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Sample records for cyclotron complex center

  1. The Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhorsky, D.; Ruzicka, J.; Macasek, F.; Makaiova, I.; Saro, S.; Kristiak, J.; Fulup, M.

    2001-01-01

    Slovak Institute of Metrology and entrusted the President of the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing (SOSMT) with its realization. The government of SR approved the project of the Cyclotron Center of Slovak Republic on August 4, 1999. The project is realized 'on a key-turn' according to the general contract signed between the ATOMENERGOEXPORT (Russian Federation) as a general supplier, and the SOSMT. The contractor as a partial payment within the Russian liabilities will cover it. The construction of the CC SR complex includes the supply of accelerators and related technologies. The building comprising the cyclotron, irradiation rooms and research rooms will be sited within existing the Slovak Institute of Metrology in Bratislava. It will cover the area of 3570 m 2 The total capital expenditures for the whole project were approved for US$ 118 mil. The price of the established technologies makes 76% of all expenditures

  2. C235-V3 cyclotron for a proton therapy center to be installed in the hospital complex of radiation medicine (Dimitrovgrad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, R. V.; Gurskii, S. V.; Jongen, Y.; Karamysheva, G. A.; Kazarinov, M. Yu.; Korovkin, S. A.; Kostromin, S. A.; Calderan, J.-M.; Cahay, P.; Mokrenko, S. P.; Morozov, N. A.; Nkongolo, H.; Ol'shevskii, A. G.; Paradis, Y.; Petrov, D. S.; Romanov, V. M.; Samsonov, E. V.; Syresin, E. M.; Shakun, A. N.; Shakun, N. G.; Shirkov, G. D.; Shirkov, S. G.

    2014-06-01

    Proton therapy is an effective method of treating oncologic diseases. In Russia, construction of several centers for proton and ion therapy is slated for the years to come. A proton therapy center in Dimitrovgrad will be the first. The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russia) in collaboration with Ion Beam Application (IBA) (Belgium) has designed an C235-V3 medical proton cyclotron for this center. It outperforms previous versions of commercial IBA cyclotrons, which have already been installed in 11 oncologic hospital centers in different countries. Experimental and calculation data for the beam dynamics in the C235-V3 medical cyclotron are presented. Reasons for beam losses during acceleration are considered, the influence of the magnetic field radial component in the midplane of the accelerator and main resonances is studied, and a beam extraction system is designed. In 2011-2012 in Dubna, the cyclotron was mounted, its magnetic field was properly configured, acceleration conditions were optimized, and beam extraction tests were carried out after which it was supplied to Dimitrovgrad. In the C235-V3 cyclotron, an acceleration efficiency of 72% and an extraction efficiency of 62% have been achieved without diaphragming to form a vertical profile of the beam.

  3. Radiation protection of cyclotron vault with maze in PET Cyclotron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The PET Cyclotron center (PCC) is a complex for production, research and application of positron radiopharmaceuticals for PET (Positron Emission Tomography), which was commissioned this year (2004) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Positron radionuclides are produced by 18/9 MeV proton/deuteron cyclotron CYCLONE 18/9. Radiation protection of personnel and inhabitants against ionizing radiation in the PCC is solved with regard to the ICRP recommendations and Slovak regulatory system, protection rules and criteria and optimization of radiation protection. In the article comparisons of calculated and measured neutron and gamma dose equivalent rates around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze are presented. Description of the CYCLONE 18/9 as a source of angular distribution of neutron energy spectra (production of 18 F was considered) was simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Code MCNP4B was used for shielding calculation of cyclotron vault with maze. Neutron energy spectra behind the shielding were measured by Bonner spectrometer. The values of neutron dose equivalent, which were calculated and measured around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze, are within the range of factor 2. (authors)

  4. Design features of isotope production facility at Inshas cyclotron complex. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsan, M N [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Aurhority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The nuclear research center, AEA, Egypt is erecting at its Inshas campus cyclotron complex for multidisciplinary use for research and application. The complex is to utilize a russian made AVF cyclotron accelerator of the type MGC-20 with MeV protons. Among its applications, the accelerator will be used for the production of short lived cyclotron isotopes. This article presents a concise description of the design features of isotope production facility to be annexed to the complex layout, schemes for radio waste, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Cyclotron vault design for PET complex of C CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiilop, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Cyclotron center of the Slovak Republic will be built in two building (pavilion I and J), In the pavilion I there is planed to build up a complex for production, research and application of positron radiopharmaceuticals for PET (Positron Emission Tomography). Production of radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) and radiotherapy is situated in the pavilion J of Slovak Institute of Metrology. The radiation protection of personal and inhabitants against ionizing radiation in the PET Complex is solved with regard to the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources [1], ICRP recommendations [2] and Slovak regulatory system, protection rules and criteria and optimization of radiation protection

  6. Life Sciences at the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhorsky, D.; Kovac, P.; Macasek, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation the history and present status of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak (CC SR) are presented. A state run scientific center and production facility ensuring: - the basic and applied research in nuclear physics, chemistry, biology and medicine; - production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals; - and applications of heavy ions and electron accelerator technologies in medicine and material science. Current financial status of the CC SR is following: Deblocation of the Russian; Federation debt to the Slovak Republic (94 %); State budget of the Slovak Republic (3 %); IAEA (3 %)

  7. Next customers to cyclotron center meanwhile are not entered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bato, R.; Zackova, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the financial aspects of construction of the Cyclotron Centre of the Slovak Republic (CC SR) are analysed. This building represents the problems of exploitation of commodity deblocation of Russian Federation debt to Slovakia. The estimated expenses have risen from original planned 2 billion Slovak crowns to 6 billion Slovak crowns. Devices which should be part of centre - a cyclotron used for radiopharmaceuticals production for oncological purposes and a big cyclotron for industrial purposes, a centre of positron emissive tomography (PET), a laboratory of nano-technologies, a source of heavy ions - they indicates that the oncological institutes, departments of health service, of education, of economy, of defence, of environment, also Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic and Slovak Academy of Sciences should become the customers principally. Around 2.2 billion of Slovak crowns from deblocation have been spent for a construction of Cyclotron Centre of SR yet. The national budget has contributed by 95 million Slovak crowns; 90.5 million USD will be obtained from deblocation of Russian debt yet. IAEA has supported this centre by grant of almost 800 thousand USD. Budget of Cyclotron Centre of SR is still rising also because of rising of VAT from 10 percent to 19 percent. VAT will be paid also for goods imported within the framework of deblocation after integration of Slovak Republic to European Union; besides also 10 percent duty is paid. Project of CC SR has not passed the state expert opinion. Agreement for construction of Cyclotron Centre of SR was issued by State Health Institute of Bratislava, therefore it was confirmed also by the main hygienist of Slovak Republic

  8. Concepts and strategies to establish a cyclotron/PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernan Vera Ruiz; D, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliably radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001 (1) , the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing nations was put into evidence This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues up to the present time, and all indications are that it will continue in the next future. The reasons for this growth are several, amongst them it can be mentioned the fact that the technology involved has became more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several of clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries starting with F-18FDG in 1998, and above all, the clear, irrefutable and demonstrable Conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology and to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognized that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET camera can nevertheless be an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planed for installation in a developing country which frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortages of qualify human resources for advance planning and later, to run efficiently the facility. Several are the steps that needs consideration when planning a cyclotron facility, the most critical ones are a careful definition of the mission and scope of the facility including the utilization programme of the facility as a whole, followed by a

  9. Cyclotron Production of Radionuclides for Nuclear Medicine at Academic Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging has led to the development of new accelerator targetry and separation techniques for isotope production. For example, the development of longer-lived position emitting radionuclides has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller cyclotrons (10-25 MeV) at academic or hospital based facilities. Recent research has further expanded the toolbox of PET tracers to include additional isotopes such as 52Mn, 55Co, 76Br and others. The smaller scale of these types of facilities can enable the straightforward involvement of students, thus adding to the next generation of nuclear science leaders. Research pertaining to development of robust and larger scale production technologies including solid target systems and remote systems for transport and purification of these isotopes has enabled both preclinical and clinical imaging research for many diseases. In particular, our group has focused on the use of radiolabeled antibodies for imaging of receptor expression in preclinical models and in a clinical trial of metastatic breast cancer patients.

  10. Development of PET in Latin America. Experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutor, C.A.; Frias, L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Describe the experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center in Latin America. Demonstrate the viability of running a PET Center in Argentina despite the economic crisis. Materials and Methods: For this study, we used a UGM/GE Quest 250 PET scan, a RDS 112 cyclotron and a Radiosynthesis Laboratory installed at the (FUESMEN) Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, located in Mendoza City, in the middle-west of Argentina. From January 1999 to March 2002, 741 studies were obtained, 731 were 18 FluorDeoxyGlucose-PET studies and 10 phantoms for calibration purposes. We used acquisition and imaging processing standard protocols, as well as research protocols designed according to the pathology under investigation. To better correlate anatomical and functional images, we used fusion techniques with (CT) Computed Tomography in some (WB) whole-body PET scans. Results: A total of 731 patients were retrospectively analyzed and classified according to statistics variables such as: 1-sex: 317 women and 414 men, 2-type of scan: 439 WB cases, 267 brain studies and 25 cardiac. From this data we divided them as PET indications and resulted in 17 cases as healthy volunteers, 422 oncological cases, 267 neurological studies and 25 cardiac for myocardial viability. According to the origin they were classified as patients coming from Mendoza 544, Buenos Aires 112, other argentine provinces 60 and foreign (Chile, Brazil and Uruguay) 15 cases. In terms of billing, 181 studies were done free of charge, 95 under research protocols were also done free of charge and 451 were charged. Conclusion: Not only the economical and political factors play an important role limiting the advances of PET Imaging in Latin America, but also the lack of a neighboring cyclotron that circumscribe many hospitals to have access to the radiopharmaceutical agent. FUESMEN was established in 1991 by three governmental entities: the (CONEA) National Commission of Atomic Energy, the (UNC) National University of Cuyo and

  11. Performance test of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, K.; Sawada, J.; Sakata, T.; Uno, K.; Okanishi, K.; Harada, H.; Itano, A.; Higashi, A.; Akagi, T.; Yamada, S.; Noda, K.; Torikoshi, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2000-02-01

    Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were manufactured for the accelerator facility at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. H2+, He2+, and C4+ were chosen as the accelerating ions because they have the highest charge to mass ratio among ion states which satisfy the required intensity and quality. The sources have the same structure as the 10 GHz ECR source at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba except for a few improvements in the magnetic structure. Their performance was investigated at the Sumitomo Heavy Industries factory before shipment. The maximum intensity was 1500 μA for H2+, 1320 μA for He2+, and 580 μA for C4+ at the end of the ion source beam transport line. These are several times higher than required. Sufficient performance was also observed in the flatness and long-term stability of the pulsed beams. These test results satisfy the requirements for medical use.

  12. Beam stability of cyclotron accelerator for therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, T.; Ogino, T.; Shinbo, M.; Ikeda, H.; Tachikawa, T.; Kumata, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the proton-treatment facility that has the therapeutic AVF cyclotron accelerator (C235), is constructed at National Cancer Center Hospital East. The facility has 3-irradiation ports (rooms) that are 2-rotationg gantry ports and 1-horizontal fixed port. The C235 can accelerate proton to 235 MeV with the beam intensity of 300 nA. The external diameter is a very compact with about 4 m. The radio frequency is 106 MHz, the accelerating voltage is about 60 kV, and the harmonic number is 4. A beam stability of the C235 has an important relation with the uniformity of an irradiation field and is a very difficulty. The measured result indicated that the incident beam position must be into the 0.5-mmφ circle. (author)

  13. Complex centers of polynomial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali M. Alwash

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present some results on the existence and nonexistence of centers for polynomial first order ordinary differential equations with complex coefficients. In particular, we show that binomial differential equations without linear terms do not have complex centers. Classes of polynomial differential equations, with more than two terms, are presented that do not have complex centers. We also study the relation between complex centers and the Pugh problem. An algorithm is described to solve the Pugh problem for equations without complex centers. The method of proof involves phase plane analysis of the polar equations and a local study of periodic solutions.

  14. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for complex thiophenic mixture analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2013-10-01

    Rationale Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) are detrimental species for refining processes in petroleum industry. Current mass spectrometric Methods that determine their composition are often preceded by derivatization and dopant addition approaches. Different ionization Methods have different impact on the molecular assignment of complex PASHs. The analysis of such species under atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is still considered limited due to uncontrolled ion generation with low- and high-mass PASHs. Methods The ionization behavior of a model mixture of five selected PASH standards was investigated using an APCI source with nitrogen as the reagent gas. A complex thiophenic fraction was separated from a vacuum gas oil (VGO) and injected using the same method. The samples were analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). RESULTS PASH model analytes were successfully ionized and mainly [M + H]+ ions were produced. The same ionization pattern was observed for the real thiophenic sample. It was found that S1 class species were the major sulfur-containing species found in the VGO sample. These species indicated the presence of alkylated benzothiophenic (BT), dibenzothiophenic (DBT) and benzonaphthothiophenic (BNT) series that were detected by APCI-FTICR MS. CONCLUSIONS This study provides an established APCI-FTICR MS method for the analysis of complex PASHs. PASHs were detected without using any derivatization and without fragmentation. The method can be used for the analysis of S-containing crude oil samples. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Possibility of construction in Bulgaria of a fast neutron therapy center on the base of the U-250 isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, V.A.; Enchevich, I.B.

    1985-01-01

    Development of oncological disease treatment by fast neutrons in the world practice is reviewed. Main radiobiological results, which point to peculiarities of neutron therapy in comparison with standard X-ray therapy are considered. Main requirements for devices to be met, used in fast neutron therapy, are enumerated. On the basis of it, the possibility of construction in Bulgaria a fast neutron therapy center using the U-250 multipurpose cyclotron has been made. The conclusion is made that the main parameters of a proton beam in combination with an isocentrical head as a fast neutron source will create the conditions for realization of high-efficiency neutron therapy

  16. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for complex thiophenic mixture analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim; Andersson, Jan T.; Mö ller, Isabelle; Amad, Maan H.; Witt, Matthí as; Sarathy, Mani

    2013-01-01

    oil (VGO) and injected using the same method. The samples were analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). RESULTS PASH model analytes were successfully ionized and mainly [M + H]+ ions were produced. The same

  17. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  18. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  19. Design of DC-60 cyclotron with the fair ion energy variation for the Inter-disciplinary laboratory complex by L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gukal, B.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Franko, J.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Arzumanov, A.A.; Borisenko, A.N.; Lysukhin, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    The DC-60 heavy ions cyclotron pre-design project is implemented. The cyclotron is the key facility of the Inter-disciplinary laboratory complex by L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University. In comparison with previous project in a new one the possibility for fair variation of the ions energies on 30 % at the expense of magnetic field level change is planed. The magnet structure of the cyclotron allowing to vary the magnet field from 1.25 to 1.65 T with use the low-power magnet coils system is found. The accelerator provides the opportunity for the ions acceleration from Li to Xe with energies from 0.4 to 1.6 MeV/nucleon. The exterior ion source of the ECR type will be planing to use on the cyclotrons and axial beam injection system development will be created. The extending voltage on the ion source is 10-25 kV. For experiments conducting on the cyclotron complex is expecting to create on channel for low energy beams - 10-25 kV per charge (ECR source beams) and three withdrawn channels for accelerated ion beams, one of those will be packaged with necessary equipment for the nuclear filters manufacture. The cyclotron complex will be used for both the fulfillment of a wide range of scientific and applied problems and a students training

  20. Estimation of a beam centering error in the JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Okumura, S.; Arakawa, K.; Ishibori, I.; Matsumura, A.; Nakamura, N.; Nara, T.; Agematsu, T.; Tamura, H.; Karasawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    A method for estimating a beam centering error from a beam density distribution obtained by a single radial probe has been developed. Estimation of the centering error is based on an analysis of radial beam positions in the direction of the radial probe. Radial motion of a particle is described as betatron oscillation around an accelerated equilibrium orbit. By fitting the radial beam positions of several consecutive turns to an equation of the radial motion, not only amplitude of the centering error but also frequency of the radial betatron oscillation and energy gain per turn can be evaluated simultaneously. The estimated centering error amplitude was consistent with a result of an orbit simulation. This method was exceedingly helpful for minimizing the centering error of a 10 MeV proton beam during the early stages of acceleration. A well-centered beam was obtained by correcting the magnetic field with a first harmonic produced by two pairs of harmonic coils. In order to push back an orbit center to a magnet center, currents of the harmonic coils were optimized on the basis of the estimated centering error amplitude. (authors)

  1. Selection of the DC-60 cyclotron as the basic facility for the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 2 the DC-60 specialized accelerator project of the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University is described. The DC-60 cyclotron is intended for applied studies which can be accomplished on both the ion beams of the electron cyclotron resonance source with voltage up to 25 kV and the accelerated ions from carbon to xenon. The cyclotron is design on the base of compact magnet with weight about 74 tonnes, and it mean magnetic field is 1.6 T, section angle - 50 Deg. Design of the Inter-disciplinary research complex building in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University is described as well. Technical performances of the building and their parameters are given

  2. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Protein Complexes in a Hybrid Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jing; Zhou, Mowei; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Somogyi, Árpád; Pedder, Randall E.; Quintyn, Royston S.; Morrison, Lindsay J.; Easterling, Michael L.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2017-01-03

    Mass spectrometry continues to develop as a valuable tool in the analysis of proteins and protein complexes. In protein complex mass spectrometry studies, surface-induced dissociation (SID) has been successfully applied in quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. SID provides structural information on non-covalent protein complexes that is complementary to other techniques. However, the mass resolution of Q-TOF instruments can limit the information that can be obtained for protein complexes by SID. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) provides ultrahigh resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy measurements. In this study, an SID device was designed and successfully installed in a hybrid FT-ICR instrument in place of the standard gas collision cell. The SID-FT-ICR platform has been tested with several protein complex systems (homooligomers, a heterooligomer, and a protein-ligand complex, ranging from 53 kDa to 85 kDa), and the results are consistent with data previously acquired on Q-TOF platforms, matching predictions from known protein interface information. SID fragments with the same m/z but different charge states are well-resolved based on distinct spacing between adjacent isotope peaks, and the addition of metal cations and ligands can also be isotopically resolved with the ultrahigh mass resolution available in FT-ICR.

  3. Medical Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesel, D. L.; Antaya, T. A.

    Particle accelerators were initially developed to address specific scientific research goals, yet they were used for practical applications, particularly medical applications, within a few years of their invention. The cyclotron's potential for producing beams for cancer therapy and medical radioisotope production was realized with the early Lawrence cyclotrons and has continued with their more technically advanced successors — synchrocyclotrons, sector-focused cyclotrons and superconducting cyclotrons. While a variety of other accelerator technologies were developed to achieve today's high energy particles, this article will chronicle the development of one type of accelerator — the cyclotron, and its medical applications. These medical and industrial applications eventually led to the commercial manufacture of both small and large cyclotrons and facilities specifically designed for applications other than scientific research.

  4. Startup work on Inshas cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorogushin, M.F.; Strokach, A.P.; Shikhov, V.Ya.; Galchuk, A.V.; Soliman, A.N.; El-Abyad, M.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Saleh, Z.A.; Azzam, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Startup works on the MGC-20 variable energy cyclotron in the Inshas Nuclear Research Center (Egypt) are described. The cyclotron is intended for acceleration of hydrogen and helium ions in a wide energy range (for protons - from 5 to 20 MeV). Main units of the cyclotron and results of computer experimental acceleration of protons to 18 MeV are described. The prospects of furthers investigations are presented [ru

  5. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  6. Cyclotrons: 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron

  7. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  8. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  9. Evaluation of Radiation Exposure to Staff and Environment Dose from [18F]-FDG in PET/CT and Cyclotron Center using Thermoluminescent Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargan, S; Ghafarian, P; Shabestani Monfared, A; Sharafi, A A; Bakhshayeshkaram, M; Ay, M R

    2017-03-01

    PET/CT imaging using [18F]-FDG is utilized in clinical oncology for tumor detecting, staging and responding to therapy procedures. Essential consideration must be taken for radiation staff due to high gamma radiation in PET/CT and cyclotron center. The aim of this study was to assess the staff exposure regarding whole body and organ dose and to evaluate environment dose in PET/CT and cyclotron center. 80 patients participated in this study. Thermoluminescence, electronic personal dosimeter and Geiger-Muller dosimeter were also utilized for measurement purpose. The mean annual equivalent organ dose for scanning operator with regard to lens of eyes, thyroid, breast and finger according to mean±SD value, were 0.262±0.044, 0.256±0.046, 0.257±0.040 and 0.316±0.118, respectively. The maximum and minimum estimated annual whole body doses were observed for injector and the chemist group with values of (3.98±0.021) mSv/yr and (1.64±0.014) mSv/yr, respectively. The observed dose rates were 5.67 µSv/h in uptake room at the distance of 0.5 meter from the patient whereas the value 4.94 and 3.08 µSv/h were recorded close to patient's head in PET/CT room and 3.5 meter from the reception desk. In this study, the injector staff and scanning operator received the first high level and second high level of radiation. This study confirmed that low levels of radiation dose were received by all radiation staff during PET/CT procedure using 18F-FDG due to efficient shielding and using trained radiation staff in PET/CT and cyclotron center of Masih Daneshvari hospital.

  10. Study of diffusion mechanisms of helium atoms in face-centered cubic metals after α - implantation in a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciani, V.; Lucki, G.; Jung, P.

    1984-01-01

    Helium has been homogeneously introduced into gold foils at room temperature by alpha implantation in a CV-28 cyclotron. After implantation the helium release was observed in isothermal and linear heating experiments. The diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behaviour with D sub(o) = 0.1 cm 2 /s and ΔH = 1.7 eV. Possible diffusion mechanisms are discussed. (Author) [pt

  11. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  12. How cyclotrons work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.

    1992-01-01

    The operating principles of a cyclic accelerator are presented based on the IBA Cyclone 30 negative ion cyclotron, selected for the Australia's first medical cyclotron. Its main features are: acceleration with variable energy of between 15-30 million electron volts, the capability of extracting two beams simultaneously, low power consumption, easy maintenance. Other aspects not directly related to the principle of operation discussed include the vacuum and the radio-frequency systems as well as the complex computerized control system used to automatically control start-up and shut-down operations. ills

  13. Revitalizing Complex Analysis: A Transition-to-Proof Course Centered on Complex Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A new transition course centered on complex topics would help in revitalizing complex analysis in two ways: first, provide early exposure to complex functions, sparking greater interest in the complex analysis course; second, create extra time in the complex analysis course by eliminating the "complex precalculus" part of the course. In…

  14. Study to master "1"8F-FDG radiopharmaceutical production process by Korean Cyclotron KOTRONS 13 MeV at Hanoi Irradiation Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quang Anh; Tran Manh Thang; Dam Thi Tam; Mai Van Vinh

    2016-01-01

    A PET Cyclotron center is built in Hanoi Irradiation Center (HIC), VINATOM and expectation put in operation in the middle of 2016. Three main processes in "1"8F-FDG synthesis general process of Samyoung Unitech synthesizer module were studied as: effect of time to water removal process, effect of time to nucleophilic substitution reaction, and effect of temperature and time to hydrolysis process. The optimum parameters are collected and re-installed for "1"8F-FDG synthesizer module to achieve highest yield. The human resource was trained basic to advanced theoretical and practical training programs of 18F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical Production by Vietnamese and Korean senior experts in HICs facility for this project. After training courses, the human resource is able to produce and quality control "1"8F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical in different modules and quality control systems such as GE-MX (GE), Synthera (IBA), and Samyoung Unitech (SYU). "1"8F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical was produced in HIC achieves British Pharmacopeia (BP) standards and tested in animals. Animal PET/CT scanner images show clearly distribution of FDG according to physiological characters. Besides, this project were establishing "1"8F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical Production Process by cyclotron KOTRONS13 and Samyoung Unitech synthesizer module and Quality Assurance, Quality Control Process attain BP standards at Hanoi Irradiation Center; and establishing the training documents for practical production human resource training, "1"8F-FDG radiopharmaceutical Quality Assurance Process, Quality Control Process which attain BP standards. (author)

  15. Medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons as tools for therapy and for the production of radionuclides for use in nuclear medicine have been extensively reviewed in the literature. The current world status with respect to cyclotrons used primarily for research, development and application in nuclear medicine is reviewed here in the context of geographical distribution and type of use, presently available commercial types, machine characteristics and trends. Aspects of design requirements from a user perspective such as machine, beam and target characteristics are covered. Some special problems concerning many factors which can lead to effective production of the desired radionuclide or product are considered in light of machine characteristics. Consideration is also given to future directions for accelerators in nuclear medicine

  16. A new cyclotron for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for replacing the old AEG Compact Cyclotron (built in 1969/71) of the Institute for Radiology and Pathophysiology at the German Cancer Research Center by a 30 MeV H - /15 MeV D - cyclotron. A status report is followed by the scientific and technical reasoning as well as budgetary and organizational considerations. In the appendix we tried to explain the function of a cyclotron in a simple and comprehensive manner. (orig.) [de

  17. Study of helium diffusion, implanted at a cyclotron, in face-centered cubic metals: Au, Ag and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciani, V.

    1985-01-01

    Helium in metals is produced by nuclear reactions of energetic particles. In nuclear technology the interest on helium in metals is import, due to its production by (n, α) reaction. Because helium has extremely low solubility in metals, the precipitation in the form of filled bubbles at elevated temperatures occurs, which have detrimental effects on mechanical properties and may limit the lifetime of structural components. One typical example is the high temperature embrittlement. The nucleation and growth of the bubbles strongly depends on the mobility of the helium. This work presents the study of helium diffusion in Au, Ag and Al at temperatures above room temperature. The helium created by (n, α) reactions has been simulated by homogeneous alpha particles implantation in cyclotron, at room temperature, in specimens of thicknesses between 5 and 50 μm and helium concentration between 10 -3 to 10 ppm. After implantation, the specimens were dropped in a furnace in a UHV-chamber and the diffusion was measured by observing the He-release during linear and isothermal annealings. The occurence of free diffusion was comparing the dependence of release kinetics on helium concentration, sample thickness, time and heating rate to diffusion theory and is clearly separeted from agglomeration process. The diffusion constants of helium in Au, Ag and Al follow an Arrhenius behavior, with: Au:D o =10 -1.0 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.70eV Ag:D 0 =10 -1.2 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.51eV Al:D o =10 +0.5 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.40eV. The results are compared to self-diffusion and to the diffusion of other gases in these metals. Comparison with theoretical estimates favours the vacancy mechanism for helium diffusion in Au, Ag and Al. (author) [pt

  18. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  19. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  20. Advances in superconducting cyclotrons at MSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.; Antaya, T.; Au, R.

    1987-01-01

    Intensive work on superconducting cyclotrons began at MSU in late 1973 (a brief earlier study had occurred in the early 1960's) and continues vigorously at present. One large cyclotron, the ''K500'', has been operating for a number of years, a second, the ''K800'', is nearing completion, the first operating tests of its magnet having occurred at the time of the previous conference, and a third, the ''medical cyclotron'', is now also nearing completion with first operation of its magnet expected just after the present conference. These cyclotrons like other superconducting cyclotrons are all dramatically smaller than comparable room temperature machines; overall weight is typically about 1/20th of that of room temperature cyclotrons of the same energy. This large reduction in the quantities of materials is partially offset by added complexity, but finally, a net overall cost savings of 50 to 70 % typically results; as a consequence the superconducting cyclotron is widely viewed as the cyclotron of the future. The thirteen years of experience at MSU involving three of these cyclotrons, together with much important work at other laboratories, gives a rather clear view of the advantages and disadvantages of various design approaches including by now a rather significant period of long term evaluation. This paper reviews highlights of this program. (author)

  1. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  2. Information Center Complex publications and presentations, 1971-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, A.B.; Hawthorne, S.W.

    1981-08-01

    This indexed bibliography lists publications and presentations of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, from 1971 through 1980. The 659 entries cover such topics as toxicology, air and water pollution, management and transportation of hazardous wastes, energy resources and conservation, and information science. Publications range in length from 1 page to 3502 pages and include topical reports, books, journal articles, fact sheets, and newsletters. Author, title, and group indexes are provided. Annual updates are planned

  3. Information Center Complex publications and presentations, 1971-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, A.B.; Hawthorne, S.W.

    1981-08-01

    This indexed bibliography lists publications and presentations of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, from 1971 through 1980. The 659 entries cover such topics as toxicology, air and water pollution, management and transportation of hazardous wastes, energy resources and conservation, and information science. Publications range in length from 1 page to 3502 pages and include topical reports, books, journal articles, fact sheets, and newsletters. Author, title, and group indexes are provided. Annual updates are planned.

  4. Computer design of a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing Wang; Huanfeng Hao; Qinggao Yao; Jinquan Zhang; Mingtao Song; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Smirnov, V.L.; Hongwei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Here we present results of the computer design of the structural elements of a compact cyclotron by the example of HITFiL cyclotron selected as the driving accelerator that is under construction at the Institute of Modern Physics (Lanzhou, China). In the article a complex approach to modeling of the compact cyclotron, including calculation of electromagnetic fields of the structural elements and beam dynamics calculations, is described. The existing design data on the axial injection, magnetic, acceleration and extraction systems of the cyclotron are used as a starting point in the simulation. Some of the upgrades of the cyclotron structural elements were proposed, which led to substantial improvement of the beam quality and transmission

  5. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  6. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  7. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-01-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes

  8. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  9. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  10. Medical cyclotron basic concepts and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    More than 3000 nuclides are known, of which approximately 2700 are radioactive, and rest are stable. The majority of radionuclides are artificially produced in the reactor and cyclotron. In a cyclotron, Charge particle such as proton, Deuteron, á (Alpha) particle, 3 He particles and so forth are accelerated in circular paths within the Dees under vacuum by means of an electromagnetic field. These accelerated particles can possess few KeV to several BeV of kinetic energy depending on the design of the cyclotron. At our setup we have an 11 MeV dual beam multi target cyclotron which is capable producing 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F and 2 F radioisotopes and all have been successfully produced and tested in our lab. Earlier cyclotrons were the best source of high-energy beams for nuclear physics experiments; several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of research. Cyclotrons can be used to treat cancer. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used, as in proton therapy. The positron emitting isotopes are suitable for PET imaging. As discussed we are producing mainly Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13, Oxygen-15, and Fluorine-18: These are positron emitters used in PET for studying brain physiology and pathology, in particular for localizing epileptic focus, and in dementia, psychiatry and neuropharmacology studies. So these are having significant role in diagnosis of Oncological, Neurological and Cardiological disorder. More than ninety percent we are producing 18 F in FDG. 18 F in FDG (Flouro-Deoxy-glucose) has become very important in detection of cancers and the monitoring of progress in their treatment, using PET. Medical cyclotron is complex equipment requiring delicate handling by highly trained personnel. The aim of this article is to highlight few finer aspects of Medical cyclotron operation, including precautions for safety and smooth functioning of this sophisticated equipment. (author)

  11. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  12. Reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Langkau, R; Schirm, N [Hamburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1976-04-01

    A system for the reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the energy-variable Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron comprising beam pulse supression in the cyclotron center and in the external beam is described.

  13. Cyclotron beam dynamic simulations in MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamysheva, G.A.; Karamyshev, O.V.; Lepkina, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    MATLAB is useful for beam dynamic simulations in cyclotrons. Programming in an easy-to-use environment permits creation of models in a short space of time. Advanced graphical tools of MATLAB give good visualization features to created models. The beam dynamic modeling results with an example of two different cyclotron designs are presented. Programming with MATLAB opens wide possibilities of the development of the complex program, able to perform complete block of calculations for the design of the accelerators

  14. Medical applications of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.; Fauchet, M.

    1978-01-01

    Isochronous cyclotrons used to accelerate different charged particles (protons, deuterons, alphas...) at variable energies, have important medical applications, for neutron teletherapy, in vivo or in vitro activation analysis or production of short-lived radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. The characteristics of the cyclotron presently available are described for these three applications (low energy 'compact' cyclotrons, cyclotrons of intermediate and high energies), and their advantages are discussed from the points of view of the medical requirements, the financial investments and the results obtained. (orig.) [de

  15. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactors, nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; atomic and materials studies; nuclear theory; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  16. Cumulative complexity: a functional, patient-centered model of patient complexity can improve research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Nathan D; Shah, Nilay D; May, Carl R; Mair, Frances S; Montori, Victor M

    2012-10-01

    To design a functional, patient-centered model of patient complexity with practical applicability to analytic design and clinical practice. Existing literature on patient complexity has mainly identified its components descriptively and in isolation, lacking clarity as to their combined functions in disrupting care or to how complexity changes over time. The authors developed a cumulative complexity model, which integrates existing literature and emphasizes how clinical and social factors accumulate and interact to complicate patient care. A narrative literature review is used to explicate the model. The model emphasizes a core, patient-level mechanism whereby complicating factors impact care and outcomes: the balance between patient workload of demands and patient capacity to address demands. Workload encompasses the demands on the patient's time and energy, including demands of treatment, self-care, and life in general. Capacity concerns ability to handle work (e.g., functional morbidity, financial/social resources, literacy). Workload-capacity imbalances comprise the mechanism driving patient complexity. Treatment and illness burdens serve as feedback loops, linking negative outcomes to further imbalances, such that complexity may accumulate over time. With its components largely supported by existing literature, the model has implications for analytic design, clinical epidemiology, and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclotron will not survive yet this year without state support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the project of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak republic is described. On the basis of this project the state joint-stock company Biont was constituted. Small cyclotron is in operation; big cyclotron is in process of manufacture and it will be put in operation in 2007. Small cyclotron will be used for production of radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomograph (PET) in Oncological Institute of St. Elizabeth (in Bratislava) and gamma camera in Central Military Hospital (in Ruzomberok) are constituents of the Biont. The PET will be also in Biont. The hadron therapy of ophthalmic tumors is planned. Financial plans of the Biont up to 2009 are presented

  18. Medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report examines the separate proposals from the Austin Hospital and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for a medical cyclotron facility. The proponents have argued that a cyclotron facility would benefit Australia in areas of patient care, availability and export of radioisotopes, and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and neutron beam therapy are also examined

  19. 20 years Rossendorf cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of initiating of the Rossendorf cyclotron accounts are given of most important works and results in the field of accelerator engineering and utilization of this machine. The reports show the trend of development and actual spectrum of application. The enclosed literature lists give a survey of technical and experimental works at cyclotron. (author)

  20. Radiological practices using dosimetric films and electronic dosimeters in F-18 production at cyclotron complex center at IEN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Osvaldir P. dos; Silva, J.C.P.; Silva, Luiz Carlos Reina P. da

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, guide and correct radiological practices based on dose rate values obtained from dosimetric films and electronic dosimeters used by technicians involved in Fluorine-18 production facilities at IEN/CNEN. Standard statistical methods have been used to analyze and to evaluate these results. The comparison between these results is the first step to orient decisions concerning radiological practices. Besides, radiometric routine surveys are under evaluation in order to improve radiological control in these facility areas. The electronic dosimeters provide the technicians immediate reading and this help them take protective action immediately. So the comparison between dosimetric film and electronic dosimeters data will provide information about how the recently employed electronic dosimeters are being used and what corrections in their practical use are necessary in order to achieve correct practices. In addition the results and observations obtained will be very important to implement possible changes in radiological routine practices in order to optimize them and keep occupationally exposed individuals radiological dose rates, as low as reasonably achievable, according to ALARA principle. (author)

  1. Vancouver Cyclotron Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Although no longer on the high energy frontier, the cyclotron field is still a major scientific growth area. Its progress is highlighted at the international conference on cyclotron design, development and utilization held at intervals of about three years, under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). Vancouver, surrounded by mountains, water and some cyclotrons, provided a pleasant setting for the 13th Conference, held last summer. With over 200 cyclotrons in operation around the world, the attendance, 241 delegates and 26 industrial exhibitors, was a near record, reflecting the flourishing state of the field. The early sessions covered the initial operation of new or upgraded cyclotron facilities. Major facilities completed since the previous Conference in Berlin in May 1989 included the 400 MeV ring cyclotron at Osaka, the U400M cyclotron at Dubna which will be coupled to the U400 to give 20 MeV nucléon uranium beams, the 130 MeV cyclotron at Jyvaskyla (in Finland, the furthest north!), the 110 MeV JAERI machine in Japan, and the 65 MeV proton therapy cyclotron in Nice. Among the facility upgrades were the KFA cyclotron at Julich which will inject the 2.5 GeV storage ring COSY, and the addition of an FM mode to the K=200 CW mode at Uppsala to give protons up to 180 MeV. The impressive current of 1.5 mA at 72 MeV obtained from the PSI Injector II will soon be injected into the 590 MeV ring

  2. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  3. Synthesis and quality control of 2-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose radiopharmaceuticals at Center of 30 MeV Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Thanh Quang

    2011-01-01

    Positron Pharmaceuticals of 2-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose ( 18 F-FDG) is being produced routinely on Centre of 30 MeV cyclotron. Daily productions including the main stages are: Target of oxygen-18 rich water is irradiated by accelerated proton beam to create fluorine-18; Synthesis of 18 F-FDG use precursor manotriflate and quality control of the final product of 18 F-FDG is carried out as requirements of British Pharmacopoeia. Accounting until 11 Nov., 2010 the centre was in operation for 1 year. With capacity production of 3.5-4 Ci of 18 F-FDG/day, the centre has supplied 18 F-FDG for 150 patients imagined PET in the military central hospital and delivered 2035 mCi of 18 F-FDG for cancer centres of Bach Mai and Viet Duc hospitals. (author)

  4. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  5. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  6. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic coil which forms the first section of the proton extraction channel in the improved synchro-cyclotron. The photograph shows the positioning gear and the current septum. An extraction efficiency above 50% is expected.

