters in India, a heat pump system for simultaneous heating and cooling is very attractive.

  7. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  8. CRBRP decay heat removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottel, R. E.; Louison, R.; Boardman, C. E.; Kiley, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Decay Heat Removal Systems for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are designed to adequately remove sensible and decay heat from the reactor following normal shutdown, operational occurrences, and postulated accidents on both a short term and a long term basis. The Decay Heat Removal Systems are composed of the Main Heat Transport System, the Main Condenser and Feedwater System, the Steam Generator Auxiliary Heat Removal System (SGAHRS), and the Direct Heat Removal Service (DHRS). The overall design of the CRBRP Decay Heat Removal Systems and the operation under normal and off-normal conditions is examined. The redundancies of the system design, such as the four decay heat removal paths, the emergency diesel power supplies, and the auxiliary feedwater pumps, and the diversities of the design such as forced circulation/natural circulation and AC Power/DC Power are presented. In addition to overall design and system capabilities, the detailed designs for the Protected Air Cooled Condensers (PACC) and the Air Blast Heat Exchangers (ABHX) are presented.

  9. Medical cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A P

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons as tools for therapy and for the production of radionuclides for use in nuclear medicine have been extensively reviewed in the literature. The current world status with respect to cyclotrons used primarily for research, development and application in nuclear medicine is reviewed here in the context of geographical distribution and type of use, presently available commercial types, machine characteristics and trends. Aspects of design requirements from a user perspective such as machine, beam and target characteristics are covered. Some special problems concerning many factors which can lead to effective production of the desired radionuclide or product are considered in light of machine characteristics. Consideration is also given to future directions for accelerators in nuclear medicine.

  10. Applications of the SCENIC code package to the minority ion-cyclotron heating in Wendelstein 7-X plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustin, J. M., E-mail: jonathan.faustin@epfl.ch; Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Pfefferlé, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Geiger, J. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    We present SCENIC simulations of a W7X 4He plasma with 1% H minority and with an antenna model close to the design foreseen for the W7X ICRF antenna [1, 2]. A high mirror and a standard equilibrium are considered. The injected wave frequency is fixed at 33.8 MHz and 39.6MHz respectively and only fundamental minority heating is considered. Included in this calculation is a new realistic model of the antenna, where it is found that the localization of the antenna geometry tends to break the five-fold periodicity of the system. We assess the heat transfer through the toroidal periods via Coulomb collisions.

  11. Solar Heating Systems: Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This Instructor's Guide for a Solar Heating System Curriculum is designed to accompany the Student Manual and the Progress Checks and Test Manual for the course (see note), in order to facilitate the instruction of classes on solar heating systems. The Instructor's Guide contains a variety of materials used in teaching the courses, including…

  12. Solar Heating Systems: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This Student Manual for a Solar Heating System curriculum contains 22 units of instructional materials for students to use in a course or courses on solar heating systems (see note). For each unit (task), objectives, assignment sheets, laboratory assignments, information sheets, checkpoints (tests), and job sheets are provided. Materials are set…

  13. Development of additive [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [{sup 11}C]radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Kyung [Technical Support Team, Duchembio, Seoul 121-844 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Instrumentation Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Chul, E-mail: leebc2001@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Eun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Smart Humanity Convergence Center, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [{sup 11}C]PIB, [{sup 11}C]DASB, [{sup 11}C]PBR28, [{sup 11}C]Methionine and [{sup 11}C]Clozapine, the radiochemical

  14. Geothermal heating systems for greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.F.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-08-12

    Ways to utilize low-temperature geothermally heated water for a flow-through system are presented. The geothermal energy used for this system is the waste heat discharged from space heating 500,000 square feet of floor space at Oregon Institute of Technology with geothermal water pumped directly from the campus wells. The information collected and analyzed is from data developed from operating a greenhouse on the Oregon Institute of Technology campus from December 1979 to April 1980. Methods for calculating heating requirements of greenhouses using geothermal energy were developed from the analyses of the data obtained. (MHR)

  15. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  16. Toroidal mode number estimation of the edge-localized modes using the KSTAR 3-D electron cyclotron emission imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Yun, G. S., E-mail: gunsu@postech.ac.kr; Lee, J. E.; Kim, M.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, W. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. K. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    A new and more accurate technique is presented for determining the toroidal mode number n of edge-localized modes (ELMs) using two independent electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) systems in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. The technique involves the measurement of the poloidal spacing between adjacent ELM filaments, and of the pitch angle α{sub *} of filaments at the plasma outboard midplane. Equilibrium reconstruction verifies that α{sub *} is nearly constant and thus well-defined at the midplane edge. Estimates of n obtained using two ECEI systems agree well with n measured by the conventional technique employing an array of Mirnov coils.

  17. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  18. Self-consistent full-wave and Fokker-Planck calculations for ion cyclotron heating in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, E. F.

    2005-10-01

    High-performance burning plasma devices such as ITER will contain significant concentrations of non-thermal plasma particles arising from fusion reactions, neutral beam injection, and wave-driven diffusion in velocity space. Initial studies in 1-D [1] and experimental results [2] show that non-thermal energetic ions can significantly alter wave propagation and absorption in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. In addition, these ions can absorb power at high harmonics of the cyclotron frequency where conventional 2-D global-wave models are not valid. In this work, the all-orders, full-wave solver AORSA [3] is generalized to treat non-Maxwellian velocity distributions. Quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are derived directly from the global wave fields and used to calculate the energetic ion velocity distribution with the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code [4]. Alternately, the quasi-linear coefficients can be calculated numerically by integrating the Lorentz force equations along particle orbits. Self-consistency between the wave electric field and resonant ion distribution function is achieved by iterating between the full-wave and Fokker-Planck solutions.[1] R. J. Dumont, C. K. Phillips and D. N. Smithe, Phys. Plasmas 12, 042508 (2005).[2] A. L. Rosenberg, J. E. Menard, J. R. Wilson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2441(2004).[3] E. F. Jaeger, L. A. Berry, J. R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).[4] R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, in Proceedings of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas (IAEA, Montreal, 1992).

  19. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  1. Prototype solar heating and combined heating cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The design and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is discussed. The program management and systems engineering are reported, and operational test sites are identified.

  2. High voltage power supplies for ITER RF heating and current drive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, T., E-mail: thibault.gassmann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arambhadiya, B.; Beaumont, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baruah, U.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonicelli, T. [Fusion For Energy, C/3 Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Darbos, C.; Purohit, D.; Decamps, H. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Albajar, F. [Fusion For Energy, C/3 Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gandini, F.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Omori, T. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Parmar, D.; Patel, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Rathi, D. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Singh, N.P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2011-10-15

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems to be installed for the ITER fusion machine are the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron (IC) and, although not in the first phase of the project, lower hybrid (LH). These systems require high voltage, high current power supplies (HVPS) in CW operation. These HVPS should deliver around 50 MW electrical power to each of the RF H and CD systems with stringent requirements in terms of accuracy, voltage ripple, response time, turn off time and fault energy. The PSM (Pulse Step Modulation) technology has demonstrated over the past 20 years its ability to fulfill these requirements in many industrial facilities and other fusion reactors and has therefore been chosen as reference design for the IC and EC HVPS systems. This paper describes the technical specifications, including interfaces, the resulting constraints on the design, the conceptual design proposed for ITER EC and IC HVPS systems and the current status.

  3. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING

  4. Injection and extraction computer control system HIRFL-SSC The HIRFL-SSC is stated for Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Wei; Chen Yun; Zhang Xia; Hu Jian Jun; Xu Xing Ming

    2002-01-01

    The injection and extraction computer control system of HIRFL-SSC (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron) have been introduced. Software is described briefly. Hardware structure is mainly presented. The computer control system realize that the adjustment of injection and extraction can done by PC and operate interface is Windows style. The system can make the adjustment convenient and veracious

  5. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.

  6. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    in Danish conditions. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions was carried out considering the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive net present value of the investment...... goals. The presented study investigates the possible introduction of HPs from both a thermodynamic and a system/operation management perspective, in order to find optimal integration schemes in both current and future energy scenarios. Five generic configurations of HPs in district heating (DH) systems...... that three configurations are particular advantageous, whereas the two remaining configurations result in system performance close to or below what may be expected from an electric heater. One of the three advantageous configurations is required to be positioned at the location of the heat demand, whereas...

  7. Development of a system for passive spectrometry characterization neutron of a cyclotron; Desarrollo de un sistema de espectrometria pasivo para la caracterizacion neutronica de un ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R.; Guerrero, J. E.; Lagares, J. I.; Sansaloni, F.; Perez, J. M.; Llop, J.; Kralik, M.

    2013-07-01

    The most widely used for Neutron spectrometry system is formed by the Bonner spheres with an active sensor sensitive to thermal neutrons in its Center. But, the presence of strong electromagnetic fields and the hold character around a cyclotron radiation detectors active employment make unviable so it is necessary to replace it with other liabilities. In this case it has resorted to the use of Au foils such as thermal neutron detectors, found the matrix the new spectrometer response and has been validated with a source of {sup 2}52Cf for later measurements in the interior of the bunker of a cyclotron production of radioisotopes for PET. (Author)

  8. Optimization of the optical system for electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics on the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Shi, Zhongbing; Zhu, Yilun

    2017-08-01

    The optical system of the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics on the HL-2A tokamak has been optimized in both the narrow zoom pattern and the wide zoom pattern. The two main features of the improved optical system are (1) larger coverage of the measurement region in the plasma and (2) a flatter imaging surface. The new optics has good focal characteristics over the whole plasma cross section. The curvature of the field of the image surface (ΔR between the core channel and the edge channel) is within 5.3 cm in the narrow zoom pattern and 6.7 cm in the wide zoom pattern after optimization, whereas the values with the present optics were 23 cm in the narrow zoom pattern and 15 cm in the wide zoom pattern. The optics will be fabricated, tested and installed on the HL-2A tokamak before the next experimental campaign.

  9. A preliminary area survey of neutron radiation levels associated with the NASA variable energy cyclotron horizontal neutron delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. K.; Leonard, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    The 25 MeV deuteron beam from the NASA variable energy cyclotron incident on a thick beryllium target will deliver a tissue neutron dose rate of 2.14 rad micron A-min at a source to skin distance of 125 cm. A neutron survey of the existing hallways with various shielding configurations made during operating of the horizontal neutron delivery system indicates that minimal amounts of additional neutron shielding material are required to provide a low level radiation environment within a self-contained neutron therapy control station. Measurements also indicate that the primary neutron distribution delivered by a planned vertical delivery system will be minimally perturbed by neutrons backscattered from the floor.

  10. Prototype solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete air-collector system to meet needs of single-family dwelling is designed to operate in any region of United States except extreme north and south. Design can be scaled up or down to accomodate wide range of heating and hot-water requirements for single-family, multi-family, or commercial buildings without significantly changing design concept.

  11. Impedance matching network systems using stub-lines of 20 kW CW RF amplifier for SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Song, Ho Seung; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cong, Truong Van; Kim, Hui Su; Yeon, Yeong Heum; Lee, Yong seok; Chai, Jong Seo, E-mail: jschai@skku.edu

    2015-01-21

    The SKKUCY-9 is a compact cyclotron for radioactive isotopes (RI) production of positron emission tomography (PET). Charged particles such as H-ions are accelerated azimuthally within a high intensity electric field (E-field) generated from a radio frequency (RF) system in cyclotron. A high power RF signal is transmitted from an RF amplifier to an RF resonating cavity. The RF system of the SKKUCY-9 operates in continuous wave (CW) mode. If an ion beam were accelerated in the cyclotron, the vacuum level and permittivity would be changed because of beam loading. It causes an impedance shift of the RF resonating cavity. This impedance mismatch generates reflected power that decreases the RF transmitting power. To prevent this situation, an impedance matching system is necessary. This paper describes the impedance matching system of a 20 kW RF amplifier in an SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron. The impedance matching circuit was designed using both an input stage and output stage, which are divided between the cathode and anode in a vacuum tube that is used as an amplifying device. The equivalent circuit of the matching system is made of passive elements. The characteristic results of designed circuit were calculated using a Smith chart. In assembling, the inductors were replaced by movable stub-line structures. The dimensions of the stub-line structures were optimized with equations and the measurement results. The experiment was performed to find the result values of matching circuit impedance and RF power amplitude.

  12. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating, which could also be applied to service water heating. Refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compare the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  13. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... that combines different energy sources for heat production will be used. The work has been carried out in scope of 4th Generation District Heating Technologies and Systems project.......District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...

  14. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  15. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivanen, V., E-mail: ville.aleksi.toivanen@cern.ch; Küchler, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  16. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V.; Küchler, D.

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  17. Korea Superconducting tokamak advanced research project - Development of heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-01

    The heating and current drive systems for KSTAR based on multiple technologies (neutral beam, ion cyclotron, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron) have been designed to provide heating and current drive capabilities as well as flexibility in the control of current density and pressure profiles needed to meet the mission and research objectives of the machine. They are designed to operate for long-pulse lengths of up to 300 s. The NBI system initially delivers 8 MW of neutral beam power to the plasma from one co-directed beam line and shall be upgraded to provide 20 MW of neutral beam power with two co-directed beam lines plus one counter-directed beam line. It will be capable of being reconfigured such that the source arrangement is changed from horizontal to vertical stacking, with 6 MW beam power to the plasmas per beam line, in order to facilitate profile control. The RF system initially delivers 6 MW of rf power to the plasma, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. The system will be upgraded to proved 12 MW of rf power through 2 adjacent ports. In the first phase, we completed the basic design of RF system and the system have the capabilities to be operationable for pulse length up to 300 sec and in the 25-60 MHz frequency range. Lower hybrid system initially provides 1.5 MW LH rf power to the plasma at 3.7 GHz through a horizontal port, which has a capability to be operated for pulse length up to 300 sec, and shall be upgraded to provide 4.5 MW of LH rf power to the plasma. In the first phase, we completed the basic design of LHCD system which incorporate the TPX-type launcher and independently phase-changeable transmission system for the fully phased coupler. The ECH system will deliver up to 0.5 MW of power to the plasma for up to 0.5 sec. In the first phase, we completed the basic design of ECH system which includes an 84 GHz gyrotron system, a transmission system, and a launcher. The basic design of the low loss transmission system

  18. Electron Heating by the Ion Cyclotron Instability in Collisionless Accretion Flows. I. Compression-Driven Instabilities and the Electron Heating Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In systems accreting well below the Eddington rate, the plasma in the innermost regions of the disk is collisionless and two-temperature, with the ions hotter than the electrons. Yet, whether a collisionless faster-than-Coulomb energy transfer mechanism exists in two-temperature accretion flows is still an open question. We study the physics of electron heating during the growth of ion velocity-space instabilities, by means of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A large-scale compression - embedded in a novel form of the PIC equations - continuously amplifies the field. This constantly drives a pressure anisotropy P_perp > P_parallel, due to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. We find that, for ion plasma beta values beta_i ~ 5-30 appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows, mirror modes dominate if the electron-to-proton temperature ratio is > 0.2, whereas if it is m_e/m_i - governed by the conservation of the magnetic moment in the growing fields ...