  8. Fe- and Cu-complex formation with artificial ligands investigated by ultra-high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS: Implications for natural metal-organic complex studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Waska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS has been increasingly used to complement the bulk determination of metal-ligand equilibria, for example via competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV. However, ESI-MS speciation analyses may be impacted by instrumental artefacts such as reduction reactions, fragmentation, and adduct formation at the ESI source, changes in the ionization efficiencies of the detected species in relation to sample matrix, and peak overlaps in response to increasing sample complexity. In our study, equilibria of the known artificial ligands citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (NN, and salicylaldoxime (SA with iron (Fe and copper (Cu were investigated by ultra-high resolution ESI-MS, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, under a variety of sample matrix and ionization settings. The acquired mass spectra were compared with metal-ligand equilibrium data from the literature as well as an adapted speciation model. Overall, the mass spectra produced representative species mentioned in previous reports and predicted by the speciation calculations, such as Fe(Cit, Cu(Cit2, Fe(EDTA, Cu(EDTA, Fe(NN3, and Cu(SA2. The analyses furthermore revealed new species which had been hypothesized but not measured directly using other methods, for example ternary complexes of citrate with Fe and Cu, Cu(SA monomers, and the dimer Fe(SA2. Finally, parallel measurements of a Cu+SA calibration series and a Cu+SA+EDTA competition series indicated that FT-ICR-MS can produce linear responses and low detection limits analogous to those of ACSV. We propose that ultra-high resolution FT-ICR-MS can be used as a representative tool to study interactions of trace metals with artificial as well as natural, unknown ligands at the molecular level.

  9. Bio-Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells Incorporating Reaction Center and Reaction Center Plus Light Harvesting Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Houman

    Harvesting solar energy can potentially be a promising solution to the energy crisis now and in the future. However, material and processing costs continue to be the most important limitations for the commercial devices. A key solution to these problems might lie within the development of bio-hybrid solar cells that seeks to mimic photosynthesis to harvest solar energy and to take advantage of the low material costs, negative carbon footprint, and material abundance. The bio-photoelectrochemical cell technologies exploit biomimetic means of energy conversion by utilizing plant-derived photosystems which can be inexpensive and ultimately the most sustainable alternative. Plants and photosynthetic bacteria harvest light, through special proteins called reaction centers (RCs), with high efficiency and convert it into electrochemical energy. In theory, photosynthetic RCs can be used in a device to harvest solar energy and generate 1.1 V open circuit voltage and ~1 mA cm-2 short circuit photocurrent. Considering the nearly perfect quantum yield of photo-induced charge separation, efficiency of a protein-based solar cell might exceed 20%. In practice, the efficiency of fabricated devices has been limited mainly due to the challenges in the electron transfer between the protein complex and the device electrodes as well as limited light absorption. The overarching goal of this work is to increase the power conversion efficiency in protein-based solar cells by addressing those issues (i.e. electron transfer and light absorption). This work presents several approaches to increase the charge transfer rate between the photosynthetic RC and underlying electrode as well as increasing the light absorption to eventually enhance the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of bio-hybrid solar cells. The first approach is to decrease the electron transfer distance between one of the redox active sites in the RC and the underlying electrode by direct attachment of the of protein complex

  10. 83-inch cyclotron research program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.C.

    1983-07-01

    In June of 1960 the US Atomic Energy Commission authorized the construction of a modern variable energy cyclotron facility at The University of Michigan to be used for research in nuclear spectroscopy. The Legislature of the State of Michigan made available funds for construction of a building to house the 83-inch cyclotron and auxiliary equipment as well as the University's remodeled 42-inch cyclotron. The research program centered around the 83-inch cyclotron was funded by the AEC and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), from September 1964 through March 1977. The program represented a continuation of the research effort using the 42-inch cyclotron facility which had been supported continuously by the AEC since February 1950. This final report to DOE briefly describes the research facility, the research program, and highlights the principal accomplishments of the effort. It begins with a historical note to place this effort within the context of nuclear physics research in the Department of Physics of the University of Michigan

  11. Development of HM12 cyclotron for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takuzo; Kawama, Tetsuo; Fujii, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, there are at present more than 30 PET (Positron Emission Tomography) facilities. The movements of medical insurance application to the PET diagnosis using [ 18 F] FDG (2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose) by the Ministry of Health and Welfare are being enhanced by PET related people. Therefore, more clinical centers using PET system are expected to be built in the near future. HM12 cyclotron was developed to meet such market demands for PET, and the prototype machine has been rent to Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University since Oct. 1998 for their use of clinical research with positron emitters like 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F. We got many technical data of HM12 Cyclotron on the clinical base. The data was enough to establish the reliability of HM12 system operation under the clinical condition. The first commercial product of HM12 Cyclotron was delivered to National Cancer Center in March 2000. The final performance test will be finished by the end of June 2000. (author)

  12. New superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Hans-Udo; Baumgarten, Christian; Geisler, Andreas; Heese, Juergen; Hobl, Achim; Krischel, Detlef; Schillo, Michael; Schmidt, Stefan; Timmer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Since one and a half decades ACCEL is investing in development and engineering of state of the art particle-therapy systems. A new medical superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron with special focus on the present and future beam requirements of fast scanning treatment systems has been designed. The first new ACCEL medical proton cyclotron is under commissioning at PSI for their PROSCAN proton therapy facility having undergone successful factory tests especially of the closed loop cryomagnetic system. The second cyclotron is part of ACCEL's integrated proton therapy system for Europe's first clinical center, RPTC in Munich. The cyclotron, the energy selection system, the beamline as well as the four gantries and patient positioners have been installed. The scanning system and major parts of the control software have already been tested. We will report on the concept of ACCEL's superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems and the current status of the commissioning work at PSI and RPTC

  13. Slow wave cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Lin, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclotron masers such as Gyrotrons and the Autoresonance Masers, are fast wave devices: the electromagnetic wave's phase velocity v rho , is greater than the electron beam velocity, v b . To be able to convert the beam kinetic energy into radiation in these devices the beam must have an initial transverse momentum, usually obtained by propagating the beam through a transverse wiggler magnet, or along a nonuniform guide magnetic field before entry into the interaction region. Either process introduces a significant amount of thermal spread in the beam which degrades the performance of the maser. However, if the wave phase velocity v rho v b , the beam kinetic energy can be converted directly into radiation without the requirement of an initial transverse beam momentum, making a slow wave cyclotron maser a potentially simpler and more compact device. The authors present the linear and nonlinear physics of the slow wave cyclotron maser and examine its potential for practical application

  14. Building diversity in a complex academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South-Paul, Jeannette E; Roth, Loren; Davis, Paula K; Chen, Terence; Roman, Anna; Murrell, Audrey; Pettigrew, Chenits; Castleberry-Singleton, Candi; Schuman, Joel

    2013-09-01

    For 30 years, the many diversity-related health sciences programs targeting the University of Pittsburgh undergraduate campus, school of medicine, schools of the health sciences, clinical practice plan, and medical center were run independently and remained separate within the academic health center (AHC). This lack of coordination hampered their overall effectiveness in promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2007, a group of faculty and administrators from the university and the medical center recognized the need to improve institutional diversity and to better address local health disparities. In this article, the authors describe the process of linking the efforts of these institutions in a way that would be successful locally and applicable to other academic environments. First, they engaged an independent consultant to conduct a study of the AHC's diversity climate, interviewing current and former faculty and trainees to define the problem and identify areas for improvement. Next, they created the Physician Inclusion Council to address the findings of this study and to coordinate future efforts with institutional leaders. Finally, they formed four working committees to address (1) communications and outreach, (2) cultural competency, (3) recruitment, and (4) mentoring and retention. These committees oversaw the strategic development and implementation of all diversity and inclusion efforts. Together these steps led to structural changes within the AHC and the improved allocation of resources that have positioned the University of Pittsburgh to achieve not only diversity but also inclusion and to continue to address the health disparities in the Pittsburgh community.

  15. Cyclotron to Oslo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstad, J.

    1978-01-01

    The new cyclotron was delivered to Oslo University on September 21st 1978, and was mannfactured by A/B Scandtronix of Uppsala, Sweden. The contract price was 6,8 million Norwegian kroner and installation will cost a further 4 million. The main specifications are given. The energy will be 36 MeV for protons and alpha particles, 18 MeV deuterons and 48 MeV for helium 3. The principle of a cyclotron is briefly described. While the primary purpose of the machine is nuclear research it is also planned to produce short-lived radioisotopes, primarily iodine 123. (JIW)

  16. National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Rex.

    1991-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron, under construction at Sydney's Royal Prince Alfred Hospital(RPAH) is to be operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization in collaboration with the hospital. Its main purpose is to produce radioisotopes on commercial basis for distribution to hospitals through Australia as well as short-lived radioisotopes (2 minutes to 2 hours) for immediate application at RPAH in Positron Emission Tomography, to study the dynamics of human physiology and metabolism in organs, bones and soft tissues. A list of the principal cyclotron-produced radionuclides is provided. ills

  17. Ramifide resonators for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The resonators with the conductors ramified form for cyclotrons are systematized and separated into the self-contained class - the ramified resonators for cyclotrons (Carr). The ramified resonators are compared with the quarter-wave and half-wave nonramified resonators, accomplished from the transmitting lines fragments. The CRR are classified into two types: ones with the additional structural element, switched in parallel and in series. The CRR may include several additional structural elements. The CRR calculations may be concluded by analytical methods - the method of matrix calculation or the method of telegraph equations and numerical methods - by means of the ISFEL3D, MAFIA and other programs [ru

  18. Radiation exposure to workers at cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.; Sanches, M.P.; Sanchez, A.S.; Rodrigues, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals quickly furnish the information doctors need to establish a precise diagnosis of the patient's condition, and therefore to prescribe the most effective therapy. In cancerology, F18-FDG, the most widely used PET imaging tracer, excels in the early detection of cancer tumors, even very tiny ones, which it locates and clearly distinguishes from healthy surrounding tissues. IPEN-CNEN/SP has two cyclotron accelerators used mainly for radioisotope production to be utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The first is a CV-28 cyclotron, variable energy that came into operation in 1982, which was used to produce F18-FDG and Iodine 123 up to 1998. The second, a Cyclone 30 cyclotron, 30 MeV, commenced operation in 1998 for certification purpose, and due to increase demand for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil, started F18-FDG production in 1999. Cyclotron Laboratory will be a reference Research and Developing Center in our country and will help the Brazilian and Latin-American community. It is necessary to have an adequate database to allow regular follow up and analysis of the individual dose distributions for each group involved in the cyclotron activities. These databases are also important means to assess the effectiveness of efforts in order to maintain doses ALARA and reduce inequalities. The official individual occupational dosimetry is provided by certified Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry at IPEN-CNEN/SP. This paper describes the occupational doses distribution in Laboratory of Cyclotrons at IPEN-CNEN/SP from January, 1998 to July, 2000 and propose improvements for the future. (author)

  19. Romanian complex data center for dense seismic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ionescu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

  1. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  2. Biomedical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, N.S.; Birdsall, R.; Takahaski, J.; McConnel, L.; Wood, R.; Wakakuwa, S.

    1976-01-01

    During the fifth year of operation the mechanical performance of the cyclotron and accessory equipment was excellent. Major items put into operation were a small computer system interfaced with Ge-Li gamma spectrometer and a pneumatic-tube system for fast delivery of short-lived radionuclides. A table is presented listing the radionuclides produced

  3. The Medical Cyclotron Facility in RMC, Parel, BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishna, Arjun; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    The Medical Cyclotron Facility in Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is the first one of its kind, installed in 2002. "1"8F based radiotracers are produced in this facility on a routine basis for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), of in-house patients, as well as for supply to other nuclear medicine centers in Mumbai as well as Pune. The facility consists of the following sub parts - Cyclotron and support equipment; Radiochemistry synthesis laboratory; Quality control (QC) laboratory

  4. Technical Note: Defining cyclotron-based clinical scanning proton machines in a FLUKA Monte Carlo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Francesca; Schreuder, Niek; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Cyclotron-based pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton machines represent nowadays the majority and most affordable choice for proton therapy facilities, however, their representation in Monte Carlo (MC) codes is more complex than passively scattered proton system- or synchrotron-based PBS machines. This is because degraders are used to decrease the energy from the cyclotron maximum energy to the desired energy, resulting in a unique spot size, divergence, and energy spread depending on the amount of degradation. This manuscript outlines a generalized methodology to characterize a cyclotron-based PBS machine in a general-purpose MC code. The code can then be used to generate clinically relevant plans starting from commercial TPS plans. The described beam is produced at the Provision Proton Therapy Center (Knoxville, TN, USA) using a cyclotron-based IBA Proteus Plus equipment. We characterized the Provision beam in the MC FLUKA using the experimental commissioning data. The code was then validated using experimental data in water phantoms for single pencil beams and larger irregular fields. Comparisons with RayStation TPS plans are also presented. Comparisons of experimental, simulated, and planned dose depositions in water plans show that same doses are calculated by both programs inside the target areas, while penumbrae differences are found at the field edges. These differences are lower for the MC, with a γ(3%-3 mm) index never below 95%. Extensive explanations on how MC codes can be adapted to simulate cyclotron-based scanning proton machines are given with the aim of using the MC as a TPS verification tool to check and improve clinical plans. For all the tested cases, we showed that dose differences with experimental data are lower for the MC than TPS, implying that the created FLUKA beam model is better able to describe the experimental beam. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists

  5. Survey on radionuclide producing using cyclotron method in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fadli Mohammad Noh

    2008-01-01

    This research discuss about basic design and systems of medical cyclotron that Malaysia currently have, its applications in radionuclide production and upcoming technologies of cyclotron. Surveys have been carried out on cyclotron facilities at Hospital Putrajaya and Wijaya International Medical Center, WIMC as well as reactor facility at Malaysia Nuclear Agency. The sources in this research also involves on-line and library searches. Information obtained are recorded, categorized, synthesized and discussed. systems of cyclotron of Hospital Putrajaya are further discussed in details. Based from the surveys carried out, it is found out that cyclotron facilities both in Hospital Putrajaya and WIMC only produce ( 18 F)FDG with radioactivity of 18 F produced in 2007 are 16479 mCi and 92546 mCi respectively. Survey also revealed that radioisotope production at Nuclear Malaysia has had its operation been ceased. A new radiopharmaceutical, namely CHOL is suggested to be synthesized by both facilities as a new PET tracer. Latest developments concerning technologies of cyclotron as well as other accelerators such as laser for future medical accelerator, prospect of boron neutron capture and the potential of hadron therapy in Malaysia are discussed here. Radioisotope production in Malaysia is expected to keep booming in future due to increase in usage of PET techniques and the construction of more compact, easy to handle and less costly cyclotrons. (author)

  6. Goodbye Synchro-Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-12-15

    On 17 December, after having seen many other physics machines come and go during its 33-year career, CERN's 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC) is being shut down. Judged simply by its length (to say nothing of its quality), the research career of this machine testifies to the wisdom and imagination of the CERN pioneers who proposed it in the early 1950s.

  7. Goodbye Synchro-Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    On 17 December, after having seen many other physics machines come and go during its 33-year career, CERN's 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC) is being shut down. Judged simply by its length (to say nothing of its quality), the research career of this machine testifies to the wisdom and imagination of the CERN pioneers who proposed it in the early 1950s

  8. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  9. Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, R.W.; Vulto, S.I.E.; Jones, M.R.; van Grondelle, R.; Kraayenhof, R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for

  10. Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, R.W.; Vulto, S.I.E.; Jones, M.R.; van Grondelle, R.; Kraayenhof, R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for

  11. Development of baby cyclotron for PET in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, J.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Hu, J.Y.; Shin, Y.C.; Yoon, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a 13 MeV cyclotron for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been in progress since April 1999 at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital (KCCH). The study has been carried out in a joint collaboration between KCCH and the Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). Increasing desire for an uninterrupted, reliable and timely supply of the isotopes to customers has prompted obtaining a dedicated 5-13 MeV cyclotron for PET applications and pursuing the purchase of another 30MeV medical cyclotron in the very near future. A decision has been made to design the PET cyclotron in Korea. This will not only ease the problems associated with maintenance during operation but also keep the door open for continuous upgrading of the machine in the future

  12. CLASSIFICATION AND COMPLEX STATE VALUE OF SHOPPING CENTERS: PROJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Павлович РАК

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Was done the analysis of projects objects of trade and entertainment centers from the perspective of improving the life safety and is proposed the definition of "Trade and entertainment center", "Trade and entertainment center" and "Complex value of trade and entertainment center." A classification of shopping centers on the classification criteria and the criteria are characterized by increased security status and attractiveness of their operation. The classification of trade and entertainment centers on the criteria of classification features were made. It characterizes the security situation and will increase the attractiveness of their operation. In the nearest future the most secure and modern TEC will be those buildings who will have unique qualities such as safety systems, excellent customer service, and thus by a high level of trust (the client to the mall. The important role will play those TEC, who have clearly formed value oriented project management, including communication values using innovative methods and models. Trade and entertainment centers as an organization are included in the complex process of interaction management. They being both as an enterprise that serves the public and satisfying a great range of his interests and architectural site, which is leased and increases the business attractiveness of the district of TEC location. This duality of the essence of TEC center makes difficult to assess the effectiveness of its security.

  13. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3 He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  14. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures - Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jasmine; Carré, Vincent; Le Brech, Yann; Mackay, Colin Logan; Dufour, Anthony; Mašek, Ondřej; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C x H y O z with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in tokamak and EBT configurations has been studied using 1-2/2 and 2-1/2 dimensional fully self-consistent electromagnetic particle codes. We have tested two major antenna configurations; we have also compared heating efficiencies for one and two ion species plasmas. We model a tokamak plasma with a uniform poloidal field and 1/R toroidal field on a particular q surface. Ion cyclotron waves are excited on the low field side by antennas parallel either to the poloidal direction or to the toroidal direction with different phase velocities. In 2D, minority ion heating (vsub(perpendicular)) and electron heating (vsub(parallel),vsub(perpendicular)) are observed. The exponential electron heating seems due to the decay instability. The minority heating is consistent with mode conversion of fast Alfven waves and heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Minority heating is stronger with a poloidal antenna. The strong electron heating is accompanied by toroidal current generation. In 1D, no thermal instability was observed and only strong minority heating resulted. For an EBT plasma we model it by a multiple mirror. We have tested heating efficiency with various minority concentrations, temperatures, mirror ratios, and phase velocities. In this geometry we have beach or inverse beach heating associated with the mode conversion layer perpendicular to the toroidal field. No appreciable electron heating is observed. Heating of ions is linear in time. For both tokamak and EBT slight majority heating above the collisional rate is observed due to the second harmonic heating. (author)

  16. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  17. Status report on cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, P.; Szuecs, I.; Ander, I.; Lakatos, T.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The operation of the cyclotron in 2003 was again concentrated to 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance, renewal works and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4051 hours. The cyclotron was available for users for 3682 hours. In order to improve the circumstances of the irradiations renewal and improvements were done. (N.T.)

  18. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs

  19. A 600 MeV cyclotron for radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic field design for a 600 MeV proton cyclotron is described. The cyclotron has a single stage, a normal conducting magnet coil and a 9.8 m outside yoke diameter. It has 8 sectors, with a transition to 4 sectors in the center region. The magnetic field design was done using 1958 Harwell rectangular ridge system measurements and was compared with recent 3-dimensional field calculations with the program TOSCA at NSCL. The center region 4--8 sector transition focussing was also checked with TOSCA

  20. A compact cost-effective beamline for a PET Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnel, M.P.; Jackle, P.; Roeder, M.; Stewart, T.; Theroux, J.; Brasile, J.P.; Sirot, P.; Buckley, K.R.; Bedue, M.

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial PET Cyclotrons have targets mounted on or near the main cyclotron vacuum chamber. There is often little or no system capability for centering or focusing the extracted beam on target to achieve maximum production. This paper describes the ion-optics, design and development of a compact cost-effective beamline comprised of low activation and radiation resistant materials. The beamline, complete with suitable diagnostic devices, permits the extracted proton beam to be centered (X-Y steering magnet), and focused (quadrupole doublet) on target eliminating unnecessary beamspill and ensuring high production

  1. Damage by the Great East Japan Earthquake and current status of the Sendai cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshida, Hidetomo; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake has inflicted damages on the accelerator facility of the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University. The K=110 MeV cyclotron was slanted due to the damage of props supporting the cyclotron. The cyclotron building has also been slightly inclined. This situation requires the re-alignment of all the beam transport line and the cyclotron. Some of the shield doors at experimental rooms were broken and blocked the entrance. The earthquake caused also a lot of damages to some components of the cyclotron as well as the beam transport lines, such as beam ducts, magnets, vacuum pumps and power supplies. Fortunately, no one was injured at CYRIC. The restoration work was started on July 2011 and will be completed by July 2012. This report describes the situation of damages and the current status of the restoration work. (author)

  2. Medical cyclotron: why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Kurt; Comar, Dominique; Kellershohn, Claude

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons for medical purposes are particularly useful for the production of radioactive isotopes of elements normally constituting organic matter ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C). The short half-life and positron emission of those elements are of great interest in medical diagnosis. Many others carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced by cyclotrons. Three categories of cyclotrons are mentioned. Desk top cyclotron only adapted to the production of short-lived radioisotopes in a hospital; low energy and average energy cyclotrons which require well-entrained personnel for their operation and are best adapted to the production of radioelements on a regional or even national scale. Examples relative to the interest of short-lived radioisotopes in lung and brain investigations and tumor detection are given

  3. A mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R.

    1988-01-01

    The report addresses the development of a mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET (positron emission tomography) and neutron radiography. Proposals for an ultralight cyclotron were made by Finlan et al., who suggested a novel technique of utilising a superconducting magnet with RF acceleration and iron sectors contained within the room temperature bore of the magnet. Detailed design of a cyclotron based on this concept has progressed well at Oxford Instruments. The main design priorities were to minimise the weight and power consumption of the cyclotron. The cyclotron required a large amount of shielding to reduce either radiation background levels or stray magnetic field. Thus low background levels of radiation and magnetic field are key design criteria. The superconducting magnet has a mean field of 2.35 Tesla and a room temperature bore diameter of 500 mm. Three pairs of profiled iron sectors placed in the center of the warm bore of the magnet provide an azimuthally varying magnetic field. This permits the use of high beam currents with low background. A novel technique is incorporated to reduce the stray magnetic field and radiation from the cyclotron. The RF system consists of three pairs of resonators mounted within the warm bore of the magnet between the iron sectors. (Nogami, K.)

  4. JSW's baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Y.; Kaneda, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Suzukawa, I.; Yamada, T.

    1983-01-01

    Designed by The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., specially for installation in a hospital's medical department and nuclear research laboratory, '' JSW BABY CYCLOTRON '' has been developed to produce short-lived radioisotopes such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F. JSW's Baby Cyclotron has some design features. 1) Fixed energy and four sector azimuthally varying field. 2) Compact figure desired for hospital's nuclear medical department 3) A bitter type magnet yoke shielding activity 4) Simple control and operation 5) Easy maintenance without skilled personnel. Type BC105 (P:10MeV, d:5MeV), BC107 (P:10MeV, d:7MeV), BC168 (P:16MeV, d:8MeV) and BC1710 (P:17MeV, d:10MeV) are available according to required amount of radioisotopes. In our radioisotope production test, yield and purity of 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F are usable to clinical diagnosis

  5. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  6. Atmospheric tracer study of the emissions from the University of Michigan Cyclotron/PET Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scofield, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Michigan (U of M) Cyclotron/Positron Emission Tomography (PET) facility consists of a cyclotron (Model CS-30, The Cyclotron Corporation), radiochemistry laboratory, and Pet scanner. Accelerator-produced radioactive materials, such as, carbon-11 and oxygen-15 are typically emitted from the Cyclotron/PET facility through short stacks located on the roof. This project studied the dispersion of emissions from the facility within the medical complex. To achieve this purpose, the research project had three phases: a physical modeling study; a preliminary field smoke release study; and, a field study using a tracer gas to simulate emission dispersion from the U of M Cyclotron/PET facility vault stack. The objective was to determine normalized concentrations, under selected wind directions and speeds, for use in establishing radionuclide concentrations at the air intakes of the Cyclotron/PET facility and surrounding buildings and at selected ground-level locations

  7. Applied research with cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.; Dmitriev, S.; Gulbekian, G.; Gikal, B.; Ivanov, O.; Reutov, V.; Skuratov, V.

    2005-01-01

    During the past three decades the Flerov laboratory carried out research and development of a number of applications that have found or may find use in modern technologies. One of the applications is the so-called ion track technology enabling us to create micro- and nano-structured materials. Accelerated heavy ion beams are the unique tools for structuring insulating solids in a controllable manner. At FLNR JINR the U-400 cyclotron and the IC-100 cyclotron are employed for irradiation of materials to be modified by the track-etch technique. For practical applications, U-400 delivers the 86 Kr ion beams with total energies of 250, 350, 430 and 750 MeV, and the 136 Xe ion beams with the energy of 430 MeV. The cyclotron is equipped with a specialized channel for irradiation of polymer foils. IC-100 is a compact accelerator specially designed for the technological uses. High-intensity krypton ion beams with the energy of ∼ 1 MeV/u are available now at IC-100. Production of track-etch membranes is an example of mature technology based on irradiation with accelerated ions. The track-etch membranes offer distinct advantages over other types of membranes due to their precisely determined structure. One-pore, oligo-pore and multi-pore samples can serve as models for studying the transport of liquids, gases, particles, solutes, and electrolytes in narrow channels. Track-etch pores are also used as templates for making nano wires, nano tubes or array of nano rods. The microstructures obtained this way may find use in miniaturized devices such as sensors for biologically important molecules. Bulk and surface modification for the production of new composites and materials with special optical properties can be performed with ion beams. Flexible printed circuits, high-performance heat transfer modules, X-ray filters, and protective signs are examples of products developed in collaboration with research and industrial partners. Some recent achievements and promising ideas that

  8. Isochronous cyclotron data base description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, I.N.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Tarashkevich, R.

    2004-01-01

    The relational data base of the control parameters of the isochronous cyclotron, Isochronous Cyclotron Data Base (ICDB), is described. The relational data base under consideration, written in Transact SQL for the MS SQL Server 2000 with the use of MS Enterprise Manager and MS Query Analyzer, was installed on the server of the AIC144 isochronous cyclotron in Krakow, which operates under the control of the operating system MS Windows Server 2003 (Standard Edition). The interface of the data base under considerations is written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ .NET and is built in the Cyclotron Operator Help Program (COHP), which is used for modeling the operational modes of the isochronous cyclotron. Communication between the COHP and the relational data base is realised on the base of the Open Data Base Connectivity protocol. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron is intended: firstly, for systematization and automatic use of all measured and modelled magnetic field maps in the process of modeling the operational modes; secondly, for systematization and convenient access to the stored operational modes; thirdly, for simplifying the operator's work. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron reflects its physical structure and the logic of its operator's work. (author)

  9. Characterizing complexity in socio-technical systems: a case study of a SAMU Medical Regulation Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Angela Weber; Wachs, Priscila; Saurin, Tarcísio Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Complexity theory has been adopted by a number of studies as a benchmark to investigate the performance of socio-technical systems, especially those that are characterized by relevant cognitive work. However, there is little guidance on how to assess, systematically, the extent to which a system is complex. The main objective of this study is to carry out a systematic analysis of a SAMU (Mobile Emergency Medical Service) Medical Regulation Center in Brazil, based on the core characteristics of complex systems presented by previous studies. The assessment was based on direct observations and nine interviews: three of them with regulator of emergencies medical doctor, three with radio operators and three with telephone attendants. The results indicated that, to a great extent, the core characteristics of complexity are magnified) due to basic shortcomings in the design of the work system. Thus, some recommendations are put forward with a view to reducing unnecessary complexity that hinders the performance of the socio-technical system.

  10. Modular beam diagnostics instrument design for Cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaddha, N.; Bhole, R.B.; Sahoo, S.; Nandy, P.P.; Pal, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclotrons at VECC, Kolkata i.e. Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) and Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC) comprise of internal and external Beam Diagnostic systems. These systems provide the beam developer with position, intensity, beam profile, a visual impression of the size and shape of ion beam, and operational control over diagnostic components like 3-finger probe, Beam Viewer probe, Deflector probe, Faraday cup, X-Y slit, Beam viewer etc. Automation of these components was initially done using customised modules for individual sub-system. An expansion of this facility and various levels of complexity demand modular design to cater easy modification and upgradation. The overall requirements are analysed and modular cards are developed based on basic functionalities like valve operation, probe/slit/viewer control, position read-out, Interlock, aperture control of beam line and communication. A 32-bit Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) based card with embedded EPICS is chosen as the master controller and FPGA/microcontroller is used for functional modules. The paper gives a comprehensive description of all modules and their integration with the control system. (author)

  11. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration

  12. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report contains descriptions of research programs carried out by Institute staff, as well as progress on new instrumentation during the period, April 1, 1990, to March 31, 1991. The K500 cyclotron and ECR source provided beam for 4140 hours during the period. The beam was actually available for experiments 1927.50 hours and 1110.50 hours was devoted to developing new beams and exploring cyclotron performance. A wide range of beams from protons to Xe with energies from 2.4 MeV/u to 60 MeV/U have been used in experiments. The highest total energy beam accelerated was 35 MeV/u 63 Cu. The ECR source, made a tremendous improvement in accelerator performance and reliability. Substantial amounts of beam time were devoted to investigations of hot nuclei, electron-positron, giant resonances, atomic effects of high velocity ion beams, astrophysics related reactions and proton and alpha bremsstrahlung. Scientific accomplishments included determination of the heat capacity of nuclei through new insight into the level densities and establishing a lower limit for electron positron resonances a factor of ten better than previous measurements. The proton spectrometer, constructed for studies of the Gamow-Teller interaction is complete, and initial physics measurements will be made in the next few months. All of the BaF 2 crystals have been delivered and acceptance tests are underway. A K=315 MDM spectrometer has been obtained from Oxford University and is scheduled for installation in Spring 1992, after removal of the K=150 Enge split pole spectrometer. Institute groups continue participation in MEGA, instrumentation projects for RHIC, and few nucleon studies at LAMPF and KEK. Reports of these activities are included

  13. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures – Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, Jasmine [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Carré, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.carre@univ-lorraine.fr [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Le Brech, Yann [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mackay, Colin Logan [SIRCAMS, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dufour, Anthony [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mašek, Ondřej [UK Biochar Research Center, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z} with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. - Highlights: • Non-targeted mass spectrometry by combining electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser/desorption ionization. • Exhaustive description of pyrolytic bio-oil components. • Distinction of sugaric derivatives, lignin derivatives and lipids contained in a woody-based pyrolytic bio-oil.

  14. Implementing the patient-centered medical home in complex adaptive systems: Becoming a relationship-centered patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, Signe Peterson

    This study explores the implementation experience of nine primary care practices becoming patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) as part of the New Hampshire Citizens Health Initiative Multi-Stakeholder Medical Home Pilot. The purpose of this study is to apply complex adaptive systems theory and relationship-centered organizations theory to explore how nine diverse primary care practices in New Hampshire implemented the PCMH model and to offer insights for how primary care practices can move from a structural PCMH to a relationship-centered PCMH. Eighty-three interviews were conducted with administrative and clinical staff at the nine pilot practices, payers, and conveners of the pilot between November and December 2011. The interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using both a priori and emergent themes. Although there is value in the structural components of the PCMH (e.g., disease registries), these structures are not enough. Becoming a relationship-centered PCMH requires attention to reflection, sensemaking, learning, and collaboration. This can be facilitated by settings aside time for communication and relationship building through structured meetings about PCMH components as well as the implementation process itself. Moreover, team-based care offers a robust opportunity to move beyond the structures to focus on relationships and collaboration. (a) Recognize that PCMH implementation is not a linear process. (b) Implementing the PCMH from a structural perspective is not enough. Although the National Committee for Quality Assurance or other guidelines can offer guidance on the structural components of PCMH implementation, this should serve only as a starting point. (c) During implementation, set aside structured time for reflection and sensemaking. (d) Use team-based care as a cornerstone of transformation. Reflect on team structures and also interactions of the team members. Taking the time to reflect will facilitate greater sensemaking and learning and

  15. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  16. Present and future superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review of the status of present superconducting (SC) cyclotron projects, including the two which are currently operating and the six which are under construction. The next section summarizes the main features shared by five of these machines, while the third section presents recent developments and new concepts introduced in the other three ''second generation'' SC cyclotrons. Projects in early stages of development are discussed in the fourth section

  17. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  18. Ion cyclotron resonant heating 2 x 1700 loop antenna for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C.A.; Ferguson, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanical design and improvements that have taken place on the loop type ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas that are located in the center cell region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

  19. Radiation protection problems by the operation of the cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcik, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center in Bratislava will consist of two cyclotrons. First - cyclotron DC-72 with maximal energy of 72 MV for protons for making experiments, for teaching process, for radioisotope production as 123 I and for neutron and proton therapy. Second - compact cyclotron with maximal proton energy of 18 MeV will be used for radioisotopes production for medical diagnosis as 1 *F (fluorodeoxyglucose), 81 Rb/ 81 Kr generator. This paper deals with the radiation protection problems by the operation of tis cyclotron facility as radiation protection of workers, monitoring plan, ventilation, safety lock and limitation and radiation monitoring. For proposed and continuing practices at the accelerator facility, the following general principles have to be fulfilled: (1) practices should produce sufficient benefit to offset the radiation detriment they case (justification); (2) the magnitude of the individual doses should be kept as low as achievable (optimization of protection); (3) individual exposures are subject to dose limits and some control of risk from potential exposures (dose and risk limits)

  20. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  1. Tachyonic cyclotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    2006-01-01

    We study superluminal cyclotron emission by electrons and muons in semiclassical orbits. The tachyonic line spectra of hydrogenic ions such as H, 56 Fe 25+ , and 238 U 91+ , as well as their muonic counterparts pμ - , 56 Fe 26+ μ - and 238 U 92+ μ - are calculated, in particular the tachyonic power transversally and longitudinally radiated, the total intensity, and the power radiated in the individual harmonics. We also investigate tachyonic continuum radiation from electrons and protons cycling in the surface and light cylinder fields of γ -ray and millisecond pulsars, such as the Crab pulsar, PSR B1509-58, and PSR J0218 + 4232. The superluminal spectral densities generated by non-relativistic, mildly relativistic and ultra-relativistic source particles are derived. We study the parameters determining the global shape of the transversal and longitudinal densities and the energy scales of the broadband spectrum. The observed cutoff frequency in the γ-ray band of the pulsars is used to infer the upper edge of the orbital energy, and we conclude that electrons and nuclei cycling in the surface fields can reach energies beyond the ''ankle'' of the cosmic ray spectrum. This suggests γ-ray pulsars as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  2. Parameterization of the prosthetic redox centers of the bacterial cytochrome bc(1) complex for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaszuba, K.; Postila, P. A.; Cramariuc, O.

    2013-01-01

    studied in large-scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In part, this is due to lack of suitable force field parameters, centered atomic point charges in particular, for the complex's prosthetic redox centers. Accurate redox center charges are needed to depict realistically the inter-molecular...... interactions at different redox stages of the cyt bc(1) complex. Accordingly, here we present high-precision atomic point charges for the metal centers of the cyt bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus derived from extensive density functional theory calculations, fitted using the restrained electrostatic...

  3. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Five-year report, September 15, 1987--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter; Darvill, Alan

    1992-05-01

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) is the home of ten independent but complementary interdisciplinary research groups led by nine regular faculty and one adjunct faculty. The research of these groups represents a broad spectrum of interests, and they are involved in about 90 collaborations with their CCRC and UGA colleagues and with scientists at other institutions and companies in the US, Canada, Europe, Israel, and Japan. The hallmark of the CCRC is the collaborative, interactive environment encouraged by its directors, faculty and tong-term staff. Newcomers to the CCRC or short-term members soon learn that everyone benefits from this process. The team-oriented approach in carbohydrate science translates into the day-today generous giving of one's time and expertise to the work of others, whether it be in sharing specialized instrumentation, participating in the design of experiments and interpretalon of data, providing service to scientists outside the CCRC, or joining collaborative projects. The CCRC is founded on the principle that the cross-fertilization of ideas and know-how leads to the synergistic advancement of science. This report contains a series of appendices that document the extent and breadth of the Plant and Microbial Carbohydrate Center's contributions to collaborative research and education. Several collaborative research projects that have received postdoctoral research associate support from the Grant are highlighted, as these projects are particularly illustrative of the wide-ranging collaborations that have evolved as a result of this Grant and the quality of the science that the Grant enables.

  4. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the μ → eγ decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal μ decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Z projectile -- Z target combinations. Studies of the (α,2α) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references

  5. Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness.

  6. Spectroscopic properties of reaction center pigments in photosystem II core complexes: revision of the multimer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszewski, Grzegorz; Diner, Bruce A; Schlodder, Eberhard; Renger, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Absorbance difference spectra associated with the light-induced formation of functional states in photosystem II core complexes from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (e.g., P(+)Pheo(-),P(+)Q(A)(-),(3)P) are described quantitatively in the framework of exciton theory. In addition, effects are analyzed of site-directed mutations of D1-His(198), the axial ligand of the special-pair chlorophyll P(D1), and D1-Thr(179), an amino-acid residue nearest to the accessory chlorophyll Chl(D1), on the spectral properties of the reaction center pigments. Using pigment transition energies (site energies) determined previously from independent experiments on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes, good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra is obtained. The only difference in site energies of the reaction center pigments in D1-D2-cytb559 and photosystem II core complexes concerns Chl(D1). Compared to isolated reaction centers, the site energy of Chl(D1) is red-shifted by 4 nm and less inhomogeneously distributed in core complexes. The site energies cause primary electron transfer at cryogenic temperatures to be initiated by an excited state that is strongly localized on Chl(D1) rather than from a delocalized state as assumed in the previously described multimer model. This result is consistent with earlier experimental data on special-pair mutants and with our previous calculations on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes. The calculations show that at 5 K the lowest excited state of the reaction center is lower by approximately 10 nm than the low-energy exciton state of the two special-pair chlorophylls P(D1) and P(D2) which form an excitonic dimer. The experimental temperature dependence of the wild-type difference spectra can only be understood in this model if temperature-dependent site energies are assumed for Chl(D1) and P(D1), reducing the above energy gap from 10 to 6 nm upon increasing the temperature from 5 to 300 K. At physiological temperature, there are

  7. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  8. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  9. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C.R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.; Salonika Univ., Greece)

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts. 31 references

  10. Present situation of 'baby cyclotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Teruo

    1981-01-01

    A ''baby cyclotron'' has been developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. Its No. 1 model (proton 9.4 MeV) was delivered to the Nakano Hospital of National Sanatorium in March, 1979. It is being used successfully for the production of 11 C, 13 N and 15 O and labeled compounds. The proton or deuteron particles accelerated in the cyclotron collide on target materials. The target box, which is automatically changeable, is directly installed to the accelerating box, thereby taking the safety measures for any leaking radiation. The following matters are described: the production of short-lived radioisotopes (RI yields and treatment); the processes of production in the Nakano Hospital, with No. 1 baby cyclotron, including the photosynthesis of labeled compounds such as 11 C-labeled glucose; the research on the automation in the synthesis of organic labeled compounds like 11 C-palmitic acid. (J.P.N.)

  11. Status Report on Cyclotron Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, P.; Szuecs, I.; Ander, I.; Lakatos, T.; Tarkanyi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The operation of the cyclotron in 2004 was concentrated to the usual 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 3554 hours, the time used for systematic maintenance was 450 hours. The breakdown periods amounted to 70 hours last year, included in it a 50 hours repair of RF control module under guarantee. The cyclotron was available for users during 3034 hours. The effectively used beam-on-target time statistics is summarized in Table 1. Developments: A new measuring site with a HPGe detector based gamma spectrometer is under installation in the basement of the Cyclotron Laboratory. A two channel pneumatic rabbit system is also under development to enable fast transport of samples between the new measuring site and two irradiation sites (the low intensity fast neutron irradiation site and the beam line used for Thin Layer Activation). (author)

  12. Development of Medical Cyclotron in KIRAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jong Seo; Jung, In Su; An, Dong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is presented on the development and status of medical cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) at present. We have developed medical cyclotron which is KIRAMS-13. And the improvement of KIRAMS-13 is presented. Furthermore, the design of new cyclotrons, such as KIRAMS-5 and KIRAMS-30 cyclotron, are presented, and R and D studies for future plan of heavy ion accelerator are discussed

  13. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs.

  14. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60μA. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed

  15. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60{mu}A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed.

  16. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop the radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with 12 '3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism

  17. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong.

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs

  18. Radiochemical studies using a 42 MeV cyclotron. Final report, September 1, 1983-February 28, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbury, R.S.; Kolar, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The cyclotron is working well for neutron production and has been used in the past year for radiation therapy of patients and radiobiology experiments. Good progress has been made with three projects described here. 13 irradiations on the University of Texas Health Science Center cyclotron have been used for the production of bromine radioisotopes and Ba-131, which have been used in these studies

  19. Chemical proprieties of the iron-quinone complex in mutated reaction centers of Rb. sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hałas, Agnieszka; Derrien, Valerie; Sebban, Pierre; Matlak, Krzysztof; Korecki, Józef; Kruk, Jerzy; Burda, Kvĕtoslava

    2012-01-01

    We investigated type II bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers, which contain a quinone - iron complex (Q A -Fe-Q B ) on their acceptor side. Under physiological conditions it was observed mainly in a reduced high spin state but its low spin ferrous states were also observed. Therefore, it was suggested that it might regulate the dynamical properties of the iron–quinone complex and the protonation and deprotonation events in its neighbourhood. In order to get insight into the molecular mechanism of the NHFe low spin state formation, we preformed Mössbauer studies of a wild type of Rb. sphaeroides and its two mutated forms. Our Mössbauer measurements show that the hydrophobicity of the Q A binding site can be crucial for stabilization of the high spin ferrous state of NHFe.

  20. Alumina plate containing photosystem I reaction center complex oriented inside plate-penetrating silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamidaki, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Noji, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Akira; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-08-22

    The photosynthetic photosystem I reaction center complex (PSI-RC), which has a molecular diameter of 21 nm with 100 pigments, was incorporated into silica nanopores with a 100-nm diameter that penetrates an alumina plate of 60-μm thickness to make up an inorganic-biological hybrid photocell. PSI-RCs, purified from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, were stable inside the nanopores and rapidly photoreduced a mediator dye methyl viologen. The reduced dye was more stable inside nanopores suggesting the decrease of dissolved oxygen. The analysis by a cryogenic electron spin paramagnetic resonance indicated the oriented arrangement of RCs inside the 100-nm nanopores, with their surface parallel to the silica wall and perpendicular to the plane of the alumina plate. PSI RC complex in the semicrystalline orientation inside silica nanopores can be a new type of light energy conversion unit to supply strong reducing power selectively to other molecules inside or outside nanopores.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of ruthenium hydride complexes of N-centered triphosphine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanopoulos, Andreas; Brown, Neil J; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Miller, Philip W

    2014-04-07

    The reactivity of the novel tridentate phosphine ligand N(CH2PCyp2)3 (N-triphos(Cyp), 2; Cyp = cyclopentyl) with various ruthenium complexes was investigated and compared that of to the less sterically bulky and less electron donating phenyl derivative N(CH2PPh2)3 (N-triphos(Ph), 1). One of these complexes was subsequently investigated for reactivity toward levulinic acid, a potentially important biorenewable feedstock. Reaction of ligands 1 and 2 with the precursors [Ru(COD)(methylallyl)2] (COD = 1,5-cycloocatadiene) and [RuH2(PPh3)4] gave the tridentate coordination complexes [Ru(tmm){N(CH2PR2)3-κ(3)P}] (R = Ph (3), Cyp (4); tmm = trimethylenemethane) and [RuH2(PPh3){N(CH2PR2)3-κ(3)P}] (R = Ph (5), Cyp (6)), respectively. Ligands 1 and 2 displayed different reactivities with [Ru3(CO)12]. Ligand 1 gave the tridentate dicarbonyl complex [Ru(CO)2{N(CH2PPh2)3-κ(3)P}] (7), while 2 gave the bidentate, tricarbonyl [Ru(CO)3{N(CH2PCyp2)3-κ(2)P}] (8). This was attributed to the greater electron-donating characteristics of 2, requiring further stabilization on coordination to the electron-rich Ru(0) center by more CO ligands. Complex 7 was activated via oxidation using AgOTf and O2, giving the Ru(II) complexes [Ru(CO)2(OTf){N(CH2PPh2)3-κ(3)P}](OTf) (9) and [Ru(CO3)(CO){N(CH2PPh2)3-κ(3)P}] (11), respectively. Hydrogenation of these complexes under hydrogen pressures of 3-15 bar gave the monohydride and dihydride complexes [RuH(CO)2{N(CH2PPh2)3-κ(3)P}] (10) and [RuH2(CO){N(CH2PPh2)3-κ(3)P}] (12), respectively. Complex 12 was found to be unreactive toward levulinic acid (LA) unless activated by reaction with NH4PF6 in acetonitrile, forming [RuH(CO)(MeCN){N(CH2PPh2)3-κ(3)P}](PF6) (13), which reacted cleanly with LA to form [Ru(CO){N(CH2PPh2)3-κ(3)P}{CH3CO(CH2)2CO2H-κ(2)O}](PF6) (14). Complexes 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, and 12 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography.

  2. Princeton Cyclotron QDDD spectrograph system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A review of experiments involving the Princeton Quadrupole-Dipole-Dipole- Dipole (QDDD) spectrograph is given. The QDDD is a high resolution, large solid angle device which is combined with the azymuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron. Some reactions involving 3 He beams are discussed

  3. PIXE analysis by baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hyogo; Tanaka, Teruaki; Ito, Takashi; Toda, Yohjiro; Wakasa, Hideichiro

    1988-01-01

    The Japan Steel Works, Ltd. has been supplying a very small sized cyclotron (Baby Cyclotron) to hospitals and research facilities. The cyclotron is designed to produce short-lived radioisotopes for medical use. In the present study, this cyclotron is modified so that it can serve for PIXE analysis. The PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique has the following features: (1) Down to 1 ng of trace material in a sample (mg - μg) can be detected, (2) An analysis run is completed in one to ten minutes, permitting economical analysis for a large number of samples, (3) Several elements can be analyzed simultaneously, with an almost constant sensitivity for a variety of elements ranging from aluminum to heavy metals, (4) Analysis can be performed nondestructively without a chemical process, and (5) The use of microbeam can provide data on the distribution of elements with a resolution of several μm. Software for analysis is developed to allow the modified equipment to perform peak search, background fitting, and identification and determination of peaks. A study is now being conducted to examine the performance of the equipment for PIXE analysis of thin samples. Satisfactory results have been obtained. The analysis time, excluding the background correction, is 5-10 min. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Ion sources for cyclotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.; Young, A.T.

    1992-07-01

    The use of a multicusp plasma generator as an ion source has many advantages. The development of both positive and negative ion beams based on the multicusp source geometry is presented. It is shown that these sources can be operated at steady state or cw mode. As a result they are very suitable for cyclotron operations

  5. Ponderomotive force near cyclotron resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Mitsuo; Sanuki, Heiji

    1987-01-01

    The ponderomotive force, which is involved in the excitation of macroscopic behaviors of plasma caused by wave motion, plays an important role in various non-linear wave motion phenomena. In the present study, equations for the pondermotive force for plasma in a uniform magnetic field is derived using a renormalization theory which is based on the Vlasov equation. It is shown that the pondermotive force, which diverges at the cyclotron resonence point according to adiabatic approximation, can be expressed by a non-divergent equation by taking into account the instability of the cyclotron orbit due to high-order scattering caused by a wave. This is related with chaotic particle behaviors near cyclotron resonance, where the pondermotive force is small and the diffusion process prevails. It is assumed here that the amplitude of the high-frequency electric field is not large and that the broadening of cyclotron levels is smaller than the distance between the levels. A global chaos will be created if the amplitude of the electric field becomes greater to allow the broadening to exceed the distance between the levels. (Nogami, K.).

  6. Status report on cyclotron operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, P; Ander, I; Lakatos, T; Fenyvesi, A; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Tarkanyi, F

    2003-01-01

    The operation of the cyclotron in 2002 was concentrated to 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4084 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 15 hours last year. In order to improve the circumstances of the irradiations, several following improvements were done. (R.P.)

  7. Standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (CRP) is an advanced and modern facility that encompasses two essential components: radioisotope research, and radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing. Radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program is not only quite unique, but also an essential component of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) in providing quality patient care for the population of the Kingdom. Accurate diagnosis and therapy with medical imaging equipment requires quality radiopharmaceuticals that are available readily and with reliability. The CRP Department provides that quality and reliability. Research activities of the CRP Department are focused on developing new radiotracers with potential usefulness in biomedical research and clinical applications. Research projects consist of: developing cyclotron targetry for radioisotope production; developing synthesis methods for radiolabeling biomolecules; and developing analytical methods for quality control. The CRP Department operates a semi-commercial radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program that supplies the diagnostic radioactive products to several hospitals in the Kingdom and neighboring countries. These products for clinical applications are produced according to the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices of quality and efficacy. At the heart of the radioisotope program is a medium energy cyclotron capable of accelerating a number of particles for transformation of non-radioactive atoms into radionuclides that are the primary sources for research and development activities, and for preparing radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to having the only cyclotron facility in the region, KFSH and RC also has the only Positron Emission Tomography Center (PET) in this part of the world. This combination of cyclotron and the ultra modern PET facility translates into advanced and specialized care for the patients at KFSH and RC

  8. First Indian single center experience with pipeline embolization device for complex intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Mathew P; Yadav, Manish Kumar; Mehta, Pankaj; Vijayan, K; Arulselvan, V; Jayabalan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Flow diversion is a novel method of therapy wherein an endoluminal sleeve, the flow diverter stent is placed across the neck of complex aneurysms to curatively reconstruct abnormal vasculature. We present the first Indian single center experience with the pipeline embolization device (PED) and 6 months follow-up results of 5 patients. Five complex or recurrent intracranial aneurysms in five patients were treated with PED. The patients were followed-up with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after 4 weeks and conventional angiography after 6 months. Feasibility, complications, clinical outcome, early 1-month MRA and 6 months conventional angiographic follow-up results were analyzed. Of the five aneurysms treated, four were in the anterior circulation and one in the posterior circulation. All five patients were treated with a single PED in each, and additionally coils were used in one patient. At 1-month MRA follow-up, complete occlusion was seen in 2 (40%) of the five cases. Post 6 months conventional angiography showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac in all five cases (100%). Side branch ostia were covered in three patients, all of which were patent (100%). There was no incidence of major neurological morbidity or mortality. One patient (20%) who had basilar top aneurysm experienced minor neurological disability after 5 days which partially improved. Pipeline embolization device for complex and recurrent aneurysms is technically feasible, safe, offers low complication rate, and definitive vascular reconstruction. PED can be used without fear of occlusion of covered eloquent side branches and perforators.

  9. Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations in small complex plasma disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations of a complex (dusty) plasma disk are excited for n=3 and 5 microspheres (≅10 μm diameter) with neutral argon pressures P≅1-4 Pa. The mode frequencies and damping rates are determined directly from measured resonance curves. Millikan's coefficient for the Epstein drag force, the Debye length, and the particle charge is found by comparison with theory. The damping rates are the same for both modes and for n=3 and 5, as predicted. Millikan's coefficient is found to be δ=1.55±0.16, in agreement with δ=1.44 for diffuse reflection. A consistent value of the Debye length that decreases with pressure is measured. The average particle charge for n=3 particles is found to be more negative than that for n=5 particles for the same conditions, indicating that the effective ion collection area of the particles increases as their separation decreases

  10. Coordination functionalization of graphene oxide with tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of nickel(II): Generation of paramagnetic centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiuk, Vladimir A., E-mail: basiuk@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Alzate-Carvajal, Natalia [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Henao-Holguín, Laura V. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Rybak-Akimova, Elena V. [Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Basiuk, Elena V., E-mail: elbg1111@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • [Ni(cyclam)]{sup 2+} and [Ni(tet b)]{sup 2+} cations coordinate to carboxylic groups of GO. • The coordination takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based medium. • The coordination results in the conversion from low-spin to high-spin Ni(II). • Functionalized GO samples were characterized by various instrumental techniques. - Abstract: We describe a novel approach to functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) which allows for a facile generation of paramagnetic centers from two diamagnetic components. Coordination attachment of [Ni(cyclam)]{sup 2+} or [Ni(tet b)]{sup 2+} tetraazamacrocyclic cations to carboxylic groups of GO takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based reaction medium. The procedure is very straightforward and does not require high temperatures or other harsh conditions. Changing the coordination geometry of Ni(II) from square-planar tetracoordinated to pseudooctahedral hexacoordinated brings about the conversion from low-spin to high-spin state of the metal centers. Even though the content of tetraazamacrocyclic complexes in functionalized GO samples was found to be relatively low (nickel content of ca. 1 wt%, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements easily detected the appearance of paramagnetic properties in GO + [Ni(cyclam)] and GO + [Ni(tet b)] nanohybrids, with effective magnetic moments of 1.95 BM and 2.2 BM for, respectively. According to density functional theory calculations, the main spin density is localized at the macrocyclic complexes, without considerable extension to graphene sheet, which suggests insignificant ferromagnetic coupling in the nanohybrids, in agreement with the results of magnetic susceptibility measurements. The coordination attachment of Ni(II) tetraazamacrocycles to GO results in considerable changes in Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra

  11. Development of cyclotron solid targetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, J.; Deans, T.; Cryer, D.; Price, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Western Australia's first medical cyclotron was recently installed in the Department of Medical Technology and Physics at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The cyclotron is routinely used for 18 F production using a liquid target, and now research is being undertaken into solid target bombardment for production of novel isotopes such as 124 I, 64 Cu and 96 Tc. The IBA Cyclone 18/9 has a maximum proton beam energy of 18MeV and maximum beam current of 80μA. A proton beam is generated by the acceleration of H- ions in the evacuated cyclotron (10 -6 bar) which are then stripped of 2 electrons just prior to exiting a target port. Each port has two strippers which are made of 10μm thick carbon with dimensions 12mmxl3mm. Due to their thinness, the strippers are easily ruptured. The Cyclone 18/9 has 8 target ports. In order to fit a target onto the cyclotron when the cyclotron is already evacuated the target is first evacuated to 10 -3 bar by a roughing pump before an isolation valve at the port is opened. This stops any damage that may occur by the flow of air from the target reservoir to the cyclotron eg to the strippers. The first step in the project to develop solid targetry is to build a beam line in order to measure the beam profile. If successful, this design will be improved in order to have a beam line and target holder that are suitable for use in solid target bombardment. A 40cm beam line with an internal diameter of 3.6cm was built to fit onto the IBA Cyclone 18/9. The beam line, made out of aluminium, incorporates a step 5cm from the end at which a target material can be fitted. A cover fits onto the beam line, behind the target in order to maintain vacuum. The cover is held in place by the vacuum within the beam line. At the end of bombardment, the beam line can be isolated from the vacuum of the target and normal air pressure restored. In doing so the cover plate falls open and the target falls into a lead pot, ready for removal from the cyclotron

  12. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful.

  13. Analysis of complex wind regimes at Kennedy Space Center for radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.; Parks, C.R.; Atchison, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    Galileo and Ulysses will be launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during October 1989 and October 1990, respectively. These deep-space probes will contain a radioactive thermoelectric generator as a power source. An accidental breach of the containment vessel housing the generator could cause a leak of radioactive material to the atmosphere. If this occurred, the radioactive cloud would move with the prevailing wind flow pattern and pose a serious health threat to all in its path. Since the KSC/Cape Canaveral (KSC/CC) area of Florida is located in a coastal environment with several different land/water interfaces, complex low-level wind circulation patterns exist throughout the year. Thus, if any transport and diffusion model is to correctly predict the movement of effluent near KSC, it must be able to accurately portray the characteristics of the land/sea breeze flow pattern. To evaluate models used at KSC, the KSC Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (KABLE) has been designed to provide a data set to better define the characteristics of these mesoscale circulations. Data collection for KABLE occurred from November 1, 1988, to October 31, 1989. This paper presents analyses for 1 day during November 1988 that demonstrate the complexity of the local meteorological conditions at KSC/CC. The NUS Corporation has used these data and empirical sea breeze parameters to evaluate their Emergency Dose Assessment System, EMERGE

  14. How to Lead the Way Through Complexity, Constraint, and Uncertainty in Academic Health Science Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieff, Susan J; Yammarino, Francis J

    2017-05-01

    Academic medicine is in an era of unprecedented and constant change due to fluctuating economies, globalization, emerging technologies, research, and professional and educational mandates. Consequently, academic health science centers (AHSCs) are facing new levels of complexity, constraint, and uncertainty. Currently, AHSC leaders work with competing academic and health service demands and are required to work with and are accountable to a diversity of stakeholders. Given the new challenges and emerging needs, the authors believe the leadership methods and approaches AHSCs have used in the past that led to successes will be insufficient. In this Article, the authors propose that AHSCs will require a unique combination of old and new leadership approaches specifically oriented to the unique complexity of the AHSC context. They initially describe the designer (or hierarchical) and heroic (military and transformational) approaches to leadership and how they have been applied in AHSCs. While these well-researched and traditional approaches have their strengths in certain contexts, the leadership field has recognized that they can also limit leaders' abilities to enable their organizations to be engaged, adaptable, and responsive. Consequently, some new approaches have emerged that are taking hold in academic work and professional practice. The authors highlight and explore some of these new approaches-the authentic, self, shared, and network approaches to leadership-with attention to their application in and utility for the AHSC context.

  15. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Shuichi; Asada, Yorihisa; Yano, Munehiko; Nakanii, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. This article presents a new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and is equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports. The article describes a series of experiments, we conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained from 9 Be(p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. The article also describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Further, some of practical neutron radiograph examinations of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror and an attempt realizing real time imaging technique, are introduced in the article. (author)

  16. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  17. Cyclotron radiation from hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, F.; Henning, J.; Duechs, D.

    1975-11-01

    In calculating the energy transport and losses due to cyclotron radiation there are two major requirements: the absorption coefficient has to be known and the proper geometry of the plasma has to be taken into account. In this report Trubnikov's integral formulae for the absorption coefficient have been evaluated numerically and compared with the approximative formulas of previous authors. Deviations by a factor of 2 - 10 in various frequency regimes are not unusual. With these coefficients the rate of change of the energy density due to cyclotron radiation in a plasma as well as the radiation density at a plasma surface are computed for plasma slab and plasma cylinder. Sometimes considerable differences to the results of previons papers can found. Many simple formulae interpolating the numerical results are given in the text, and the FORTRAN computer programs have been reproduced in the appendices. (orig.) [de

  18. The complex interplay between clinical and person-centered diabetes outcomes in the two genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Maria Chiara; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Pintaudi, Basilio; Bulotta, Angela; Gentile, Sandro; Scardapane, Marco; Skovlund, Soren Eik; Vespasiani, Giacomo; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2017-02-21

    New approaches to cope with clinical and psychosocial aspects of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are needed; gender influences the complex interplay between clinical and non-clinical factors. We used data from the BENCH-D study to assess gender-differences in terms of clinical and person-centered measures in T2DM. Clinical quality of care indicators relative to control of HbA1c, lipid profile, blood pressure, and BMI were derived from electronic medical records. Ten self-administered validated questionnaires (SF-12 Health Survey; WHO-5 well-being index; Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) 5, Health Care Climate Questionnaire, Patients Assessment of Chronic Illness Care, Diabetes Empowerment Scale, Diabetes Self-care Activities, Global Satisfaction for Diabetes Treatment, Barriers to Taking Medications, Perceived Social Support) were adopted as person-centered outcomes indicators. Overall, 26 diabetes clinics enrolled 2,335 people (men: 59.7%; women: 40.3%). Lower percentages of women reached HbA1c levels men. Women had statistically significant poorer scores for physical functioning, psychological well-being, self-care activities dedicated to physical activities, empowerment, diabetes-related distress, satisfaction with treatment, barriers to medication taking, satisfaction with access to chronic care and healthcare communication, and perceived social support than men; 24.8% of women and 8.8% of men had WHO-5 women and 55.1% of men had PAID-5 > 40 (high levels of diabetes-related distress) (p men and women, e.g. having PAID-5 levels >40 was associated with a higher likelihood of HbA1c ≥8.0% in women (OR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.05-1.25) but not in men (OR = 1.00; 95%CI 0.93-1.08). In T2DM, women show poorer clinical and person-centered outcomes indicators than men. Diabetes-related distress plays a role as a correlate of metabolic control in women but not in men. The study provides new information about the interplay between clinical and person-centered indicators

  19. Cyclotron production of Cu-61

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Seifert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S323-S323 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * PET * Cu-61 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  20. Status report on the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormany, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The operation of the cyclotron in 2001 was again concentrated to the usual 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4300 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 66 hours last year. The cyclotron was available for users during 3751 hours, the effectively used beam-on-target time is summarized in Table 1. The total time required for machine setup and beam tuning or spent waiting for the start of an irradiation was 272 hours. The control of the adjustable collimators applied in the beam transport system of the cyclotron was renewed during the winter maintenance period. They have been connected to the programmable logic controllers (PLC) and their new control code frees the operators from the long and slow manual setting process. The successful renewal of the control of this and other subsystems (cyclotron and beam transport power supplies) made lots of adjusting and measuring elements on the original control desk needless. To provide more space for the control PCs and remove all unnecessary devices, the unused part of the control desk has been dismantled. The short beam line used mainly for radiation hardness studies was equipped with a new oil-diffusion vacuum system during the summer maintenance. Its components are also connected to the PLC and the same automatic control has been provided like for the other vacuum stands of- the beam transport system. Another short beam line - basically a mirror image of the first one - has also been installed and successfully tested by trial irradiations. (R.P.)

  1. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    supports approximately 40 USGS research specialists who utilize cooperative agreements with universities, industry, and other governmental agencies to support their collaborative research and information exchange. Scientists of the WMERSC study how and where non-fuel mineral resources form and are concentrated in the earth's crust, where mineral resources might be found in the future, and how mineral materials interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Natural systems (ecosystems) are complex - our understanding of how ecosystems operate requires collecting and synthesizing large amounts of geologic, geochemical, biologic, hydrologic, and meteorological information. Scientists in the Center strive to understand the interplay of various processes and how they affect the structure, composition, and health of ecosystems. Such understanding, which is then summarized in publicly available reports, is used to address and solve a wide variety of issues that are important to society and the economy. WMERSC scientists have extensive national and international experience in these scientific specialties and capabilities - they have collaborated with many Federal, State, and local agencies; with various private sector organizations; as well as with foreign countries and organizations. Nearly every scientific and societal challenge requires a different combination of scientific skills and capabilities. With their breadth of scientific specialties and capabilities, the scientists of the WMERSC can provide scientifically sound approaches to a wide range of societal challenges and issues. The following sections describe examples of important issues that have been addressed by scientists in the Center, the methods employed, and the relevant conclusions. New directions are inevitable as societal needs change over time. Scientists of the WMERSC have a diverse set of skills and capabilities and are proficient in the collection and integration of

  2. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  3. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  4. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  5. Future cyclotron systems : an industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Dickie, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modem cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, we investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century. (author)

  6. Future cyclotron systems: An industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Dickie, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modern cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired, decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, the authors investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century

  7. Characteristics of possible beam losses in superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, J.; Paul, Santanu; Debnath, Jayanta; Dutta, Atanu; Bhunia, Uttam; Naser, Md. Zamal Abdul; Singh, Vinay; Agrawal, Ankur; Dey, Malay Kanti

    2015-01-01

    In a compact superconducting cyclotron large coherent oscillation and off-centering of the beam may cause large amount of beam loss. The off-centered beam may hit the beam chamber wall prohibiting extraction of the beam. Or it may hit the RF liner surfaces due to vertical blow-up across various resonances during acceleration. The vertical shift of beam caused by the mis-alignment gradually moves the beam out of geometrical median plane eventually leading to internal beam losses. The loss of isochronisms results the reduction of beam intensity depending on the particle phase history. Small field perturbations generated by trim coils have been used to identify the beam loss mechanisms in the superconducting cyclotron at out centre. Besides, the beam loss due to interaction of accelerating ions with residual gases is also discussed. The beam profile obtained from differential and three finger probes gives a clear insight of the loss-mechanism. The paper describes different beam losses observed in the cyclotron with corresponding beam profiles under different field perturbations, Special emphasis is given on characteristics features of beam-current profile to identify the cause of beam loss. (author)

  8. Bipolar Alq3-based complexes: Effect of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq3-center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jianxin; Lu Mangeng; Yang Chaolong; Tong Bihai; Liang Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Two bipolar Alq 3 -based complexes, tris{5-[(carbazole-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline} aluminum (Al(CzHQ) 3 ) and tris{5-[(phenothiazine-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline} aluminum (Al(PHQ) 3 ), involving an Alq 3 -center and three hole-transporting substituents (carbazole or phenothiazine), were prepared and characterized. Effects of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq 3 -center were investigated in detail. It is found that the two complexes have improved hole-transporting performance and appropriate thermal stability (the 5%-weight-loss temperatures T 5% >260 °C). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that both energy transfer and electron transfer can take place simultaneously in the PL process of these complexes. Both thermodynamics and dynamics of the electron transfer were studied and corresponding parameters were calculated. Energy transfer is favorable for the PL of Alq 3 -center, while electron transfer is unfavorable for the PL of Alq 3 -center. These results will be useful to explore novel OLEDs material with increased efficiency. - Highlights: ► Effects of substituent on the properties of Alq 3 -center were investigated. ► Energy transfer and electron transfer can transfer from substituent to Alq 3 -center. ► The thermodynamics and dynamics of electron transfer were studied. ► The mechanisms of PL and EL of Al(CzHQ) 3 were studied and compared with each other.

  9. Summary on electron cyclotron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented within the Theory Sessions of the conference clearly reflect the general trends of the research field. The growing use of Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW) for plasma heating and current drive in overdense plasmas goes hand in hand with an increased theoretical understanding of EBW excitation. While the expanding number of devices with powerful ECRH systems allowing ever more detailed experiments is reflected in the increased detail of modelling and consequent understanding of the experimental results. Apart from these general trends, some more fundamental contributions to the field of electron cyclotron wave propagation are highlighted. (author)

  10. Center for Plant and Microbial Complex Carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center: Progress Report for the Funding Period November 1, 2002 - October 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2003-10-31

    This progress report describes the research, service, and training activities conducted with the support of the DOE center grant. The research activities are summarized in the form of reprints or abstracts of 46 papers citing support from the DOE center grant that were produced during the reporting period. These papers include those that are published, in press, submitted, or in preparation. The papers include those produced entirely by CCRC personnel and those papers representing research work conducted in collaboration with scientists at other institutions. (See Appendix I.) A major component of this grant is to provide service to researchers at other academic institutions and industries located throughout the US and other parts of the world. A summary of all our service activities during the reporting period is also included with this report, including samples of poly/oligosaccharides and antibodies distributed to scientists (see Appendix II). A description of the three training courses held at the CCRC during 2003 is also provided, together with the names and affiliations of participants who attended the courses (see Appendix III).