  19. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap, E-mail: ranayadav97@gmail.com; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V. [Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India and Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  20. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  1. Design study of a G-band FEL amplifier for application to cyclotron resonant heating in magnetic fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, H. P.; Read, M. E.; Jackson, R. H.; Pershing, D. E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1995-04-01

    A G-band (140-150 GHz) free-electron laser is described using a coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler. The CHI wiggler is produced by insertion into a solenoid of a central rod and an outer ring composed of alternating ferrite and nonferrite spacers. The position of the spacers is such that the ferrite (nonferrite) spacers on the central rod are opposite the nonferrite (ferrite) spacers on the outer ring. The field is cylindrically symmetric and exhibits minima in the center of the gap providing for enhanced beam focusing. We describe a tapered wiggler amplifier for plasma heating applications. Preliminary design studies using a nonlinear simulation indicates that output powers of 3.5 MW are possible using a 690 kV/40 A electron beam for a total efficiency of 13%. It is important to note that no beam loss was observed even for realistic values of beam energy spread.

  2. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  3. Superconducting cyclotrons at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, H. G.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the status of the three superconducting cyclotrons which are in operation or under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The oldest of these, the K500, has been in operation since September 1982 supporting a national user program in heavy ion nuclear physics. A second large research cyclotron, the K800, is now nearing completion. This cyclotron will accelerate lighter heavy ions to 200 MeV/nuc and heavier particles up to energies given by 1200 Q2/ A MeV/nucleon. The magnet for this cyclotron came into operation in May 1984 and has performed smoothly and reliably in three extended operating periods. At present, K800 construction activity centers on fabrication and installation of the rf system, the extraction system, and the ECR injection line. The third NSCL superconducting cyclotron is a smaller 50 MeV deuteron cyclotron to be used for neutron therapy in the radiation oncology center of a major Detroit hospital (Harper Hospital). Design features of this small, application oriented, cyclotron are described in some detail.

  4. Edge measurements during ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency) heating on the PLT (Princeton Large Torus) tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrman, I.S.; Colestock, P.L.; McNeill, D.H.; Greene, G.J.; Bernabei, S.; Hosea, J.C.; Ono, M.; Shohet, J.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    Edge measurements have been conducted on the PLT tokamak under a variety of operating conditions in order to ascertain the relevant processes at work in coupling rf power to plasmas. The edge density is found to increase significantly with the application of ICRF, and electron heating occurs in the vicinity of the Faraday shield surrounding the antenna. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that the energized antenna is a significant particle source. The relative increase of metallic impurities was found to be /approximately/2.7 times larger than the corresponding increase in deuterium. In addition, the relative increase of deuterium and impurities was /approximately/3--4 times greater at the energized antenna than at other locations around the torus. Model calculations show that for deuterium released from the Faraday shield, the D/sub ..cap alpha../ emission is localized radially to a region within 4 cm of the antenna. A correlation was found between the edge density and the D/sub ..cap alpha../ intensity that justifies its use as a measure of the particle source rate. 26 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakerenkov, A.S., E-mail: as_bakerenkov@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyukov, A.E. [Joint-Stock Company Institute of Space Device Engineering (JSC ISDE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-11

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented.

  6. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....

  7. Residential CO2 Heat Pump System for Combined Space Heating and Hot Water Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Stene, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO2 heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO2 heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water hea...

  8. Broadband measurement of electron cyclotron emission in TFTR using a quasioptical light collection system and a polarizing Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; Diesso, M.; McCarthy, M.P.; Montague, J.; Rocco, R.

    1988-10-01

    For the past four years, a Fourier transform spectrometer diagnostic system, employing a fast-scanning polarizing Michelson interferometer (FMI), has been operating on the TFTR tokamak at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is used to measure the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum over the range 2.5--18 cm/sup -1/ (75--540 GHz), with a resolution of 0.123 cm/sup -1/ (3.7 GHz), at a rate of 72 spectra per second. The quasioptical system for collecting the light and transporting it through the interferometer to the detector has been designed using the concepts of both Gaussian and geometrical optics. The commercial FMI was custom made for this project and is the state of the art for this type of specialized instrument. The diagnostic system is described and an error propagation analysis of the absolute calibration process is given. Examples of ECE spectra measured in two polarization directions are given and electron temperature profiles derived from each of them are compared.

  9. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  10. Development of a high power wideband polarizer for electron cyclotron current drive system in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, Mikio, E-mail: saigusa@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Oyama, Gaku; Matsubara, Fumiaki; Takii, Keita; Sai, Takuma [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takayuki; Moriyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed a new wideband polarizer for JT-60SA ECCD system. • The wideband polarizer is optimized for dual frequency gyrotrons (110 and 138 GHz) in JT-60SA. • The wideband polarization properties were verified at cold tests. • The preliminary high power tests have been carried out at 0.25 MW, 3 s at 110 GHz. - Abstract: A wideband polarizer consisting of a polarization twister and a circular polarizer has been developed for an electron cyclotron current driving system in JT-60SA, where the output frequencies of a dual frequency gyrotron for JT-60SA are 110 and 138 GHz. The groove depths are optimized for the dual frequencies by numerical simulations using a FDTD method and cold test results. The polarization properties of a mock-up polarizer are measured at the dual frequencies in cold tests. The cold test results suggest that all practical polarizations for ECCD experiments can be achieved at the dual frequencies. The prototype polarization twister has been tested up to 0.25 MW during 3 s at the frequency of 110 GHz.

  11. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  12. Potential of ion cyclotron resonance frequency current drive via fast waves in DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Ye O.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.

    2015-02-01

    For the continuous operation of future tokamak-reactors like DEMO, non-inductively driven toroidal plasma current is needed. Bootstrap current, due to the pressure gradient, and current driven by auxiliary heating systems are currently considered as the two main options. This paper addresses the current drive (CD) potential of the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating system in DEMO-like plasmas. Fast wave CD scenarios are evaluated for both the standard midplane launch and an alternative case of exciting the waves from the top of the machine. Optimal ICRF frequencies and parallel wave numbers are identified to maximize the CD efficiency. Limitations of the high frequency ICRF CD operation are discussed. A simplified analytical method to estimate the fast wave CD efficiency is presented, complemented with the discussion of its dependencies on plasma parameters. The calculated CD efficiency for the ICRF system is shown to be similar to those for the negative neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron resonance heating.

  13. Inductively Coupled Plasma and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching of InGaAlP Compound Semiconductor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernathy, C.R.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-11-04

    Current and future generations of sophisticated compound semiconductor devices require the ability for submicron scale patterning. The situation is being complicated since some of the new devices are based on a wider diversity of materials to be etched. Conventional IUE (Reactive Ion Etching) has been prevalent across the industry so far, but has limitations for materials with high bond strengths or multiple elements. IrI this paper, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), for the etching of ternary compound semiconductors (InGaP, AIInP, AlGaP) which are employed for electronic devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. High density plasma sources, opeiating at lower pressure, are expected to meet target goals determined in terms of etch rate, surface morphology, surface stoichiometry, selectivity, etc. The etching mechanisms, which are described in this paper, can also be applied to other III-V (GaAs-based, InP-based) as well as III-Nitride since the InGaAIP system shares many of the same properties.

  14. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  15. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  16. Intensification of Convective Heat Transfer in Heating Device of Mobile Heating System with BH-Heat Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Directions pertaining to intensification of convective heat transfer in a soft heating device have been experimentally investigated  in the paper and the most efficient one has been selected that is creation of artificial roughness on the device surface. The considered heating device for a heat supply system of a mobile object has been made of soft polymer material (polyvinyl chloride. Following  evaluation results of  heat exchange intensification a criteria equation has been obtained for calculation of external heat transfer with due account of heat transfer intensification.

  17. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  18. Alfven cyclotron instability and ion cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1995-07-01

    Two-dimensional solutions of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) are studied in the cold plasma approximation. For finite inverse aspect ratio tokamak plasmas the two-dimensional eigenmode envelope is localized at the low magnetic field side with the radial and poloidal localization on the order of a/{radical}m and a/(fourth root of m), respectively, where m is the dominant poloidal mode number. Charged fusion product driven Alfven Cyclotron Instability (ACI) of the compressional Alfven eigenmodes provides the explanation for the ion cyclotron emission (ICE) spectrum observed in tokamak experiments. The ACI is excited by fast charged fusion products via Doppler shifted cyclotron wave-particle resonances. The ion cyclotron and electron Landau dampings and fast particle instability drive are calculated perturbatively for deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Near the plasma edge at the low field side the velocity distribution function of charged fusion products is localized in both pitch angle and velocity. The poloidal localization of the eigenmode enhances the ACI growth rates by a factor of {radical}m in comparison with the previous results without poloidal envelope. The thermal ion cyclotron damping determines that only modes with eigenfrequencies at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of the background ions can be easily excited and form an ICE spectrum similar to the experimental observations. Theoretical understanding is given for the results of TFTR DD and DT experiments with {upsilon}{sub {alpha}0}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 1 and JET experiments with {upsilon}{sub {alpha}0}/{upsilon}{sub A} > 1.

  19. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  20. Cyclotron resonance effects on stochastic acceleration of light ionospheric ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The production of energetic ions with conical pitch angle distributions along the auroral field lines is a subject of considerable current interest. There are several theoretical treatments showing the acceleration (heating) of the ions by ion cyclotron waves. The quasi-linear theory predicts no acceleration when the ions are nonresonant. In the present investigation, it is demonstrated that the cyclotron resonances are not crucial for the transverse acceleration of ions by ion cyclotron waves. It is found that transverse energization of ionospheric ions, such as He(+), He(++), O(++), and O(+), is possible by an Electrostatic Hydrogen Cyclotron (EHC) wave even in the absence of cyclotron resonance. The mechanism of acceleration is the nonresonant stochastic heating. However, when there are resonant ions both the total energy gain and the number of accelerated ions increase with increasing parallel wave number.

  1. LPV Identification of a Heat Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with incremental system identification of district heating systems to improve control performance. As long as various parameters, e.g. valve settings, are kept fixed, the dynamics of district heating systems can be approximated well by linear models; however, the dynamics change ...

  2. Installation package for a solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  3. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  4. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  5. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  6. Heating, current drive and confinement regimes with the JET ICRH and LHCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquinot, J.; Adams, J.M.; Altmann, H.;

    1991-01-01

    During its 1990 operation, 2 large RF systems were available on JET. The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system was equipped with new beryllium screens and with feedback matching systems. Specific impurities generated by ICRH were reduced to negligible levels even in the most stringent H......-mode conditions. A maximum power of 22 MW was coupled to L-mode plasmas. High quality H-modes (tau-E greater-than-or-equal-to 2.5 tau-EG) were achieved using dipole phasing. A new high confinement mode was discovered. It combines the properties of the H-mode regime to the low central diffusivities obtained....... Paradoxically, LHCD induces central heating particularly in combination with ICRH. Finally we present the first observations of the synergistic acceleration of fast electrons by Transit Time Magnetic Pumping (TTMP) (from ICRH) and Electron Landau Damping (ELD) (from LHCD). The synergism generates TTMP current...

  7. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  8. Development of a 2 MW CW Waterload for Electron Cyclotron Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Lawrence,Ives; Maxwell Mizuhara; George Collins; Jeffrey Neilson; Philipp Borchard

    2012-11-09

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed a load capable of continuously dissipating 2 MW of RF power from gyrotrons. The input uses HE11 corrugated waveguide and a rotating launcher to uniformly disperse the power over the lossy surfaces in the load. This builds on experience with a previous load designed to dissipate 1 MW of continuous RF power. The 2 MW load uses more advanced RF dispersion to double the capability in the same size device as the 1 MW load. The new load reduces reflected power from the load to significantly less than 1 %. This eliminates requirements for a preload to capture reflected power. The program updated control electronics that provides all required interlocks for operation and measurement of peak and average power. The program developed two version of the load. The initial version used primarily anodized aluminum to reduce weight and cost. The second version used copper and stainless steel to meet specifications for the ITER reactor currently under construction in France. Tests of the new load at the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency confirmed operation of the load to a power level of 1 MW, which is the highest power currently available for testing the load. Additional tests will be performed at General Atomics in spring 2013. The U.S. ITER organization will test the copper/stainless steel version of the load in December 2012 or early in 2013. Both loads are currently being marketed worldwide.

  9. Shielding Design for a Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Feng; SONG; Guo-fang; GUAN; Feng-ping; LV; Yin-long; ZHANG; Xing-zhi

    2012-01-01

    <正>A 10 MeV 100 μA medical cyclotron is constructed at CIAE which is used in the production of FDG. The energy of the cyclotron can reach 14 MeV by adjusting the magnetic field and RF system parameters, and the shielding design is in accordance with the 14 MeV beam energy. In this shielding design only neutron is considered, and the neutron source is produced by proton

  10. Building 211 cyclotron characterization survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-30

    The Building 211 Cyclotron Characterization Survey includes an assessment of the radioactive and chemical inventory of materials stored within the facility; an evaluation of the relative distribution of accelerator-produced activation products within various cyclotron components and adjacent structures; measurement of the radiation fields throughout the facility; measurement and assessment of internal and external radioactive surface contamination on various equipment, facility structures, and air-handling systems; and an assessment of lead (Pb) paint and asbestos hazards within the facility.

  11. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    of complementing this reasoning methodology. Domestic heating systems, as the main resource to meet the thermal requirements of end-users, have different implementations in Europe in order to achieve various degrees of controllability and heating efficiencies. As all the heating systems serve the same basic needs...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...

  12. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...... heating and cooling with pipes embedded in room surfaces (floor, wall, and ceiling), the application increased significantly worldwide. Earlier application of radiant heating systems was mainly for residential buildings because of its comfort and free use of floor space without any obstruction from...

  13. Observation of alpha particle loss from JET plasmas during ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating using a thin foil Faraday cup detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Cecil, F. E. [Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kiptily, V.; Fullard, K.; Horton, A. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Euratom/CCFE Fusion Assoc., Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    The loss of MeV alpha particles from JET plasmas has been measured with a set of thin foil Faraday cup detectors during third harmonic heating of helium neutral beam ions. Tail temperatures of {approx}2 MeV have been observed, with radial scrape off lengths of a few centimeters. Operational experience from this system indicates that such detectors are potentially feasible for future large tokamaks, but careful attention to screening rf and MHD induced noise is essential.

  14. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  15. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the heating and cooling system needs to be able to maintain the indoor temperatures within the comfort range under the varying internal loads and external climates. To maintain a stable thermal environment, the control system needs to maintain the balance between the heat gain...

  16. Maximal Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Ling; LI Shu-Shen; ZENG Zhao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the heat generation in a nanoscale system coupled to normal leads and find that it is maximal when the average occupation of the electrons in the nanoscale system is 0.5,no matter what mechanism induces the heat generation.

  17. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  18. An automated flow system incorporating in-line acid dissolution of bismuth metal from a cyclotron irradiated target assembly for use in the isolation of astatine-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Krzysko, Anthony J.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Dorman, Eric F.; Scott Wilbur, D.