  11. Studies of electron cyclotron emission on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandy, R.F.

    1990-07-01

    The Auburn University electron cyclotron emission (ECE) system has made many significant contributions to the TEXT experimental program during the past five years. Contributions include electron temperature information used in the following areas of study: electron cyclotron heating (ECH), pellet injection, and impurity/energy transport. Details of the role which the Auburn ECE system has played will now be discussed

  12. Cyclotrons for the production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and design choices for modern cyclotrons. Cyclotrons can be used in 3 areas in the radioactive beam field: the production of high energy heavy ion beams for use in fragmentation, the spallation of targets with high energy protons, and the acceleration of radioactive beams from low energy to the MeV/u range. 16 refs., 6 figs

  13. Isochronous cyclotron for thermonuclear reactors driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.

    1998-01-01

    The main requirements to an accelerator as a part of an electronuclear power plant are considered. The range of the parameters of the accelerated proton and deuteron beams, for which the isochronous cyclotron is the most profitable, is proposed. An opportunity of using the cyclotron to drive the research reactors of various types is considered

  14. Trends in cyclotrons for radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA recently concluded a worldwide survey of the cyclotrons used for radionuclide production. Most of the institutions responded to the questionnaire. The responses identified technical, utilisation and administrative information for 206 cyclotrons. Compiled data includes the characteristics, performance and popularity of each of the different commercial cyclotrons. Over 20 cyclotrons are scheduled for installation in 1998. The expansion in the number of cyclotron installations during the last decade was driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (namely, positron emission tomography (PET), and more recently by 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons; and recent governmental decisions that permit reimbursement for cyclotron radiopharmaceutical studies by the government or insurance companies. The priorities for the production of clinical, commercial and research radionuclides were identified. The emphasis is on radionuclides used for medical diagnosis with SPET (e.g. 123 I, 201 Tl) and PET (e.g. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F) radiopharmaceuticals, and for individualized patient radiation treatment planning (e.g. 64 Cu, 86 Y, 124 I) with PET. There is an emerging trend to advance the cyclotron as an alternative method to nuclear reactors for the production of neutron-rich radionuclides (e.g. 64 Cu, 103 Pd, 186 Re) needed for therapeutic applications. (authors)

  15. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  16. Creation of near-infrared emitting optical center related to nickel–silicon impurity complex in nanodiamond grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, S.; Himics, L.; Koós, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamond grains having intensive light emission in the near-infrared region even at room temperature carry an important application potential. Advantages of light emitting optical centers formed in nanodiamond grains are the emission concentrated into a narrow band and that they are mostly single photon emitter. Transition metal related impurity centers formed in nanodiamond grains exhibit these favorable properties. In this work we report on the creation of Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center in nanodiamond grains under microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW CVD) growth process. This complex center accounts for the previously undocumented fluorescence system with zero phonon line (ZPL) emission at 865 nm (1.433 eV) and band width of 1.5 nm (2.4 meV) at room temperature. By varying deposition conditions the Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center was formed in nanodiamond grains of 80–200 nm average sizes. Some variation of ZPL peak position and line width have been detected in nanodiamond grains prepared at different conditions, as well as in numerous nanodiamond grains prepared at the same conditions. The variations of local stress field may explain the spread of ZPL spectral parameters.

  17. Creation of near-infrared emitting optical center related to nickel–silicon impurity complex in nanodiamond grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, S., E-mail: toth.sara@wigner.mta.hu; Himics, L.; Koós, M.

    2016-08-15

    Nanodiamond grains having intensive light emission in the near-infrared region even at room temperature carry an important application potential. Advantages of light emitting optical centers formed in nanodiamond grains are the emission concentrated into a narrow band and that they are mostly single photon emitter. Transition metal related impurity centers formed in nanodiamond grains exhibit these favorable properties. In this work we report on the creation of Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center in nanodiamond grains under microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW CVD) growth process. This complex center accounts for the previously undocumented fluorescence system with zero phonon line (ZPL) emission at 865 nm (1.433 eV) and band width of 1.5 nm (2.4 meV) at room temperature. By varying deposition conditions the Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center was formed in nanodiamond grains of 80–200 nm average sizes. Some variation of ZPL peak position and line width have been detected in nanodiamond grains prepared at different conditions, as well as in numerous nanodiamond grains prepared at the same conditions. The variations of local stress field may explain the spread of ZPL spectral parameters.

  18. Purification and spectroscopic characterization of photosystem II reaction center complexes isolated with or without Triton X-100.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijckelhoff, C.; van Roon, H.; Groot, M.L.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The pigment composition of the isolated photosystem II reaction center complex in its most stable and pure form currently is a matter of considerable debate. In this contribution, we present a new method based on a combination of gel filtration chromatography and diode array detection to analyze the

  19. Recent development and progress of IBA cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeven, W., E-mail: Willem.Kleeven@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Abs, M., E-mail: Michel.Abs@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Delvaux, J.L., E-mail: Jean-Luc.Delvaux@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Forton, E., E-mail: Eric.Forton@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Jongen, Y., E-mail: Yves.Jongen@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Medeiros Romao, L., E-mail: Luis.MedeirosRomao@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nactergal, B., E-mail: Benoit.Nactergal@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nuttens, V., E-mail: Vincent.Nuttens@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Servais, T., E-mail: Thomas.Servais@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vanderlinden, T., E-mail: Thierry.Vanderlinden@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Zaremba, S., E-mail: Simon.Zaremba@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    Several cyclotron development projects were recently realized by Ion Beam Applications S.A. (IBA). This contribution presents three of them: (i) the intensity enhancement of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron, a machine mainly used for the production of SPECT isotopes. This project is related with the increased demand for {sup 201}Tl because of the shortage of Mo/Tc generators from nuclear reactors, (ii) development of a new versatile multiple-particle K = 30 isotope-production cyclotron (the Cyclone 30XP) being able to accelerate H{sup -}, D{sup -} and also {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-beam of this cyclotron will allow the production of new therapeutic isotopes (e.g. {sup 211}At) and (iii) commissioning of the Cyclone 70 cyclotron installed for Arronax in France. This machine is similar to the C30XP but provides higher energy (K = 70) and allows research on new types of medical isotopes.

  20. Developing the smallest possible medical cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a portable medical cyclotron operated in a conventional radioactive facility at a hospital. Imagine a nurse or technician switching it on and producing isotopes at the patient’s bedside. Sounds like science fiction? Think again.   CERN has teamed up with Spain’s national scientific research centre (CIEMAT) to develop an avant-garde cyclotron to be used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). “We plan to make a cyclotron that doesn't need an insulated building or ‘vault’: a cyclotron small enough to fit inside a hospital lift,” explains Jose Manuel Perez, who is leading the CIEMAT/CERN collaboration. “It will be the smallest possible medical cyclotron for single patient dose production and will dramatically reduce costs for hospitals.” While PET technology has transformed imaging techniques, many of its medical benefits have remained confined to highly specialised hospitals. “Studies have foun...

  1. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, A.; Lei, L.; Dikhtyar, V.; Korol, M.; Jerby, E.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  2. Production of radiopharmaceuticals by cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, F.; Van Naemen, J.; Monclus, M.; Van Gansbeke, B.; Kadiata, M.; Ekelmans, D.; Moray, M.; Penninckx, R.; Goldman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Companies specialized in the development and installation of accelerator-based systems dedicated to the medical applications brought on the market cyclotrons well fitted to the requests of the industrial community or universities and so covering every segment of the market. These machines are fully automatic, and need reduced maintenance; they are highly specialized for defined tasks. They can produce high beam intensity and realize dual beam irradiation. Also the prices are reducing considerably. The targets and the automatic system follow the same trend. Unfortunately, the flexibility of these devices for new area of research and development has been dramatically reduced. The growing number of PET cameras has increased the popularity of PET tracers used for nuclear imaging. Consequently, there is a growing demand for these radiopharmaceuticals compounds labeled with short-lived radioisotopes for clinical applications. From a research and development tool in the eighties, PET has now grown up to a clinical tool. Moreover, depending of the social welfare, reimbursement of some PET examinations is granted, which accelerates the trend for an extended use of PET tracers. Regulatory affairs try to establish and standardize the control on these radiopharmaceutical compounds produced in a growing number of local radio pharmacies owning a baby cyclotron. On the other hand, the attention of equipment suppliers was brought in the setting up of a total quality control follow up. These efforts were successively achieved by getting for instance the ISO 9001 certificate

  3. The theory of accelerated particles in AVF cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with the study of the motion of accelerated charged particles in an AVF cyclotron. This study has been done on behalf of the VICKSI- project of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut in West Berlin. A new theory is developed which facilitates an accurate description of the influence of the acceleration on the motion in the median plane of a cyclotron. The theory is applied to systems with 1 or 2 Dee electrodes, the frequency of the accelerating voltage being equal to the revolution frequency of the particles or a higher harmonic of this frequency. It turned out that the betatron oscillations in the radial phase space may be disturbed considerably as a result of the acceleration. In the theory the author makes use of the Hamilton formalism. After a number of canonical transformations a Hamilton function was found, in which the most important effects show themselves clearly. The corresponding equations of motion can be solved very quickly with the help of a simple computer program. The results of this theory are in agreement with those of extensive numerical orbit integration programmes. In this thesis attention is also devoted to the centering of the beam in the VICKSI cyclotron just after injection, the possibility to obtain single-turn extraction and the interpretation of the high frequency phase measurements. (Auth.)

  4. Alignment of mapping system for magnet cyclotron DECY-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrus Abdul Kudus; Taufik; Kurnia Wibowo

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron is composed of some main and specific components, such as magnet system, ion source, RF system and extractor. A magnet is one of important component in a cyclotron that serves as ion beam bending so the ion beam trajectory is circular. Magnet design should with the requirement of cyclotron that proton energy is 13 MeV. In the construction of the cyclotron magnet, a mapping tool of the magnetic field is required for analysis in shimming process in order to optimize the magnetic field. The magnetic field mapping process is carried out in the median plane of the magnet poles. The magnetic field mapping is carried out repeatedly during the shimming process. During this process, the mapping tool is possible to experience a shift or change in position, for that it is necessary to alignment in order to make sure that the probe is in the median plane of magnet poles and to ensure their positions are always the same on each repetition mapping. During this process, it is possible to experience a shift mapping tool or change the position, for this it is needed to process alignment to ensure the position of the probe is in the median plane magnetic poles and ensure their positions are always the same on each repetition mapping. Alignment on the mapping tool are the height position, zeroing tesla meter and two hall probe mapping. The parameters form the basis for magnetic field measurements based on the three elements: an alignment system on the engine mapping, mapping tool reference point and stage movement of x-y coordinates. Shifts occur due to change in elevation mapping tool table and center coordinates x and y in the mapping process. Changes made to shift mapping coordinates can be shifted as far as 1 to 2 mm for each hall probe in the x and y coordinates with altitude changes 0.05° mapping table and measurement of tesla meter changes in 0.002 T. (author)

  5. Phosphorescent heterobimetallic complexes involving platinum(iv) and rhenium(vii) centers connected by an unsupported μ-oxido bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaee, Hajar; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Jamshidi, Mahboubeh; Vilsmeier, Max; Pfitzner, Arno; Samandar Sangari, Mozhgan

    2017-11-28

    Heterobimetallic compounds [(C^N)LMe 2 Pt(μ-O)ReO 3 ] (C^N = ppy, L = PPh 3 , 2a; C^N = ppy, L = PMePh 2 , 2b; C^N = bhq, L = PPh 3 , 2c; C^N = bhq, L = PMePh 2 , 2d) containing a discrete unsupported Pt(iv)-O-Re(vii) bridge have been synthesized through a targeted synthesis route. The compounds have been prepared by a single-pot synthesis in which the Pt(iv) precursor [PtMe 2 I(C^N)L] complexes are allowed to react easily with AgReO 4 in which the iodide ligand of the starting Pt(iv) complex is replaced by an ReO 4 - anion. In these Pt-O-Re complexes, the Pt(iv) centers have an octahedral geometry, completed by a cyclometalated bidentate ligand (C^N), two methyl groups and a phosphine ligand, while the Re(vii) centers have a tetrahedral geometry. Elemental analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy are used to establish their identities. The new complexes exhibit phosphorescence emission in the solid and solution states at 298 and 77 K, which is an uncommon property of platinum complexes with an oxidation state of +4. According to DFT calculations, we found that this emission behavior in the new complexes originates from ligand centered 3 LC (C^N) character with a slight amount of metal to ligand charge transfer ( 3 MLCT). The solid-state emission data of the corresponding cycloplatinated(iv) precursor complexes [PtMe 2 I(C^N)L], 1a-1d, pointed out that the replacement of I - by an ReO 4 - anion helps enhancing the emission efficiency besides shifting the emission wavelengths.

  6. Electroreduction of CO2 Catalyzed by a Heterogenized Zn–Porphyrin Complex with a Redox-Innocent Metal Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal-based molecular complexes are a class of catalyst materials for electrochemical CO2 reduction to CO that can be rationally designed to deliver high catalytic performance. One common mechanistic feature of these electrocatalysts developed thus far is an electrogenerated reduced metal center associated with catalytic CO2 reduction. Here we report a heterogenized zinc–porphyrin complex (zinc(II) 5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrin) as an electrocatalyst that delivers a turnover frequency as high as 14.4 site–1 s–1 and a Faradaic efficiency as high as 95% for CO2 electroreduction to CO at −1.7 V vs the standard hydrogen electrode in an organic/water mixed electrolyte. While the Zn center is critical to the observed catalysis, in situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies reveal that it is redox-innocent throughout the potential range. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that the porphyrin ligand may act as a redox mediator. Chemical reduction of the zinc–porphyrin complex further confirms that the reduction is ligand-based and the reduced species can react with CO2. This represents the first example of a transition-metal complex for CO2 electroreduction catalysis with its metal center being redox-innocent under working conditions. PMID:28852698

  7. Characterization of electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas yield low energy and high ion density plasmas. The characteristics downstream of an ECR hydrogen plasma were investigated as a function of microwave power and magnetic field. A fast-injection Langmuir probe and a carbon resistance probe were used to determine plasma potential (V p ), electron density (N e ), electron temperature (T e ), ion energy (T i ), and ion fluence. Langmuir probe results showed that at 17 cm downstream from the ECR chamber the plasma characteristics are approximately constant across the center 7 cm of the plasma for 50 Watts of absorbed power. These results gave V p = 30 ± 5 eV, N e = 1 x 10 8 cm -3 , and T e = 10--13 eV. In good agreement with the Langmuir probe results, carbon resistance probes have shown that T i ≤ 50 eV. Also, based on hydrogen chemical sputtering of carbon, the hydrogen (ion and energetic neutrals) fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec. at a pressure of 1 x 10 -4 Torr and for 50 Watts of absorbed power. 19 refs

  8. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  10. Channeling experiments at IPNE Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, F; Dumitru, M; Ivan, A [Cyclotron Laboratory, Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest, P.O.Box MG-6, (Romania)

    1992-01-01

    Channeling experiments have been performed at the I.P.N.E Cyclotron using a 3 MeV alpha beam. A slide system cut the beam up to 5 minutes spatial resolution with a maximum 60 nA beam current on the target. The two-axis goniometer, fully computer-controlled, moves the target, a silicon wafer, with 2.5 minute resolution, while an alpha particle sensitive solid state detector, monitors the backscattered particle fluence. In the first stage, channeling appears to be a simple, fast and reliable method for precise monocrystal orientation. A reduction of the host yield by a factor of two allowed impurities and defects to be studied. (Author).

  11. Cyclotron resonance in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E A; Jiang, Z; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2008-02-29

    We present the first measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in bilayer graphene. In magnetic fields up to B=18 T, we observe four distinct intraband transitions in both the conduction and valence bands. The transition energies are roughly linear in B between the lowest Landau levels, whereas they follow square root[B] for the higher transitions. This highly unusual behavior represents a change from a parabolic to a linear energy dispersion. The density of states derived from our data generally agrees with the existing lowest order tight binding calculation for bilayer graphene. However, in comparing data to theory, a single set of fitting parameters fails to describe the experimental results.

  12. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M.; Scampoli, P.; Bremen, K. von

    2013-01-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study

  13. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration

  14. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Scampoli, P. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Cintia, I-60126 Napoli (Italy); Bremen, K. von [SWAN Isotopen AG, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  15. Thermal effects on parallel-propagating electron cyclotron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal effects on the dispersion of right-handed electron cyclotron waves propagating parallel to a uniform, ambient magnetic field are investigated in the strictly non-relativistic ('classical') and weakly relativistic approximations for real frequency and complex wave vector. In each approximation, the two branches of the RH mode reconnect near the cyclotron frequency as the plasma temperature is increased or the density is lowered. This reconnection occurs in a manner different from that previously assumed at parallel propagation and from that at perpendicular propagation, giving rise to a new mode near the cold plasma cut-off frequency ωsub(xC). For both parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is noted that reconnection occurs approximately when the cyclotron linewidth equals the width of the stop-band in the cold plasma dispersion relation. Inclusion of weakly relativistic effects is found to be necessary for quantitative calculations and for an accurate treatment of the new mode near ωsub(xC). Weakly relativistic effects also modify the analytic properties of the dispersion relation so as to introduce a new family of weakly damped and undamped solutions. (author)

  16. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  17. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F., E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  18. Work Centered Support System Design: Using Frames to Reduce Work Complexity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eggleston, Robert G; Whitaker, Randall D

    2002-01-01

    .... Based on our experience implementing the design of three WCSSs we have distilled a set of three form-based design principles that help insure a work-centered perspective is expressed in the interface...

  19. Alcator C vertical viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Hutchinson, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measured vertically through the center of a tokamak plasma yields detailed information about the electron velocity distribution. A diagnostic developed for this purpose on Alcator C tokamak uses specialized focusing optics to obtain a well collimated viewing chord, a compact viewing dump made of pyrex or Macor to reduce the effects of wall reflection and depolarization, and a rapid-scan polarizing Michelson interferometer - InSb detector system for the spectrum measurement; all constrained by the limited access and the compact size of Alcator C. Results of diffraction analysis are used to evaluate the theoretical performance of the optical system

  20. All-magnetic extraction for cyclotron beam reacceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-07-22

    An isochronous cyclotron can be modified to provide an initial electron stripping stage, a complete acceleration of the stripped ions through the cyclotron to a first energy state, means for returning the ions to an intermediate cyclotron orbit through a second stripping stage, further acceleration of the now higher energy stripped ions through the cyclotron to their final energy, and final extraction of the ions from the cyclotron. (auth)

  1. How the Center for Public Partnerships and Research Navigates Complex Social Problems to Make a Collective Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Jacqueline; Gillam, Rebecca; Garstka, Teri A; Urbach, Ember

    2018-01-01

    The challenge of maximizing the well-being of children, youth, and families is recognizing that change occurs within complex social systems. Organizations dedicated to improving practice, advancing knowledge, and informing policy for the betterment of all must have the right approach, structure, and personnel to work in these complex systems. The University of Kansas Center for Public Partnerships and Research cultivates a portfolio of innovation, research, and data science approaches positioned to help move social service fields locally, regionally, and nationally. Mission, leadership, and smart growth guide our work and drive our will to affect positive change in the world.

  2. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  3. NORTICA - a new code for cyclotron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, D.; Johnson, D.; Marti, F.

    2001-01-01

    The new package NORTICA (Numerical ORbit Tracking In Cyclotrons with Analysis) of computer codes for beam dynamics simulations is under development at NSCL. The package was started as a replacement for the code MONSTER developed in the laboratory in the past. The new codes are capable of beam dynamics simulations in both CCF (Coupled Cyclotron Facility) accelerators, the K500 and K1200 superconducting cyclotrons. The general purpose of this package is assisting in setting and tuning the cyclotrons taking into account the main field and extraction channel imperfections. The computer platform for the package is Alpha Station with UNIX operating system and X-Windows graphic interface. A multiple programming language approach was used in order to combine the reliability of the numerical algorithms developed over the long period of time in the laboratory and the friendliness of modern style user interface. This paper describes the capability and features of the codes in the present state

  4. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  5. Application of superconductivity in cyclotron construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews major concepts and design features of the new class of cyclotrons which use superconducting coils to provide main magnet excitation. The discussion begins with a brief historical review tracing the evolution of these ''superconducting'' cyclotrons and the impact of this application of superconductivity in pushing back traditional cyclotron construction limits. This is followed by a review of the principal phenomena which come into play to set new limits on the operating regime, and the nature of these limits, some of which arise from orbit properties and some of which result from construction intricacies in the coil and in the rf system. Conclusions anticipate a future widely encompassing role in the application of superconductivity to cyclotron

  6. Progress report: Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the progress report brings out the scientific and technical activities of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta during the year 1999. This includes brief review of the various R and D activities of the Centre and outside users of the cyclotron from the universities and other research institutes. The operational activities of the cyclotron with ECR ion sources, accelerator oriented research activities, activities on detector, target and electronics are reported. The activities of the Computer and Informatics group are described. The status report of the ongoing projects is also provided. The main activities of the superconducting cyclotron project, radioactive ion beam project, heavy ion experimental facility, advanced computational facility, recovery and analysis of helium from hot springs and material science research are described

  7. Electron cyclotron emission imaging in tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsat, T.; Domier, C.W.; Kong, X. Y.; Liang, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Tobias, B. J.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the recent history and latest developments of the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic technique, wherein electron temperature is measured in magnetically confined plasmas with two-dimensional spatial resolution. The key enabling technologies for this technique are the

  8. Progress report on the Milan superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, E.; Alessandria, F.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bellomo, G.; Birattari, C.; Bosotti, A.; Broggi, F.; Cortesi, G.; DeMartinis, C.; Fabrici, E.; Ferrari, A.; Giove, D.; Giussani, A.; Giussani, W.; Michelato, P.; Pagani, C.; Rivoltella, G.; Rossi, L.; Serafini, L.; Sussetto, A.; Torri, V.; Varisco, G.; Cuttone, G.; Raia, G.; Kai, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the construction of the K800 superconducting cyclotron at the University of Milan underway since February 1981. The delay in the construction of the new building and a defect of the weldings of the helium vessel have caused a shift in the project schedule of about two years. Currently, the cyclotron magnet and the cryogenic plant have been completed and installed. First operation of the magnet and magnetic field mapping are to begin shortly

  9. Building 211 cyclotron characterization survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-30

    The Building 211 Cyclotron Characterization Survey includes an assessment of the radioactive and chemical inventory of materials stored within the facility; an evaluation of the relative distribution of accelerator-produced activation products within various cyclotron components and adjacent structures; measurement of the radiation fields throughout the facility; measurement and assessment of internal and external radioactive surface contamination on various equipment, facility structures, and air-handling systems; and an assessment of lead (Pb) paint and asbestos hazards within the facility.

  10. NIRS-Chiba isochronous cyclotron 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Kumamoto, Y.; Yamada, T.; Hiramoto, T.

    1976-02-01

    The cyclotron facility installed according to the recommendation of the Atomic Energy Committee of Japan is used for neutron therapy and production of short-lived radioisotopes. Construction on the facility was started in the autumn of 1972, and completed in March 1974. Described are the following: beam transport and the experimental hall, machine research and improvement, machine time sharing and the particles and energies, characteristics of the cyclotron, and facility personnel. (auth.)

  11. Initial operation of the cyclotron CYTRACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Yu.N.; Dolya, S.N.; Kalinichenko, V.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Kostromin, S.A.; Fedorenko, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    The industrial cyclotron CYTRACK is dedicated to produce the track membranes. It is the basic instrument for the industry of membrane products to be consumed in medicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, microelectronics and many other industries. Cyclotron CYTRACK started working in August 2002. Argon ions were accelerated to the project energy - 2.4 MeV/nucleon, the extracted beam intensity was about 200 nA, the extraction efficiency totaled ∼50%

  12. Support vector machine based fault detection approach for RFT-30 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Young Bae, E-mail: ybkong@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Eun Je; Hur, Min Goo; Park, Jeong Hoon; Park, Yong Dae; Yang, Seung Dae

    2016-10-21

    An RFT-30 is a 30 MeV cyclotron used for radioisotope applications and radiopharmaceutical researches. The RFT-30 cyclotron is highly complex and includes many signals for control and monitoring of the system. It is quite difficult to detect and monitor the system failure in real time. Moreover, continuous monitoring of the system is hard and time-consuming work for human operators. In this paper, we propose a support vector machine (SVM) based fault detection approach for the RFT-30 cyclotron. The proposed approach performs SVM learning with training samples to construct the classification model. To compensate the system complexity due to the large-scale accelerator, we utilize the principal component analysis (PCA) for transformation of the original data. After training procedure, the proposed approach detects the system faults in real time. We analyzed the performance of the proposed approach utilizing the experimental data of the RFT-30 cyclotron. The performance results show that the proposed SVM approach can provide an efficient way to control the cyclotron system.

  13. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  14. The newly expanded KSC Visitors Complex features a new ticket plaza, information center, exhibits an

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The newly added Robot Scouts exhibit at the KSC Visitor Complex is situated next to the Rocket Garden. Part of the $13 million expansion to the Visitor Complex, the exhibit helps describe for visitors the accomplishments of unsung space heroes - space probes - and their role in space exploration. It also includes a display of how data from robotic probes might be used to build a human habitat for Mars. Visitors can witness a simulated Martian sunset. Other additions include a new foyer, films, and an International Space Station-themed ticket plaza, featuring a structure of overhanging solar panels and astronauts performing assembly tasks. The KSC Visitor Complex was inaugurated three decades ago and is now one of the top five tourist attractions in Florida. It is located on S.R. 407, east of I-95, within the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  15. Ion-cyclotron-resonance- and Fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance spectroscopy: technology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luederwald, I.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and technology of Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance and Fourier-Transform-Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Spectroscopy are described. The method can be applied to studies of ion/molecule reactions in gas phase, to obtain thermodynamic data as gas phase acidity or basicity, proton and electron affinity, and to establish reaction mechanisms and ion structures. (orig.) [de

  16. A national medical cyclotron facility: report to the Minister of Health by the Medical Cyclotron Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Research and training in nuclear medicine in Australia are both limited by the lack of a medical cyclotron facility. The Committee recommends the establishment of a national medical cyclotron to provide a supply of short-lived radioisotopes for research in relevant fields of medicine, and for diagnostic use in nuclear medicine

  17. 57 Co produced in cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, Liliane; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron CV-28 of IPEN-CNEN/SP is a particle accelerator, used mainly in the radioisotope production, applied in 'in vivo' diagnosis in nuclear medicine. Some of them are employed in the calibration of Diagnosis equipment, such as gamma and X-rays detectors. Co-57 is an example of this application. A natural nickel foil was used as target and irradiated with proton beams of 24 MeV energy. The radioactivity analysis of the irradiated target was performed by Gamma Spectroscopy with a HPGe detector. A 259,74MBq (7,02 mCi) Co-57 source was prepared, 67 days after the last bombardment, with impurity levels of 1.13% for Co-56 and 1.29% for Co-58. The thick target yields for Co-57 and for the main radionuclidic impurities were measured, after the chemical separation of the irradiated target, extrapolated to the last EOB: 1.076 MBq (29.09 mCi)/mA.h, 0.012 MBq (0.33 mCi)/mA.h and 0.014 MBq (0.37 mCi)/mA.h, for Co-57, Co-56 and Co-58, respectively. (author)

  18. Electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    As nuclear fusion becomes an increasingly important potential energy source in these times of global oil and energy crises, the development of technologies that can lead to the realization of this virtually inexhaustible source of energy takes on ever greater urgency. Over the past decade electron cyclotron heating has undergone a significant maturation and has emerged as an essential component of the major approaches to achieving controlled nuclear fusion. The gyrotron, first developed in the Soviet Union, has made it possible to employ ECH in large tokamak and stellarator fusion devices by providing megawatts of microwave power at frequencies above 100 GHz. A contemporary VGT-8110 gyrotron, for example, shown here with Kevin Felch and Pat Cahalan of Communications and Power Industries, is capable of delivering 10 second pulses of 1 MW of power at 110 GHz. The present monograph addresses the ECH physics critical to the international fusion reactor experiment, ITER, but also presents the fundamentals of ECH that are essential to its successful implementation in applications that range from active experiments in planetary magnetospheres to commercial plasma sources for the manufacture of computer chips. The book seeks to convey the physics of ECH in an orderly and coherent fashion to a professional audience by presenting the basic theoretical foundations and then using the theory to interpret a number of established experimental results. Exercises are included to aid the reader in making the theory more concrete. (orig.)

  19. Cyclotron tubes - a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourier, G

    1980-12-01

    The introduction presents a general discussion of electron cyclotron masers (ECM): resonance, relativistic effects, elementary quantum aspects, the classical relativistic bunching and the optimum value of the electric field. The practical structure - in particular that of the gyrotron - is specified only insofar as it is useful for understanding the following chapters. The main parameters are discussed. Section 2 develops a nonlinear adiabatic or orbital theory of electron motion which alleviates calculations considerably while keeping numerical errors low enough for many practical cases. Its results are compared to a rigorous integration in one case. Other cases show the importance of the electric field profile inside the resonant cavity. Section 3 is devoted to space charge phenomena, and, for the most part, to a linear theory with space charge. In its limited range of validity (low-energy electrons), the theory indicates a strong impact of space charge for low a.c. fields and exhibits a pure beam instability. Section 4 is devoted to circuit equations with emphasis on the special features of cavities consisting of a long waveguide near cutoff. The conclusion indicates some trends of gyrotron development and corresponding theoretical problems.

  20. Significance of radiological diagnosis in complex investigation of necroses of femoral head ossification centers. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegling, C.W.; Endert, G.; Ritter, H.; Schumann, E.

    1984-07-01

    101 scintigraphic investigations and 42 angiograms show that the vascular tamponade is the decisive factor for the beginning of necrosis of the femoral head ossification center. Plain films, scintigraphy and angiography give information of the duration of the disease. Extent and localisation of the circulatory disturbance are important for the prognosis of the disease. From stage classification and prognostic factors the conclusions for therapy can be drawn.

  1. Twin-based DNA methylation analysis takes the center stage of studies of human complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dongfeng; Li, Shuxia; Tan, Qihua

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of complex diseases is characterized by the interaction between the genome and environmental conditions and the interface of epigenetics may be a central mechanism. Current technologies already allow us high-throughput profiling of epigenetic patterns at genome level. However, our un...

  2. How Well Do Student Nurses Write Case Studies? A Cohesion-Centered Textual Complexity Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Thuez, Laurent; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the presumption that writing style is proven to be a reliable predictor of comprehension, this paper investigates the extent to which textual complexity features of nurse students’ essays are related to the scores they were given. Thus, forty essays about case studies on infectious

  3. Study of the cyclotron operating conditions; Etude des conditions de fonctionnement du cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debraine, P; Bariaud, A; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y

    1948-12-01

    This work is a detailed study of the operating conditions of the cyclotron. It analyzes the behaviour of the particles from their first accelerations to their arrival on an external target. Calculations were performed using relativistic formulations in order to make the results usable without any energy level restriction. The obtained results supply some numerical elements for a cyclotron pre-determination and allow a satisfactory visualization of the real phenomena taking place during the accelerations. The shape of the phase change during the successive accelerations has been obtained for a given magnetic field configuration with respect to the operating frequency, to the magnetic field value in the center, and to the accelerating voltage between the dees. Taking into account the limitations due to the accelerating and focussing conditions, the usable phase interval has been determined with respect to the characteristic operating parameters. The study of this phase interval with respect to the accelerating voltage, on the one hand, and with respect to the frequency or to the center magnetic field, on the other hand, has permitted to find again two facts experimentally observed: voltage threshold and dissymmetry of the response curve. The study of radial and axial oscillations has shown the existence of precession phenomena and indicates a maximum limit for the magnetic field variation in order to avoid the disturbances due to oscillations coupling. The study of the ion beam envelope inside the chamber with respect to the initial phases has permitted to determine the optimum shape of the dees and the height of the deflecting channel. Moreover, the influence of various parameters on the ion beam efficiency can be shown using an ideal source. The study of the passing conditions inside the deflecting channel has shown the influence of the separation sheet, has given the dimensions to foresee for the deflecting channel, and has indicated the way to follow to obtain

  4. Cyclotron laboratory at INRNE - BAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, D.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective is to create a modern center for: applied research; production and testing radiopharmaceuticals fundamental science; training: radiochemistry; radio pharmacy, nuclear physics, radiation protection, nuclear energetics

  5. Induced-fit recognition of DNA by organometallic complexes with dynamic stereogenic centers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, H.; Parkinson, J. A.; Nováková, Olga; Bella, J.; Wang, F.; Dawson, A.; Gould, R.; Parsons, S.; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 25 (2003), s. 14623-14628 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1552; GA ČR GA305/01/0418; GA AV ČR IAA5004101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : organometallic complexes * platinum * DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 10.272, year: 2003

  6. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Yojiro

    1995-01-01

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  7. Manufacturing on the radiopharmaceuticals produced by cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical (RP) produced by cyclotrons are widely used for the in vivo diagnosis of various diseases such as cancer, cerebral vascular disorders and cardiac diseases. The nuclides used as RPs and their nuclear reactions, and the quantity of RPs supplied in Japan in the last five years are shown. These RPs are delivered to about 1,100 hospitals in Japan. Thallium-201 and iodine-123 showed very high growth rate. Recently, two new I-123 RPs, BMIPP and MIBG which are heart-imaging agents, have been supplied. It suggests that the quantity of I-123 will increase much more in future. The image diagnostic method using RPs is called in vivo nuclear medicine, and has become the indispensable means for medical institutions together with X-ray CT, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic diagnosis. The RPs for in vivo diagnosis generally used at present are classified into those labeled with the RIs produced with cyclotrons and those labeled with Tc-99m formed by the decay of Mo-99. The quantity being used is overwhelmingly more in the latter, but the former shows the tendency of growth. The commercial production of cyclotron RIs for medical use, the chemical forms and the diagnostic purposes of the RPs using cyclotron RIs, and the state of use of the cyclotron-produced RPs are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14 C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14 C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14 C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  9. Recycling and recommissioning a used biomedical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, L.R.; Ramsey, F.; Armbruster, J.; Montenero, M.