    2017-04-01

    Astatine-211 (211At) is a promising cyclotron-produced radionuclide being investigated for use in targeted alpha therapy of blood borne and metastatic cancers, as well as treatment of tumor remnants after surgical resections. The isolation of trace quantities of 211At, produced within several grams of a Bi metal cyclotron target, involves a complex, multi-step procedure: (1) Bi metal dissolution in strong HNO3, (2) distillation of the HNO3 to yield Bi salts containing 211At, (3) dissolution of the salts in strong HCl, (4) solvent extraction of 211At from bismuth salts with diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and (5) back-extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH, leading to a purified 211At product. Step (1) has been addressed first to begin the process of automating the onerous 211At isolation process. A computer-controlled Bi target dissolution system has been designed. The system performs in-line dissolution of Bi metal from the target assembly using an enclosed target dissolution block, routing the resulting solubilized 211At/Bi mixture to the subsequent process step. The primary parameters involved in Bi metal solubilization (HNO3 concentration and influent flow rate) were optimized prior to evaluation of the system performance on replicate cyclotron irradiated targets. The results indicate that the system performs reproducibly, having nearly quantitative release of 211At from irradiated targets, with cumulative 211At recoveries that follow a sigmoidal function. The predictable nature of the 211At release profile allows the user to tune the system to meet target processing requirements.

  19. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...

  20. Heats of adsorption for charcoal nitrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.; Akkimaradi, B.S.; Rastogi, S.C. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Thermal Systems Group; Rao, R.R. [Government College for Boys, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Srinivasan, K. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    This paper develops an empirical equation for correlation of the loading dependence of the heat of adsorption for two samples of activated charcoal-nitrogen systems. Details are given of the use of isotherm data, the evaluation of the heat of adsorption using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the plotting of primary adsorption data, and the plotting of the heat of adsorption as a function of the loading of the two samples. The need to consider the heat of adsorption property when designing a system in which a gaseous medium is adsorbed by a solid sorbent is discussed. (UK)

  1. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  2. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  3. Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic coil which forms the first section of the proton extraction channel in the improved synchro-cyclotron. The photograph shows the positioning gear and the current septum. An extraction efficiency above 50% is expected.

  4. The new cyclotrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawson, J D

    1966-01-01

    Article describing how valuable scientific work can still be carried out with the smaller energy cyclotrons such as those at the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (2 pages).

  5. Demonstrations of electric heating systems. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.; Laitila, R.; Ruska, T.

    1998-07-01

    In 1991, Imatran Voima launched the Demonstration Project of Electric Heating Systems. The project investigated in detail the energy consumption, housing comfort and electric power output rates of approximately one hundred electrically heated single-family houses and updated the investment cost information of heating systems. The project implemented and monitored quality electric heating concepts that guarantee a high standard of housing comfort. The targets in the project provided with combinations of floor, ceiling and window heating systems totalled 33. Furthermore, the project included 42 targets provided with water-circulated floor or radiator heating systems and 22 houses that had moved from oil or district heating systems into electric heating. The number of metering years received in the energy consumption measurements totalled 339. During the course of the project, six partial reports, one master's thesis and three summary reports were published. This is the final report of the project. It deals in brief with the major results. The best electric heating concept, in terms of housing comfort, is a floor heating system using cables supplemented by ceiling and window heating. Thanks to the heating units installed in the structures, the operative temperature grows by about one degree in comparison with a corresponding target heated with radiators. A typical, room-specifically-heated 140 m{sup 2} house consumes a total of 24,000 kWh of energy per year. Of this amount, electric space heating accounts for 11,500 kWh, heating with wood for 1,500 kWh, heating of tap water for 4,000 kWh and household electricity for 7,000 kWh. In a house provided with a water-circulated electric heating system the total energy consumption is, owing to the adjustment and storage losses, about 10 % higher. Of the energy consumption in the house, most part takes place during the period of nighttime electricity. The nighttime load in a 24-hour period with very low temperatures

  6. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  7. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, B.F

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  8. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  9. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  10. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed, an indication system must be provided to indicate to the flight crew when that pitot heating system is not... pitot heating system is switched “off”. (2) The pitot heating system is switched “on” and any pitot...

  12. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    system were determined according to the principle of heat transfer. A model to predict indoor temperatures in the room was proposed, and it was determined that the predicted indoor temperatures agreed well with the measured data. Qualitative analyses of the effects of heated surface temperature and air...... change rates on the indoor temperatures were performed using the proposed model. When heated surface temperatures and air change rates were from 21.0 to 29.0 degrees C and from 0.5 to 4.0 h-1, the indoor temperatures for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss were between 20.......8% for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss, respectively, and between 16.0% and 17.4% for calculating the heating capacity of the hybrid system. Due to large relative calculation errors, it is necessary to consider the effect of heated surface and cool supply air on indoor temperatures...

  13. The new solid target system at UNAM in a self-shielded 11 MeV cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate-Morales, A.; Gaspar-Carcamo, R. E.; Lopez-Rodriguez, V.; Flores-Moreno, A.; Trejo-Ballado, F.; Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A. [Unidad PET, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 , D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-12-19

    A dual beam line (BL) self-shielded RDS 111 cyclotron for radionuclide production was installed at the School of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 2001. One of the BL's was upgraded to Eclipse HP (Siemens) in 2008 and the second BL was recently upgraded (June 2011) to the same version with the option for the irradiation of solid targets for the production of metallic radioisotopes.

  14. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  15. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  16. Exergy performance of different space heating systems: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Three space heating systems (floor heating with different floor covering resistances, radiator heating with different working temperatures, warm-air heating with and without heat recovery) were compared using a natural gas fired condensing boiler as the heat source. For the floor heating systems......, the effects of floor covering resistance on the whole system performance were studied using two heat sources; a natural gas fired condensing boiler and an air-source heat pump. The heating systems were also compared in terms of auxiliary exergy use for pumps and fans. The low temperature floor heating system...

  17. A Megawatt-level 28z GHz Heating System For The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Gary

    2014-04-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will operate at axial toroidal fields of < 1 T and plasma currents, Ip < 2 MA. The development of non-inductive (NI) plasmas is a major long-term research goal for NSTX-U. Time dependent numerical simulations of 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating of low density NI start-up plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) in NSTX-U predict a significant and rapid increase of the central electron temperature (Te(0)) before the plasma becomes overdense. The increased Te(0) will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is planned for heating NI start-up plasmas in NSTX-U. In addition to EC heating of CHI start-up discharges, this system will be used for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) plasma start-up, and eventually for EBW heating and current drive during the Ip flattop.

  18. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  19. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  20. How dangerous is underfloor heating for the heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, V.

    1981-01-01

    Depending on the working temperature, quality of the material and surface, oxygen diffuses through the plastic pipes into the heating water, is transported to the boiler and is separated out at hot places. A brown FeOOH slurry is formed. Black magnetite slurry (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/) is formed without free oxygen. About 25 kg of iron per annum are worn away in a heating system having 10,000 metres of 1/2 inch plastic pies with a water temperature of 40/sup 0/C, which is evenly distributed is a reduction of wall thickness of 0.25 mm. Corrosion on the water side also occurs with open heating systems, excessiveley large circulating pipes and water losses. If these possibilities do not exist, and if there is an oxygen content of more than 0.1 mg/litre in the water, then the separation of the plastic circuit and the use of a heat exchanger is recommended. Hydrazine or sodium sulphide can be added as inhibitors.

  1. Numerical study of heat pipe application in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Lin; Broadbent, John; McGlen, Ryan [Thermacore Europe, Ashington (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with extremely high effective thermal conductivity. They can be cylindrical or planar in structure. Heat pipes can be embedded in a metal cooling plate, which is attached to the heat source, and can also be assembled with a fin stack for fluid heat transfer. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchangers with heat pipes have become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectronics, energy and other industrial sectors. Utilisation of a heat pipe fin stack in the drying cycle of domestic appliances for heat recovery may lead to a significant energy saving in the domestic sector. However, the design of the heat pipe heat exchanger will meet a number of challenges. This paper presents a design method by using CFD simulation of the dehumidification process with heat pipe heat exchangers. The strategies of simulating the process with heat pipes are presented. The calculated results show that the method can be further used to optimise the design of the heat pipe fin stack. The study suggests that CFD modelling is able to predict thermal performance of the dehumidification solution with heat pipe heat exchangers. (Author)

  2. Interaction between fast ions and ion cyclotron heating in a tokamak plasma; Interaction des ions rapides avec les ondes a la frequence cyclotronique ionique dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeaud, V

    2001-11-01

    In an ignited fusion reactor, the plasma temperature is sustained by the fusion reactions. However, before this regime is reached, it is necessary to bring an additional power to the plasma. One of the methods that enables the coupling of power is the use of an electromagnetic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This thesis deals with the interaction between ICRF heating and the fast ions. The thesis contains a theoretical study of the influence of ICRF heating on the ion distribution function. A particular emphasis is put on the importance of the toroidal spectrum of the modes of propagation of the wave in the tokamak. It is necessary to take into account all these modes in order to correctly assess the strength of the wave particle interaction, especially for high energy particles (of the order of hundreds of keV). The classical treatment of the wave particle interaction is based on the hypothesis that the cyclotron phase of the particle and the wave phase are de-correlated between successive resonant interactions. One is therefore led to consider ICRF heating as a diffusive process. This hypothesis is reconsidered in this thesis and it is shown that strong correlations exist in a large part of the velocity space. For this study, a numerical code that computes the full trajectory of particles interacting with a complete electromagnetic field has been developed. The thesis also deals with the problem of fast ion losses due to the breaking of the toroidal symmetry of the confinement magnetic field (called the ripple modulation). Between two toroidal coils, local magnetic wells exist, and particles can be trapped there. When trapped they undergo a vertical drift that makes them quit the plasma rapidly. The ripple modulation also causes an enhancement of the radial diffusion, thereby increasing the losses. A Monte Carlo model describing these mechanisms is presented. This model is validated thanks to a comparison with an experimental database from

  3. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  4. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  5. Broadband measurements of electron cyclotron emission in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) using a quasi-optical light collection system and a polarizing Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; Diesso, M.; McCarthy, M.P.; Montague, J.; Rocco, R.

    1988-04-01

    For the past three years, a Fourier transform spectrometer diagnostic system, employing a fast-scanning polarizing Michelson interferometer, has been operating on the TFTR tokamak at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is used to measure the electron cyclotron emission spectrum over the range 2.5 to 18 cm/sup /minus/1/ (75-540 GHz) with a resolution of 0.123 cm/sup /minus/1/(3.7 GHz), at a rate of 72 spectra per second. The quasi-optical system for collecting the light and transporting it through the interferometer to the detector has been designed using the concepts of both Gaussian and geometrical optics in order to produce a system that is efficient over the entire spectral range. The commerical Michelson interferometer was custom-made for this project and is at the state of the art for this type of specialized instrument. Various pre-installation and post-installation tests of the optical system and the interferometer were performed and are reported here. An error propagation analysis of the absolute calibration process is given. Examples of electron cyclotron emission spectra measured in two polarization directions are given, and electron temperature profiles derived from each of them are compared. 34 refs., 17 figs.

  6. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, R.; Abdul-Ameer, A. [British University in Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2011-03-15

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning modelling methods, for large scale, spatially dispersed systems are considered. Existing techniques are discussed and proposals for the application of novel analysis approaches are outlined. The use of distributed-lumped parameter procedures enabling the incorporation of the relatively concentrated and significantly dispersed, system element characteristics, is advocated. A dynamic model for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning system comprising inlet and exhaust fans, with air recirculation, heating/cooling and filtration units is presented. Pressure, airflow and temperature predictions within the system are computed following input, disturbance changes and purging operations. The generalised modelling advancements adopted and the applicability of the model for heating, ventilation and air conditioning system simulation, re-configuration and diagnostics is emphasised. The employment of the model for automatic, multivariable controller design purposes is commented upon. (author)

  7. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  8. Exergy performance of different space heating systems: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Three space heating systems (floor heating with different floor covering resistances, radiator heating with different working temperatures, warm-air heating with and without heat recovery) were compared using a natural gas fired condensing boiler as the heat source. For the floor heating systems......, the effects of floor covering resistance on the whole system performance were studied using two heat sources; a natural gas fired condensing boiler and an air-source heat pump. The heating systems were also compared in terms of auxiliary exergy use for pumps and fans. The low temperature floor heating system...... performed better than other systems in terms of exergy demand. The use of boiler as a heat source for a low-exergy floor heating system creates a mismatch in the exergy supply and demand. Although an air-source heat pump could be a better heat source, this depends on the origin of the electricity supplied...

  9. Solar-heating system performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains results of performance tests on complete system for solar space and hot-water heating system that uses commercially available components. Results were used to determine system suitability for field installation and to generate performance data base for comparison with future tests on field installed systems.

  10. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  11. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  12. Prototype solar-heating system - installation manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Manual for prototype solar-heating system gives detailed installation procedures for each of seven subsystems. Procedures for operation and maintenance are also included. It discusses architectural considerations, building construction considerations, and checkout-test procedures.

  13. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  14. Solar Heating System at a Racquetball Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Detailed 93-page report describes Arlington, Virginia racquetball club which obtains heat and hot water for its support area from solar collectors. Report explains modes of operation of system and details of acceptance-test plan.

  15. Heat reduction of the MWD telemetry system

    OpenAIRE

    Matviykiv, Taras

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the simplified thermal model of conventional downhole MWD (Measurements While Drilling) telemetry system has been made. The heat reduction methods for the IC (integrated circuits) components of downhole drilling tools have been analyzed.

  16. Design information for solar-heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains preliminary design information for two solar-heating and hot water systems presently under development. Information includes quality control data, special tooling specifications, hazard analysis, and preliminary training program for installation contractors.

  17. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  18. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  19. A solar heating system with annual storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.

    1981-07-01

    A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

  20. Solar heating system installed at Lynchburg, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    A detailed design report for a retrofitted solar heating and cooling system for a 1780 square foot office building is presented. The system is composed of a 400 square foot flat plate collector, a 2,000 gallon storage tank, a gas auxiliary boiler, a duct distribution system utilizing a hot water duct coil and water-to-air heat pump, and a hot water preheater. The control system, data acquisition system, technical data, and maintenance procedure are discussed. Detailed specifications, circuits, and drawings for the components are included. (WHK)

  1. PREDICTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM SYNTHESIS OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrotin S.A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A combined system of building heating predictive control has been synthesized in the research. Following algorithms are described: adaptive algorithm of very short-term temperature forecast and algorithm of anticipatory control of heat supply to building heating taking into account different outside climate influence on elevations of a building.

  2. Roles of Fast-Cyclotron and Alfven-Cyclotron Waves for the Multi-Ion Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Using linear Vlasov theory of plasma waves and quasi-linear theory of resonant wave-particle interaction, the dispersion relations and the electromagnetic field fluctuations of fast and Alfven waves are studied for a low-beta multi-ion plasma in the inner corona. Their probable roles in heating and accelerating the solar wind via Landau and cyclotron resonances are quantified. We assume that (1) low-frequency Alfven and fast waves have the same spectral shape and the same amplitude of power spectral density; (2) these waves eventually reach ion cyclotron frequencies due to a turbulence cascade; (3) kinetic wave-particle interaction powers the solar wind. The existence of alpha particles in a dominant proton/electron plasma can trigger linear mode conversion between oblique fast-whistler and hybrid alpha-proton cyclotron waves. The fast-cyclotron waves undergo both alpha and proton cyclotron resonances. The alpha cyclotron resonance in fast-cyclotron waves is much stronger than that in Alfven-cyclotron waves. ...

  3. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics

    2004-07-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  4. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity....... Heat from the collectors is transferred to a domestic hot water storage tank or to a cold storage tank, which is used as the source for the heat pump. When the heat pump charges the warm storage tank, heat is extracted from the cold storage tank, which then can be reheated by the PVT collectors...