    2001-01-01

    Biomedical Cyclotrons have a very long life, but there eventually comes a time when any piece of equipment has to be retired from service. From time to time, we have the opportunity to help find new homes for used cyclotrons which, with relatively modest overhaul and refurbishment, can have many additional years of productive service, and thus represent a very valuable asset. The reasons for retiring a cyclotron vary, of course, but in our experience it is often due to an institution's changing priorities or changing needs, rather than the due to any fundamental age-related deficiency in the cyclotron itself. In this paper we will report on the relocation and successful restoration of a used TCC CP-42 cyclotron, which was moved from M.D. Anderson Hospital in Houston to Denton, Texas in early 1998, where it is presently being used for R and D and commercial production of biomedical isotopes. Ownership of the machine has been transferred to the University of North Texas; facility, manpower, and operational resources are provided by International Isotopes, Inc

  10. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  11. Cost benefit analysis of the radiological shielding of medical cyclotrons using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar

    2001-01-01

    Adequate radiation shielding is vital to the safe operation of modern commercial medical cyclotrons producing large yields of short-lived radioisotopes. The radiological shielding constitutes a significant capital investment for any new cyclotron-based radioisotope production facility; hence, the shielding design requires an accurate cost-benefit analysis often based on a complex multi-variant optimization technique. This paper demonstrates the application of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for the optimum design of the high yield target cave of a Medical Cyclotron radioisotope production facility based in Sydney, Australia. The GA is a novel optimization technique that mimics the Darwinian Evolution paradigm and is ideally suited to search for global optima in a large multi-dimensional solution space

  12. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De Vos

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR (DiversiLab and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains. Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis, all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality.

  13. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilocq, Florence; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Keersebilck, Elkana; Bosmans, Petra; Pieters, Thierry; Hing, Mony; Heuninckx, Walter; De Pauw, Frank; Soentjens, Patrick; Merabishvili, Maia; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Bogaerts, Pierre; Glupczynski, Youri; Pot, Bruno; van der Reijden, Tanny J.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab) and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains). Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis), all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international) clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality. PMID:27223476

  14. Radiation shielding and health physics instrumentation for PET medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Modern Medical Cyclotrons produce a variety of short-lived positron emitting PET radioisotopes, and as a result are the source of intense neutron and gamma radiations. Since such cyclotrons are housed within hospitals or medical clinics, there is significant potential for un-intentional exposure to staff or patients in proximity to cyclotron facilities. Consequently, the radiological hazards associated with Cyclotrons provide the impetus for an effective radiological shielding and continuous monitoring of various radiation levels in the cyclotron environment. Management of radiological hazards is of paramount importance for the safe operation of a Medical Cyclotron facility. This work summarised the methods of shielding calculations for a compact hospital based Medical Cyclotron currently operating in Canada, USA and Australia. The design principle and operational history of a real-time health physics monitoring system (Watchdog) operating at a large multi-energy Medical Cyclotron is also highlighted

  15. Statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Shot noise is the cause of statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation generated by an ensemble of electrons oscillating in magnetic field. Autophasing time - the time required for the cooperative cyclotron radiation power to peak - is the critical parameter characterizing the dynamics of electron-oscillators interacting via the radiation field. It is shown that premodulation of charged particles leads to a considerable narrowing of the autophasing time distribution function for which the analytic expression is obtained. When the number of particles Ne exceeds a certain value that depends on the degree to which the particles have been premodulated, the relative root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the autophasing time δT changes from a logarithmic dependence on Ne (δT ∼ 1 / lnNe) to square-root (δT ∼ 1 /√{Ne }). A slight energy spread (∼4%) results in a twofold drop of the maximum attainable power of cooperative cyclotron radiation.

  16. Decommissioning analyzis of a university cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.X.; Buls, N.; Hermanne, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the widespread use of some medical nuclear facilities, such as cyclotrons for isotope production, Life cycle analyzis, including decommissioning, was not taken into account. The structural materials of an accelerator and the concrete shielding of the bunker are activated by neutrons. This could yield a considerable volume of nuclear waste and needs radiation protection concern for occupational workers and the environment during some decennia. At the university of Brussels (WB) a prospective radiation protection and waste analyzis is being made for the later decommissioning of their cyclotron. Only few similar studies have been published. In Belgium future nuclear dismantling operations will be submitted to a radiation protection authorization procedure. Meanwhile the nuclear waste authorities insist on dismantling planning, including financial provisioning. An optimization exercise was made at the VUB-cyclotron, taking into account international trends to clearance levels for low level nuclear waste. Conceptual prevention opportunities e.g. selective material choice could be identified for future accelerator constructions. (author)

  17. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  18. Knowledge based operation assist system for JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, T.; Okumura, S.; Yokota, W.; Arakawa, K.; Murakami, T.; Okamura, T.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two operation assist systems for easy and rapid operation of the JAERI AVF cyclotron. One is a knowledge based expert system guiding the sequence of parameter adjustment to inexperienced cyclotron operators. The other is a real-time simulation of the beam trajectories which are calculated from actual operating parameters. It graphically indicates feasible setting range of parameters that satisfies the acceptance of the cyclotron. These systems provide a human interface to adjust the parameters of the cyclotron. (author)

  19. Commissioning of cryogen delivery system for superconducting cyclotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, G.; Nandi, C.; Bhattacharyya, T.K.; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    A K-500 superconducting cyclotron is being constructed at VECC Kolkata. The cryogen delivery system distributes liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to the superconducting cyclotron. Liquid helium is required to cool the cyclotron magnet and cryopanels. Liquid nitrogen is used to reduce the capacity of the helium liquefier. This paper describes the system, the current status and the commissioning experiences of cryogen delivery system for cyclotron magnet. (author)

  20. The layered sensing operations center: a modeling and simulation approach to developing complex ISR networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Christopher; Lenzo, Matthew; McClure, Matthew; Preiss, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    In order to anticipate the constantly changing landscape of global warfare, the United States Air Force must acquire new capabilities in the field of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). To meet this challenge, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is developing a unifying construct of "Layered Sensing" which will provide military decision-makers at all levels with the timely, actionable, and trusted information necessary for complete battlespace awareness. Layered Sensing is characterized by the appropriate combination of sensors and platforms (including those for persistent sensing), infrastructure, and exploitation capabilities to enable this synergistic awareness. To achieve the Layered Sensing vision, AFRL is pursuing a Modeling & Simulation (M&S) strategy through the Layered Sensing Operations Center (LSOC). An experimental ISR system-of-systems test-bed, the LSOC integrates DoD standard simulation tools with commercial, off-the-shelf video game technology for rapid scenario development and visualization. These tools will help facilitate sensor management performance characterization, system development, and operator behavioral analysis. Flexible and cost-effective, the LSOC will implement a non-proprietary, open-architecture framework with well-defined interfaces. This framework will incentivize the transition of current ISR performance models to service-oriented software design for maximum re-use and consistency. This paper will present the LSOC's development and implementation thus far as well as a summary of lessons learned and future plans for the LSOC.

  1. ECR ion source for variable energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Dasgupta, B; Mallik, C; Das, S K; Bandopadhaya, D K; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1995-09-01

    Some performance characteristics of 6.4 GHz two stage ECR ion source which was under development at this centre is presented. The present ion source will facilitate acceleration of light heavy ions with the existing k=130 variable energy cyclotron. Multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam from the source will also be utilized for atomic physics studies. Oxygen beam has already been used for ion implantation studies. The external injection system under development is nearing completion. Heavy ion beam from cyclotron is expected by end of 1995. (author).

  2. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  3. Intensity limits of the PSI Injector II cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, A.; Adelmann, A.; Barlow, R.; Baumgarten, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ∼ 10% level: the PSI cyclotrons provide relevant experience. As space charge dominates at low beam energy, the injector is critical. Understanding space charge effects and halo formation through detailed numerical modelling gives clues on how to maximise the extracted current. Simulation of a space-charge dominated low energy high intensity (9.5 mA DC) machine, with a complex collimator set up in the central region shaping the bunch, is not trivial. We use the OPAL code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines, including 3D space charge. We have a precise model of the present (production) Injector II, operating at 2.2 mA current. A simple model of the proposed future (upgraded) configuration of the cyclotron is also investigated. We estimate intensity limits based on the developed models, supported by fitted scaling laws and measurements. We have been able to perform more detailed analysis of the bunch parameters and halo development than any previous study. Optimisation techniques enable better matching of the simulation set-up with Injector II parameters and measurements. We show that in the production configuration the beam current scales to the power of three with the beam size. However, at higher intensities, 4th power scaling is a better fit, setting the limit of approximately 3 mA. Currents of over 5 mA, higher than have been achieved to date, can be produced if the collimation scheme is adjusted.

  4. Simplistic and complex thought in medicine: the rationale for a person-centered care model as a medical revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach1,2 1Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital AP-HP, 2EA 3412, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Ile-de-France (CRNH-IDF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France Abstract: According to the concept developed by Thomas Kuhn, a scientific revolution occurs when scientists encounter a crisis due to the observation of anomalies that cannot be explained by the generally accepted paradigm within which scientific progress has thereto been made: a scientific revolution can therefore be described as a change in paradigm aimed at solving a crisis. Described herein is an application of this concept to the medical realm, starting from the reflection that during the past decades, the medical community has encountered two anomalies that, by their frequency and consequences, represent a crisis in the system, as they deeply jeopardize the efficiency of care: nonadherence of patients who do not follow the prescriptions of their doctors, and clinical inertia of doctors who do not comply with good practice guidelines. It is proposed that these phenomena are caused by a contrast between, on the one hand, the complex thought of patients and doctors that sometimes escapes rationalization, and on the other hand, the simplification imposed by the current paradigm of medicine dominated by the technical rationality of evidence-based medicine. It is suggested therefore that this crisis must provoke a change in paradigm, inventing a new model of care defined by an ability to take again into account, on an individual basis, the complex thought of patients and doctors. If this overall analysis is correct, such a person-centered care model should represent a solution to the two problems of patients’ nonadherence and doctors’ clinical inertia, as it tackles their cause. These considerations may have important implications for the teaching and the practice of medicine. Keywords: person-centered

  5. Identification of protein W, the elusive sixth subunit of the Rhodopseudomonas palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 core complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philip J; Hitchcock, Andrew; Swainsbury, David J K; Qian, Pu; Martin, Elizabeth C; Farmer, David A; Dickman, Mark J; Canniffe, Daniel P; Hunter, C Neil

    2018-02-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex revealed the presence of a sixth protein component, variably referred to in the literature as helix W, subunit W or protein W. The position of this protein prevents closure of the LH1 ring, possibly to allow diffusion of ubiquinone/ubiquinol between the RC and the cytochrome bc 1 complex in analogous fashion to the well-studied PufX protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The identity and function of helix W have remained unknown for over 13years; here we use a combination of biochemistry, mass spectrometry, molecular genetics and electron microscopy to identify this protein as RPA4402 in Rps. palustris CGA009. Protein W shares key conserved sequence features with PufX homologs, and although a deletion mutant was able to grow under photosynthetic conditions with no discernible phenotype, we show that a tagged version of protein W pulls down the RC-LH1 complex. Protein W is not encoded in the photosynthesis gene cluster and our data indicate that only approximately 10% of wild-type Rps. palustris core complexes contain this non-essential subunit; functional and evolutionary consequences of this observation are discussed. The ability to purify uniform RC-LH1 and RC-LH1-protein W preparations will also be beneficial for future structural studies of these bacterial core complexes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclotron operating mode determination based on intelligent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, M.M.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    adjust the parameters of the operating mode from the acceleration- extraction- focusing and steering until end of the experiment. This process is tedious and also time consuming and these were the main reasons to search better, faster and efficient method to determine the parameters of a new operating mode. As a result the artificial neural networks as a basis for intelligent system have been used to determine new operating systems for the MGC-20 cyclotron.In this thesis; an intelligent system has been designed and developed to determine new operating systems for the MGC-20 cyclotron, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority. This system based on Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Networks (FFBPNN). The system consists of five neural networks work in parallel. Every neural network consists of three layers, input, hidden, and output layers. The outputs of the five neural networks represent the normalized values (from 0 to 1 and from -1 to 0) of the 19 parameters of the new operating mode. The inputs for every neural network are the normalized values (from 0 to 1) of the particle name, the particle energy, the beam current intensity, and the duty factor. The outputs of the five neural networks must be calibrated to obtain the real values of the parameters of the new operating mode. These elements of the outputs are the magnetic lenses, the magnetic correctors, the concentric coils, and the harmonic coils. The FFBPNNs are learned by using the feed forward back propagation training algorithm. The learning has been done with different values of the learning factor , the momentum factor and also the number of the hidden layers. The best structure which needs the shortest time to learn and achieve the allowed maximum error has been used.

  7. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  8. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center methods for systematically reviewing complex multicomponent health care interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Christine; Viswanathan, Meera; Glick, Susan; Treadwell, Jonathan; Umscheid, Craig A; Whitlock, Evelyn; Fu, Rongwei; Berliner, Elise; Paynter, Robin; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Pua; Trikalinos, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center methods white paper was to outline approaches to conducting systematic reviews of complex multicomponent health care interventions. We performed a literature scan and conducted semistructured interviews with international experts who conduct research or systematic reviews of complex multicomponent interventions (CMCIs) or organizational leaders who implement CMCIs in health care. Challenges identified include lack of consistent terminology for such interventions (eg, complex, multicomponent, multidimensional, multifactorial); a wide range of approaches used to frame the review, from grouping interventions by common features to using more theoretical approaches; decisions regarding whether and how to quantitatively analyze the interventions, from holistic to individual component analytic approaches; and incomplete and inconsistent reporting of elements critical to understanding the success and impact of multicomponent interventions, such as methods used for implementation the context in which interventions are implemented. We provide a framework for the spectrum of conceptual and analytic approaches to synthesizing studies of multicomponent interventions and an initial list of critical reporting elements for such studies. This information is intended to help systematic reviewers understand the options and tradeoffs available for such reviews. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutron scattering shows a droplet of oleic acid at the center of the BAMLET complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Emma M; Duff, Anthony P; Gilbert, Elliot P; Doherty, Greg; Knott, Robert B; Church, W Bret

    2017-07-01

    The anti-cancer complex, Bovine Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumors (BAMLET), has intriguing broad-spectrum anti-cancer activity. Although aspects of BAMLET's anti-cancer mechanism are still not known, it is understood that it involves the oleic acid or oleate component of BAMLET being preferentially released into cancer cell membranes leading to increased membrane permeability and lysis. The structure of the protein component of BAMLET has previously been elucidated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to be partially unfolded and dramatically enlarged. However, the structure of the oleic acid component of BAMLET and its disposition with respect to the protein component was not revealed as oleic acid has the same X-ray scattering length density (SLD) as water. Employing the difference in the neutron SLDs of hydrogen and deuterium, we carried out solvent contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments of hydrogenated BAMLET in deuterated water buffers, to reveal the size, shape, and disposition of the oleic acid component of BAMLET. Our resulting analysis and models generated from SANS and SAXS data indicate that oleic acid forms a spherical droplet of oil incompletely encapsulated by the partially unfolded protein component. This model provides insight into the anti-cancer mechanism of this cache of lipid. The model also reveals a protein component "tail" not associated with the oleic acid component that is able to interact with the tail of other BAMLET molecules, providing a plausible explanation of how BAMLET readily forms aggregates. Proteins 2017; 85:1371-1378. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...

  11. Building on TR-24 success. Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc. launches a new cyclotron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell Watt; William Gyles; Alexander Zyuzin

    2015-01-01

    ACSI is designing a new 30 MeV cyclotron based on the TR-24. While minimizing changes from the proven TR-24, including maintaining the same outer dimensions, the energy of the cyclotron will be increased to 30 MeV, which will make it the most compact, non-superconducting, 30 MeV cyclotron design to date. Maximum beam current will match the TR-24 at 1 mA. With the size and footprint of a typical low energy PET cyclotron, this system will offer users a cost effective solution for a diversified facility capable of producing a wide spectrum of PET and SPECT radioisotopes for research and commercial distribution. (author)

  12. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Shepard, D.A.; Sprott, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed

  13. Passive cyclotron current drive for fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernbichler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The creation of toroidal current using cyclotron radiation in a passive way is, together with the well known bootstrap current, an interesting method for stationary current drive in high-temperature fusion reactors. Here, instead of externally applied RF-waves, fish-scale like structures at the first wall help to create enough asymmetry in the self generated cyclotron radiation intensity to drive a current within the plasma. The problem of computing passive cyclotron current drive consists of actually two linked problems, which are the computation of the electron equilibrium under the presence of self-generated radiation, and the computation of the photon equilibrium in a bounded system with a distorted electron distribution. This system of integro-differential equations cannot be solved directly in an efficient way. Therefore a linearization procedure was developed to decouple both sets of equations, finally linked through a generalized local current drive efficiency. The problem of the exact accounting for the wall profile effects was reduced to the solution of a Fredholm-type integral equation of the 2 nd -kind. Based on all this an extensive computer code was developed to compute the passively driven current as well as radiation losses, radiation transport and overall efficiencies. The results therefrom give an interesting and very detailed insight into the problems related to passive cyclotron current drive

  14. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits

  16. The Data Cyclotron query processing scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves, R.; Kersten, M.

    2011-01-01

    A grand challenge of distributed query processing is to devise a self-organizing architecture which exploits all hardware resources optimally to manage the database hot set, minimize query response time, and maximize throughput without single point global coordination. The Data Cyclotron

  17. The Data Cyclotron query processing scheme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goncalves (Romulo); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractA grand challenge of distributed query processing is to devise a self-organizing architecture which exploits all hardware resources optimally to manage the database hot set, minimize query response time, and maximize throughput without single point global coordination. The Data Cyclotron

  18. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  19. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  20. Automated cyclotron tuning using beam phase measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, J.H.; Roecken, H.; Stephani, T.; Baumgarten, C.; Geisler, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ACCEL K250 superconducting cyclotron is specifically designed for the use in proton therapy systems. The compact medical 250 MeV proton accelerator fulfils all present and future beam requirements for fast scanning treatment systems and is delivered as a turn key system; no operator is routinely required. During operation of the cyclotron heat dissipation of the RF system induces a small drift in iron temperature. This temperature drift slightly detunes the magnetic field and small corrections must be made. A non-destructive beam phase detector has been developed to measure and quantify the effect of a magnetic field drift. Signal calculations were made and the design of the capacitive pickup probe was optimised to cover the desired beam current range. Measurements showed a very good agreement with the calculated signals and beam phase can be measured with currents down to 3 nA. The measured phase values are used as input for a feedback loop controlling the current in the superconducting coil. The magnetic field of the cyclotron is tuned automatically and online to maintain a fixed beam phase. Extraction efficiency is thereby optimised continuously and activation of the cyclotron is minimised. The energy and position stability of the extracted beam are well within specification

  1. A visual assistance environment for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Murakami, Tohru; Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists inexperienced operators has been developed. Cyclotron start-up operations require dozens of adjustable parameters to be finely tuned to maximize extracted beam current. The human interfaces of the system provide a visual environment designed to enhance beam parameter adjustments. First, the mental model of operators is analyzed. It is supposed to be composed of five partial mental models: beam behavior model, feasible setting regions model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter mutual relation model, and status map model. Next, based on these models, three visual interfaces are developed, i.e., (1) Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever the operators change the cyclotron parameters. (2) Feasible setting regions (FSR) of the parameters that satisfy the cyclotron's beam acceptance criteria are indicated. (3) Search traces, being a historical visual map of beam current values, are superimposed on the FSRs. Finally, to evaluate system effectiveness, the search time required to reach maximum beam current conditions was measured. In addition, system operability was evaluated using written questionnaires. Results of the experiment showed that the search time to reach specific beam conditions was reduced by approximately 65% using these interfaces. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system operability. (author)

  2. Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    600 W microwave power with an average electron density of ∼ 6 × 1011 cm. −3 ... the angular frequency of the cyclotron motion, e is the electron charge, m is the mass of .... is also suitable for ECR plasma-based applications like high-quality ...

  3. Electron cyclotron emission from thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Granata, G.

    1978-02-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from a warm inhomogeneous plasma is investigated. A direct calculation of the emissive power of a plasma slab is performed using Rytov's method and the result is compared with the solution of the transfer equation. It is found that, for arbitrary directions of emission, the two results differ, which reflects the fact that Kirchhoff's law is not generally obeyed

  4. Electron cyclotron heating and associated parallel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapozo, C. da C.; Assis, A.S. de; Busnardo Neto, J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been experimentally observed that during the electron-cyclotron heating the electron longitudinal temperature drops as the perpendicular temperature increases. The experiment was carried in a linear mirror machine with a low density (10 10 cm -3 ) weakly ionized (< 1.0 %) plasma. (Author)

  5. On Resonant Heating Below the Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liu; Lin, Zhihong; White, R.

    2001-01-01

    Resonant heating of particles by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicular to a confining uniform magnetic field is examined. It is shown that, with a sufficiently large wave amplitude, significant perpendicular stochastic heating can be obtained with wave frequency at a fraction of the cyclotron frequency

  6. Emergency situation in a medical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bhat, M.K.; Singh, D.K.; Pthania, B.S.; Pandit, A.G.; Jacob, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Medical cyclotron is a particle accelerator used in producing short lived radioisotopes such as 18 F, 11 C, 15 O, 13 N, 18 F-2 gas etc. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging modality that has rapidly gained favour. 18 F-FDG is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical with a half-life of 109.8 min. Having more than five years experience in this field we face lots of emergency conditions in the medical cyclotron facility. On the basis of harm we have divided in to three categories i.e. Harm of (a) working personnel, (b) Equipment and (c) environment. Radioactive gas leak and Target foil rupture is considered as the major emergency situations during medical cyclotron operations because there is a potential of over exposure to the working personnel. Radiation protection survey of a self-shielded medical cyclotron installation was carried out during normal and emergency conditions. It is found that the induced activity in the target foil increases with its successive usages. Recommendations have also been made to reduce personal exposure while handling the radioactive gas leak and target foil rupture conditions

  7. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Currents driven by electron cyclotron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karney, C.F.F.; Fisch, N.J.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the generation of steady-state currents by electron cyclotron waves are explored. A numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is used to verify the theory of Fisch and Boozer and to extend their results into the nonlinear regime. Relativistic effects on the current generated are discussed. Applications to steady-state tokamak reactors are considered

  9. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  10. Family-centered services for children with complex communication needs: the practices and beliefs of school-based speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandak, Kelsey; Light, Janice

    2018-06-01

    This study used an online focus group to examine the beliefs and practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who served children with complex communication needs regarding their provision of family-centered services. Participants revealed that despite their desire for family involvement and reported beliefs in the importance of family-centered services, there were barriers in place that often limited family-centered service provision. Across the SLPs, many were dissatisfied with their current provision of family-centered services. The SLPs varied in their reported practices, with some reporting family-centered services and others, professional-centered services. Future research is recommended in order to investigate which factors contribute to the variation among SLPs and how the variation impacts children who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and their families. Potential clinical implications for in-service and pre-service SLPs are discussed to improve future family-centered AAC services.

  11. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers

  12. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, T.E.; McLeod, T.F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsenyi, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization. (orig.)

  13. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, T. E.; McLeod, T. F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsényi, F.

    1993-06-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization.

  14. Possibilities of 140Nd production by the VINCY cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.J.; Dakovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of positron emission tomography (PET) in modern medical diagnosis relies on the application of short lived radionuclides 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F, presuming their production in the close vicinity of the PET camera. Application of long-lived positron emitters would enable the regional distribution of PET radiopharmaceuticals, which would significantly lower the price of PET diagnosis, as well as enable its application in fields currently inhibited by the short half-life of available positron emitters. One of the candidates for application in PET is the generator system 140 Nd/ 140 Pr, due to the long half-life of 140 Nd (3,37 days). Theoretical calculations confirm that this radionuclide can be produced with high yields by protons accelerated to energies bellow 30 MeV. Due to its optimal operating parameters, the VINCY Cyclotron could produce enough 140 Nd for its regional distribution to a number of PET centers (author)

  15. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  16. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-10

    The past quarter has seen further progress in the solution of the problem of achieving a cyclotron which meets or exceeds the performance requirements. The magnet system, with the exception of the trim coils and their supplies, is all on order or about to be ordered, and a high confidence level exists that the system will meet all requirements. The rf system studies, nearly complete, have indicated that the solution chosen will meet the frequency requirements and will be within the power expected. The center studies, complete in the first phase, have resulted in a preliminary center design of the electrostatic focusing system and a design of the magnetic center which provides the required axial focusing. A high degree of cooperation on the center study programs between the U of M and CSF has efficiently yielded these results. The overall schedule continues to be maintained, and the program is expected to be completed on the 37-month schedule. For better control and greater visibility on schedule progress, two reference points have been selected as more immediate objectives. These are 17 July 1967 for the start of the magnet testing program and 2 October 1967 as the start of the rf high power tests. Each task involved is being analyzed with these dates in mind, and they appear to be reasonable.

  17. The sixteenth period report on the cooperative utilization of the AVF cyclotron at Osaka University RCNP (May 1983 - Oct 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AVF cyclotron at the RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics) of Osaka University has been cooperatively used by various researchers of Japanese universities or colleges. This collective report covers papers concerning various studies performed on the AVF during May 1983 to Oct 1983. About 30 individual papers are presented (some in English and the others in Japanese). (Aoki, K.)

  18. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that {sup 15}O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and {sup 18}F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies.

  19. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that 15 O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies

  20. Adaptive practices in heart failure care teams: implications for patient-centered care in the context of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait GR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glendon R Tait,1 Joanna Bates,2 Kori A LaDonna,3 Valerie N Schulz,4 Patricia H Strachan,5 Allan McDougall,3 Lorelei Lingard3 1Department of Psychiatry and Division of Medical Education, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Centre for Health Education Scholarship, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, 3Centre for Education Research and Innovation, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 4Palliative Care, London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, London; 5School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Heart failure (HF, one of the three leading causes of death, is a chronic, progressive, incurable disease. There is growing support for integration of palliative care’s holistic approach to suffering, but insufficient understanding of how this would happen in the complex team context of HF care. This study examined how HF care teams, as defined by patients, work together to provide care to patients with advanced disease. Methods: Team members were identified by each participating patient, generating team sampling units (TSUs for each patient. Drawn from five study sites in three Canadian provinces, our dataset consists of 209 interviews from 50 TSUs. Drawing on a theoretical framing of HF teams as complex adaptive systems (CAS, interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with constructivist grounded theory. Results: This paper centers on the dominant theme of system practices, how HF care delivery is reported to work organizationally, socially, and practically, and describes two subthemes: “the way things work around here”, which were commonplace, routine ways of doing things, and “the way we make things work around here”, which were more conscious, effortful adaptations to usual practice in response to emergent needs. An adaptive practice, often a small alteration to routine, could have amplified effects beyond those intended by the innovating team

  1. Graphical user interface for yield and dose estimations for cyclotron-produced technetium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Bénard, F; Schaffer, P; Ruth, T; Celler, A

    2014-07-07

    The cyclotron-based (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction has been proposed as an alternative method for solving the shortage of (99m)Tc. With this production method, however, even if highly enriched molybdenum is used, various radioactive and stable isotopes will be produced simultaneously with (99m)Tc. In order to optimize reaction parameters and estimate potential patient doses from radiotracers labeled with cyclotron produced (99m)Tc, the yields for all reaction products must be estimated. Such calculations, however, are extremely complex and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a graphical user interface (GUI) that would automate these calculations, facilitate analysis of the experimental data, and predict dosimetry. The resulting GUI, named Cyclotron production Yields and Dosimetry (CYD), is based on Matlab®. It has three parts providing (a) reaction yield calculations, (b) predictions of gamma emissions and (c) dosimetry estimations. The paper presents the outline of the GUI, lists the parameters that must be provided by the user, discusses the details of calculations and provides examples of the results. Our initial experience shows that the proposed GUI allows the user to very efficiently calculate the yields of reaction products and analyze gamma spectroscopy data. However, it is expected that the main advantage of this GUI will be at the later clinical stage when entering reaction parameters will allow the user to predict production yields and estimate radiation doses to patients for each particular cyclotron run.

  2. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω + ), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω + quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω + frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω + frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Research and education by SF cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report represents the current activities in research and education using the cyclotron facility and related apparatus which are supported by Nuclear Physics Division and this is a continuation of INS-T-466 (1986, December). In this version an iron-free β-ray spectrometer and a cooler-synchrotron (TARN II) are briefly described also in the first chapter. The second chapter explains experimental programs performed in the last 5 years. The third chapter gives the number of publications on researches performed in 1975-1991, and also gives twelve topics obtained from the cyclotron and the β-ray spectrometer in recent 5 years. The last chapter provides the whole list of the works for Doctor and Master theses performed at the facility in the last 10 years. (J.P.N.)

  4. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  5. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Tsujii, Yukio

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. A new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports, is presented in this article. A series of experiment, prior to its construction, was conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained, from 9 Be (p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. This article describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Some of practical neutron radiograph examination of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror are also presented together with an attempt realizing real time imaging technique. (author)

  6. Research activities by INS cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Research activities made by the cyclotron facility and the related apparatuses at Institute for Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo, have been reviewed in terms of the associated scientific publications. This publication list, which is to be read as a continuation of INS-Rep.-608 (October, 1986), includes experimental works on low-energy nuclear physics, accelerator technology, instrumental developments, radiation physics and other applications in interdisciplinary fields. The publications are classified into the following four categories. (A) : Internal reports published in INS. (B) : Publications in international scientific journals on experimental research works done by the cyclotron facility and the related apparatuses at INS. Those made by outside users are also included. (C) : Publications in international scientific journals on experimental low-energy nuclear physics, which have been done by the staff of INS Nuclear Physics Division using facilities outside INS. (D) : Contributions to international conferences. (author)

  7. New design for a medical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M

    1985-12-01

    The Oxford Instruments Group PLC, have designed a 30 MeV energy proton cyclotron incorporating a super-conducting magnet and a novel RF accelerating cavity. The energy range is suitable for the production of isotopes such as /sup 67/Ga, /sup 111/In, /sup 123/I and /sup 201/Tl, and the short lived isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine for use in Positron Emmission Tomography (PET). A new magnet and RF cavity design permit a considerable power and weight reduction and a compact size (1.5m dia x 1.9m high), allowing the cyclotron to be transported to a shielded site as an assembly after factory testing. A method of beam extraction has been adopted which minimises activation of the accelerator components and so allows hands on maintenance to be carried out when required.

  8. Matching of ion sources to cyclotron inflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.

    1988-06-01

    In general, cyclotron inflectors strongly couple the two transverse subspaces. This leads to a growth in emittance projections for a beam with no initial correlation between the two transverse subspaces. Only in the case of the Mueller (hyperboloid) inflector is there no emittance growth. We have made calculations using an optimization routine to match a given beam through the axial injection system. We find that in the limit where all the emittance is due to a beam's axial angular momentum (for example, from an ECR source), matching with no emittance growth is possible even in the case of mirror or spiral inflectors. Moreover, any one of the two transverse emittances circulating in the cyclotron can be made smaller than the source emittance while maintaining the sum of the emittances constant. This is achieved by rotating the matching quadrupoles with respect to the inflector and retuning

  9. Cyclotrons as Drivers for Precision Neutrino Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Barletta, W. A.; Winslow, L. A.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Toups, M.; Adelmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    As we enter the age of precision measurement in neutrino physics, improved flux sources are required. These must have a well defined flavor content with energies in ranges where backgrounds are low and cross-section knowledge is high. Very few sources of neutrinos can meet these requirements. However, pion/muon and isotope decay-at-rest sources qualify. The ideal drivers for decay-at-rest sources are cyclotron accelerators, which are compact and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes a scheme to produce decay-at-rest sources driven by such cyclotrons, developed within the DAEδALUS program. Examples of the value of the high precision beams for pursuing Beyond Standard Model interactions are reviewed. New results on a combined DAEδALUS—Hyper-K search for CP violation that achieve errors on the mixing matrix parameter of 4° to 12° are presented

  10. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Suominen, P. [CERN Geneve 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Koponen, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Nanoscience Center, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2008-03-11

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  11. More about a universal compact isochronous superconducting cyclotron archetype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laisne, A.

    1999-01-01

    Except the fact that they can accelerate protons at comparable energies, AGOR and CYCLONE 235 stand at two extremities as far as the complexity of the conceptual design is concerned. The widest range of ions species associated with a very large energy and RF frequency ranges for AGOR, a fixed energy and a constant RF frequency for only protons in CYCLONE 235. In fact, the two designs have in common the same theoretical 'model' that I described in a referred paper. Now, I suggest we look again at this model and try to show how it could be regarded as the 'Universal Compact Isochronous Superconducting Cyclotron Archetype'. Based on the behavior of CYCLONE 235, and on some more recent calculations, I will explain why the name of 'Archetype' can be used, and show how attractive is the simplicity of the ejection scheme ensued in terms of reliability and cost. (author)

  12. Polarization of electron cyclotron emission spectra in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Nagasaki, K.

    1999-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) can be used to determine the electron temperature profile in magnetized plasmas. The complex structure of the magnetic field configuration in the Large Helical Device (LHD), which has a large shear, complicates the analysis of the ECE spectrum. In a sheared magnetic field the propagation of X and O-mode polarization through the plasma are coupled, causing mode conversion and polarization rotation. Mode scrambling is also caused by wall reflections. In this report, this mode conversion in LHD is numerically analyzed. It was found that at low density mode conversion scrambles the ECE spectra. However, at higher density (n eo > 1.0·10 19 m -3 ) the polarization mode is found to rotate with the sheared magnetic field, yielding only a negligible mode conversion. Wall reflections are found to depolarize the ECE spectrum. Notwithstanding the LHD magnetic configuration, it is shown that temperature profiles could be revealed from the ECE spectra. (author)

  13. KEKCB electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at TRIAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, N.; Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Arai, S.; Fuchi, Y.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Tanaka, M. H.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Ichikawa, S.; Kabumoto, H.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Sato, T. K.

    2008-01-01

    The KEKCB is an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for converting singly charged ions to multicharged ones at Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex. By using the KEKCB, singly charged gaseous and nongaseous ions were converted to multicharged ones of A/q≅7 with efficiencies of 7% and 2%, respectively. The conversion efficiency was found to be independent of the lifetime of the radioactive nuclei having lifetimes of the order of one second. Three collimators located at the entrance and the exit of the KEKCB defined the beam axis and facilitated beam injection. Grinding and washing the surfaces of aluminum electrode and plasma chamber dramatically reduced impurities originating from the ECR plasma of the KEKCB

  14. Human machine interface based on labview for vacuum system operation of cyclotron proton DECY-13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajar Sidik Permana; Saminto; Kurnia Wibowo; Vika Arwida Fanita Sari

    2016-01-01

    Center of Accelerator Science and Technology (CAST), BATAN is designing DECY-13 MeV Proton Cyclotron. So far, this operation system has been conducted conventionally. In this research, an Human Machine Interface system has been successfully built for simplifying operation and monitoring pressure inside vacuum chamber of cyclotron DECY-13 MeV. HMI system is built with LabVIEW software and integrated with Programmable Logic Controller FX-2424 series and NI cRIO (NI-9025 and NI-9870) module. HMI system consist of turning on/of pumps (rotary and diffusion), opening/ closing valve automatically, and retrieving of data from sensor in real time. (author)

  15. Electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Arunasalam, V.; Cano, R.

    1977-07-01

    Experimental measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak plasma reveal that black-body emission occurs at the fundamental frequency. Such emission, not possible by direct thermal excitation of electromagnetic waves, is herein attributed to thermal excitation of electrostatic (Bernstein) waves which then mode convert into electromagnetic waves. The local feature of the electrostatic wave generation permits spatially and time resolved measurements of electron temperature as for the second harmonic emission

  16. The superconducting separated orbit cyclotron TRITRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1984-01-01

    At the Munich 13 MV-Tandem Laboratory the TRITRON is under development, which will be the prototype of a superconducting separated orbit cyclotron for acceleration of heavy ions with 0.04 or approx.20) of the revolution frequency. Thus the frequency range for acceleration of ions with different revolution frequency can be kept small (+-3%). The magnets as well as the cavities are contained in the same cavity. (orig.)