  5. Overview of waste heat utilization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy truck diesel engine rejects a significant fraction of its fuel energy in the form of waste heat. Historically, the Department of Energy has supported technology efforts for utilization of the diesel exhaust heat. Specifically, the Turbocompound and the Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORCS) have demonstrated that meaningful improvements in highway fuel economy can be realized through waste heat utilization. For heat recovery from the high temperature exhaust of future adiabatic diesel engines, the DOE/NASA are investigating a variety of alternatives based on the Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling power cycles. Initial screening results indicate that systems of this type offer a fuel savings advantage over the turbocompound system. Capital and maintenance cost projections, however, indicate that the alternative power cycles are not competitive on an economic payback basis. Plans call for continued analysis in an attempt to identify a cost effective configuration with adequate fuel savings potential.

  6. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  7. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    A collection of quarterly reports from the AiResearch Manufacturing Company covering the period July 12, 1976, through December 31, 1977, is presented. AiResearch Manufacturing Company is developing eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25 and 75-ton size units.

  8. Inflation and Cyclotron Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that conditions on the flatness of the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field.

  9. SUNIST Microwave Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Songlin; Yang Xuanzong; Feng Chunhua; Wang Long; Rao Jun; Feng Kecheng

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on the start-up and formation of spherical tokamak plasmas by electron cyclotron heating alone without ohmic heating and electrode discharge assisted electron cyclotron wave current start-up will be carried out on the SUNIST (Sino United Spherical Tokamak) device.The 2.45 GHz/100 kW/30 ms microwave power system and 1000 V/50 A power supply for electrode discharge are ready for experiments with non-inductive current drive.

  10. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  11. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin John

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by means of two micro fans was made. Also a cooling chamber was set up around the inlet fan to cool it a little further.

  12. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  13. The next generation of electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, P.; Domier, C.W.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Tobias, B.; Shen, Z.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Park, H.; Classen, I.G.J.; van de Pol, M.J.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. Jaspers,

    2008-01-01

    A 128 channel two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of T-e profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) is undergoing significant changes which promise to revolutionize and extend its capabilities

  14. The next generation of electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, P.; Domier, C.W.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Tobias, B.; Shen, Z.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Park, H.; Classen, I.G.J.; van de Pol, M.J.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. Jaspers,

    2008-01-01

    A 128 channel two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of T-e profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) is undergoing significant changes which promise to revolutionize and extend its capabilities

  15. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  16. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  17. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons......A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... will be tested. Laboratory studies as well as on-line measurements in district heating systems using probes in a specially designed sidestream unit are included in the practical part of the project....

  18. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  19. The Warsaw K=160 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choinski, J.; Miszczak, J.; Sura, J.

    2001-12-01

    The overview of the Warsaw cyclotron facility is presented. The facility consists of K=160 cyclotron, 10 GHz ECR ion source, and several experimental stations. The cyclotron is of compact design with 2 straight dees. A yearly operation time is about 2900 hours on an average for the past few years. The cyclotron can deliver beams up to Ar with energy up to 10 MeV/amu to the experimental area. Experimental stations are: 1) The multidetector OSIRIS II, allows the study of exotic nuclei in the double magic 100Sn region. The experimental set-up consists of 8 HPGe detectors equipped with charged particle 4π multiplicity filter SiBall, 50 elements BGO γ-rays multiplicity filter, 4 sector polarimeter and electron conversion detector system. 2) CUDAC-Coulomb Universal Detector Scattering Chamber-an array of PIN-diodes in connection with HPGe detectors and the computer data analysis package GOSIA, maintained by the Laboratory allows investigation the Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) reactions. 3) IGISOL or Helium-jet transport system opened investigation of the reaction products by means of the online mass separator with ion-guide system. The system uses the Scandinavian-type mass separator built in INR Świerk, Poland. 4) Giant Dipole Resonance studies using experimental set-up JANOSIK developed for the detection of high-energy photons emitted in heavy-ion collisions. The set-up consists of a large NaI(Tl) detector (25 cm×29 cm) surrounded by shields: passive lead shield, active anticoincidence plastic shield and LiH shield to absorb neutrons, and a multiplicity filter of 32 small scintillator detectors (BaF2 and NaI(Tl)). 5) Laser spectroscopy stand now in test phase. The laser spectroscopy group at HIL has completed an equipment consisting of Argon ion Laser Innova 400-25W in all lines and coherent Ring Laser 669-21 as well as atomic beam apparatus.

  20. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  1. Upgrading Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Final touches to the central region of SC2, the refurbished 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron, before the start of commissioning. Modifications included a new type of ion source at the centre. Protons were first accelerated in SC2 at full energy by October 1974. (See photo 7408042X)

  2. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  3. Nonstationary Heat Conduction in Atomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K.

    Understanding heat at the atomistic level is an interesting exercises. It is fascinating to note how the vibration of atoms result into thermodynamic concept of heat. This thesis aims to bring insights into different constitutive laws of heat conduction. We also develop a framework in which the interaction of thermostats to the system can be studied and a well known Kapitza effect can be reduced. The thesis also explores stochastic and continuum methods to model the latent heat release in the first order transition of ideal silicon surfaces into dimers. We divide the thesis into three works which are connected to each other: 1. Fourier's law leads to a diffusive model of heat transfer in which a thermal signal propagates infinitely fast and the only material parameter is the thermal conductivity. In micro- and nano-scale systems, non-Fourier effects involving coupled diffusion and wavelike propagation of heat can become important. An extension of Fourier's law to account for such effects leads to a Jeffreys-type model for heat transfer with two relaxation times. In this thesis, we first propose a new Thermal Parameter Identification (TPI) method for obtaining the Jeffreys-type thermal parameters from molecular dynamics simulations. The TPI method makes use of a nonlinear regression-based approach for obtaining the coefficients in analytical expressions for cosine and sine-weighted averages of temperature and heat flux over the length of the system. The method is applied to argon nanobeams over a range of temperature and system sizes. The results for thermal conductivity are found to be in good agreement with standard Green-Kubo and direct method calculations. The TPI method is more efficient for systems with high diffusivity and has the advantage, that unlike the direct method, it is free from the influence of thermostats. In addition, the method provides the thermal relaxation times for argon. Using the determined parameters, the Jeffreys-type model is able to

  4. Solar-heating system design data brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report details design and performance specifications of complete system for space and hot-water heating that is assembled from commercially available components. System can meet need of single family dwelling having approximately 1,200 sq ft of floor area and can be scaled to requirements of larger or smaller installations.

  5. Solar-heating system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes solar heating system composed of warm-air solar collector, logic control unit, and switching and transport unit, that meets government standards for installation in residential dwellings. Text describes system operation and performance specifications complemented by comprehensive set of subcomponent design drawings.

  6. Stochastic modelling of central heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    and the degree Erhvervsforsker (a special Danish degree, equivalent to ``Industrial Ph.D.''). The thesis is mainly concerned with experimental design and system identification for individual components in water based central heating systems. The main contribution to this field is on the nonlinear dynamic...

  7. Solar-heating system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes solar heating system composed of warm-air solar collector, logic control unit, and switching and transport unit, that meets government standards for installation in residential dwellings. Text describes system operation and performance specifications complemented by comprehensive set of subcomponent design drawings.

  8. Preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour deposition system assisted with hot wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiu-Hong; Chen Guang-Hua; Yin Sheng-Yi; Rong Yan-Dong; Zhang Wen-Li; Hu Yue-Hui

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance-chemical vapour deposition (MWECR-CVD) system assisted with hot wire is presented. In this system the hot wire plays an important role in perfecting the microstructure as well as improving the stability and the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film. The experimental results indicate that in the microstructure of the a-Si:H film, the concentration of dihydride is decreased and a trace of microcrystalline occurs, which is useful to improve its stability, and that in the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film, the deposition rate reaches above 2.0nm/s and the photosensitivity increases up to 4.71× 105.

  9. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.

  10. Magneto-thermoelectric effects in the two-dimensional electron gas of a HgTe quantum well due to THz laser heating by cyclotron resonance absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmehr, Mehdi; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; McCombe, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    HgTe quantum wells (QWs) have shown a number of interesting phenomena over the past 20 years, most recently the first two-dimensional topological insulating state. We have studied thermoelectric photovoltages of 2D electrons in a 6.1 nm wide HgTe quantum well induced by cyclotron resonance absorption (B = 2 - 5 T) of a focused THz laser beam. We have estimated thermo-power coefficients by detailed analysis of the beam profile at the sample surface and the photovoltage signals developed across various contacts of a large Hall bar structure at a bath temperature of 1.6 K. We obtain reasonable values of the magneto-thermopower coefficients. Work at UB was supported by NSF DMR 1008138 and the Office of the Provost, and at the University of Wuerzburg by DARPA MESO Contract N6601-11-1-4105, by DFG Grant HA5893/4-1 within SPP 1666 and the Leibnitz Program, and the EU ERC-AG Program (Project 3-TOP.

  11. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the be

  12. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  13. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the be

  14. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  15. House-internal heating systems; Husinterna vaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Wollerstrand, Janusz [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2005-07-01

    In this report the placement of the circulation-pump in of waterborne radiator systems, as well as their filling and deairation are investigated. The study was done by literature studies and interviews with consultants and companies active on the HVAC-market. It was concluded that different placements of the pump in relationship to the heat exchanger exist, and the arguments for the choice of placement are varying. The main explanation of the choice of placement is that it is based on experience/or by practical reasons. The most important factor influencing the placement of the pump found, was how the pump is situated in relation to the expansion-tank. To maintain pressure in the whole system the expansion-tank should be placed on the suction side of the pump without any intermediate pressure-dropping devices in between. This placement ensures overpressure in the whole radiator-system and reduces the risk of unwanted leak in of air. To avoid cavitation sufficient static pressure on the suction side of the pump is necessary. The pressure increases with the temperature, which must be taken into consideration if the pump is placed on the warm side of the heat-exchanger. From this point of view a placement in the return-pipe from the radiator-system is to be preferred. Before advices for HVAC-branch regarding placement of the circulation-pump in the heating systems can be implemented, it is of big importance to analyse and clearly specify the advantages and disadvantages of a certain placement of the pump. There is a need of directions to get house-internal systems to operate properly together with district heating system. This is especially important when older heating systems with burners and shunt valves are being connected. Filling and deairation of the radiator system is of great importance for the function of the system. A radiator-system with significant level of air remains is difficult to adjust and will not work properly. Air in the radiators leads to

  16. Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.franke@efda.org [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Barbato, E. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bosia, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Cardinali, A.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Van Eester, D. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, TEC & Belgian EUROfusion Consortium Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Federici, G. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gantenbein, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Association EURATOM-KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Helou, W.; Hillairet, J. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Jenkins, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX143DB (United Kingdom); Kazakov, Ye.O. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, TEC & Belgian EUROfusion Consortium Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Kemp, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX143DB (United Kingdom); Lerche, E. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, TEC & Belgian EUROfusion Consortium Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Mirizzi, F. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Poli, E. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Porte, L. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ravera, G.L. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Basic physics requirements of H&CD systems in DEMO have been captured. • The four H&CD systems NBI, EC, IC and LH were analysed to optimize performance. • Novel solutions were studied to overcome the limitations of the present H&CD systems. • RAMI as well as efficiency and optimized design of H&CD systems have been assessed. • Further constraints by remote maintenance or breeding blanket interactions were considered. - Abstract: The physics requirements of the heating and current (H&CD) systems in a Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO) are often beyond the actual level of design maturity and technology readiness required. The recent EU fusion roadmap advocates a pragmatic approach and favours, for the initial design integration studies, systems to be as much as possible, extrapolated from the ITER experience. To reach the goal of demonstrating the production of electricity in DEMO with a closed fuel cycle by 2050, one must ensure reliability, availability, maintainability, inspectability (RAMI) as well as performance, efficiency and optimized design for the H&CD systems. In the recent Power Plant Physics & Technology (PPP&T) Work Programme, a number of H&CD studies were performed. The four H&CD systems Neutral Beam (NB) Injection, Electron Cyclotron (EC), Ion Cyclotron (IC) and Lower Hybrid (LH) were considered. First, a physics optimization study was made assuming all technologies are available and identifying which parameters are needed to optimize the performance for given plasma parameters. Separately, the (i) technological maturity was considered (e.g. 240 GHz gyrotrons for EC) and (ii) technologies were adapted (e.g. multi-stage depressed collector for EC) or (iii) novel solutions (e.g. photo-neutralization for NB or new antennae concepts for IC) were studied to overcome the limitations of the present H&CD systems with respect to DEMO requirements. Further constraints imposed by remote maintenance or breeding blanket interactions

  17. A new ion cyclotron range of frequency scenario for bulk ion heating in deuterium-tritium plasmas: How to utilize intrinsic impurities in our favour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Ongena, J.; Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, EUROfusion Consortium Member, Brussels (Belgium); Bilato, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Dumont, R. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mantsinen, M. [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    A fusion reactor requires plasma pre-heating before the rate of deuterium-tritium fusion reactions becomes significant. In ITER, radio frequency (RF) heating of {sup 3}He ions, additionally puffed into the plasma, is one of the main options considered for increasing bulk ion temperature during the ramp-up phase of the pulse. In this paper, we propose an alternative scenario for bulk ion heating with RF waves, which requires no extra {sup 3}He puff and profits from the presence of intrinsic Beryllium impurities in the plasma. The discussed method to heat Be impurities in D-T plasmas is shown to provide an even larger fraction of fuel ion heating.

  18. Development of the cyclotron radioisotope production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Chun, K.S.; Yang, S.D.; Lee, J.D.; Ahn, S.H.; Yun, Y.K.; Park, H.; Lee, J.S.; Chai, J.S.; Kim, U.S.; Hong, S.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Park, C.W.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. H

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute the advance of nuclear medicine and to the improvement of human health through the development of various accelerator radionuclides and mass production with automization of production. The results obtained from this study are following: 1) In order to introduce 30 MeV high current cyclotron, the specification of cyclotron has been made, the building site was selected and we drew the draw-up of cyclotron. The cyclotron installation contract was postponed until the financial resources could be secured. 2) For a development high purity 1-123 producing system, a Xe-124 target system, a temperature measurement system of the inner part of the target and a target window were fabricated. A Xe-124 gas target recovery system and a full production system of 1-123 was drew up. 3) For a development of a therapeutic nuclide At-211, a target for the production of At-211 via {sup 209}Bi(alpha, 2n) reaction was fabricated. Produced At-211 was separated by distillation method. 4) For development of beta-emitting nuclides, Ti-45, C-11, F{sub 2}-18, beam irradiation system suitable for each target were fabricated. 5) For automatic production of Ga-67, automated module and PLC program was made 6) For the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals, analytical method of thallium and copper by polarography was investigated and established.

  19. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  20. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  1. 14 CFR 23.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Instruments: Installation § 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system... provided to indicate to the flight crew when that pitot heating system is not operating. The indication... alert the flight crew if either of the following conditions exist: (1) The pitot heating system...

  2. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  3. Improving the performance of district heating systems by utilization of local heat boosters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falcone, A.; Dominkovic, D. F.; Pedersen, A. S.

    LTDH grid as they will have the strategical role of connecting the heating system with the electrical energy coming from the intermittent and fluctuating renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. In this paper a case study of district heating system is presented and analysed. The goal......District Heating (DH) plays an important role into the Danish energy green transition towards the future sustainable energy systems. The new, 4 th generation district heating network, the so called Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH), tends to lower the supply temperature of the heat down to 40......-50°C with return temperatures of 20-30 °C. This kind of heating system has many advantages and among all of them, it allows utilization of the heat coming from low exergy heat sources, as well as to decrease the grid heat losses. Electrical energy driven heat sources are also integrated into the future...

  4. Advancements in electron cyclotron emission imaging demonstrated by the TEXTOR ECEI diagnostic upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, B.; Kong, X.; Liang, T.; Spear, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Pol, M. J. van de; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H. [Association EURATOM-FOM, FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A new TEXTOR electron cyclotron emission imaging system has been developed and employed, providing a diagnostic with new features and enhanced capabilities when compared to the legacy system it replaces. Optical coupling to the plasma has been completely redesigned, making use of new minilens arrays for reduced optical aberration and providing the new feature of vertical zoom, whereby the vertical coverage is now remotely adjustable on a shot-by-shot basis from 20-35 cm. Other innovations, such as the implementation of stacked quasioptical planar notch filters, allow for the diagnostic to be operated without interruption or degradation in performance during electron cyclotron resonance heating. Successful commissioning of the new diagnostic and a demonstration of the improved capabilities are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the new technologies employed.

  5. Field Measurements of Heating System Efficiency in Nine Electrically-Heated Manufactured Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Siegel, J.; Palmiter, L.; Baylon, D.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on nine manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest. The testing procedure collects real-time data on heating system energy use and heating zone temperatures, allowing direct calculation of heating system efficiency.

  6. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  7. Modelling of Thermal Behavior of Borehole Heat Exchangers of Geothermal Heat Pump Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornov V.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of comparing the accuracy of the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, modeling non-steady thermal behavior of geothermal heat pump heating systems (GHCS and of the similar model “conventional” using finite difference methods for solving spatial non-steady problems of heat conductivity. The software package is based on the method of formulating mathematical models of thermal behavior of ground low-grade heat collection systems developed by INSOLAR group of companies. Equations of mathematical model of spatial non-steady thermal behavior of ground mass of low-grade heat collection system obtained by the developed method have been solved analytically that significantly reduced computing time spent by the software complex “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” for calculations. The method allows to turn aside difficulties associated with information uncertainty of mathematical models of the ground thermal behavior and approximation of external factors affecting the ground. Use of experimentally obtained information about the ground natural thermal behavior in the software package allows to partially take into account the whole complex of factors (such as availability of groundwater, their velocity and thermal behavior, structure and arrangement of ground layers, the Earth’s thermal background, precipitation, phase transformations of moisture in the pore space, and more, significantly influencing the formation of thermal behavior of the ground mass of a low-grade geothermal heat collection system. Numerical experiments presented in the article confirmed the high convergence of the results obtained through the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” with solutions obtained by conventional finite-difference methods.

  8. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  9. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-28

    Completion of magnet tests, followed by completion of installation of major cyclotron components, are reported. Intermediate level power tests of the rf system are also reported. Design and fabrication of the control system are reported to be under way. (LEW)

  10. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-10-09

    Progress is reported in the design, installation of various components of the cyclotron, including coils, magnets, rf system, and vacuum system. Also reported are measurements on magnets and rf components. (LEW)

  11. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-06-30

    Progress is reported in the fabrication and testing of cyclotron components, including magnet system and rf system components. Work on vacuum components and instrumentation and control equipment is also reported. (LEW)

  12. Multiplexed logic controls solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Four inexpensive thermocouples monitor temperatures at key points. On command from logic circuitry, dampers open and close to direct airflow, and fan and auxiliary heater shut on or off. Controlling complex arranges heating system in any one of four operating configurations.

  13. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model...

  14. Electron Cyclotron Emission Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristina

    2009-11-01

    There is much interest in studying plasmas that generate hot electrons. The goal of this project is to develop a wide band electron cyclotron radiometer to measure the non-Maxwellian rapid rises in electron temperature. These rapid increases in temperature will then be correlated to instabilities in the plasma. This project explores a type of noncontact temperature measurement. We will attempt to show the feasibility of electron cyclotron emissions to measure the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment's electron plasma temperature. The radiometer has been designed to have 100dB of gain and a sensitivity of 24mV/dB given by its logarithmic amplifier. If successful, this radiometer will be used as a diagnostic tool in later projects such as the proposed experiment studying magnetic reconnection using solar flux loops.

  15. Vertical Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic for TCV Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman T. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD are used to heat the plasma, to tailor the current profiles and to achieve different operating regimes of tokamak plasmas. Plasmas with ECRH/ECCD are characterized by non-thermal electrons, which cannot be described by a Maxwellian distribution. Non-thermal electrons are also generated during MHD activity, like sawteeth crashes. Quantifying the non-thermal electron distribution is therefore a key for understanding EC heated fusion plasmas. For this purpose a vertical electron cyclotron emission (V-ECE diagnostic is being installed at TCV. The diagnostic layout, the calibration, the analysis technique for data interpretation, the physics potentials and limitations are discussed.

  16. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  17. 14 CFR 125.206 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight instrument pitot heating system unless the airplane is equipped with an operable pitot heat... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 125.206... Equipment Requirements § 125.206 Pitot heat indication systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  18. 14 CFR 135.158 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instrument pitot heating system unless the airplane is also equipped with an operable pitot heat indication... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 135.158... Equipment § 135.158 Pitot heat indication systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  19. Cyclotron Line Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    We systematically analyzed the spectra of X-ray binary pulsars observed with GINGA (Mihara 1995). A new model NPEX (Negative and Positive power-laws EXponential) was introduced t o represent the pulsar continuum. Combining the NPEX continuum with the CYAB factor (cyclotron resonance scattering model), we successfully fit the whole-band spectra of all the pulsars. A possible physical meaning of the NPEX model is the Comptonized spectra. By using the smooth and concave NPEX model, the cyclotron structures were detected from 12 pulsars, about a half of the 23 sources, including new discoveries from LMC X-4 and GS 1843+00. The magnetic fields were scattered in the range of $3\\times10^{11}$ - $5\\times10^{12}$ G. The distribution was shown for the first time, which is remarkably similar to that of radio pulsars with a peak at $2 \\times 10^{12}$ G. The double harmonic cyclotron structures of 4U 0115+63 in 1990 changed to a sin gle structure in 1991. The resonance energy also increased by 40 % as the luminosity decre...

  20. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  1. A systems biology approach to heat stress, heat injury, and heat stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Jonathan D.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2015-05-01

    Heat illness is a major source of injury for military populations in both deployed and training settings. Developing tools to help leaders enhance unit performance while reducing the risk of injury is of paramount importance to the military. Here, we review our recent systems biology approaches to heat stress in order to develop a 3-dimensional (3D) realistic thermoregulation model, identify the molecular basis and mediators of injury, and characterize associated biomarkers. We discuss the implications of our work, future directions, and the type of tools necessary to enhance force health protection in the future.

  2. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostic for ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, W; Austin, M; Beno, J; Ellis, R; Feder, R; Ouroua, A; Patel, A; Phillips, P

    2010-10-01

    Electron temperature measurements and electron thermal transport inferences will be critical to the nonactive and deuterium phases of ITER operation and will take on added importance during the alpha heating phase. The diagnostic must meet stringent criteria on spatial coverage and spatial resolution during full field operation. During the early phases of operation, it must operate equally well at half field. The key to the diagnostic is the front end design. It consists of a quasioptical antenna and a pair of calibration sources. The radial resolution of the diagnostic is less than 0.06 m. The spatial coverage extends at least from the core to the separatrix with first harmonic O-mode being used for the core and second harmonic X-mode being used for the pedestal. The instrumentation used for the core measurement at full field can be used for detection at half field by changing the detected polarization. Intermediate fields are accessible. The electron cyclotron emission systems require in situ calibration, which is provided by a novel hot calibration source. The critical component for the hot calibration source, the emissive surface, has been successfully tested. A prototype hot calibration source has been designed, making use of extensive thermal and mechanical modeling.

  3. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark

    . The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... required to keep the graphite suspended and evenly distributed in the SAT composite was also elucidated. Overall, the research has shown that it is possible to utilize stable supercooling of SAT for seasonal heat storage in actual application sized units. Furthermore, investigations have elucidated......Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment...

  4. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekret Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  5. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  6. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V.; Bellodi, G.; Dimov, V.; Küchler, D.; Lombardi, A. M.; Maintrot, M.

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  7. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  8. Two Rare Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables with Extreme Cyclotron Features Identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Szkody, P; Schmidt, G; Hall, P B; Margon, B; Miceli, A; Subba-Rao, M; Frith, W J; Harris, H; Szkody, Paula; Anderson, Scott F.; Schmidt, Gary; Hall, Patrick B.; Margon, Bruce; Miceli, Antonino; Rao, Mark Subba; Frith, James; Harris, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Two newly identified magnetic cataclysmic variables discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), SDSSJ155331.12+551614.5 and SDSSJ132411.57+032050.5, have spectra showing highly prominent, narrow, strongly polarized cyclotron humps with amplitudes that vary on orbital periods of 4.39 and 2.6 hrs, respectively. In the former, the spacing of the humps indicates the 3rd and 4th harmonics in a magnetic field of ~60 MG. The narrowness of the cyclotron features and the lack of strong emission lines imply very low temperature plasmas and very low accretion rates, so that the accreting area is heated by particle collisions rather than accretion shocks. The detection of rare systems like these exemplifies the ability of the SDSS to find the lowest accretion rate close binaries.

  9. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation & treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8×109 neutrons/cm2/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with 10B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  10. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  11. Simulation of Heat Transfer of Heating-System and Water Pipelines Under Northern Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A. V.; Egorova, G. N.

    2016-09-01

    A mathematical model of joint laying of water pipelines and of city-block heating-system pipelines is considered. The effect of radiation on the process of combined heat transfer in the heat insulation jacket between the construction elements is investigated. The results of mathematical simulation of heat losses with account of the radiant component are given.

  12. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated...

  13. Implementation of FCI heating system to the control system of Tore-Supra; Integration du systeme de chauffage FCI au sein du reseau de controle commande du Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, S

    2001-11-01

    This report presents the implementation of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system (FCI) to the instrumentation and control system of the Tore-Supra tokamak. The new plasma heating system involves 3 antennas delivering 12 MW that are required to maintain fusion reactions. This paper is divided into 8 chapters: 1) thermonuclear fusion and Tore-Supra tokamak; 2) hardware system around Tore-Supra, in this chapter the control system and the data acquisition and processing systems are presented; 3) functional analysis, this analysis defines the different needs concerning timing and pilot-controlling, a preliminary proposition of hardware equipment is made; 4) operating modes of FCI; 5) communication within the control system network; 6) communication with the supervisory system of the power stations; 7) management of data exchange with SMX generators; and 8) control of the rate of stationary waves during the injection of power into the plasma.

  14. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  15. Entransy dissipation analysis and optimization of separated heat pipe system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN XiaoDong; LI Zhen; MENG JiAn; LI ZhiXin

    2012-01-01

    Seperated heat pipe systems are widely used in the fields of waste heat recovery and air conditioning due to their high heat transfer capability,and optimization of heat transfer process plays an important role in high-efficiency energy utilization and energy conservation.In this paper,the entransy dissipation analysis is conducted for the separated heat pipe system,and the result indicates that minimum thermal resistance principle is applicable to the optimization of the separated heat pipe system.Whether in the applications of waste heat recovery or air conditioning,the smaller the entransy-dissipation-based thermal resistance of the separated heat pipe system is,the better the heat transfer performance will be.Based on the minimum thermal resistance principle,the optimal area allocation relationship between evaporator and condenser is deduced,which is numerically verified in the optimation design of separated heat pipe system.

  16. Design of 10 MeV cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Solhju

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Design and construction of 10MeV cyclotron has been started at Amirkabir University of Technology since 2012. So far, the conceptual and detail engineering design phases have been finalized. The main purpose of this baby cyclotron is to generate proton beam for the production of PET radioisotopes. The cyclotron consists of magnet, cavity, ion source, RF and LLRF system, vacuum system, cooling system, power amplifiers and power supplies system. In this paper, a brief of design principles for all the parts of cyclotron and their final simulation results is presented. It should be noted that these simulations have been performed and optimized by the most accurate softwares such as TOSCA, ANSYS, HFSS, SolidWorks and CST. Also, the manufacturing feasibility of all the parts is performed and their dimensions and parameters are synchronized with manufacturing standards

  17. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  18. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  19. SC Cyclotron and RIB Facilities in Kolkata

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Bikash; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2005-01-01

    The superconducting cyclotron under construction at this Centre has bending limit (K-bend) of 520 and focusing limit (K-foc) of 160. It is being constructed, primarily, for nuclear physics experiments with heavy ion beams at intermediate energies. The 100-ton main magnet is currently in the commissioning phase with the main coil already at 4.2K temperature. Magnetic field measurements will be carried out over the next several months. All other systems of the cyclotron are in an advanced stage of fabrication or development. We plan to start assembly of the complete cyclotron around the end of 2005. In the phase-I of the project one beam line has been provided. Construction of three more beam lines and various experimental facilities for nuclear physics as well as irradiation experiments has also been funded and the work is well on its way. An ISOL type Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is being built with the existing K=130 room temperature cyclotron, VEC, as the primary beam source. In-beam RIB production a...

  20. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys...

  1. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Designs were completed, hardware was received, and hardware was shipped to two sites. A change was made in the heat pump working fluid. Problem investigation of shroud coatings for the collector received emphasis.

  2. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures......, the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  3. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems......., the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...

  4. Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

  5. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  6. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos

    2002-01-01

    to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model has been used to calculate heating demand and room temperature in a typical well insulated Danish single-family house with a heating demand of approximately 6000 kWh per year, for a 130 m² house. Two different types of floor heating systems......In this paper an investigation of floor heating systems is performed with respect to heating demand and room temperature. Presently (2001) no commercially available building simulation programs that can be used to evaluate heating demand and thermal comfort in buildings with building integrated...... heating and cooling systems exist. In Denmark over 80 % of all new single-family houses are using the building integrated floor heating systems. Therefore methods to evaluate building integrated heating must be developed. To examine this a simulation model of a room with floor heating has been created...

  7. Small-Scale Pellet Heating Systems from Consumer Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, K.; Gustavsson, L. [Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden). Ecotechnology

    2006-07-15

    A questionnaire survey of 1,500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. The results revealed that most of the respondents had no plans to install new heating systems as they were satisfied with their existing ones. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers were the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, it is important that they could inform the consumers comprehensively and accurately about different heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantage over district heating system with respect to investment cost and annual cost of heating. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic.

  8. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  9. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  10. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  11. Tidal heating in close binary stellar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieutord, M.; Bonazzola, S.

    1987-07-15

    Tidal heating of a low-mass star in a close binary system, resulting from the conjugate effect of angular momentum loss and tidal action, is investigated via detailed study of the flow inside the secondary. It is found in the case of cataclysmic binaries that viscous dissipation is at most 10/sup -3/ x the nuclear luminosity of the star. It is shown, however, that the dissipation is very sensitive to the turbulent viscosity in the envelope of the secondary. The case of very close pairs of white dwarfs is also considered. It is shown that such pairs, which are thought to be the progenitors of Type I Supernovae may dissipate a power as large as 10/sup 38/ erg s/sup -1/, provided that they reach synchronization; such a heating will strongly modify the conditions in which the nuclear explosion starts.

  12. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...release. Distribution is unlimited. ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM Aaron R. VanDenBerg Lieutenant, United...HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES Ships mainly extract heat and energy from exhaust gases by using a waste heat boiler located in the actual exhaust duct. The

  13. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  14. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...