  17. DAISY - the Oslo Cyclotron data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsoey, T.

    1991-08-01

    The new CACTUS multidetector system for the Oslo Cyclotron consists of 8 particle telescopes, 28 NAI detectors and 2 Ge detectors. Each detector gives rise to one energy parameter and one time parameter. Thus, a total of 80 parameters are present. The counting rate is 100 kByte/s for the highest beam intensities. A new data acquisition system, DAISY, satisfying these demands has been designed. The present report is intended as a complete technical manual for the new system. 24 refs

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Three ion sources, that deliver multiply charged ion beams are described. All of them are E.C.R. ion sources and are characterized by the fact that the electrons are emitted by the plasma itself and are accelerated to the adequate energy through electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.). They can work without interruption during several months in a quasi-continuous regime. (Duty cycle: [fr

  19. Cyclotron heating rate in a parabolic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance heating rates are found for a parabolic magnetic mirror. The equation of motion for perpendicular velocity is solved, including the radial magnetic field terms neglected in earlier papers. The expression for heating rate involves an infinite series of Anger's and Weber's functions, compared with a single term of the unrevised expression. The new results show an increase of heating rate compared with previous results. A simple expression is given for the ratio of the heating rates. (author)

  20. First experimental observation of cyclotron superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N S; Zotova, I V; Sergeev, A S; Konoplev, I V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Shpak, V G; Yalandin, M I; Shunajlov, C A; Ulmaskulov, M P [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Electrophysics

    1997-12-31

    The first experimental observation of cyclotron superradiance from subnanosecond high-current electron bunches moving through waveguide systems is reported. Ultrashort microwave K{sub {alpha}} band pulses with a power of 200 kW and duration less than 0.5 ns were observed in the regime of group synchronism when the electron bunch drift velocity coincided with the group velocity of the electromagnetic waves. (author). 2 figs., 13 refs.

  1. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.

    1991-06-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime [fr

  2. Ion Cyclotron Heating on Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J. F.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H. B.; Showers, M. A.; Piotrowicz, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion cyclotron heating will be used on Proto-MPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment) to increase heat flux to the target, to produce varying ion energies without substrate biasing, and to vary the extent of the magnetic pre-sheath for the case of a tilted target. A 25 cm long, 9 cm diameter dual half-turn helical ion cyclotron antenna has been installed in the device located at the magnetic field maximum. It couples power to ions via single pass damping of the slow wave at the fundamental resonance, and operates with ω 0.8ωci at the antenna location. It is designed to operate at power levels up to 30 kW, with a later 200 kW upgrade planned. Near term experiments include measuring RF loading at low power as a function of frequency and antenna gap. The plasma is generated by a helicon plasma source that has achieved ne > 5 ×1019m-3 operating with deuterium, as measured downstream from the ion cyclotron antenna location. Measurements will be compared with 1-D and 2-D models of RF coupling. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is one of the intense methods of plasma heating, and which utilizes the collisionless electron-cyclotron-resonance-interaction between the launched electromagnetic waves (called electron cyclotron waves) and electrons which are one of the constituents of the high temperature plasmas. Another constituent, namely the ions which are subject to nuclear fusion, are heated indirectly but strongly and instantly (in about 0.1 s) by the collisions with the ECH-heated electrons in the fusion plasmas. The recent progress on the development of high-power and high-frequency millimeter-wave-source enabled the ECH experiments in the middle size tokamaks such as JFT-2M (Japan), Doublet III (USA), T-10 (USSR) etc., and ECH has been demonstrated to be the sure and intense plasma heating method. The ECH attracts much attention for its remarkable capabilities; to produce plasmas (pre-ionization), to heat plasmas, to drive plasma current for the plasma confinement, and recently especially by the localization and the spatial controllability of its heating zone, which is beneficial for the fine controls of the profiles of plasma parameters (temperature, current density etc.), for the control of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, or for the optimization/improvement of the plasma confinement characteristics. Here, the present status of the ECH studies on tokamak plasmas are reviewed. (author)

  4. Nonlinear cyclotron absorption and stimulated scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), wave sources heating a plasma linearly with respect to intensity; but as the intensity of ECRH gets larger, there might appear nonlinear effects that would result in cutoff of net absorption. This thesis uses quantum mechanical theory to derive a threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption. The quantum mechanical theory estimates that the threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption is about 10 5 watts/cm 2 for a microwave heating experiment (T/sub e/ = 100 ev, λ = 3,783 cm, B = 2.5 kG). This value seems large considering the present power capabilities of microwave sources (10 2 ∼ 10 3 watts/cm 2 ), but for a low temperature plasma, this threshold will go down. There is another nonlinear phenomenon called stimulated cyclotron scattering that enhances photon scattering by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field. This is expected to prevent incoming photons from arriving at the central region of the fusion plasma, where absorption mainly takes place. Theory based on a photon transport model predicts that the threshold intensity for the stimulated cyclotron scattering is about 10 4 watts/cm 2 for the plasma parameters mentioned above. This value seems large also, but a longer wavelength of microwaves and a larger magnitude magnetic field, which will be the case in reactor type facilities, will lower the threshold intensity to levels comparable with the currently developed microwave sources

  5. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry

  6. Operation of a quasioptical electron cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, E.C.; Pyle, R.V.

    1984-12-01

    The electron cyclotron maser or gyrotron concept has been developed to produce sources producing 200 kW at 28 GHz continuously, and higher power outputs and frequencies in pulsed mode. These sources have been useful in electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetically confined fusion devices. However, higher frequencies and higher power levels will be required in reactor-grade fusion plasmas, with likely requirements of 1.0 MW or more per source at 140 GHz. Conventional gyrotrons follow a trend of decreasing power for increasing frequency. In order to circumvent this problem, the quasioptical electron cyclotron maser was proposed. In this device, the closed resonator of the conventional gyrotron is replaced with an open, Fabry-Perot type resonator. The cavity modes are then the TEM-type modes of an optical laser. The advantage of this configuration is that the cavity size is not a function of frequency, since the length can be any half-integer number of wavelengths. Furthermore, the beam traverses across the cavity transverse to the direction of radiation output, and thus the rf window design is less complicated than in conventional tubes. The rf output, if obtained by diffraction coupling around one of the mirrors, could be in a TEM mode, which would allow for quasioptical transmission of the microwaves into the plasma in fusion devices. 4 references, 1 figure

  7. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  8. Diagnostic system for the nuclear medicine with baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Masao; Wakasa, Shyuichiro

    1982-01-01

    The system of cyclotron nuclear medicine consists of ''RI-production by using the cyclotron'', ''production of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with RI'', ''positron tomography''. On the other hand, Ultra compact cyclotron (Baby cyclotron) itself, RI production technique and positron tomography have been rapidly developed and advanced. We think that these three functions must be balance in the development in order to spread this system into the routine work in the hospital. However, since the technology of the synthesis for the labeled compounds is not so developed so far, more advance can be strongly expected. In this report, construction of the cyclotron nuclear medicine, utility for the practical use of RI produced by using the cyclotron, technique of RI production, and the studies on automated and efficient productions of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived positron emitters for medical diagnostic use are described. (author)

  9. arXiv Cyclotrons: Magnetic Design and Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaremba, Simon

    Classical, isochronous, and synchro-cyclotrons are introduced. Transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics in these accelerators are covered. The problem of vertical focusing and iscochronism in compact isochronous cyclotrons is treated in some detail. Different methods for isochronization of the cyclotron magnetic field are discussed. The limits of the classical cyclotron are explained. Typical features of the synchro-cyclotron, such as the beam capture problem, stable phase motion, and the extraction problem are discussed. The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with an internal ion source are considered. The principle of a Penning ion gauge source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different methods of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. Different solutions for beam extraction are described. These include the internal target, extracti...

  10. Reports on memorial lecture meetings on co-operative application finish of the SF cyclotron and its result reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The SF cyclotron at the Institute for Nuclear Study (INS) of University of Tokyo began its co-operative application in 1997 to continue its smooth operation during 21 years reaching March, 1997. Together with improvement of INS organization on April, 1997, it was transferred to the Center for Nuclear Study School of Science, University of Tokyo, INS continued a co-operative research for two years thereafter with Tanashi campus of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization also established on April, 1997. This co-operative research was finished without accident at the end of March, 1999, to close history of co-operative application of cyclotron during 23 years. This report contains 15 memorial lecture and convivial meeting reports at the co-operative application finish of cyclotron and some results of co-operative applications and experiments, during 23 years. (G.K.)

  11. Syntheses and characterization of two new zinc phosphites with 1D chains decorated by Zn-centered complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, You-Ju; Chen, Yong-Mei; Sun, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2005-09-01

    Two inorganic-organic hybrid solids, Zn 2(phen)(HPO 3) 2 ( 1) and Zn(phen)(HPO 3) ( 2), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and further characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and fluorescent spectra. Compound 1 crystallizes in the triclnic system, space group P-1, a=8.1813(3) Å, b=8.5535(3) Å, c=12.3031(5) Å, α=75.609(1)°, β=79.145(2)°, γ=67.157(2)°, V=764.46(5) Å3, Z=2. Compound 2 is monoclinic, C2/c, a=16.1044(7) Å, b=18.9447(6) Å, c=8.1713(6) Å, β=94.175(4)°, V=2486.4(2) Å3, Z=8. Both structures consist of 1D chains constructed from strictly alternating ZnO 4 and HPO 3 polyhedra through sharing vertices. The chains are further decorated by Zn-centered complex architectures, [Zn(phen)] 2+ for 1 and [Zn(phen) 2] 2+ for 2. The 2D and 3D supramolecular arrays for 1 and 2 are stably stacked via strong π- π interactions of the phen groups, respectively.

  12. Syntheses and characterization of two new zinc phosphites with 1D chains decorated by Zn-centered complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Youju; Chen Yongmei; Sun Yanqiong; Yang Guoyu

    2005-01-01

    Two inorganic-organic hybrid solids, Zn 2 (phen)(HPO 3 ) 2 (1) and Zn(phen)(HPO 3 ) (2), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and further characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and fluorescent spectra. Compound 1 crystallizes in the triclnic system, space group P-1, a=8.1813(3)A, b=8.5535(3)A, c=12.3031(5)A, α=75.609(1) o , β=79.145(2) o , γ=67.157(2) o , V=764.46(5)A 3 , Z=2. Compound 2 is monoclinic, C2/c, a=16.1044(7)A, b=18.9447(6)A, c=8.1713(6)A, β=94.175(4) o , V=2486.4(2)A 3 , Z=8. Both structures consist of 1D chains constructed from strictly alternating ZnO 4 and HPO 3 polyhedra through sharing vertices. The chains are further decorated by Zn-centered complex architectures, [Zn(phen)] 2+ for 1 and [Zn(phen) 2 ] 2+ for 2. The 2D and 3D supramolecular arrays for 1 and 2 are stably stacked via strong π-π interactions of the phen groups, respectively

  13. Menaquinone-7 in the reaction center complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme functions as the electron acceptor A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, B; Frigaard, N-U; Yang, F

    1998-01-01

    Photosynthetically active reaction center complexes were prepared from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme NCIMB 8327, and the content of quinones was determined by extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The analysis showed a stoichiometry of 1.7 molecules of menaqui......Photosynthetically active reaction center complexes were prepared from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme NCIMB 8327, and the content of quinones was determined by extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The analysis showed a stoichiometry of 1.7 molecules...

  14. Calculation of proton beam initial orbit at cyclotron central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita Anggraita

    2012-01-01

    A calculation of proton beam initial orbits at cyclotron central region was carried out using Scilab 5.2.0. The calculation was done in 2 dimensions in a homogeneous magnetic field of 1.66 tesla at frequency of fourth harmonics. The positions of ion source, dees, and dummy dees follow those of GE Minitrace cyclotron, peak dee voltage 30 kV. The calculation yields result comparable to those simulated at KIRAMS-13 cyclotron. (author)

  15. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities

  16. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  17. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  18. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper – Entering commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bollen, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Chouhan, S. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Das, J.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Green, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Magsig, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Morrissey, D.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ottarson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Villari, A.C.C.; Zeller, A. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Linear gas stopping cells have been used successfully at NSCL to slow down ions produced by projectile fragmentation from the 100 MeV/u to the keV energy range. These ‘stopped beams’ have first been used for low-energy high precision experiments and more recently for NSCLs re-accelerator ReA. A gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL to complement the existing stopping cells: Due to its extended stopping length, efficient stopping and fast extraction is expected even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to thermalize in linear gas cells. The device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of LN{sub 2}-temperature helium gas. Once thermalized, the beam will be transported to the center of the device by a traveling-wave RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis with an ion conveyor and miniature RF-carpets, and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The superconducting magnet has been constructed on a 60 kV platform and energized to its nominal field strength. The magnet’s two cryostats use 3 cryo-refrigerators each and liquid-nitrogen cooled thermal shields to cool the coil pair to superconductivity. This concept, chosen not to have to rely on external liquid helium, has been working well. Measurements of axial and radial field profiles confirm the field calculations. The individual RF-ion guiding components for low-energy ion transport through the device have been tested successfully. The beam stopping chamber with its 0.9 m-diameter RF carpet system and the ion extraction system are being prepared for installation inside the magnet for low-energy ion transport tests.

  19. The problems of high efficient extraction from the isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, J.

    1994-06-01

    The problem of high efficient extraction (η ≥ 50%) from isochronous cyclotrons (with the exception of the stripping method) is not completely solved up to this day. This problem is specifically important, because these cyclotrons are being also applied in the production of medical radioisotopes, labeled pharmaceuticals as well as in neutron therapy (oncology), machine industry, agriculture (plant mutagenesis), etc. The aim of the proposed topic is to solve this problem on the AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron in the INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics). Lately, a beam of 20 MeV deuterons with an efficiency of ca. 15% was extracted from this cyclotron. (author). 25 refs, 14 figs

  20. Cyclotron based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, D.H.

    1986-08-01

    Progress report for cyclotron based nuclear science cyclotron facility are summarized. Research is described under the headings heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, atomic studies and activation analysis, superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. Publications are listed

  1. Radiation exposure to the staff working in PET/CT and Cyclotron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been available in number of centers for more than 25 years, but its use was not wide spread until 10 years ago. In Bulgarian PET/CT was installed for the first time in 2009 and the dose on demand cyclotron also for the first time – in 2013 in Nuclear Medicine Department in University Hospital St. Marina in Varna, Bulgaria. Responsibility of every radiation protection officer is to educate the stuff how to protect their selves from radioactive exposure and to observe and calculate the dose to the people and the stuff. The purpose of this paper is to show how big the doses of the stuff working in Nuclear Medicine Center including PET/CT and Cyclotron facilities situated in University Hospital St. Marina in Varna, Bulgaria are. The Department is working now with about 15 patients every day. The dose rates measured with personal TLD’s and personal dose rate meters for the last 5 years for the stuff are under 3 mSv. As the average dose is under 1 mSv, and the doses over 1mSv are only for nurses who injected the FDG. Keywords: radiation exposure, effective dose, PET/CT, Cyclotron, FDGbf

  2. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  3. Verification of effectiveness of borated water shield for a cyclotron type self-shielded; Verificacao da eficacia da blindagem de agua borada construida para um acelerador ciclotron do tipo autoblindado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videira, Heber S.; Burkhardt, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ronielly S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com.br [Cyclopet Radiofarmacos Ltda., Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Passaro, Bruno M.; Gonzalez, Julia A.; Santos, Josefina; Guimaraes, Maria I.C.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Lenzi, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitina (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2013-04-15

    The technological advances in positron emission tomography (PET) in conventional clinic imaging have led to a steady increase in the number of cyclotrons worldwide. Most of these cyclotrons are being used to produce {sup 18}F-FDG, either for themselves as for the distribution to other centers that have PET. For there to be safety in radiological facilities, the cyclotron intended for medical purposes can be classified in category I and category II, ie, self-shielded or non-shielded (bunker). Therefore, the aim of this work is to verify the effectiveness of borated water shield built for a cyclotron accelerator-type Self-shielded PETtrace 860. Mixtures of water borated occurred in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications, as well as the results of the radiometric survey in the vicinity of the self-shielding of the cyclotron in the conditions established by the manufacturer showed that radiation levels were below the limits. (author)

  4. Evaluating secondary neutron doses of a refined shielded design for a medical cyclotron using the TLD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jye-Bin; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Liu, Wen-Shan; Lin, Ding-Bang; Hsieh, Teng-San; Chen, Chien-Yi

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of cyclotrons at medical centers in Taiwan have been installed to generate radiopharmaceutical products. An operating cyclotron generates immense amounts of secondary neutrons from reactions such the 18 O(p, n) 18 F, used in the production of FDG. This intense radiation can be hazardous to public health, particularly to medical personnel. To increase the yield of 18 F-FDG from 4200 GBq in 2005 to 48,600 GBq in 2011, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital (CSMUH) has prolonged irradiation time without changing the target or target current to meet requirements regarding the production 18 F. The CSMUH has redesigned the CTI Radioisotope Delivery System shield. The lack of data for a possible secondary neutron doses has increased due to newly designed cyclotron rooms. This work aims to evaluate secondary neutron doses at a CTI cyclotron center using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-600). Two-dimensional neutron doses were mapped and indicated that neutron doses were high as neutrons leaked through self-shielded blocks and through the L-shaped concrete shield in vault rooms. These neutron doses varied markedly among locations close to the H 2 18 O target. The Monte Carlo simulation and minimum detectable dose are also discussed and demonstrated the reliability of using the TLD-600 approach. Findings can be adopted by medical centers to identify radioactive hot spots and develop radiation protection. - Highlights: • Neutron doses were verified using TLD approach. • Neutron doses were increased at cyclotron centers. • Revised L-shaped shield suppresses effectively the neutrons. • Neutron dose can be attenuated to 1.13×10 6 %

  5. Parallel gradient effects on ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects on Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating of parallel nonuniformity in the magnetic field which arises from the poloidal field in a tokamak and the universal (major radius)/sup /minus/1/ scaling of the cyclotron frequency. The goal of the analysis is the macroscopic warm plasma current including temperature in the sense of the finite Larmor radius expansion and the quasilocal approximation of the parallel guiding center motion. A 1-D numerical application of the fully nonlocal integral dielectric is performed. Parallel gradient effects are studied for He-3 minority, 2nd harmonic deuterium, and hydrogen minority heating in tokamaks. The results show quite significant alteration of the toroidal wavenumber absorption spectrum, and a wealth of new behavior on the local propagation scale. 95 refs., 37 figs

  6. Ion beam dynamics in the acceleration region of the Vincy Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, S.; Samsonov, E.

    1998-01-01

    Modern concept of heavy ion cyclotrons assumes a tendency of decreasing the gaps between magnet poles, enabling better efficiency of the magnetic field circuit. This restricts possible solutions of acceleration structure and imposes the necessity of installing the dees in valleys of magnetic structures. This approach, which is accepted in the VINCY Cyclotron, requires a detailed study of the ion beam dynamics in the acceleration region. Consequently, we analyzed ion beams with eta = 1,05 and 0.25 in radial and axial phase space. Also, the energy spread in emittances and the influence of the first harmonic of the magnetic field on the radial betatron oscillations are discussed. The transformation of coherent into incoherent radial oscillations as well as the effect to radial off-centering on the beam vertical size at Walkinshaw resonance location, is pointed out (author)

  7. Proposed full automatic control system for the Medical Small Cyclotron C-30 at the Institute of Nuclear Studies, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.

    1987-01-01

    The computer control system for the C-30 Medical Small Cyclotron, which is currently under construction at the Institute of Nuclear Studies will be presented. The features of this simple and secure system are briefly discussed. Some efforts have been done to make a conversational system easily understandable for operators. The keystone of the control system is an fibre optical link (wireless) between the cyclotron and the computer. The control system is based on the use of an extended configuration of the IBM PC/AT computer. A new system software is used to execute multitask hierarchical programs to control the cyclotron. The comercial adapters for control and data aquisition, connected with the fibre optic communication channels are used to transmit data and control codes. Two colour graphic CRT displays the ongoing status and function of each controlled units so that the operator can monitor the whole system conditions at a glance. The paper gives a general description of the programs which are executed on the computer. It also shows how the cyclotron is controlled by dedicated computer practically without special electronic equipment except of the hardware safety cutout switch. The cyclotron is protected against operating incidents and mistakes by a complex system of interlocks. (author)

  8. Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlations of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-A. calcoaceticus Complex Strains Isolated from Patients at the National Naval Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex (ABC) infections have complicated the care of U.S. combat casualties. In this study, 102 ABC isolates from wounded soldiers treated at National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) were characterized by phenotype and genotype to identify clones in this population...

  9. The Role of Wrist Magnetic Resonance Arthrography in Diagnosing Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears; Experience at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem A. Al-Hiari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the study were to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA of the wrist in detecting full-thickness tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC and to compare the results of the magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA with the gold standard arthroscopic findings. Methods:The study was performed at King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan, between January 2008 and December 2011. A total of 42 patients (35 males and 7 females who had ulnar-sided wrist pain and clinical suspicions of TFCC tears were included in the study. All patients underwent wrist magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA and then a wrist arthroscopy. The results of MRA were compared with the arthroscopic findings. Results: After comparison with the arthroscopic findings, the MRA had three false-negative results (sensitivity = 93% and no false-positive results. A total of 39 patients were able to return to work. Satisfaction was high in 38 of the patients and 33 had satisfactorypain relief. The sensitivity of the wrist MRA in detecting TFCC full-thickness tears was 93% (39, and specificity was 80% (16/20. The overall accuracy of wrist arthroscopy in detecting a full-thickness tear of the TFCC in our study was 85% (29/34. Conclusion: These results illustrate the role of wrist MRA in assessing the TFCC pathology and suggest its use as the first imaging technique, following a plain X-ray, in evaluating patients with chronic ulnar side wrist pain with suspected TFCC injuries.

  10. Lessons Learned from Delayed Versus Immediate Microsurgical Reconstruction of Complex Maxillectomy and Midfacial Defects: Experience in a Tertiary Center in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Eric; de la Concha, Erika

    2016-10-01

    Microsurgical reconstruction of complex midfacial and maxillectomy defects is among the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery, and it often requires composite flaps to improve functional and aesthetic results. Various factors have been identified as having influence in the outcome of microsurgical reconstruction. In this article, the authors present their experience with immediate and delayed reconstruction of complex maxillectomy defects in a tertiary center in Mexico. The authors present a total of 37 patients with microsurgical reconstruction of a complex maxillectomy defect; 13 patients had immediate and 24 had delayed reconstructions. The authors recommend doing immediate reconstruction when feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  12. Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prater, R.; Farina, D.; Gribov, Y.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Poli, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Volpe, F.; Westerhof, E.; Zvonkovo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories

  13. Method of enhancing cyclotron beam intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Ed D.; Mallory, Merrit L.

    1977-01-01

    When an easily ionized support gas such as xenon is added to the cold cathode in sources of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, large beam enhancements are produced. For example, .sup.20 Ne.sup.7+ is increased from 0.05 enA to 27 enA, and .sup.16 O.sup.5+ intensities in excess of 35 e.mu.A have been extracted for periods up to 30 minutes. Approximately 0.15 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas feed line and the primary gas flow is reduced by about 30%.

  14. New compact cyclotron design for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.; Bourgarel, M.P.; Ripouteau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The SPIRAL project whose purpose is the production and the acceleration of radioactive nuclei is under realization at GANIL. The new facility uses a cyclotron as post accelerator taking place behind the present machine. The magnet structure is made of 4 independent return yokes and a common circular pole piece (3.5 m in diameter) with 4 sectors. The average induction needed is 1.56 Tesla with hill and valley gaps of respectively 0.12 and 0.3 m. The required field patterns are adjusted by means of circular trim coils located between the sectors and the pole piece. (author)

  15. Isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Gil, C.; Louvet, P.

    1986-10-01

    The principle of the process of isotopic separation by ionic cyclotron resonance is explained succinctly. The theoretical calculation of the isotopic effect is given as functions of the electric and magnetic fields in the frame of single particle approximation and of plasma collective theory. Then, the main parts of the demonstration device which is in operation at the CEA, are described here: the supraconducting magnetic field, the used diagnostics, the principle of the source and the collecting apparatus. Some experimental results are given for chromium. The application of the process to ponderal separation of metal isotopes, as chromium, nickel and molybdenum is discussed in view of production of medical, structural and irradiation isotopes

  16. Diffusion induced by cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Tajima, T.; Hatori, T.; Pfirsch, D.

    1985-09-01

    The wave induced particle transport during the ion cyclotron resonance heating is studied in collisionless toroidal plasmas. It is shown that the previously neglected non-conservation of the toroidal angular momentum IP/sub phi/ caused by the toroidal wave component E/sub phi/ is necessary to allow particle diffusion and yields the leading diffusive contribution. While the induced ion transport for the rf power in contemporary experiments is of the order of the neoclassical value, that of fast alpha particles is quite large if resonance is present

  17. RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  18. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbanovschi, N.; Tanasa, M.; Stoican, O.

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  19. Properties of the TRIUMF cyclotron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.; Blackmore, E.W.; Dutto, G.; Kost, C.J.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Richardson, J.R.; Root, L.W.; Schmor, P.

    1975-08-01

    Eight percent of the 300 keV d.c. beam from the ion source can be transmitted to 500 MeV in the TRIUMF cyclotron, without using the buncher. The beam losses are entirely accounted for; there are no significant losses due to orbit dynamic problems during 1500 turns of acceleration. The phase history is in good agreement with predictions based on the magnetic field survey. The effect of the harmonic coils and injection parameters on beam quality has been investigated. (author)

  20. High efficiency cyclotron trap assisted positron moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Gerchow, L.; Cooke, D. A.; Braccini, S.; Döbeli, M.; Kirch, K.; Köster, U.; Müller, A.; Van Der Meulen, N. P.; Vermeulen, C.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the realisation of a cyclotron trap assisted positron tungsten moderator for the conversion of positrons with a broad keV- few MeV energy spectrum to a mono-energetic eV beam with an efficiency of 1.8(2)% defined as the ratio of the slow positrons divided by the $\\beta^+$ activity of the radioactive source. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude compared to the state of the art of tungsten moderators. The simulation validated with this measurement suggests that usi...

  1. Axial injection in Orsay superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, J.; Kugler, M.F.; Legoff, A.; Potier, J.C.; Richomme, A.; Skowron, R.; Mandrillon, P.; Schapira, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The compact superconducting cyclotron currently planned at IPN at Orsay is designed for light ion acceleration together with heavy ion acceleration. From the beginning, for this reason, a central geometry able to receive an inflector (to 90deg C) allowing the axial injection of low energy ion beams given by an outer source. The present study is aimed at showing the technical feasibility of theoretical results obtained on axial injection. First experimental study has been made of spatial repartition in three dimensions of electric potential developed by a central geometry of 3 electrodes. Then, the electric study of an electrostatic mirror has been made [fr

  2. Cyclotrons at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    In this article the destruction by American forces, during World War II, of the Japanese cyclotrons and the subsequent construction of new cyclotrons at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan is described. Their use for biological and medical radiation chemistry studies is summarized. (UK)

  3. Lower-hybrid absorption at the ion cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.

    1975-01-01

    In the presence of magnetic field gradients, the lower-hybrid wave can be absorbed through linear collisionless damping at the location of cyclotron or cyclotron harmonic resonances acting as singular turning points in the path of the advancing wave-front. (Auth.)

  4. A radioisotope production cyclotron designed to minimize dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlavik, F.F.; Moritz, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a radioisotope production cyclotron which has been designed to minimize the dose to personnel during operation and maintenance. The design incorporates lessons learned from the operation of a CP42 cyclotron and has resulted in a reduction of the dose by a factor of more than 10. (author)

  5. Calculation of particle dynamics in CI-10 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, E.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    The calculations of beam dynamic characteristics of High-Intensity Cyclotron-Injector CI-10 for deuteron beam of 15 MeV energy are presented. Analytical estimations of space charge effects are given. In order to increase the intensity of the accelerator beam some ideas about the cyclotron design modification are given too. (author)

  6. First results of beam generation test for JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of JAERI AVF cyclotron was investigated with several kinds of ions in the wide energy range. The 90 MeV protons of 10 μA intensity was successfully extracted for the first time by the model 930 cyclotron. The feature of beam chopping system is also presented. (author)

  7. Resonance cones below the ion cyclotron frequency: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.

    1976-03-01

    The resonance cones existing below the ion cyclotron frequency, ω/sub c/sub i//, are shown, theoretically and experimentally, to be the asymptotes of hyperbolic constant-phase surfaces of low-frequency ion acoustic waves. Above ω/sub c/sub i// the surfaces transform into ellipses that are related to the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves and ion acoustic waves

  8. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  9. Fabrication of beam diagnostic components for Superconducting Cyclotron at Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Das, T.; Bhattacharyya, T.K.; Pal, S.; Pal, G.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The viewer probe and main probe are used for determining the position and current of charged particles as it is accelerated inside the superconducting cyclotron. The viewer probe is used to visually observe the shape of the charged particle beam inside the cyclotron with the help of a borescope. The main probe measures the distribution of charged particles. The viewer probe and main probe are bellow sealed. They can be positioned with an accuracy of 0.5 mm at different radii within the superconducting cyclotron. M9 slit is placed after the exit flange of the cyclotron. It determines the position of the beam leaving the cyclotron. The beam line has slits, faraday cup, beam viewers, collimators, etc. for beam diagnostics. This paper presents the mechanical design and details of beam diagnostic components. (author)

  10. Operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, F.; Schweickert, H.

    1976-06-01

    The operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975 is briefly surveyed. The main reasons for a very short period for maintenance, repair and installation, and several additional efforts to improve the reliability of the accelerator installation, are discussed. The status and the results of several technical developments for the cyclotron are described: 1) the axial injection system; 2) computer aided cyclotron operation; 3) ion source development; 4) capacitive current measurement at the external beam; 5) new correction coils for the cyclotron; 6) improvement of the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. As there is an increasing interest in using this type of accelerator for research in fields other than nuclear physics, it was felt appropriate to present short surveys on investigations at our cyclotron in 1975 in the fields of: 1) solid state physics; 2) engineering; 3) materials research; 4) nuclear medicine; 5) nuclear chemistry. (orig.) [de

  11. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  12. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  13. U-2g0 cyclotron operational experience and improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kozlov, S.I.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1983-01-01

    Brief description of main syste's of the U-200 isochronous 2-m cyclotron put into opera ion in 1968 is given and its operational characteristics a e presented. The cyclotron is used for conducting inve tigations in the field of nuclear physics. Ions from d uterium to argon have been accelerated in the cyclotro'. Annual time of target irradiation constitutes 2000-4000. The specific features of the cyclotron are: high l vel of a magnetic field (of about 20 kOe), possibili y of acceleration of ions with different mass-to-charge ratio a low correcting winding power, simple and high-e fective beam extraction by the method of charge exchange on a thin target allowing to vary smoothly energy of extracted ons. An experience in the U-200 cyclotron development and o eration is used as the basis for designing and choosing basic parameters of the U-200P, U-250, U-400 heavy ion cyclotrons

  14. Status report on RIKEN Ring Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives a status report on RIKEN Ring Cyclotron (RRC), successfully commissioned on December 16, 1986. The routine operation of RRC began in April, 1987, and was made until March 1988. April and May were devoted to the machine studies, and beams were delivered to the experiments from the end of May. Seven kinds of ion species from carbon to copper were used for the nuclear physics and atomic physics experiments during these one-year runs. High quality beams with transverse emittances less than 10 mm mrad, energy spread of approximately 0.1% and pulse width less than 300 psec were extracted. Since the middle of March, 1988, RRC has been shut down for extending the beam transfer lines and installing the various experimental setups. Next experimental program will start in July, 1988. The initial operational status of RRC is described as well as the running construction program of the new injector, a K70 AVF cyclotron with an external ECR ion source

  15. Electron cyclotron heating calculations for ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinger, R.C.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1986-03-01

    The RAYS geometrical optics code has been used to calculate electron cyclotron wave propagation and heating in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) device under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The intent of this work is to predict the outcome of various heating scenarios and to give guidance in designing an optimum heating system. Particular attention is paid to the effects of wave polarization and antenna location. We investigate first and second harmonic cyclotron heating with the parameters predicted for steady-state ATF operation. We also simulate the effect of wall reflections by calculating a uniform, isotropic flux of power radiating from the wall. These results, combined with the first-pass calculations, give a qualitative picture of the heat deposition profiles. From these results we identify the compromises that represent the optimum heating strategies for the ATF model considered here. Our basic conclusions are that second harmonic heating with the extraordinary mode (X-mode) gives the best result, with fundamental ordinary mode (O-mode) heating being slightly less efficient. Assuming the antenna location is restricted to the low magnetic field side, the antenna should be placed at phi = 0 0 (the toroidal angle where the helical coils are at the sides) for fundamental heating and at phi = 15 0 (where the helical coils are at the top and bottom) for second harmonic heating. These recommendations come directly from the ray tracing results as well as from a theoretical identification of the relevant factors affecting the heating

  16. Acceleration of tritons with a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, H.; Huenges, E.; Muthig, H.; Moringa, H.

    1981-01-01

    With the compact cyclotron at the Faculty of Physics of the Technical University of Munich, tritons have been accelerated to an energy of 7 MeV. A safe and reliable operation of the gas supply for the ion source was obtained by a new tritium storage system. A quantity of 1500 Ci tritium is stored by two special Zr-Al getter pumps in a non-gaseous phase. The tritium can be released in well-defined amounts by heating the getter material. During triton acceleration the pressure in the cyclotron vacuum chamber is maintained only by a large titanium sputter-ion pump, thus forming a closed vacuum system without any exhaust of tritium contaminated gas. Any tritium contaminations in the air can be detected by an extremely sensitive tritium monitoring system. The triton beam with a maximum intensity of 30 μA has been used so far to produce neutron-rich radioisotopes such as 28 Mg, 43 K, or 72 Zn, which are successfully applied in tracer techniques in the studies of biological systems. (orig.)