  15. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  16. Experimental Investigation of A Heat Pipe-Assisted Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiari, Saeed; Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Qiu, Songgang

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, different operation modes of a latent heat thermal energy storage system assisted by a heat pipe network were studied experimentally. Rubitherm RT55 enclosed by a vertical cylindrical container was used as the Phase Change Material (PCM). The embedded heat pipe network consisting of a primary heat pipe and an array of four secondary heat pipes were employed to transfer heat to the PCM. The primary heat pipe transports heat from the heat source to the heat sink. The secondary heat pipes transfer the extra heat from the heat source to PCM during charging process or retrieve thermal energy from PCM during discharging process. The effects of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow rate and temperature on the thermal performance of the system were investigated for both charging and discharging processes. It was found that the HTF flow rate has a significant effect on the total charging time of the system. Increasing the HTF flow rate results in a remarkable increase in the system input thermal power. The results also showed that the discharging process is hardly affected by the HTF flow rate but HTF temperature plays an important role in both charging and discharging processes. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial supports by Temple University for the project.

  17. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  18. 40 CFR 63.104 - Heat exchange system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat exchange system or at locations where the cooling water enters and exits each heat exchanger or any combination of heat exchangers. (i) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of recirculating... manufacturing process units. (iii) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of each heat exchanger or...

  19. Prototype testing of heat pipes for spacecraft heat control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, L.L.; Gil, V.V.; Zharikov, N.A.; Zelenin, V.E.; Syvorotka, O.M.; Uvarov, E.I.

    1980-05-01

    Prototype testing of heat pipes for spacecraft heat control was done on board the Interkosmos-15 satellite launched on 19 June 1976. The purpose was to gather data for optimizing the design, namely the capillary structure and the selection of heat transfer agent, as well as to verify the soundness of manufacturing technologies and test procedures. Three heat pipes were tested, each 412 mm long with a 14 mm outside diameter. All had been made of an aluminum alloy. In two pipes the capillary structure consisted of 0.6 x 0.5 mm/sup 2/ rectangular channels running axially along the inside wall, in the third pipe a 1 mm thick tubular mesh of Kh18N10T steel wire running coaxially inside served as the capillary structure. The heat transfer agent was Freon-11 in one of the first two pipes and synthetic liquid ammonia in the other two pipes. The three pipes were mounted radially around a radiator as the hub, with the test conditions controllable by means of an electric heater coil along the evaporation zone of each pipe, resistance thermometers for the evaporation zone and for the condensation zone of each, and also an external cooling fan. The radial distribution of temperature drops along the pipes was measured and the thermal fluxes were calculated, these data being indicative of the performance under conditions of weightlessness over the 0 to 70/sup 0/C temperature range. The somewhat worse performance of the heat pipe with a tubular capillary mesh inside is attributable to formation of vapor bubbles which impede the mass transfer along such an artery.

  20. 14 CFR 121.342 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a flight instrument pitot heating system unless the airplane is also equipped with an operable pitot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 121.342... heat indication systems. No person may operate a transport category airplane or, after December...

  1. Project and implantation of automation in irradiation systems for solid, liquid and gaseous targets in cyclotrons aiming the production of radioisotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, S G D

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d sup 3 He sub 4 and alpha, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 mu A; the other one, model Cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 mu A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotopes production for use in nuclear medicine, such as sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I, sup 1 sup 8 F and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatic was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increase the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PCL) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PCL was developed using S...

  2. Heating performance of a ground source heat pump system installed in a school building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaedo; SONG; Kwangho; LEE; Youngman; JEONG; Seongir; CHEONG; Jaekeun; LEE; Yujin; HWANG; Yeongho; LEE; Donghyuk; LEE

    2010-01-01

    The heating performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground source heat pump system is represented in this paper under the actual working conditions of the GSHP(ground source heat pump) system during the winter season of 2008.Ten heat pump equipments with the capacity of 10 HP each and a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth were constructed.We investigated a variety of working conditions,including the outdoor temperature,the ground temperature,and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger in order to examine the heating performance of the GSHP system.Subsequently,the heating capacity and the input power were investigated to determine the heating performance of the GSHP system.The average heating coefficient of performance(COP) of the heat pump was noted to be 5.1 at partial load of 47%,while the overall system COP was found to be 4.2.Also,performance of the GSHP system was compared with that of air source heat pump.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos

    2002-01-01

    . The model calculates heating demand, room temperatures, and thermal comfort parameters for a person in the room. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer...... – a heavy system integrated into the concrete floor and a light system which is placed in heat transfer plates – have been investigated, using different supply temperatures to the floor heating system, and different control strategies. The aim of the study is to compare the two types of floor heating......In this paper an investigation of floor heating systems is performed with respect to heating demand and room temperature. Presently (2001) no commercially available building simulation programs that can be used to evaluate heating demand and thermal comfort in buildings with building integrated...

  4. Study on cascade type underground heat storage, solar space heating system in Tehran (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasutaka; Kaabi-Nejadian, A.; Ito, Yukio

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes the cascade type underground heat storage, solar space-heating system using capsule-form latent heat storage material in Tehran. The coefficient of performance of the system and a used heat pump (HP), the solar collecting efficiency, and the effect of six variation factors on heat recovery from soil were subjected to variance analysis. For the heat recovery from soil, the operation time of HP was significant. For the solar collecting efficiency, the collector area was significant. As for short-period thermal behaviours, two operations of the system different in HP operation time on February 7th were sampled. The wind quantity and operation time of the space-heating fan, though they were not statistically significant, were effective for space-heating depending on thermal load to the system, since the fan can supply a large quantity of heat for space-heating. The temperature of the Kernel tank, the intermediate tank (latent heat), and the outermost tank (sesible heat) was decreased in that order. The temperture of the outermost tank was remarkably decreased during HP operation, so that heat-recovery was conducted. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  5. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  6. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  7. Electrochemical systems configured to harvest heat energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Ghasemi, Hadi; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-31

    Electrochemical systems for harvesting heat energy, and associated electrochemical cells and methods, are generally described. The electrochemical cells can be configured, in certain cases, such that at least a portion of the regeneration of the first electrochemically active material is driven by a change in temperature of the electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cells can be configured to include a first electrochemically active material and a second electrochemically active material, and, in some cases, the absolute value of the difference between the first thermogalvanic coefficient of the first electrochemically active material and the second thermogalvanic coefficient of the second electrochemically active material is at least about 0.5 millivolts/Kelvin.

  8. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  9. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  10. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank;

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both...... from an economical and architectural point of view. The project includes education, research, development and demonstration. The project started in 2003 and will be finished by the end of 2006. The participants of the project, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research and the participants themselves.......D. studies in Denmark, Sweden and Latvia, and a post-doc. study in Norway. Close cooperation between the researchers and the industry partners ensures that the results of the project can be utilized. By the end of the project the industry partners will be able to bring the developed systems onto the market...

  11. Contribution of domestic heating systems to smart grid control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2011-01-01

    How and to what extent, domestic heating systems can be helpful in regaining power balance in a smart grid, is the question to be answered in this paper. Our case study is an under-floor heating system supplied with a geothermal heat pump which is driven by electrical power from the grid. The idea...... is to deviate power consumption of the heat pump from its optimal value, in order to compensate power imbalances in the grid. Heating systems could be forced to consume energy, i.e. storing it in heat buffers when there is a power surplus in the grid; and be prevented from using power, in case of power shortage...

  12. Control System for Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    heat pump , a water-to-air heat exchanger, a domestic water heater, and a cooling tower. The preferred embodiment of the controller of the present invention includes a first temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the collector fluid at the outlet of the solar collector system, a second temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the storage fluid at the thermal storage system, and a third temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the inlet water to the domestic water heater. The controller compares the temperature of the thermal

  13. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  14. Solar heating system final design package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Contemporary Systems has taken its Series V Solar Heating System and developed it to a degree acceptable by local codes and regulatory agencies. The system is composed of the Series V warm air collector, the LCU-110 logic control unit and the USU-A universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The collector can be fabricated in any length from 12 to 24 feet. This provides maximum flexibility in design and installation. The LCU-110 control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic is designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The USU-A transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit is designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  15. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...... in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given....

  16. Energy and exergy evaluation of an integrated solar heat pipe wall system for space heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ROONAK DAGHIGH; ABDELLAH SHAFIEIAN

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an integrated solar heat pipe wall space heating system, employing double glazed heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector and forced convective heat transfer condenser, is introduced. Thermal performance of the heat pipe solar collector is studied and a numerical model is developed to investigate thethermal efficiency of the system, the inlet and outlet air temperatures and heat pipe temperature. Furthermore, the system performance is evaluated based on exergy efficiency. In order to verify the precision of the developed model, the numerical results are compared with experimental data. Parametric sensitivity for design features and material associated with the heat pipe, collector cover and insulation is evaluated to provide a combination with higher thermal performance. Simulation results show that applying a solar collector with more than 30 heat pipes is not efficient. The rate of increasing in temperature of air becomes negligible after 30 heat pipes and the trend of the thermal efficiency is descending with increasing heat pipes. The results also indicate that at a cold winter day of January, the proposed system with a 20 heat pipe collector shows maximum energy and exergy efficiency of 56.8% and 7.2%, which can afford warm air up to 30°C. At the end, the capability of the proposed system tomeet the heating demand of a building is investigated. It is concluded that the best method to reach a higher thermal covered area is to apply parallel collectors

  17. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  18. Compact interior heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} mobile heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin

    2003-07-01

    The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers new possibilities for design of flexible, efficient and environmentally safe mobile heat pumping systems. As high-efficient car engines with less waste heat are developed, extra heating of the passenger compartment is needed in the cold season. A reversible transcritical CO{sub 2} system with gliding temperature heat rejection can give high air delivery temperature which results in rapid heating of the passenger compartment and rapid defogging or defrosting of windows. When operated in cooling mode, the efficiency of transcritical CO{sub 2} systems is higher compared to common (HFC) air conditioning systems, at most dominant operating conditions. Several issues were identified for the design of compact interior heat exchangers for automotive reversible CO{sub 2} heat pumping systems. Among theses issues are: (1) Refrigerant flow distribution, (2) Heat exchanger fluid flow circuiting, (3) Air temperature uniformity downstream of the heat exchanger, (4) Minimization of temperature approach, (5) Windshield flash fogging due to retained water inside the heat exchanger, (6) Internal beat conduction in heating mode operation, and (7) Refrigerant side pressure drop In order to provide a basis for understanding these issues, the author developed a calculation model and set up a test facility and investigated different prototype heat exchangers experimentally.

  19. Multimode solar-heating system--Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes failure of six-mode pyramidal-optics system to reduce winter energy savings. Over 12 month period, control problems, energy dissipation, and high operating-energy requirements undermined system efficiency. Energy savings were maximal when system in direct space-heating or hot-water preheating mode. In least efficient mode, heat pumps alternatively mingled storage or collector energy, and space heating was provided by electric heat strip.

  20. Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Biri, S; Muramatsu, M; Drentje, A G; Rácz, R; Yano, K; Kato, Y; Sasaki, N; Takasugi, W

    2015-01-01

    The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide bandwidth (17.1-18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1-18.5 GHz), and the effec...

  1. Mathematical model for calculation of the heat-hydraulic modes of heating points of heat-supplying systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the thermal-hydraulic modes of heat points, based on the theory of hydraulic circuits, being developed at the Melentiev Energy Systems Institute are presented. The redundant circuit of the heat point was developed, in which all possible connecting circuits (CC) of the heat engineering equipment and the places of possible installation of control valve were inserted. It allows simulating the operating modes both at central heat points (CHP) and individual heat points (IHP). The configuration of the desired circuit is carried out automatically by removing the unnecessary links. The following circuits connecting the heating systems (HS) are considered: the dependent circuit (direct and through mixing elevator) and independent one (through the heater). The following connecting circuits of the load of hot water supply (HWS) were considered: open CC (direct water pumping from pipelines of heat networks) and a closed CC with connecting the HWS heaters on single-level (serial and parallel) and two-level (sequential and combined) circuits. The following connecting circuits of the ventilation systems (VS) were also considered: dependent circuit and independent one through a common heat exchanger with HS load. In the heat points, water temperature regulators for the hot water supply and ventilation and flow regulators for the heating system, as well as to the inlet as a whole, are possible. According to the accepted decomposition, the model of the heat point is an integral part of the overall heat-hydraulic model of the heat-supplying system having intermediate control stages (CHP and IHP), which allows to consider the operating modes of the heat networks of different levels connected with each other through CHP as well as connected through IHP of consumers with various connecting circuits of local systems of heat consumption: heating, ventilation and hot water supply. The model is implemented in the Angara data

  2. Electron-cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, D V; Gospodchikov, E D; Solomakhin, A L; Savkin, V Ya; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a new plasma startup scenario in the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target ("seed plasma"), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition (about 1 ms) the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. The paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECR heating, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences to the conventional sce...

  3. The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    heating options, including district heating as well as individual heat pumps and micro CHPs (Combined Heat and Power). The study includes almost 25 per cent of the Danish building stock, namely those buildings which have individual gas or oil boilers today and could be substituted by district heating...... or a more efficient individual heat source. In such overall perspective, the best solution will be to combine a gradual expansion of district heating with individual heat pumps in the remaining houses. Such conclusion is valid in the present systems, which are mainly based on fossil fuels, as well......Based on the case of Denmark, this paper analyses the role of district heating in future Renewable Energy Systems. At present, the share of renewable energy is coming close to 20 per cent. From such point of departure, the paper defines a scenario framework in which the Danish system is converted...

  4. CFD Analysis of a Hybrid Heat Pipe for In-Core Passive Decay Heat Removal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Station blackout (SBO) accident is the event that all AC power is totally lost from the failure of offsite and onsite power sources. Although electricity was provided from installed batteries for active system after shutdown, they were failed due to flooding after tsunami. The vulnerability of the current operating power plant's cooling ability during extended station blackout events is demonstrated and the importance of passive system becomes emphasized. Numerous researches about passive system have been studied for proper cooling residual heat after Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Heat pipe is the effective passive heat transfer device that latent heat of vaporization is used to transport heat over long distance with even small temperature difference. Since liquid flows due to capillary force from wick structure and steam flows up due to buoyancy force, power is not necessary. Heat pipe is widely used in removal of local hot spot heat fluxes in CPU and thermal management in space crafts and satellites. Hybrid control rod, which consists of heat pipe with B{sub 4}C for wick structure material can be used for removing residual heat after. It can be applied to both for shutdown and cooling of decay heat in reactor. This concept is independent of external reactor situation like operator's mistake or malfunction of active cooling system. Heat pipe cooling system can be applied to Emergency Core Cooling System, In-Vessel Retention, containment and spent fuel cooling, contributing to decrease Core Damage Frequency.

  5. Heat storage system adapted for incongruently melting heat storage materials and congruently melting heat storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1980-12-30

    A heat storage article adapted for prevention of stratification of incongruently melting heat storage materials, such as eutectic salts, and adapted for use with congruently melting heat storage materials, such as paraffins. The article is comprised of a concrete stone composition, a certain portion of which is comprised of metallic heat transfer materials in order to increase heat transfer through the concrete structure. The concrete structure has an internal cavity which is filled with either the eutectic salt material or the paraffin material.