  17. Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Vay, J.L.; Grote, D.P.; Ng, J.T.; Pivi, M.F.; Wang, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    A new set of resonances for electron cloud dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field has been found. For short beam bunch lengths and low magnetic fields where l b c , (l b = bunch duration, ω c = non-relativistic cyclotron frequency) resonances between the bunch frequency and harmonics of the cyclotron frequency cause an increase in the electron cloud density in narrow ranges of magnetic field near the resonances. For ILC parameters the increase in the density is up to a factor ∼ 3, and the spatial distribution of the electrons is broader near resonances, lacking the well-defined density 'stripes' of multipactoring found for non-resonant cases. Simulations with the 2D computer code POSINST, as well as a single-particle tracking code, were used to elucidate the physics of the dynamics. The resonances are expected to affect the electron cloud dynamics in the fringe fields of conventional lattice magnets and in wigglers, where the magnetic fields are low. Results of the simulations, the reason for the bunch-length dependence, and details of the dynamics will be discussed

  18. Visual assistance system for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Tachikawa, Toshiki; Murakami, Tohru.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists operators has been developed. It is the operation assistance system depending on visual sense to indicate beam parameters to operators. First, the mental model of operators at the time of beam adjustment was analyzed, and it was presumed to be composed of five partial mental models, that is, beam behavior model, feasible setting region model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter interrelation model and status map model. Next, three visual interfaces were developed. Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever operators change parameters. Feasible setting regions (FSR) for parameters that satisfy the beam acceptance criteria of a cyclotron are indicated. The distribution of beam current values which are the quantity for evaluating adjustment is indicated as search history. Finally, for evaluating the system effectiveness, the search time required to reach the optimum conditions was measured. In addition, the system usability was evaluated by written questionnaires. The result of experiment showed the reduction of search time by about 65%. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system usability. (K.I.)

  19. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  20. Electroreduction of CO 2 Catalyzed by a Heterogenized Zn–Porphyrin Complex with a Redox-Innocent Metal Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yueshen [Department; Energy; Jiang, Jianbing [Department; Energy; Weng, Zhe [Department; Energy; Wang, Maoyu [School; Broere, Daniël L. J. [Department; Zhong, Yiren [Department; Energy; Brudvig, Gary W. [Department; Energy; Feng, Zhenxing [School; Wang, Hailiang [Department; Energy

    2017-07-26

    Transition-metal-based molecular complexes are a class of catalyst materials for electrochemical CO2 reduction to CO that can be rationally designed to deliver high catalytic performance. One common mechanistic feature of these electrocatalysts developed thus far is an electrogenerated reduced metal center associated with catalytic CO2 reduction. Here we report a heterogenized zinc–porphyrin complex (zinc(II) 5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrin) as an electrocatalyst that delivers a turnover frequency as high as 14.4 site–1 s–1 and a Faradaic efficiency as high as 95% for CO2 electroreduction to CO at -1.7 V vs the standard hydrogen electrode in an organic/water mixed electrolyte. While the Zn center is critical to the observed catalysis, in situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies reveal that it is redox-innocent throughout the potential range. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that the porphyrin ligand may act as a redox mediator. Chemical reduction of the zinc–porphyrin complex further confirms that the reduction is ligand-based and the reduced species can react with CO2. This represents the first example of a transition-metal complex for CO2 electroreduction catalysis with its metal center being redox-innocent under working conditions.

  1. Proposal on ''standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparman, Ibon

    2000-01-01

    The Center for the Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals - National Nuclear Energy Agency (P2RR-BATAN) has one Cyclotron type CS-30 with maximum 30 MeV proton energy. It is used since 1990 for 201 Tl production. The main use of 201 Tl in Indonesia is for diagnosis and assessment of myocardial ischaemia, especially diagnosis of coronary artery disease, viability of the heart muscle and forecasting the outcome for patients with coronary disease. The Cyclotron facility is supported with a solid target station, two hot cells and the chemical equipment for electroplating. The yield of 201 Tl production currently achieved around 40-50%. The irradiation technique and chemical separation should be improved. We are also very interested in the development of the production of 103 Pd via 103 Rh (p,n) 103 Pd reaction. The objective of this proposal will support the main program of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) in enhancement of health care and in providing Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals for hospitals

  2. Simulation of operation modes of isochronous cyclotron by a new interactive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taraszkiewicz, R.; Talach, M.; Sulikowski, J.; Doruch, H.; Norys, T.; Sroka, A.; Kiyan, I.N.; )

    2007-01-01

    Operation mode simulation methods are based on selection of trim coil currents in the isochronous cyclotron for formation of the required magnetic field at a certain level of the main coil current. The traditional current selection method is based on finding a solution for all trim coils simultaneously. After setting the calculated operation mode, it is usually necessary to perform a control measurement of the magnetic field map and to repeat the calculation for a more accurate solution. The new current selection method is based on successively finding solutions for each particular trim coil. The trim coils are taken one by one in reverse order from the edge to the center of the isochronous cyclotron. The new operation mode simulation method is based on the new current selection method. The new method, as against the traditional one, includes iterative calculation of the kinetic energy at the extraction radius. A series of experiments on proton beam formation within the range of working acceleration radii at extraction energies from 32 to 59 MeV, which were carried out at the AIC144 multipurpose isochronous cyclotron (designed mainly for the eye melanoma treatment and production of radioisotopes) at the INP PAS (Cracow), showed that the new method makes unnecessary any control measurements of magnetic fields for getting the desired operation mode, which indicates a high accuracy of the calculation. (authors)

  3. Manufacture and analysis of exciter RF generator for proton cyclotron Decy-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajitno

    2011-01-01

    Exciter of the RF generator for 13 MeV proton cyclotron have been analyzed and manufactured. RF generator will be used as a source of alternating voltage accelerating of the Decy-13 cyclotron which designed by PTAPB-BATAN. Based on the basic design documents that have been made, the Decy-13 cyclotron will use 1.275 Tesla magnetic field so that the RF generator frequency when using the fourth harmonic is 77.667 MHz. One of the radio frequency signal generation technique where the output frequency is very stable and easy to set up and is currently being developed is the technique of Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS). DDS technology is an innovative circuit architecture that allows fast and precise frequency manipulation of its output, under full digital control. Prototype of the RF generator exciter that was created using DDS type AD9851 manufactured by Analog Devices with a fundamental frequency of 30 MHz and controlled by the ATmega16 micro controller. To avoid unexpected frequency of its output, the output signal of the DDS is passed to the passive band pass filter circuit. The test results showed that the exciter output frequency range is 2 MHz with center frequency of 77.667 MHz. and stop band -3 dB. While RF power output 10 Watt require 12 V power supply with current 1,6 A. Although the exciter prototype still needs improvement but the results are as expected. (author)

  4. Diagnosis of mildly relativistic electron velocity distributions by electron cyclotron emission in the Alcator C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.

    1986-09-01

    Mildly relativistic electron velocity distributions are diagnosed from measurements of the first few electron cyclotron emission harmonics in the Alcator C tokamak. The approach employs a vertical viewing chord through the center of the tokamak plasma terminating at a compact, high-performance viewing dump. The cyclotron emission spectra obtained in this way are dominated by frequency downshifts due to the relativistic mass increase, which discriminates the electrons by their total energy. In this way a one-to-one correspondence between the energy and the emission frequency is accomplished in the absence of harmonic superpositions. The distribution, described by f/sub p/, the line-averaged phase space density, and Λ, the anisotropy factor, is determined from the ratio of the optically thin harmonics or polarizations. Diagnosis of spectra in the second and the third harmonic range of frequencies obtained during lower hybrid heating, current drive, and low density ohmic discharges are carried out, using different methods depending on the degree of harmonic superposition present in the spectrum and the availability of more than one ratio measurement. Discussions of transient phenomena, the radiation temperature measurement from the optically thick first harmonic, and the measurements compared to the angular hard x-ray diagnostic results illuminate the capabilities of the vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

  5. ‘Patient-Centered Care’ for Complex Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—Analysis of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer M. Hackel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper serves to apply and compare aspects of person centered care and recent consensus guidelines to two cases of older adults with poorly controlled diabetes in the context of relatively similar multimorbidity. Methods After review of the literature regarding the shift from guidelines promoting tight control in diabetes management to individualized person centered care, as well as newer treatment approaches emerging in diabetes care, the newer guidelines and potential treatment ...

  6. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  7. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  8. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  9. The structure of the muscle protein complex 4Ca{sup 2+} {center_dot}troponin C {center_dot} troponin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, G.A.; Trewhella, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of scattering data based on a Monte Carlo integration method was used to 2+ obtain a low resolution model of the 4Ca{sup 2+}{circ} troponin C{circ}troponin I complex. This modeling method allows rapid testing of plausible structures where the best fit model can be ascertained by a comparison between model structure scattering profiles and measured scattering data. In the best fit model, troponin I appears as a spiral structure 2+ that wraps around 4Ca{sup 2+}{circ}troponin C which adopts an extended dumbbell conformation similar to that observed in the crystal structures of troponin C. The Monte Carlo modeling method can be applied to other biological systems in which detailed structural information is lacking.

  10. Compact superconducting cyclotron C400 for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Abs, M.; Blondin, A.; Kleeven, W.; Zaremba, S.; Vandeplassche, D. [IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aleksandrov, V.; Gursky, S.; Karamyshev, O. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Karamysheva, G., E-mail: gkaram@nu.jinr.r [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, N.; Kostromin, S.; Morozov, N.; Samsonov, E.; Shirkov, G.; Shevtsov, V.; Syresin, E.; Tuzikov, A. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-01

    The compact superconducting isochronous cyclotron C400 has been designed by the IBA-JINR collaboration. It will be the first cyclotron in the world capable of delivering protons, carbon and helium ions for cancer treatment. The cyclotron construction is started this year within the framework of the Archade project (Caen, France). {sup 12}C{sup 6+} and {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions will be accelerated to 400 MeV/uu energy and extracted by the electrostatic deflector, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated to the energy of 265 MeV/uu and extracted by stripping. The magnet yoke has a diameter of 6.6 m, the total weight of the magnet is about 700 t. The designed magnetic field corresponds to 4.5 T in the hills and 2.45 T in the valleys. Superconducting coils will be enclosed in a cryostat; all other parts of the cyclotron will be warm. Three external ion sources will be mounted on the switching magnet on the injection line located below the cyclotron. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, the current status of the development work on the cyclotron systems are presented.

  11. Cyclotron Development and Technical Aspects on Accelerator Based Laboratory Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarhadijoso

    2000-01-01

    BATAN is planning to establish an accelerator-based laboratory at P3TM Yogyakarta as an effort in the development and use of accelerator technology for improving industrial performance and public welfare. This paper reviews several aspects of cyclotron technology and describes the combination of a linear accelerator - cyclotron system as an alternative to be considered in the planing of the laboratory. The progress of cyclotron technology is discussed covering three generations, i.e. conventional cyclotron, synchrocyclotron and AVF cyclotron generations. The planning should not consider the accelerator application for radioisotope production because it is established in Serpong with the existing negative ion cyclotron. The proposed facility at P3TM may comprise two linear accelerators coupled with a positive ion cyclotron of synchrocyclotron generation. In fact, the attachment of the synchrocyclotron unit is flexible and it can be installed subsequently if the higher energy particle beam, which can not be produced by the linear accelerators, is extremely needed. Some technical aspects related to ion beam application, building construction and infrastructure, human resources, and specification of function test are discussed for additional information in the implementation of the planning. (author)

  12. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, B.J.; Samson, J.C.; Hu, Y.D.; McPherron, R.L.; Russell, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Pc 2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE 1 and 2 between L = 7.6 and 5.8 on an inbound near-equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width ∼ 1.5 R E and penetrated ∼1 R E into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He + and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O + and He + heavy ion populations. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities (E x B)/B 2 were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Poynting fluxes calculated during the first 15 min of the event show wave energy propagation directions both parallel and antiparallel to the field. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event may be attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time. Overall, the results are considered an example of an electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-particle interaction occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase

  13. Present status of device controls and hardware interfaces for the RCNP ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Tamura, K.; Hosono, K.

    1994-01-01

    Since the first proton beam from the injector AVF cyclotron was injected to the ring cyclotron in 1991, the computer control system has been used for the beam acceleration of the ring cyclotron. Some device control modules have been updated, and computer configuration has been changed in 1992. Total control system performs basic facilities almost satisfactory under actual cyclotron operation. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Helium Branch Induced by Multiple Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Triggered Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, M.; Omura, Y.; Grison, B.; Pickett, J. S.; Dandouras, I. S.; Engebretson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions with rising tones between the H+ and He+ cyclotron frequencies were found in the inner magnetosphere by the recent Cluster observations. Another type of EMIC wave with a constant frequency is occasionally observed below the He+ cyclotron frequency after the multiple EMIC triggered emissions. We performed a self-consistent hybrid simulation with a one-dimensional cylindrical magnetic flux model approximating the dipole magnetic field of the Earth's inner magnetosphere. In the presence of energetic protons with a sufficient density and temperature anisotropy, multiple EMIC triggered emissions are reproduced due to the nonlinear wave growth mechanism of rising-tone chorus emissions, and a constant frequency wave in the He+ EMIC branch is subsequently generated. Through interaction with the multiple EMIC rising-tone emissions, the velocity distribution function of the energetic protons is strongly modified. Because of the pitch angle scattering of the protons, the gradient of the distribution in velocity phase space is enhanced along the diffusion curve of the He+ branch wave, resulting in the linear growth of the EMIC wave in the He+ branch.

  15. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement.

  16. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement

  17. Applied research with cyclotron beams at FLNR JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu Ts; Apel, P Yu; Didyk, A Yu; Dmitriev, S N; Gulbekian, G G [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation). Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions

    1997-03-01

    The Center of Applied Physics at the Flerov Laboratory carries out an R and D program comprising development of track membrane technology, materials research with heavy ion beams and production of radioisotopes. Experiments are performed on three cyclotrons: U-400, U-200 and IC-100 providing a wide variety of ion beams with the energies of 1 to 10 MeV/u. The activity on track membranes (TMs) includes studies of track formation in polymers and latent track structure, track sensitization and etching, methods of membrane testing, development of track membranes on the basis of new materials, surface modification of TMs, design and construction of facilities for track membrane production. Recent experiments on heavy ion-induced radiation damage in non-polymeric substances have been devoted to defect creation in semiconductor and dielectric single crystals. TEM, SEM, STM and `in situ` luminescent spectroscopy are used to investigate heavy ion effects. Methods for producing several isotopes of high radiochemical and isotopic purity for medical, biomedical and environmental protection applications have been developed. (author)

  18. Analytic descriptions of ion cyclotron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.; Francis, G.; Fuchs, V.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of energy propagation and absorption in ion-cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas has relied on numerical solutions of fourth (and sixth) order differential equations for slab models of the plasma (poloidal) cross section. Realistic two-dimensional and fully toroidal geometry analyses would become quite unwieldy. It is shown here that the analysis of the slab model can be simplified considerably. A first-order differential equation is shown to describe the transmission coefficient for the fast wave, and it is solved analytically. A second order differential equation is shown to adequately describe both transmission and reflection. Conditions for ion absorption or mode conversion are derived. Including toroidal effects in propagation, conditions for electron absorption on the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves are also described analytically

  19. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. In-house cyclotron and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio; Shishido, Fumio; Yamazaki, Toshiro

    1982-01-01

    In-house cyclotron produced radioisotopes and positron computed tomography provide a unique technique which gives cross-sectional bodyimages of various kinds of physiological activities of living human body. Applications of the technique to clinical study might throw a new light on the etiologically unknown disorders of human central nervous system and etc. However, some difficulties should be settled before the establishment of this technique as an useful research and diagnostic tool. One of them was spatial resolution of positron computed tomography, and another was selection and development of really effective labeled compounds for the disease in question. A rotary positron emission computed tomography device was developed by our physicist team, and our chemist team developed various kinds of radiopharmaceuticals. Clinical applications of the technique started in our institute in November 1979, using the positron computed tomography machine named Positrologica I and the pharmaceuticals, 13sup( n h3, )11sup( C o and )18 F-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. (author)

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1984-05-01

    Starting with the pioneering work of R. Geller and his group in Grenoble (France), at least 14 ECR sources have been built and tested during the last five years. Most of those sources have been extremely successful, providing intense, stable and reliable beams of highly charged ions for cyclotron injection or atomic physics research. However, some of the operational features of those sources disagreed with commonly accepted theories on ECR source operation. To explain the observed behavior of actual sources, it was found necessary to refine some of the crude ideas we had about ECR sources. Some of those new propositions are explained, and used to make some extrapolations on the possible future developments in ECR sources

  3. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic ion cyclotron turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, G.B.; Chang, Tom

    1990-01-01

    The LF EM-turbulence which furnishes energy for the acceleration of ions in various regions of the earth's magnetosphere efficiently accomplishes its transfer of energy from waves to particles through ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) with the left-hand polarized component of the turbulence; the result of this interaction is a heating of the particle distribution. A general theoretical treatment of ICR heating in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic geometry is presented, en route to a more detailed examination of auroral ion conics' formation. A substantial simplification of the analysis of the altitude-asymptotic form of the conic distribution is obtained via the similarity transformation introduced into the properties of the electric field spectral density and the earth's dipolar magnetic field. 60 refs

  4. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, O.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs

  5. Ion cyclotron heating in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimonte, G.; Barter, J.; Romesser, T.; Molvik, A.W.; Cummins, W.F.; Falabella, S.; Poulsen, P.

    1987-01-01

    Ion cyclotron heating (ICH) is applied to TMX-U to improve the thermal barrier performance by reducing the passing ion collisionality. During its development, measurements of the antenna loading resistance, R p , and the absorption efficiency, η, were compared with calculations with the antenna design code ANTENA over a wide range of densities and frequencies. Good agreement in R p was obtained in the short wavelength slow wave regime but not for long wavelength fast waves because the experimental magnetic field gradients are not modelled in ANTENA. Similarly, η is much larger experimentally (40%) than in ANTENA (10%) due to the magnetic beach in TMX-U. In its application, ICH successfully decreased the passing ion collisionality tenfold but did not extend thermal barrier plugging to higher density, indicating that collisional barrier filling is not currently limiting TMX-U performance. (author). 23 refs, 23 figs

  6. Neutron radiography using a transportable superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.A. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Hawkesworth, M.R. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Beynon, T.D. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Green, S. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Rogers, J.D. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Allen, M.J. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Plummer, H.C. (Rolls-Royce, MatEval, Derby (United Kingdom)); Boulding, N.J. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); Cox, M. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); McDougall, I. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom))

    1994-12-30

    A thermal neutron radiography system based on a compact 12 MeV superconducting proton cyclotron is described. Neutrons are generated using a thick beryllium target and moderated in high density polyethylene. Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to model the neutron and photon transport in order to optimise the performance of the system. With proton beam currents in excess of 100 [mu]A, it can provide high thermal neutron fluxes with L/D ratios of between 50 and 300 for various applications. Both film and electronic imaging are used to produce radiographs. The electronic imaging system consists of a [sup 6]Li-loaded ZnS intensifier screen, and a low light CCD or SIT camera. High resolution images can be recorded and computer-controlled data processing, analysis and display are possible. ((orig.))

  7. Electron - cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  9. Auxiliary accelerating system for TRIUMF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Fong, K.; Laxdal, R.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Pacak, V.; Pearson, J.; Richardson, J.R.; Stanford, G.; Worsham, R.

    1990-06-01

    A 92 MHz auxiliary accelerating cavity has been designed and manufactured for installation in the TRIUMF cyclotron. Operating at the fourth harmonic of the RF with a peak voltage of 150 kV, it almost doubles the present energy gain per turn in the 400-500 MeV range, and reduces by ∼50% the stripping loss of the H - beam. This significant improvement will allow a substantial increase in the extracted current above the present routine level of 150μA while maintaining the same levels of residual radioactivity. The system is completed and being commissioned. A description of the design and commissioning procedures is presented, and results of beam tests given. (Author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  10. Isochronization calculations for the Indiana University cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    A series of calculations using measured magnetic fields was performed to determine the optimal gradient coil currents for the wide range of operating conditions to be experienced by the Indiana University main stage cyclotron. Depending on the particle type to be accelerated and final energy desired, the required radial field increase varies from 0.5 percent to 22 percent. An iterative least squares fitting technique is used to minimize orbit time variations. For the acceleration of 200 MeV protons (330 revolutions, fourth harmonic), the maximum phase excursion is predicted to be less than two rf degrees. The technique used can be adapted to using measured phase histories to predict corrections to gradient coil currents. (auth)

  11. Magnetic field optimisation and orbit calculation for VEC superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, J.; Dey, M.K.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    At VECC, Kolkata preparations are underway to measure the magnetic field of the cyclotron. Also once the superconducting cyclotron is assembled prediction of beam related parameters will be a very important exercise to carry out. Considering this the beam behaviour in the cyclotron will be crucial to achieve these goals. The present paper deals with the efforts in this direction and using a test beam of He 1+ 20 MeV/n the trim coil currents, the tune variation and the (r,Pr) behaviour of the central trajectory

  12. Health physics aspects of the 1.5M cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, W.J.; Du, H.L.; Wei, Z.Q.; Xia, X.S.; Zheng, H.Z.; Jiang, G.F.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The 1.5m cyclotron in Institute of Modern Physics, Academia Sinica had operated for about 20 years until 1984 then converted to 1.7m sector focusing cyclotron. In this period it mainly used for fast neutron physics, light ion induced nucleus reactions, radioisotope production and heavy ion reactions. The health physics performed on this cyclotron including personnel dose monitoring, area monitoring (radiation field, radioactive aerosol, surface contamination and activated components etc.), maintenance inspection, environment survey and waste disposal is presented in this paper

  13. Thermal Stabilization of Cryogenic System in Superconducting Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Jae; Kim, Kyung Min; Cho, Hyung Hee; Hong, Bong Hwan; Kang, Joon Sun; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Radiology has some useful applications for medical purpose. For cancer therapy, the superconducting cyclotron should generate heavy ion beams. It radiates heavy ion beams to cancer patients. In order to make cyclotron system stable, the cryogenic system which makes superconducting state should work constantly. However, radiation heat transfer of cryogenic system should be considered because liquid helium's boiling point is extremely low and there is huge temperature difference between the cryogenic system and ambient temperature. Accordingly, thermal analysis should be carried out. In this paper, the numerical analysis of the cryogenic system in practical superconducting cyclotron show temperature distribution and suggest the number of coolers using ANSYS Workbench program

  14. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  15. An experimental study on cyclotron-Cherenkov radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C Y; Masuzaki, M; Yoshida, H; Toyosugi, N; Kamada, K; Ando, R [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Department of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Dielectric-loaded cylindrical waveguide configurations with an injected electron beam in which the growth rate of the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability surpasses that of the Cherenkov instability were sought by numerical treatment, and one configuration of this kind was found. This configuration consists of a metallic core and an outer metallic cylinder with a dielectric liner on the inner surface. Based on the calculations, an experimental device was designed and assembled to investigate experimentally radiation due to the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability. Beam propagation in the dielectric-loaded coaxial waveguide and microwave radiation due to the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability and the Cherenkov instability were studied. (author). 6 figs., 10 refs.

  16. Ion extraction in the cyclotron geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The detailed physics of ion beam extraction from a plasma column by intense sinusoidal radio frequency (rf) electric fields at the ion cyclotron frequency omega/sub ci/ and its harmonics is experimentally studied. Results describe the instantaneous relationship - within one rf period of approx. = 3009 nsec - between applied rf, the plasma response and the ions expelled by rf and plasma fields. Reflex discharges in H 2 , D 2 , and He with ion and electron densities greater than or equal to10 11 cm -3 are subjected to 0-5 kV zero-to-peak rf electric fields E vector and 0.65-9.00 kG background magnetic fields B 0 vector with E vector perpendicular to B 0 vector. Ion currents up to 200 μA are extracted. Nonperturbing optical diagnostics measure the relative amplitude and phase of instantaneous ion and electron density fluctuations induced by the rf during each rf cycle and the time variation of extracted ion bursts, the latter made possible by the use of a phosphor beam-stop. Detailed dependences on external electric and magnetic fields are reported. The plasma density fluctuations are in good agreement with the dispersion relation for electrostatic ion cyclotron waves (EICW), and the beam data show current enhancement at the second harmonic over that at the fundamental and evidence for a radically different mechanism for the rf-driven ion extraction process than conventional wisdom assumes. This work represents the first detailed, systematic study of the ac ion extraction process

  17. A 250-GHz CARM [Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser] oscillator experiment driven by an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.; Bubp, D.G.; McDermott, D.; Luhmann, N.

    1990-01-01

    A 250-GHz Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator has been designed and constructed and will be tested using a 1-kA, 2-MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the Accelerator Research Center (ARC) facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The oscillator circuit was made to operate in the TE 11 mode at ten times cutoff using waveguide Bragg reflectors to create an external cavity Q of 8000. Theory predicts cavity fill times of less than 30 ns (pulse length) and efficiencies approaching 20% is sufficiently low transverse electron velocity spreads are maintained (2%)

  18. Particle simulation of intense electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    High-power free-electron lasers make new methods possible for heating plasmas and driving current in toroidal plasmas with electromagnetic waves. We have undertaken particle simulation studies with one and two dimensional, relativistic particle simulation codes of intense pulsed electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive. The particle simulation methods here are conventional: the algorithms are time-centered, second-order-accurate, explicit, leap-frog difference schemes. The use of conventional methods restricts the range of space and time scales to be relatively compact in the problems addressed. Nevertheless, experimentally relevant simulations have been performed. 10 refs., 2 figs

  19. Electron cyclotron heating of a tokamak reactor at down-shifted frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Mazzucato, E.

    1985-01-01

    The absorption of electron cyclotron waves in a hot and dense tokamak plasma is investigated for the case of the extraordinary mode for outside launching. It is shown that, for electron temperatures T/sub e/ greater than or equal to 5 keV, strong absorption occurs for oblique propagation at frequencies significantly below the electron gyrofrequency at the plasma center. A new density dependence of the wave absorption is found which is more favorable for plasma heating than the familiar n/sub e/ -1 scaling

  20. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-10-09

    Progress is reported in the design, installation of various components of the cyclotron, including coils, magnets, rf system, and vacuum system. Also reported are measurements on magnets and rf components. (LEW)

  1. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-06-30

    Progress is reported in the fabrication and testing of cyclotron components, including magnet system and rf system components. Work on vacuum components and instrumentation and control equipment is also reported. (LEW)

  2. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-28

    Completion of magnet tests, followed by completion of installation of major cyclotron components, are reported. Intermediate level power tests of the rf system are also reported. Design and fabrication of the control system are reported to be under way. (LEW)

  3. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-01-17

    Progress is reported in the fabrication, installation, and testing of cyclotron components, including magnets and coils, rf components, vacuum and control equipment. Also reported are magnet and rf component measurements. (LEW)

  4. Cyclotron radiation by a multi-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-energy group technique is developed to study conditions under which cyclotron radiation emission can shift a Maxwellian electron distribution into a non-Maxwellian; and if the electron distribution is non-Maxwellian, to study the rate of cyclotron radiation emission as compared to that emitted by a Maxwellian having the same mean electron density and energy. The assumptions in this study are: the electrons should be in an isotropic medium and the magnetic field should be uniform. The multi-group technique is coupled into a multi-group Fokker-Planck computer code to study electron behavior under the influence of cyclotron radiation emission in a self-consistent fashion. Several non-Maxwellian distributions were simulated to compare their cyclotron emissions with the corresponding energy and number density equivalent Maxwellian distribtions

  5. Cryogenic system for VECC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, G; Bhattacharyya, T K; Bhandari, R K

    2009-01-01

    VEC Centre, Kolkata in India is at an advanced stage of commissioning a K500 superconducting cyclotron. The superconducting coil of the magnet for cyclotron is cooled by liquid helium. Three liquid helium cooled cryopanels, placed inside the Dees of the radiofrequency system, maintain the vacuum in the acceleration region of the superconducting cyclotron. The cryogenic system for magnet for cyclotron has been tested by cooling the coil and energizing the magnet. The cryogenic system for cryopanels has also been tested. Heater and temperature sensor were placed on the liquid helium cold head for cryopanel. The temperature of the cold head was observed to be below 20 K upto a heat load of 11.7 watt.

  6. H-superconducting cyclotron for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vincent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific design of a 14-MeV H - compact superconducting cyclotron for producing of the 18 F and 13 N isotopes has been developed. Main requirements to the facility as a medical accelerator are met in the design. In particular, the main requirement for the cyclotron was the smallest possible size due to the superconducting magnet. The calculations show that the proposed cyclotron allows extracted beam intensity over 500 μA. To increase system reliability and production rates, an external H - ion source is applied. The choice of the cyclotron concept, design of the structure elements, calculation of the electromagnetic fields and beam dynamics from the ion source to the extraction system were performed.

  7. NORTICA—a new code for cyclotron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D.; Johnson, D.; Marti, F.

    2001-12-01

    The new package NORTICA (Numerical ORbit Tracking In Cyclotrons with Analysis) of computer codes for beam dynamics simulations is under development at NSCL. The package was started as a replacement for the code MONSTER [1] developed in the laboratory in the past. The new codes are capable of beam dynamics simulations in both CCF (Coupled Cyclotron Facility) accelerators, the K500 and K1200 superconducting cyclotrons. The general purpose of this package is assisting in setting and tuning the cyclotrons taking into account the main field and extraction channel imperfections. The computer platform for the package is Alpha Station with UNIX operating system and X-Windows graphic interface. A multiple programming language approach was used in order to combine the reliability of the numerical algorithms developed over the long period of time in the laboratory and the friendliness of modern style user interface. This paper describes the capability and features of the codes in the present state.

  8. Cyclotrons for clinical and biomedical research with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present some background material on cyclotrons and other particle accelerators particularly with a view toward the considerations behind acquiring and installing such a machine for purely clinical and/or biomedical research use

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be ... has also found application in electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in fusion ... (few GHz) of microwave sources, a small linear ECR plasma system can also serve ..... References.

  10. Remote machining and robotic welding in a proton cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, W; Mark, C

    1984-09-01

    Increasing residual radiation in the TRIUMF meson research facility cyclotron at the University of British Columbia has required development of a remotely operable industrial robot cutting and vacuum tight welding capabili

  11. The beam handling system of the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messelt, S.

    1985-11-01

    The beam optic system of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. A computer program for the calculation of optimal settings of quadropoles is presented. The reliability of the computer program is confirmed by experimental data

  12. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  13. Magnet design and test of positron emission tomography cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Yang Guojun; He Xiaozhong; Pang Jian; Zhao Liangchao; Zhang Kaizhi

    2012-01-01

    An 11 MeV H - compact cyclotron used for medical radioactive isotope production is under construction in Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP. The cyclotron magnet adopts the design of small valley gaps and coulee structure which can provide high average magnetic field and strong focus ability. To achieve 5 × 10 -4 measuring accuracy, a magnetic field mapping system has been developed. After iterative correction using field measurement data, the total phase excursion of the cyclotron is within ± 9° and the first harmonic is less than 10 -3 T, which are all acceptable. Furthermore, the beam testing declares the successful construction of the cyclotron magnet. Besides, some magnetic field influence factors were discussed, including the magnetic field distortion and measurement error. (authors)

  14. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P.; Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I.; Barquero, R.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during 18 F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  15. Production of *sp67*Ga at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Holtebekk, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method for production of *sp67*Ga at the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The method is based on the nuclear reaction *sp68*Zn (p,2n)*sp67*Ga. The target is natural zinc metal of thickness 1.3 mm fixed by a thin alloy layer to a copper disc for efficient cooling during irradiation. By applying a beam of 29 MeV protons, a maximum production yield of approx. 1.8 mCi/*my*Ah was obtained. By demanding a contamination level of *sp66*Ga <=1%, the ''useful'' yield after a decaytime of 88 h is approx. 0.8 mCi/*my*Ah. Gallium has been separated carrierfree from the zinc matrix by cation exchange from 7.5M hydrocloric acid solutions and prepared as citrate complex at pH 5.5. After sterile filtering, autoclavation, pyrogene testing and analysis for iron and zinc, the *sp67*Ga-radiopharmaceutical has been applied in human investigations at the Ullevaal hospital in Oslo. (Auth.)

  16. On 'conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.M.; Parle, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors reconsider the apparent conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation, and show that earlier workers in this field did not correctly include the effects of radiation reaction in their calculations. When a 'recoil' term, calculated using relativistic quantum theory, is included in the angular momentum of the particle the conflict disappears. It is found that the guiding centre of the particle drifts outwards during cyclotron radiation. (author)

  17. Channel of Axial Injection of DC-60 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Bogomolov, S L; Borisenko, A N; Borisov, O N; Gulbekyan, G G; Ivanenko, I A; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Khabarov, M V; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N; Paschenko, S V; Tikhomirov, A V

    2006-01-01

    The design study and realization of the axial injection beam line of DC-60 cyclotron constructed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are given. The channel allows one to transport and to inject into the cyclotron ions with mass-to-charge ratio $A/Z$ being within interval A/Z=6-12 and kinetic energy up to 17 $Z/A$ keV/m.u.

  18. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  19. Parameters of the eigenellipsoid for separated sector cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferme, J.

    1989-01-01

    The analytical expressions of the elements of the beam matrix corresponding to the eigenellipsoid for a beam injected on an equilibrium orbit of a cyclotron are presented. The four dimensional phase space of the horizontal plane is only considered. Some restrictive hypotheses are made: there is no acceleration, and space charge effects are not taken into account. The beam matrix has been computed for the general case of spiraled sectors cyclotrons, and is valid for any given azimuth

  20. Process of a cyclotron modeling with SNOP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The description of the SNOP program developed in JINR and intended for numerical modeling of a beam dynamics in accelerating setups of cyclotron type is presented. The main methods of work with program components, and also stages of numerical modeling of a cyclotron, the analysis of the main characteristics of the accelerated bunch by means of the SNOP are given. The explanation of some algorithms and procedures used in the program is given. [ru

  1. Design study of electrostatic inflector in compact cyclotron injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    1996-01-01

    The beam dynamics behaviour in electrostatic inflector is investigated for a vertical type injection system to a compact cyclotron. The computer aided design and matching of the inflector are based on the simulation of computed beam orbit. Modeling and simulation are done on PC-486 to form a software package. The software package can be used to develop a new type cyclotron design combining with the software package CYCCAE developed by China Institute of Atomic Energy three years ago

  2. Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1977-12-01

    Wave trajectories propagating obliquely to magnetic field in toroidal plasmas are studied theoretically. Results show that the ordinary wave at appropriate incident angle is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at first turning point and is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a hooked nail curve near second turning point and is cyclotron-damped away, resulting in local electron heating, before arriving at cyclotron resonance layer. (auth.)

  3. Mass measurements with the CIME cyclotron at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornillos, M B Gomez; Chartier, M; Mittig, W; Blank, B; Chautard, F; Demonchy, C E; Gillibert, A; Jacquot, B; Jurado, B; Lecesne, N; Lepine-Szily, A; Orr, N A; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Villari, A C C

    2005-01-01

    A new direct technique using the CIME cyclotron as a high-resolution mass spectrometer is being developed in order to measure the masses of exotic nuclei. Tests have been performed to check the feasibility of the method with a mixed beam of stable ions extracted from the SPIRAL ion source and injected into the CIME cyclotron. Preliminary results obtained with this new technique are presented and discussed

  4. Preliminary assessment of nuclear energy centers and energy systems complexes in the western United States. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.; Robinson, J.H.; Smith, D.R.

    1978-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Center siting opportunities in the eleven western states have been systematically examined. The study area has been divided into 10-mile by 10-mile grid cells, and each cell has been evaluated in terms of overall suitability and site-related costs. Composite suitability consists of a weighted sum of ten important nuclear power plant siting issues; the particular weights used for this study were decided by a Delphi session of twenty individuals with energy facility siting expertise, with at least one representative from each of the eleven western states. Site-related costs consist of the additional expenditures required for seismic hardening (in seismically active areas), electric power transmission lines (for sites significantly far from load centers), and wet/dry cooling system costs

  5. Preliminary assessment of nuclear energy centers and energy systems complexes in the western United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, P.; Robinson, J.H.; Smith, D.R.

    1978-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Center siting opportunities in the eleven western states have been systematically examined. The study area has been divided into 10-mile by 10-mile grid cells, and each cell has been evaluated in terms of overall suitability and site-related costs. Composite suitability consists of a weighted sum of ten important nuclear power plant siting issues; the particular weights used for this study were decided by a Delphi session of twenty individuals with energy facility siting expertise, with at least one representative from each of the eleven western states. Site-related costs consist of the additional expenditures required for seismic hardening (in seismically active areas), electric power transmission lines (for sites significantly far from load centers), and wet/dry cooling system costs (limited water availability and/or high summer temperatures).

  6. Integration of the clinical engineering specialist at a high complexity children's hospital. Our professional experience at a surgical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Enriquez, M J; Chazarreta, B; Emilio, D G; Fernandez Sarda, E

    2007-01-01

    This document aims to find relating points between the current and future Clinical Engineer professional in order to discuss about the hospital environment, its characteristics and its realities which lead to our professional development. The main aim is to depict our experience through a retrospective analysis based on the underwriting experience and consequently to arrive at conclusions that will support the inclusion and active interaction of the Clinic Engineer Specialist as part of a Hospital's Surgical Center

  7. Stability and nonlinear dynamics of gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrotrons operating at higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequency can overcome the frequency limitations caused by achievable strength of the magnetic field. However, the excitation of modes at the fundamental frequency exhibit a major problem for stable operation of harmonic gyrotron at high power with high efficiency. Therefore the issues of stability of gyrotron operation at the cyclotron harmonics and nonlinear dynamics of mode interaction are of great importance. The results of the authors stability analysis and multimode simulation are presented here. A detailed nonlinear theory of steady state single mode operation at cyclotron harmonics has been presented previously, taking into account beam-wave coupling and nonlinear gain function at cyclotron harmonics. A set of equations describing low gain regime interaction of modes resonant at different cyclotron harmonics was studied before. The multifrequency time-dependent nonlinear analysis presented here is based on previous gyrotron studies and beam-wave interaction at cyclotron harmonics. The authors have determined the parameter space for stable single mode operation at the second harmonic. The nonlinear dynamics of mode evolution and mode interaction for a harmonic gyrotron is presented. A new nonlinear effect in which the parasite at the fundamental harmonic helps excite the operating mode at the second harmonic has been demonstrated

  8. Rf structure of superconducting cyclotron for therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekoshi, Hidekuni; Matsuki, Seishi; Mashiko, Katuo; Shikazono, Naomoto.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages of fast neutrons in therapeutical application are now widely recognized. Fast neutrons are generated by bombarding a thick beryllium target with high energy protons and deuterons. The AVF cyclotrons which deliver 50 MeV protons and 25 MeV deuterons are commonly used and are commercially available now. At the treatment usually rotational irradiation is taken to prevent an injury to normal tissue from the high LET effect of fast neutrons. The construction cost of both cyclotrons and isocentric irradiation installation are relatively high, so that the spread of neutron therapy is obstructed. A superconducting cyclotron for neutron therapy application was proposed by a Chalk River group. This low cost design allows the installation to be a dedicated facility located in a hospital, and small size allows installations of the complete cyclotron in a rotatable gantry. The design studies of the superconducting cyclotron based on this idea are going on at Kyoto University. The full scale model experiments for a rf structure of the cyclotron were carried out. (author)

  9. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  10. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Dawson, R.; Erdman, K.L.

    1989-05-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. TRIUMF is cooperating with a local industrial company in designing and constructing such a cyclotron. It will be a four sector H - cyclotron, exploiting the newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source. This source with H - current capability in excess of 5 mA makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of up to 500 μA. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Extraction of two high-intensity beams, with energy variable from 15 to 30 MeV is planned. The use of an external ion source, provision of a good vacuum in the acceleration region, and the careful choice of materials for components in the median plane leads to a cyclotron that will have low activation and can be easily serviced in spite of the very high operating beam intensities. A design extension to 70 MeV using many of the design features of the 30 MeV cyclotron can be easily made. Such a machine with a good quality variable energy beam is a highly desirable source of protons for isotope production, injection into higher energy high intensity acceleration, injection into higher energy high intensity accelerators, and as an irradiation facility for ocular melanomas. Design of the 30 MeV cyclotron is well advanced and construction is in progress

  11. Ligand-Centered Electron-Transfer Redox Processes for Manganese, Iron, and Cobalt Complexes in Relation to Selected Catalytic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    of Fe(acac)3 exhibits oxidation features common to acac- and its complexes. Table VIH (b) summarizes the EI/ 2 values for the oxidations of a number of...Data supplied by Dr. Pablo Cofr6 of the Universidad Cat6lica de Chile . 141. Chin, D.-H.; Chiericato, G., Jr.; Nanni, E. J., Jr.; Sawyer, D. T. 1. Am

  12. Mono-, di- and trimeric PS I reaction center complexes isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Size, shape and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rögner, M.; Mühlenhoff, U.; Boekema, E.J.; Witt, H.T.

    1990-01-01

    Photosystem I preparations from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. were treated with high concentrations of Tris and octyl glucoside at alkaline pH and elevated temperature. A sucrose density gradient yielded three pigment-protein complexes; these were further purified on a HPLC anion-exchange

  13. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10 30 MeV for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.

    2008-07-01

    A survey of commercial cyclotrons for production of medical and industrial isotopes is presented. Compact isochronous cyclotrons which accelerate negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 10 30 MeV have been widely used over the last 25 years for production of medical isotopes and other applications. Different cyclotron models for the energy range 10 12 MeV with moderate beam intensity are used for production of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F isotopes widely applied in positron emission tomography. Commercial cyclotrons with high beam intensity are available on the market for production of most medical and industrial isotopes. In this work, the physical and technical parameters of different models are compared. Possibilities of improving performance and increasing intensity of H- beams up to 2 3 mA are discussed.

  14. Proceedings of the 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, Gerardo

    2003-01-01

    The 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating was held in Aix-en-Provence (France) from 13 to 16 May 2002. The meeting was hosted by the Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion (CEA/Cadarache, France), with additional financial support from: - Region Provence-Alpes Cote d'Azur - The City of Aix-en-Provence - Communaute de l'Agglomeration du Pays d'Aix - Thales Electron Devices (France) - Alstom Magnets and Superconductors (France) - Spinner GmbH (Germany). The members of the local organizing committee were: G. Giruzzi, M. Lennholm, R. Magne and V. Poli, from CEA/Cadarache. The composition of the International Programme Committee was the following: M. Bornatici (Italy), A. Costley (ITER), E. de la Luna (Spain), G. Giruzzi (France), W. Kasparek (Germany), B. Lloyd (UK), J. Lohr (USA), K. Sakamoto (Japan). The subjects of the meeting were classified in four main topics: Electron Cyclotron Theory; Electron Cyclotron Emission; Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Experiments; Electron Cyclotron Technology. The results presented in these topics have been summarised in the closing session by E. Westerhof, A. Kraemer-Flecken, T. Goodman and G. Bosia, respectively. The workshop was attended by 85 participants from 18 countries, providing 10 invited talks, 30 oral presentations and 50 posters. The success of the workshop is mainly due to the amount and quality of their work and of their presentations. The generosity of the sponsors, the selection and advice work of the International Programme Committee, as well as the contribution of the chairmen and of the summary speakers should also be warmly acknowledged. The papers in this collection have been reproduced directly from the authors' manuscripts, provided either as camera-ready texts or as pdf files. The constraints on the papers lengths and formats have been kept to a minimum, on purpose. This series of workshops has now reached a good level of maturity, with well established

  15. Electron cyclotron emission measurements during 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating in Wendelstein WVII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Gasparino, U.; Tutter, M.; Brakel, R.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Engelhardt, K.; Erckmann, V.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Raeuchle, E.; Schueller, P.G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, M.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator. Blackbody radiation from the thermalized plasma main body as well as radiation from a small amount of weakly relativistic suprathermal electrons has been detected. In addition sideband emission has been observed near the second harmonic of the heating line source. Harmonic generation and parametric wave decay at the upper hybrid layer may be a reasonable explanation. (orig.)

  16. Tearing modes induced by perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating in the KSTAR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Seol, J.; Aydemir, A. Y.; Bae, C.; Yoo, J. W.; Na, Y. S.; Kim, H. S.; Woo, M. H.; Kim, J.; Joung, M.; You, K. I.; Park, B. H.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports on experimental evidence that shows perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can trigger classical tearing modes when deposited near a rational flux surface. The complex evolution of an m = 2 island is followed during current ramp-up in KSTAR plasmas, from its initial onset as the rational surface enters the ECRH resonance layer to its eventual lock on the wall after the rational surface leaves the layer. Stability analysis coupled to a transport calculation of the current profile with ECRH shows that the perpendicular ECRH may play a significant role in triggering and destabilizing classical m = 2 tearing modes, in agreement with our experimental observation.

  17. Studies of gas phase ion/molecule reactions by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingeld, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    An important field in which Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance has useful applications is that of gas phase ion chemistry, the subject of this thesis. First, the general picture of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase is discussed. Next, some positive ion-molecule reactions are described, whereas the remaining chapters deal with negative ion-molecule reactions. Most of these studies have been performed using the FT-ICR method. Reactions involving H 3 O - and NH 4 - ions are described whereas the other chapters deal with larger organic complexes. (Auth.)

  18. Non-invasive ventilation in complex obstructive sleep apnea--a 15-year experience of a pediatric tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbal, I C; Gonçalves, C; Nunes, T; Ferreira, R; Pereira, L; Saianda, A; Bandeira, T

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 1-3% of pediatric population and is associated with significant morbidity. As adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) is its primary cause in children, elective adenotonsillectomy is the first treatment of choice. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been increasingly considered as an option, mainly for children with complex diseases, ineligible or waiting for surgeries, or after surgery failure. To describe the experience in the management of children with complex OSA, and to evidence the feasibility and advantages of NIV. This was a retrospective cohort study of 68 children on NIV, in whom complex OSA was the main indication for ventilation, in a Pediatric Respiratory Unit at a University Hospital between January 1997 and March 2012. Demographic and clinical data were collected on the underlying diagnosis, therapeutic interventions prior to NIV, NIV related issues and outcome. Forty (59%) children were male, median age at starting NIV was 6 years and 7 months, with interquartile range (IQR) of 15-171 months. Twenty-two (32%) were infants and 25 (37%) adolescents. The most common diagnosis was congenital malformations and genetic disorders in 34 (50%) patients. Nine patients had cerebral palsy, 8 were post treatment for central nervous system tumors and 6 had inborn errors of metabolism. Three children had ATH and three obesity. The majority of patients (76%) had exclusively obstructive OSA and started CPAP. Ten patients had minor complications. Twenty-two patients stopped NIV due to clinical improvement, 8 were non-compliant and 8 patients died. NIV median duration was 21.5 months (IQR: 7-72). NIV is feasible and well tolerated by children with OSA associated with complex disorders, and has been shown to have few complications even in infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of electron-density and electron-localization function for dinuclear manganese complexes with bridging boron- and carbon-centered ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Kathrin; Kaupp, Martin; Braunschweig, Holger; Stalke, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Bonding in borylene-, carbene-, and vinylidene-bridged dinuclear manganese complexes [MnCp(CO)(2)](2)X (X = B-tBu, B = NMe(2), CH(2), C=CH(2)) has been compared by analyses based on quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), on the electron-localization function (ELF), and by natural-population analyses. All of the density functional theory based analyses agree on the absence of a significant direct Mn-Mn bond in these complexes and confirm a dominance of delocalized bonding via the bridging ligand. Interestingly, however, the topology of both charge density and ELF related to the Mn-bridge-Mn bonding depend qualitatively on the chosen density functional (except for the methylene-bridged complex, which exhibits only one three-center-bonding attractor both in -nabla(2)rho and in ELF). While gradient-corrected functionals provide a picture with localized two-center X-Mn bonding, increasing exact-exchange admixture in hybrid functionals concentrates charge below the bridging atom and suggests a three-center bonding situation. For example, the bridging boron ligands may be described either as substituted boranes (e.g., at BLYP or BP86 levels) or as true bridging borylenes (e.g., at BHLYP level). This dependence on the theoretical level appears to derive from a bifurcation between two different bonding situations and is discussed in terms of charge transfer between X and Mn, and in the context of self-interaction errors exhibited by popular functionals.

  20. Designing for Social Infrastructures in Complex Service Systems: A Human-Centered and Social Systems Perspective on Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Service design is one of the keys to improving how we target today’s complex societal problems. The predominant view of service systems is mechanistic and linear. A service infrastructure—which includes solutions like service blueprints, scripts, and protocols—is, in some ways, designed to control the behavior of service professionals at the service interface. This view undermines the intrinsic motivation, expertise, and creativity of service professionals. This article presents a different perspective on service design. Using theories of social systems and complex responsive processes, I define service organizations as ongoing iterated patterns of relationships between people, and identify them as complex social service systems. I go on to show how the human-centeredness of design practices contributes to designing for such service systems. In particular, I show how a deep understanding of the needs and aspirations of service professionals through phenomenological themes contributes to designing for social infrastructures that support continuous improvement and adaptation of the practices executed by service professionals at the service interface.

  1. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-06-01

    As for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the introduction of pulsed Fourier transform techniques revolutionized ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: increased speed (factor of 10,000), increased sensitivity (factor of 100), increased mass resolution (factor of 10,000-an improvement not shared by the introduction of FT techniques to IR or NMR spectroscopy), increased mass range (factor of 500), and automated operation. FT-ICR mass spectrometry is the most versatile technique for unscrambling and quantifying ion-molecule reaction kinetics and equilibria in the absence of solvent (i.e., the gas phase). In addition, FT-ICR MS has the following analytically important features: speed (~1 second per spectrum); ultrahigh mass resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy for analysis of mixtures and polymers; attomole sensitivity; MSn with one spectrometer, including two-dimensional FT/FT-ICR/MS; positive and/or negative ions; multiple ion sources (especially MALDI and electrospray); biomolecular molecular weight and sequencing; LC/MS; and single-molecule detection up to 108 Dalton. Here, some basic features and recent developments of FT-ICR mass spectrometry are reviewed, with applications ranging from crude oil to molecular biology.

  2. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatagai, F [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Takahashi, T; Matsuyama, A

    1975-06-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with ..cap alpha..-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/..mu..m, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of ..cap alpha..-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/..mu..m were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept.

  3. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Beams of protons with several different energies have now been successfully transported between the injector cyclotron SPC1 and the SSC. Some small modifications to the placement of steering magnets and diagnostic equipment have been made in the light of our operational experience, which should improve the ease of tuning this beamline. Proton beams up to 200 MeV in energy have been transported to the experimental areas, where experiments in nuclear physics have been successful conducted. Three of the experimental beamlines are now in operation. Beams of 66 MeV protons have also been transported to targets in the isotope production vault, without difficulty. Field mapping of the remaining quadrupoles on site has been completed. Installation of and alignment of magnets up to the beam swinger is also complete, although the beam tube itself, plus vacuum and diagnostic equipment must still be tackled. The beam swinger has been designed and detailed in the drawing office, and is now being manufactured locally. The beamline elements for the sepctrometer beamline remain to be purchased. A personal computer has been purchased for controlling the field-mapping equipment for the spectrometer magnets, which are being manufactured in this country. A number of computer programs have been written for conversion of calibrated quadrupole and dipole magnet field data to absolute current values for the control system. Other programs permit diagnostic measurements of beam profiles to be used to calculated the beam emittance, or to set steering magnets so that the beam is correctly aligned

  4. Electronic cyclotron radiation amplification in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The amplified emission of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency from an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma slab is investigated in a linear theory. Plasma polarization effects are consistently included. Expressions are developed in the WKB approximation for emission in the ordinary and the extraordinary modes, for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Numerical results are given for the extraordinary mode, for which effects are strongest. For the case of a loss-cone-type electron momentum distribution, it is shown that the amplification is sensitively dependent on the ratio of parallel-to-perpendicular temperature and on inhomogeneities in the magnetic field. The dependence of the amplification on the distribution is further investigated by considering superpositions of loss-cone and Maxwellian components. It is show that the presence of a Maxwellian component in general reduces the emission relative to the pure loss-cone case, and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. A peculiar behaviour of the refractive index, which occurs in the transition from the pure loss-cone to the pure Maxwellian case, is discussed. (author)

  5. Ferrite-guided cyclotron-resonance maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerby, Eli; Kesar, A.; Aharony, A.; Breitmeier, G.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) with a ferrite loading incorporated in its waveguide is proposed. The CRM interaction occurs between the rotating electron beam and the em wave propagating along a longitudinally magnetized ferrite medium. The ferrite anisotropic permeability resembles the CRM susceptibility in many aspects, and particularly in their similar response to the axial magnetic field (the ferrite susceptibility can be regarded as a passive analog of the active CRM interaction). The ferrite loading slows down the phase velocity of the em wave and thus the axial (Weibel) mechanism of the CRM interaction dominates. The ferrite loading enables also a mechanism of spectral tunability for CRM's. The ferrite loading is proposed, therefore, as a useful ingredient for high-power CRM devices. A linear model of the combined ferrite-guided CRM interaction reveals its useful features. Future schemes may also incorporate ferrite sections functioning as isolators, gyrators, or phase shifters within the CRM device itself for selective suppression of backward waves and spurious oscillations, and for gain and efficiency enhancement

  6. Automation in irradiating target systems for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Sumair G.; Sciani, Valdir; Almeida, Rosemeire S.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d, 3 He 4 and α, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 μA; the other one, model cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 μ A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotope production for use in Nuclear Medicine, such as 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 111 In, 123 I, 18 F, and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatized was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increasing the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PLC was developed using Simatic Step Seven (S7), Software from Siemens, where all the steps are supervised in screens at a microcomputer. The assembling and sequence of leading were developed using the software from Unisoft, that keeps the operator informed about the work being carried out, at any time. (author)

  7. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Takahashi, Tadashi; Matsuyama, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with α-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/μm, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of α-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/μm were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept. (auth.)

  8. Ion cyclotron system design for KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Jeong, S. H.; Yoony, J. S.; Bae, Y. D.; Kwak, J. G.; Ju, M. H.

    1998-05-01

    The KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak (R=1.8 m, a=0.5 m, k=2, b=3.5T, I=2MA, t=300 s) is being constructed to do long-pulse, high-b, advanced-operating-mode fusion physics experiments. The ion cyclotron (IC) system (in conjunction with an 8-MW neutral beam and a 1.5-MW lower hybrid system) will provide heating and current drive capability for the machine. The IC system will deliver 6 MW of RF power to the plasma in the 25 to 60 MHz frequency range, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. It will be used for ion heating, fast-wave current drive (FWCD), and mode-conversion current drive (MCCD). The phasing between current straps in the antenna will be adjustable quickly during operation to provide the capability of changing the current-drive efficiency. This report describes the design of the IC system hardware: the electrical characteristics of the antenna and the matching system, the requirements on the power sources, and electrical analyses of the launcher. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 40 figs

  9. Ion cyclotron system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Jeong, S. H.; Yoony, J. S.; Bae, Y. D.; Kwak, J. G.; Ju, M. H

    1998-05-01

    The KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak (R=1.8 m, a=0.5 m, k=2, b=3.5T, I=2MA, t=300 s) is being constructed to do long-pulse, high-b, advanced-operating-mode fusion physics experiments. The ion cyclotron (IC) system (in conjunction with an 8-MW neutral beam and a 1.5-MW lower hybrid system) will provide heating and current drive capability for the machine. The IC system will deliver 6 MW of RF power to the plasma in the 25 to 60 MHz frequency range, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. It will be used for ion heating, fast-wave current drive (FWCD), and mode-conversion current drive (MCCD). The phasing between current straps in the antenna will be adjustable quickly during operation to provide the capability of changing the current-drive efficiency. This report describes the design of the IC system hardware: the electrical characteristics of the antenna and the matching system, the requirements on the power sources, and electrical analyses of the launcher. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 40 figs.

  10. Electron cyclotron emission spectroscopy on thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbing, B.J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) enables one to infer the radial profile of the electron temperature in tokamaks. The Dutch FOM institute for plasma physics has designed, built, installed and operated a grating polychromator for ECE measurements at JET. This thesis deals with a few instrumental aspects of this project and with applications of ECE measurements in tokamak physics studies. Ch. 3 and 4 deal with the wave transport in ECE systems. In Ch. 3 a method is developed to infer the mode conversion, which is a source for transmission losses, in a waveguide component from the antenna pattern of its exit aperture. In Ch. 4 the design and manufacture of the waveguide transition system to the grating polychromator are described. In Ch. 5 a method is reported for calibration of the spectrometers, based on the use of a microwave source which simulates a large area blackbody of very high temperature. The feasibility of the method is tested by applying it to two different ECE systems. In Ch. 6 a study of heat pulse propagation in tokamak plasma's, based on measurement of the electron temperature with the grating polychromator, is presented. 105 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  11. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of 14 C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the ''cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of 14 C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring 14 C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting 14 C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10 4 . Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as 3 H, and 10 Be, and 26 Al, are discussed. 70 refs

  12. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B Hawkins

    Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  13. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jared B; Jones, Mark T; Plassmann, Paul E; Thorley-Lawson, David A

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing) arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  14. Langmuir-Blodgett and X-ray diffraction studies of isolated photosystem II reaction centers in monolayers and multilayers: physical dimensions of the complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphaus, R A; Fang, J Y; Picorel, R; Chumanov, G; Wang, J Y; Cotton, T M; Seibert, M

    1997-04-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC) is a hydrophobic intrinsic protein complex that drives the water-oxidation process of photosynthesis. Unlike the bacterial RC complex, an X-ray crystal structure of the PSII RC is not available. In order to determine the physical dimensions of the isolated PSII RC complex, we applied Langmuir techniques to determine the cross-sectional area of an isolated RC in a condensed monolayer film. Low-angle X-ray diffraction results obtained by examining Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer films of alternating PSII RC/Cd stearate monolayers were used to determine the length (or height; z-direction, perpendicular to the plane of the original membrane) of the complex. The values obtained for a PSII RC monomer were 26 nm2 and 4.8 nm, respectively, and the structural integrity of the RC in the multilayer film was confirmed by several approaches. Assuming a cylindrical-type RC structure, the above dimensions lead to a predicted volume of about 125 nm3. This value is very close to the expected volume of 118 nm3, calculated from the known molecular weight and partial specific volume of the PSII RC proteins. This same type of comparison was also made with the Rhodobacter sphaeroides RC based on published data, and we conclude that the PSII RC is much shorter in length and has a more regular solid geometric structure than the bacterial RC. Furthermore, the above dimensions of the PSII RC and those of PSII core (RC plus proximal antenna) proteins protruding outside the plane of the PSII membrane into the lumenal space as imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy (Seibert, Aust. J. Pl. Physiol. 22, 161-166, 1995) fit easily into the known dimensions of the PSII core complex visualized by others as electron-density projection maps. From this we conclude that the in situ PSII core complex is a dimeric structure containing two copies of the PSII RC.

  15. Cyclotron resonant scattering feature simulations. II. Description of the CRSF simulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, F.-W.; Ballhausen, R.; Falkner, S.; Schönherr, G.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wolff, M. T.; Becker, P. A.; Fürst, F.; Marcu-Cheatham, D. M.; Hemphill, P. B.; Sokolova-Lapa, E.; Dauser, T.; Klochkov, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Wilms, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are formed by scattering of X-ray photons off quantized plasma electrons in the strong magnetic field (of the order 1012 G) close to the surface of an accreting X-ray pulsar. Due to the complex scattering cross-sections, the line profiles of CRSFs cannot be described by an analytic expression. Numerical methods, such as Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the scattering processes, are required in order to predict precise line shapes for a given physical setup, which can be compared to observations to gain information about the underlying physics in these systems. Aims: A versatile simulation code is needed for the generation of synthetic cyclotron lines. Sophisticated geometries should be investigatable by making their simulation possible for the first time. Methods: The simulation utilizes the mean free path tables described in the first paper of this series for the fast interpolation of propagation lengths. The code is parallelized to make the very time-consuming simulations possible on convenient time scales. Furthermore, it can generate responses to monoenergetic photon injections, producing Green's functions, which can be used later to generate spectra for arbitrary continua. Results: We develop a new simulation code to generate synthetic cyclotron lines for complex scenarios, allowing for unprecedented physical interpretation of the observed data. An associated XSPEC model implementation is used to fit synthetic line profiles to NuSTAR data of Cep X-4. The code has been developed with the main goal of overcoming previous geometrical constraints in MC simulations of CRSFs. By applying this code also to more simple, classic geometries used in previous works, we furthermore address issues of code verification and cross-comparison of various models. The XSPEC model and the Green's function tables are available online (see link in footnote, page 1).

  16. Characterization of non-polar aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil using atmospheric pressure laser ionization and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APLI FT-ICR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Wolfgang; Panda, Saroj K; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2008-07-01

    We report on the successful application of the recently introduced atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) method as a novel tool for the analysis of crude oil and its components. Using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, unambiguous determination of key compounds in this complex matrix with unprecedented sensitivity is presented.

  17. Contribution to the central region study of the first cyclotron of the Rhone-Alpes accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khallouf, A.

    1986-01-01

    Some changes seemed necessary such as the structure of the central region in order to obtain good centring and good axial and radial stabilities for the different conditions of acceleration. The most simple calculations of the center of cyclotron already developed such as the acceleration in a constant electric field, but with enough regions to obtain a good precision have been resumed. As analytic tool a computer program calculates the trajectories of a charged particle given its characteristics and the conditions of injection, and the parameters of the system of acceleration and guiding. The program calculates orbit of the particle. A criterion of judgement to permit modifications of the hypothesis leading to the solution needed to obtain good working conditions for the cyclotron has been established [fr

  18. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Dept. of Radiation Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI.

  19. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-11

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push–pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  20. The PET / cyclotron facility at Putrajaya Hospital - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Suzilawati Muhd Sarowi; Munira Shaikh Nasir; Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia desire to have a cyclotron for nuclear medical use came into realisation recently with the establishment of a PET/Cyclotron Facility at Putrajaya Hospital. The testing and commissioning of the cyclotron, hot cells, QC equipment and PET/CT started on March 27, culminating in the first patient to be injected on May 10 2006. Three other patients were to be followed on May 15. The patients from both the Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya Hospital were pre-selected by physicians from these hospitals. The 18 MeV cyclotron is capable of generating 16.4 MeV protons and 8.4 MeV deuterons. The cyclotron at Putrajaya has three targets (2 liquid and 1 gas) and is capable of producing 18 F-FDG and 18 F-DOPA. To complement this, the facility has 2 modules for FDG synthesis, 1 for F-DOPA and 1 for nucleophilic synthesis. The facility will be GMP compliant. For the first production for human use, the water-18 target was irradiated for 50 minutes at 20 mA to produce 1.3 Ci of F-18. At the end of synthesis, the activity of the FDG obtained was 600 mCi. The product was then injected to a 26-year-old female, with a suspected adenocarcinoma. (Author)

  1. Power deposition for ion cyclotron heating in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.; Villard, L.

    1988-01-01

    The power deposition profiles during minority ion cyclotron heating are analysed in large tokamaks by using the global, toroidal wave code LION. For tokamaks with large aspect ratio and with circular cross-section, the wave is focused on the magnetic axis and can be absorbed there by cyclotron absorption when the cyclotron resonance passes through the magnetic axis. The power deposition profile is then essentially determined by the Doppler broadening of the ion cyclotron resonance. For equilibria either non-circular or with a small aspect ratio the power deposition profile depends also on the strength of the damping. In this case the power deposition profile can be expressed as a sum of two power deposition profiles. One is related to the power absorbed in a single pass, and its shape is similar to that obtained for large aspect ratio and circular cross-section. The other profile is obtained by calculating the power deposition in the limit of weak damping, in which case the wave electric field is almost constant along the cyclotron resonance layer. A heuristic formula for the power deposition is given. The formula includes a number of calibration curves and functions which has been calculated with the LION code for JET relevant equilibria. The formula enables calculation of the power deposition profile in a simple way when the launched wave spectrum and damping coefficients are known. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs

  2. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-01

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push-pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  3. Cyclotron for industrial production of radioisotopes: relevants characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Wanderley de

    1997-01-01

    The industrial production of radioisotopes requests cyclotrons with easy maintenance services, high productivity and low operation costs. To obtain this performance the experts on the have achieved excellent results, taking advantage of modern resources in calculation and modeling. Only by the maximum exploitation of the azimutal variation of the magnetic field, a physical concept introduced in 1967 with the isocronous cyclotrons, it was possible to construct cyclotrons with only 30% of the electrical consumption required by the former cyclotrons. On the other hand, the acceleration of negative ions enable the 100% accelerated beam utilization, without internal energy dissipation, obtaining beam intensities up to 1mA in continuous running which represents an increased factor of 15. Other construction parameters were optimized aiming at reliability and reduction in the components activation. Concerning energy consumption and the beam intensity supplied, a present cyclotron with 30 MeV and 300μA of protons current is 15 times more efficient than its precedent. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Potential of cyclotron based accelerators for energy production and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammbach, T.; Adam, S.; Fitze, H.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    PSI operates a 590 MeV-cyclotron facility for high intensity proton beams for the production of intense beams of pions and muons. The facility, commissioned in 1974, has been partially upgraded and is now operated routinely at a beam current of 1 mA, which corresponds to a beam power of 0.6 MW. At this current, the beam losses in the cyclotron are about 0.02%. By the end of 1995 the authors expect to have 1.5 mA of protons. Extensive theoretical investigations on beam current limitations in isochronous cyclotrons were undertaken. They show that the longitudinal space charge effects dominate. Based on their experience the authors present a preliminary design of a cyclotron scheme that could produce a 10 MW beam as a driver for an {open_quotes}energy amplifier{close_quotes} as proposed by C. Rubbia and his collaborators. The expected efficiency for the conversion of AC into beam power would be about 50% (for the RF-systems only). The beam losses in the cyclotron are expected to be a few {mu}A, leading to a tolerable activation level.

  5. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Chong Yeal

    2017-01-01

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI

  6. The establishment of the Rossendorf PET Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Steinbach, J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the newly established Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Center at the Institut of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry in Rossendorf are described, referring to medical research, development of tracers and radiochemicals developments, biochemistry and future prospects of PET in Rossendorf. The layout of the center is also described considering the cyclotron and targetry, the transport system, the radiopharmaceutical laboratories and the tomograph. A schedule for project development is going. (BBR)

  7. Characterization of Inductive loop coupling in a Cyclotron Dee Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lewis

    Many of today's low to medium-energy cyclotrons apply RF power to the resonator structure (the dees) by inductive loop coupling through a feed-line driven by an RF transmitter employing a triode or tetrode power tube. The transmitter's output network transforms the tube's optimum load line (typically a few thousand ohms) down to Z0, typically 50 ohms. But the load-line is not a physical resistance, so one would not expect to see 50 ohms when looking back toward the transmitter. Moreover, if both the resonator's input and the transmitter's output are matched to Z0, then the coupled or working Q of the resonator is reduced to half that of the uncoupled Q, implying that half the power is being dissipated in the transmitter's output resistance- an inefficient and expensive solution for a high power RF application. More power is available if the transmitter's reverse-impedance is not matched to Z0, but this may result in misalignment between the frequency for correct forward match at the loop, versus the frequency for maximum power in the resonator. The misalignment can be eliminated, and the working Q maximized, by choosing the appropriate length of feed-line between the non-matched transmitter output and the matched resonator's input. In addition, the transmitter's output impedance may be complex, comprising resistance plus reactance, requiring a further process and means of measuring the output impedance so that an additional compensating length of feed-line can be incorporated. But a wrong choice of overall feed-line length- even though correctly load-matched at the resonator's operating frequency- can result in a curious degenerate condition, where the resonator's working Q appears to collapse, and the potential for transmitter overload increases substantially: a condition to be avoided!

  8. Modeling Whistler Wave Generation Regimes In Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Parrot, M.

    Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability development in the Earth magnetosphere is made.This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. Two different mechanisms of energetic electron loss from the interaction region are discussed. The first one is precipitation of energetic particles via the loss cone. The other mechanism is drift of particles away from the interaction region across the mag- netic field line. In the case of interaction in plasmasphere or rather large areas of cold plasma density enhancement the loss cone precipitation are dominant. For interaction in a subauroral duct losses due to drift are most effective. A parametric study of the model for both mechanisms of particle losses is made. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch-angle distributions and elec- tron density. We show that in addition to the well-known stationary generation and periodic regime with successive spikes of similar shape, more complex forms of wave spectrum exist. In particular, we found a periodic regime, in which a single period in- cludes two separate spikes with different spectral shapes. In another regime, periodic generation of spikes at higher frequencies together with quasi-stationary generation at lower frequencies occurs. Quasi-periodic regime with spike overlapping, i.e. when generation of a new spike begins before the previous one is over is also found. Results obtained are compared with experimental data on quasi-periodic regimes of whistler wave generation.

  9. Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch angle distributions and its intensity. Two mechanisms of removal of energetic electrons from a generation region are considered, one is due to the particle precipitation through the loss cone and another one is related to the magnetic drift of energetic particles.

    It was confirmed that two main regimes occur in this system in the presence of a constant particle source, in the case of precipitation losses. At small source intensity relaxation oscillations were found, whose parameters are in good agreement with simplified analytical theory developed earlier. At a larger source intensity, transition to a periodic generation occurs. In the case of drift losses the regime of self-sustained periodic generation regime is realized for source intensity higher than some threshold. The dependencies of repetition period and dynamic spectrum shape on the source parameters were studied in detail. In addition to simple periodic regimes, those with more complex spectral forms were found. In particular, alteration of spikes with different spectral shape can take place. It was also shown that quasi-stationary generation at the low-frequency band can coexist with periodic modulation at higher frequencies.

    On the basis of the results obtained, the model for explanation of

  10. [Certification and quality management of a complex university cardiac center according to law EN ISO 9001: 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beholz, Sven; Koch, Christina; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    Quality management systems can improve quality in