  6. A Numerical Study on System Performance of Groundwater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sang Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat exchangers are expressed as polynomial equations, and these equations are solved numerically to determine the system performance. Regression analysis is used to find the coefficients of the polynomial equations from a catalog of performance data. The cooling and heating capacities of water-to-water heat pumps are determined using Energy Plus. Results show that system performance drops as the water level drops, and the lowest flow rates generally achieve the highest system performance. The system COPs are used to compare the system performance of various system configurations. The groundwater pumping level and temperature provide the greatest effects on the system performance of groundwater heat pumps along with the submersible pumps and heat exchangers. The effects of groundwater pumping levels, groundwater temperatures, and the heat transfer coefficient in heat exchanger on the system performance are given and compared. This analysis needs to be included in the design process of groundwater heat pump systems, possibly with analysis tools that include a wide range of performance data.

  7. A modeling approach for district heating systems with focus on transient heat transfer in pipe networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Soma; Bojesen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the building energy efficiency in recent years results in noticeably reduction in their heating demand. Combined with the current trend for utilizing low temperature heat sources, it raises the necessity of introducing a new generation of district heating [DH] systems with lowered...

  8. Optimum Organization and Maximum Capabilities of Heat-Pump Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kuz‧min, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    The authors obtained a lower bound for the energy consumption in heating (maintaining an assigned temperature distribution in the system of intercommunicating chambers) and the corresponding distributions of the total heat-transfer coefficients and the temperature of the working medium of a heat pump in contact with the chambers and the environment.

  9. The fundamental cyclotron line in 4U 1538-52

    CERN Document Server

    Rodes-Roca, J J; Bernabéu, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present pulse phase averaged spectra of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar 4U 1538-52/QV Nor. Observations of this persistent accreting pulsar were made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We study the variability of cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF or simply cyclotron line) in the high energy spectra of this binary system. We show that the parameters of the CRSF are correlated. The first one is, as suggested by theory, between the width and the energy of the cyclotron line. The second one is between the relative width and the optical depth of the cyclotron line. We discuss these results with studies of other X-ray pulsars and their implications on the line variability.

  10. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through the share increase of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work......, the performance of a hybrid district energy system for a small town in Croatia has been analysed. Mathematical model for process analysis and optimisation algorithm for optimal system configuration has been developed and described. The main goal of the system optimisation is to reduce heat production costs....... Several energy sources for heat production have been considered in 8 different simulation cases. Simulation results show that the heat production costs could be reduced with introduction of different energy systems into an existing district heating system. Renewable energy based district heating systems...

  11. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  12. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. Pressurization...

  13. Solar energy and heat pumps: evaluation of combined systems for heating and cooling of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.A.; Le Doux, P.

    1982-09-01

    An analysis of a broad range of solar assisted heat pump systems was carried out. Systems were divided into three categories on the basis of whether ground coupling was included in the system and, if so, whether solar energy was stored in the ground or used in some other way. In the category of non-ground-coupled systems, an advanced air-source heat pump concept designed to improve capacity and coefficient of performance at low source temperatures was used as the basis for a dual source heat pump. For ground coupled systems which do not store solar heat in the ground, three options were considered: use of simple passive techniques to reduce the effective heating load; use of photovoltaics to drive the heat pump compressor; and use of active solar components as a source to the heat pump, for direct space heating, or for domestic hot water only. For systems which do store solar energy in the ground, the minimum size for efficient thermal carryover from summer to winter was determined to be a system capable of serving approx. 100 houses. Use of a fuel-fired heat pump is also an advantage in these larger systems. Economic analyses were based on a maximum allowable payback of 8 years for residential systems. For the large-scale system, a simplified 10-year life-cycle costing was employed.

  14. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  15. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-14

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration.

  16. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  17. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  18. TFTR Michelson interferometer electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; McCarthy, M.P.

    1985-05-01

    In July 1984, a Fourier transform spectrometer employing a fast-scanning Michelson interferometer began operating on TFTR. This diagnostic system can measure the electron cyclotron emission spectrum 72 times per s with a time resolution of 11 ms and a spectral resolution of 3.6 GHz. The initial operating spectral range is 75--540 GHz, which is adequate for measuring the first three cyclotron harmonics at present TFTR magnetic field levels. The range can be extended easily to 75--1080 GHz in order to accommodate increases in toroidal magnetic field or to study superthermal ECE. The measured spectra are absolutely calibrated using a liquid nitrogen cooled blackbody reference source. The second harmonic feature of each spectrum is used to calculate the absolute electron temperature profile.

  19. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    The project “Solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system” was carried out in the period 2008‐2013. The project partners were DTU Byg, DTU Informatics (now DTU Compute), DMI, ENFOR A/S and COWI A/S. The companies Ajva ApS, Ohmatex ApS and Innogie ApS worked together with the project...... partners in two connected projects in order to develop solar/electric heating systems for laboratory tests. The project was financed by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation under the Danish Council for Strategic Research in the program Sustainable Energy and Environment. The DSF number...... of the project is 2104‐07‐0021/09‐063201/DSF. This report is the final report of the project. The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating...

  20. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  1. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  2. Numerical evaluation of plate heat exchanger performance in geothermal district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, T. [Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the performance of plate heat exchangers in residential water radiator heating systems receiving their heat from geothermal resources. Radiator theory is reviewed and determination of annual hot water requirements for space heating is discussed. Performance evaluation is made of plate heat exchangers and results obtained by means of two equations commonly used for this purpose, the Sieder-Tate and the Dittus-Boelter equations, compared to results obtained with a simplified equation where heat transfer in the heat exchanger is assumed to depend only on the fluid mass flow on both sides. It is found that for prevailing temperature ranges in Icelandic geothermal systems the mass pow approximation gives results very close to those determined by the more complicated conventional equations. (UK)

  3. District heating: lifeblood system systematically modernised; Lebensnerv Fernwaerme gezielt modernisiert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This article discusses the high potential available for the reduction of operating costs in the distribution of heat to consumers via district heating networks. The modernisation of the district heating system in the Black Sea Port of Konstanza, Rumania, is discussed. In particular, the renewal of the hot-water circulation pumps and the implementation of an automated system for the control and monitoring of 132 district heating transfer stations is described. The system's functions - the supply of space heating and domestic hot water preparation - are looked at, as is its load-dependent control system and its associated communication system. The new pump speed control system is quoted as being able to permit savings of up to 60% to be made. Finally, the contributions to protecting the environment resulting from the renewal of the district heating system are noted.

  4. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, S., E-mail: garavaglia@ifp.cnr.it; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N. [Institute of Plasma Physics “P.Caldirola”, National Research Council of Italy, Milan (Italy); Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D. [IAM-AWP, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [IHM, KIT, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tran, Q. M. [CRPP, EPFL, EURATOM Association, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Franke, T. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  5. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Kogi, Y; Kawahata, K; Nagayama, Y; Mase, A; Kwon, M

    2010-10-01

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  6. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. D.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  7. Application of Predictive Control in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, Olafur Petur; Madsen, Henrik; Søgaard, Henning Tangen

    1993-01-01

    In district heating systems, and in particular if the heat production cakes place at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, a reasonable control strategy is to keep the supply temperature from the district heating plant as low as possible. However, the control is subject to some restrictions....... A district heating system is an example of a non-stationary system, and the model parameters have to be time varying. Hence, the classical predictive control theory has to be modified. Simulation experiments are performed in order to study the performance of modified predictive controllers. The systems ape......, for example, that the total heat requirement for all consumers is supplied at any time and each individual consumer is guaranteed some minimum supply temperature at any time. A lower supply temperature implies lower heat loss from the transport and the distribution network, and lower production costs...

  8. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    ‐term target of becoming completely fossil‐free by 2050, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least‐cost heating strategy seems to be to implement savings in new buildings and buildings......One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  9. Performance of Space Heating in a Modern Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we study the performance of a number of heat supply technologies. The background of the study is the changes in the Danish energy systems over the last three decades which have caused integration of large shares of combined heat and power (CHP), renewable fuels and wind power....... These changes mean that there is a significant integration of electricity and heat supply in the system and that several technologies may be beneficial. In particular, heat pumps are under consideration and are often considered to be renewable energy. We study how to distribute fuel and emissions to the heat...... supply. We find that heat supply is low-efficient seen from an exergy viewpoint, between 1% and 26% utilization. As exergy is a quantification of primary energy, we conclude that far better utilization of primary energy is possible. We also find that combined heat and power and domestic heat pumps...

  10. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  11. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  12. Assessment of two-level heat pump installations’ power efficiency for heat supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlla Е. Denysova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of energy saving becomes one of the most important in power engineering. It is caused by exhaustion of world reserves in hydrocarbon fuel, such as gas, oil and coal representing sources of traditional heat supply. Conventional sources has essential shortcomings: low power, ecological and economic efficiencies, that can be eliminated by using alternative methods of power supply, like the considered one: low-temperature natural heat of ground waters of on the basis of heat pump installations application. The heat supply system considered provides an effective use of two-level heat pump installation operating as heat source the Odessa city ground waters during the lowest ambient temperature period. Proposed is a calculation method of heat pump installations on the basis of geothermal heat supply. Calculated are the values of electric energy consumption N by the compressors’ drive, and the heat supply system transformation coefficient µ for a source of geothermal heat from ground waters of Odessa city allowing to estimate efficiency of two-level heat pump installations.

  13. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  14. Analysis of a Residential Heating System Utilizing a Solar Assisted Water-to-Air Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    heat pump heating system were analyzed. A realistic residence and solar assisted water-to-air heat pump system were modeled for this northern climate using the transient simulation computer code TRNSYS developed by the University of Wisconsin. The system was studied over a one month winter period, December, using actual hourly weather data. The system was analyzed for both the cloudiest and clearest December weather recorded in the last 30 years. The collector area and storage tank capacity were varied and the effects on system performance were

  15. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  16. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  17. A heating system for piglets in farrowing house using waste heat from biogas engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payungsak Junyusen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and test a heating system for piglets in farrowing house by utilising the waste heat from a biogas engine as a heat source. The study was separated into three parts: the study on the biogas combined heat and power plant, the investigation on the properties of the heat panel, and the installation and testing of the heating system. From the experiment, the condition producing 60 kW of electrical power was a proper one, in which electrical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were 14% and 1.22 m3/kWh respectively. Generating both electricity and heat increased the overall efficiency to 37.7% and decreased the specific fuel consumption to 0.45 m3/kWh. The heat panel, which was made of a plastic material, had a thermal conductivity of 0.58 W/mC and the maximum compressive force and operating pressure of 8.1 kN and 0.35 bar respectively. The surface temperature of the panel was dependent on the inlet water temperature. When hot water of 44C was supplied into the farrowing house with room temperature of 26C, the average surface temperature was 33C. The developed heating system could provide heat for 4.3 farrowing houses. The payback period of this project was 2.5 years.

  18. Progress in conceptual design of EU DEMO EC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Saul; Bruschi, Alex; Franke, Thomas; Granucci, Gustavo; Grossetti, Giovanni; Jelonnek, John; Moro, Alessandro; Poli, Emanuele; Rispoli, Natale; Strauss, Dirk; Tran, Quang Minh

    2017-07-01

    Since 2014 under the umbrella of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive (WPHCD) is performing the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems of the future fusion power plant DEMO. This presentation covers the activities performed in the last two years on the EC system conceptual design, as part of the WPHCD, focusing on launchers, transmission lines, system reliability and architecture.

  19. A modeling approach for district heating systems with focus on transient heat transfer in pipe networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Soma; Bojesen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    finite element method is applied to simulate transient temperature changes in pipe networks. The model is calculating time series data related to supply temperature to the DHN from heat production units, heat loads and return temperature related to each consumer to calculate dynamic temperature changes...... district heating networks [DHN] characteristics. This paper is presenting a new developed model, which reflects the thermo-dynamic behavior of DHN. It is designed for tree network topologies. The purpose of the model is to serve as a basis for applying a variety of scenarios towards lowering...... the temperature in DH systems. The main focus is on modeling transient heat transfer in pipe networks regarding the time delays between the heat supply unit and the consumers, the heat loss in the pipe networks and the consumers’ dynamic heat loads. A pseudo-dynamic approach is adopted and also the implicit...

  20. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Olsen, R. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Hewett, M. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  1. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  2. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  3. Alpha Heating in ITER L-mode and H-mode Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.V. Budny

    2011-07-18

    There are many uses of predictions of ITER plasma performance. One is assessing requirements of different plasma regimes. For instance, what current drive and control are needed for steady state. The heating, current drive, and torque systems planned for initial DT operation are negative ion neutral beam injection (NB), ion cyclotron resonance (IC), and electron cyclotron resonance (EC). Which combinations of heating are optimal. What are benefits of the torques, current drive, and fueling using NB. What are the shine-through power and optimum voltage for the NB? What are optimal locations and aiming of the EC launchers? Another application is nuclear licensing (e.g. System integrity, how many neutrons).

  4. Health Externalities and Heat savings in Energy System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    from the rest of the energy system. This PhD study contributes to the development in energy system modelling, by including heat saving options – insulation of walls, roofs and floors, replacing of windows and installing ventilation system with heat recovery – in the Danish heat and power sector...... and included in an energy system optimisation model. The performed analysis of the Danish heat and power sector concludes that accounting for spatial variation of health damage costs in heat and power system optimisation model has an effect on the optimal technology mix and distribution of energy plants among...... and are popular as secondary heating technologies in Denmark, can cause indoor and outdoor air pollution locally. Hence, consumers can be exposed to their own air pollution, which can cause damage to their health. Such damage costs should be internalised in consumer decision making. The PhD study demonstrates...

  5. Electron cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, D. V.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.; Bagryansky, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new plasma startup scenario in the gas dynamic trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target (‘seed plasma’), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition of approximately 1 ms the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. This paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECRH, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of the consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences from the conventional scenario are discussed. A theoretical model describing the ECR breakdown and the seed plasma accumulation in a large-scale mirror trap is developed on the basis of the GDT experiment.

  6. System Analysis on Absorption Chiller Utilizing Intermediate Wasted Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Miki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Usui, Hiromoto

    A system analysis has been performed for the multi-effect absorption chiller (MEAC) applied as a bottoming system of 30kW class hybrid system including micro gas turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system. In this paper, an intermediate wasted heat utilization (IWHU) system is suggested for lifting up the energy efficiency of the whole system and coefficient of performance (COP) of MEAC. From the results, the suggested IWHU system was found to show the very high energy efficiency compared with a terminal wasted heat utilization (TWHU) system that uses only the heat exhausted from the terminal of MGT/SOFC system. When TWHU system is applied for MEAC, the utilized heat from the MGT/SOFC system is found to remain low because the temperature difference between the high temperature generator and the wasted heat becomes small. Then, the energy efficiency does not become high in spite of high COP of MEAC. On the other hand, the IWHU system could increase the utilized heat for MEAC as performs effectively. The exergy efficiency of IWHU system is also revealed to be higher than that of a direct gas burning system of MEAC, because the wasted heat is effectively utilized in the IWHU system.

  7. Optimal Placement of A Heat Pump in An Integrated Power and Heat Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyapovskiy, Sergey; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    pump – a component that links electric and heating utilities together. The system used to demonstrate the integrated planning approach has two neighboring 10kV feeders and several distribution substations with loads that require central heating from the heat pump. The optimal location is found......With the present trend towards Smart Grids and Smart Energy Systems it is important to look for the opportunities for integrated development between different energy sectors, such as electricity, heating, gas and transportation. This paper investigates the problem of optimal placement of a heat...... with the help of mathematical optimization that minimizes investments of both electric and heating utilities, achieving the reduction of the total investment. The optimization is performed in Matlab using built-in Genetic Algorithm function and Matpower software package for calculating power flow equations....

  8. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  9. The heat recovery with heat transfer methods from solar photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özakın, A. N.; Karsli, S.; Kaya, F.; Güllüce, H.

    2016-04-01

    Although there are many fluctuations in energy prices, they seems like rising day by day. Thus energy recovery systems have increasingly trend. Photovoltaic systems converts solar radiation directly into electrical energy thanks to semiconductors. But due to the nature of semiconductors, whole of solar energy cannot turn into electrical energy and the remaining energy turns into waste heat. The aim of this research is evaluate this waste heat energy by air cooling system. So, the energy efficiency of the system will be increased using appropriate heat transfer technologies such as fin, turbulator etc.

  10. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...... with large amounts of fluctuating sources as it enables fuel efficient and low cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. DH increases the efficiency with the use of combined heat and power production (CHP), while reducing the biomass demand by enabling the use of other renewable resources such as large...

  11. Magnetocaloric heat pump device, a heating or cooling system and a magnetocaloric heat pump assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetocaloric heat pump device, comprising a magnetocaloric bed; a magnetic field source, the magnetocaloric bed and the magnetic field source being arranged to move relative to each other so as to generate a magnetocaloric refrigeration cycle within the heat pump, wherein...

  12. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of {sup 14}C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of {sup 14}C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring {sup 14}C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting {sup 14}C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10{sup 4}. Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as {sup 3}H, and {sup 10}Be, and {sup 26}Al, are discussed. 70 refs.

  13. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  14. Optimal Hierarchical Decision-Making for Heat Source Selection of District Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of China’s urbanization, the proportion between the heating consumption and the energy consumption of the whole society keeps rising in recent years. For a district heating system, the selection of the heat source makes significant impact on the energy efficiency and the pollutant emissions. By integrating the methods of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE, a multiple-attribute decision-making scheme for the heat source selection of district heating systems is proposed in this paper. As a core part of this scheme, a comprehensive benefit index with hierarchical parallel structure is constructed. The economic benefit, environment benefit, and technical benefit can be reflected with a certain percentage in the comprehensive benefit index. To test the efficiency of the proposed scheme, a case study for a large-scale district heating system in Beijing is carried out, where five kinds of heat sources (water source heat pump, ground source heat pump, gas-fired boiler, coal-fired boiler, and oil-fired boiler are taken into account. The analysis and instructions for the final sorting result are also demonstrated.

  15. The Convenience Benefits of the District Heating System over Individual Heating Systems in Korean Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Koreans usually prefer the district heating system (DHS to the individual heating system (IHS because DHS can give them convenience and safety within their living environment. The Korean government thus plans to expand the DHS and requires information about the value that consumers place on the DHS over the IHS, which has not been dealt with in academic literature. This paper attempts to investigate Korean households’ willingness to pay (WTP for DHS over IHS, for residential heat (RH. To this end, the authors apply the dichotomous choice contingent valuation to assessing additional WTP for DHS using a survey of 1000 randomly selected households living in buildings with IHS. A mixture model is applied to deal with the zero WTP responses. The WTP distribution is specified as a mixture of two distributions, one with a point mass at zero and the other with full support on the positive half of the real line. The results show that the mean additional WTP for DHS-based RH over IHS-based RH is estimated to be KRW 5775 (USD 5.4 per Gcal. This value can be interpreted as the consumer’s convenience benefits of DHS over IHS, and amounts to approximately 6.0% of the average price: KRW 96,510 (USD 90.4 per Gcal in 2013, for IHS-based RH. This information is useful for evaluating changes to the method used for supplying RH from IHS to DHS.

  16. Applicability of sewage heat pump air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金华; 刘猛; 刘勇; 靳鸣; 陈洁

    2009-01-01

    A sewage heat pump system and its application based on a project in Chongqing,China,were discussed. Based on the sewage conditions,a feasibility analysis of the sewage heat pump air conditioning system was conducted. The theoretical and quantitative calculations indicate that sewage flux in the city sewage main pipe in the project can satisfy heat exchange requirements,and taking water from the pipes has relatively small influence on the pipe net in summer and winter. The sewage heat pump air-conditioning system can save 21.5% operating cost in one year,which is energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

  17. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in

  18. CSIR cyclotron modified for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Accelerator Centre (NAC) staff members will be making an important contribution to radiation therapy in South Africa when the Transvaal Department of Hospital Services starts treating certain types of cancer with fast neutrons, at the Pretoria Cyclotron on the CSIR campus. The fast neutrons will be utilized mainly to treat advanced cancers of the head and the neck. The project will develop along two lines. Firstly the Pretoria cyclotron must be modified and secondly satisfactory radiobiological data must be provided before patients may be treated. This radiobiological experiment heralds a new area for use of the cyclotron which has thus far been used mainly for basic nuclear research and the production of isotopes.

  19. Use of cyclotrons in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, S.M. E-mail: s.m.qaim@fz-juelich.de

    2004-11-01

    Cyclotrons are versatile ion-accelerating machines which find many applications in medicine. In this short review their use in hadron therapy is briefly discussed. Proton therapy is gaining significance because of its capability to treat deep-lying tumours. A strong area of application of cyclotrons involves the production of short-lived neutron deficient radiotracers for use in emission tomography, especially positron emission tomography. This fast and quantitative in vivo diagnostic technique is being increasingly used in neurology, cardiology and oncology. Besides routine patient care, considerable interdisciplinary work on development of new positron emitters is under way. A short account of those efforts is given. The use of cyclotrons in the production of radionuclides for internal radiotherapy is also briefly described.

  20. Performance analysis of system heat pump - heat recuperator used for air treatment in process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Milovančević Uroš M.; Kosi Franc F.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed parametric analysis and performance optimization of systemheat pump - recuperator is given in this paper. Mathematical model used for analysis is formed according to the physical model of the system and practical experience. Different types of compressors, and various temperature ranges are treated. Special attention is paid to influence of condensing and evaporating temperatures on system performances, so as to different features of heat recup...

  1. Analysis of thermosyphon heat exchangers for use in solar domestic hot water heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Scott David

    1998-11-01

    A recent innovation in the solar industry is the use of thermosyphon heat exchangers. Determining the performance of these systems requires knowledge of how thermosyphon flow rate and heat exchanger performance vary with operating conditions. This study demonstrates that several thermosyphon heat exchanger designs operate in the laminar mixed convection regime. Empirical heat transfer and pressure drop correlations are obtained for three tube-in-shell heat exchangers (four, seven, and nine tube). Thermosyphon flow is on the shell side. Correlations are obtained with uniform heat flux on the tube walls and with a mixture of glycol and water circulating inside the tubes. Ranges of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof numbers are 50 to 1800, 2.5 and 6.0, and 4×105 to 1×108, respectively. Nusselt number correlations are presented in a form that combines the contributions of forced and natural convection, Nu4Mixed=Nu4Forced+Nu4Natural. The Nusselt number is influenced by natural convection when the term Raq0.25/(Re0.5Pr0.33) is greater than unity. Pressure drop through these three designs is not significantly affected by mixed convection because most pressure drop losses are at the heat exchanger inlet and outlet. A comparison and discussion of the performance of several other heat exchanger designs (tube-in-shell and coil-in- shell designs) are presented. Generally, the coil-in- shell heat exchangers perform better than the tube-in- shell heat exchangers. Data from all heat exchanger designs is used to develop a new one-dimensional model for thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heating systems. The model requires two empirically determined relationships, pressure drop as a function of water mass flow rate and the overall heat transfer coefficient-area product (UA) as a function of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof number. A testing protocol is presented that describes the procedure to obtain the data for the correlations. Two new TRNSYS component models are presented

  2. Agent-based modelling of heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper introduces agent-based modelling as a methodological approach to understand the effect of decision making mechanism on the adoption of heating systems in Norway. The model is used as an experimental/learning tool to design possible interventions, not for prediction. The intended users of the model are therefore policy designers. Primary heating system adoptions of electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were selected. Random topology was chosen to represent social network among households. Agents were households with certain location, number of peers, current adopted heating system, employed decision strategy, and degree of social influence in decision making. The overall framework of decision-making integrated theories from different disciplines; customer behavior theory, behavioral economics, theory of planned behavior, and diffusion of innovation, in order to capture possible decision making processes in households. A mail survey of 270 Norwegian households conducted in 2008 was designed specifically for acquiring data for the simulation. The model represents real geographic area of households and simulates the overall fraction of adopted heating system under study. The model was calibrated with historical data from Statistics Norway (SSB). Interventions with respects to total cost, norms, indoor air quality, reliability, supply security, required work, could be explored using the model. For instance, the model demonstrates that a considerable total cost (investment and operating cost) increase of electric heating and heat pump, rather than a reduction of wood pellet heating's total cost, are required to initiate and speed up wood pellet adoption. (Author)

  3. Heat exchanger modeling and identification for control of waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rojer, C.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet future CO2 emission targets, Waste Heat Recovery systems have recently attracted much attention for automotive applications, especially for long haul trucks. This paper focuses on the development of a dynamic counter-flow heat exchanger model for control purposes. The model captures the dyna

  4. Heat exchanger modeling and identification for control of waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rojer, C.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet future CO2 emission targets, Waste Heat Recovery systems have recently attracted much attention for automotive applications, especially for long haul trucks. This paper focuses on the development of a dynamic counter-flow heat exchanger model for control purposes. The model captures the dyna

  5. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  6. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  7. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-29

    Efforts are reported on the installation and checkout of cyclotron components which had been previously fabricated. Final integration of subsystems and major systems leading to internal beam tests is reported near completion. Progress is reported in relation to control system components, focus and steering magnet design, and rf system testing. (LEW)

  8. Combustion Air Pre-heating from Ash Sensible Heat in Municipal Waste Incineration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariya Kaneesamkandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery from bottom ash is more important in municipal waste combustion systems than in any other solid fuel combustion since almost 50% of it comprises of non-combustibles. In this study, an ash cooling system using air as the cooling medium has been modeled for pre-heating the combustion air. Air cooling has several advantages over water cooling methods. The study involves modeling using Gambit tool and is solved with the fluent solver. Municipal solid waste incineration systems have the advantage of being located near the waste collection area apart from the high volume reduction ratio. Improvements in the emission control systems and combustion technology can make incineration a highly feasible disposal method. Low furnace temperature due to heat losses through fuel moisture loss and ash sensible heat loss has been a disadvantage with these systems. In this study, a small percentage of the combustion air is pre-heated in a non-contact type heat exchanger and its effect on the available energy of combustion gases at the evaporator outlet is studied. The study is performed for two different waste samples. Results indicate significant increase in available energy at the evaporator outlet and better relative performance for the lower grade fuel. A comparison is made with similar methods reported in the literature along with a brief discussion on the methodologies adopted. The results confirm the importance of installing ash sensible heat recovery mechanism for waste incineration systems as well as the feasibility of the air based method.

  9. Solar space-heating system--Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A 12 months performance of Visitors Center installation suffered from low insolation, high energy dissipation, and equipment breakdown. System has 980 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors, water energy storage, 4-mode control, heat exchangers, pumps, and plumbing. Design expected system to supply over 50 percent of annual heating demand, but only 109 million Btu were conserved.

  10. Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

  11. Implementing Geothermal Plants in the Copenhagen District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Overvad; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Larsen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of implementing geothermal heating in the Copenhagen district-heating system is assessed. This is done by building up general knowledge on the geological factors that influence the development of useable geothermal resources, factors concerning the exploration and utilization...... Danish district heating system is financially sustainable. Added to the other advantages concerning flexibility and the environment, geothermal heating is considered to be a serious proposal for the future power and heating system in Eastern Denmark. Keywords: Geothermal plants, Electricity surplus...... of geothermal energy in Denmark as well as the Danish potential, which, in former investigations, has been found to be around 100.000 PJ annually, and the economical potential is less, about 15 PJ/year. Since a considerable amount of the Danish power supply is tied to weather and the demand for heating...

  12. Implementing Geothermal Plants in the Copenhagen District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Overvad; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Larsen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Danish district heating system is financially sustainable. Added to the other advantages concerning flexibility and the environment, geothermal heating is considered to be a serious proposal for the future power and heating system in Eastern Denmark. Keywords: Geothermal plants, Electricity surplus......The possibility of implementing geothermal heating in the Copenhagen district-heating system is assessed. This is done by building up general knowledge on the geological factors that influence the development of useable geothermal resources, factors concerning the exploration and utilization...... of geothermal energy in Denmark as well as the Danish potential, which, in former investigations, has been found to be around 100.000 PJ annually, and the economical potential is less, about 15 PJ/year. Since a considerable amount of the Danish power supply is tied to weather and the demand for heating...

  13. Solar heating system at Quitman County Bank, Marks, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information on the Solar Energy Heating System installed in a single story wood frame, cedar exterior, sloped roof building is presented. The system has on-site temperature and power measurements readouts. The 468 square feet of Solaron air flat plate collectors provide for 2,000 square feet of space heating, an estimated 60 percent of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 235 cubic foot rock storage box or to the load (space heating) by a 960 cubic feet per minute air handler unit. A 7.5 ton Carrier air-to-air heat pump with 15 kilowatts of electric booster strips serve as a back-up (auxiliary) to the solar system. Motorized dampers control the direction of airflow and back draft dampers prevent thermal siphoning of conditioned air.

  14. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  15. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  16. Characterization of a mini-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteconi, A.; Giuliani, G.; Tartuferi, M.; Polonara, F.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a mini-channel aluminum heat exchanger used in a reversible heat pump is presented. Mini-channel finned heat exchangers are getting more and more interest for refrigeration systems, especially when compactness and low refrigerant charge are desired. Purpose of this paper was to characterize the mini-channel heat exchanger used as evaporator in terms of heat transfer performance and to study the refrigerant distribution in the manifold. The heat exchanger characterization was performed experimentally by means of a test rig built up for this purpose. It is composed of an air-to-air heat pump, air channels for the external and internal air circulation arranged in a closed loop, measurement sensors and an acquisition system. The overall heat transfer capacity was assessed. Moreover, in order to characterize the flow field of the refrigerant in the manifold of the heat exchanger, a numerical investigation of the fluid flow by means of CFD was performed. It was meant to evaluate the goodness of the present design and to identify possible solutions for the future improvement of the manifold design.

  17. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  18. Carbon Fibers for Electrically Heated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    evaluated by several techniques. Samples of the yarn and fabric were enclosed in clean polyethylene bags which were subsequently heat-seaied and tumbled in...a home clothes dryer without heat. The result- of this test on PVA-sized polyacrylonitrile and rayon precursor yarn and PAN and rayon based fabrics...fabrics which were treated with PVA showed little or no accumulation of carbon/graphite dust within the sealed bag after an hour of tumbling , Fabrics

  19. Economics of heat pump assisted drying systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of heat pump assisted dryers to various factors such as design, operational and economic variables, when payback period is adopted as the criterion, has been assessed for Indian conditions. Results have been presented in graphical form to illustrate the optimum conditions for economic viability. For the specific typical conditions and the current costs of electricity and steam in India, a heat pump assisted dryer has a payback period in the range of two to three years.

  20. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60{mu}A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed.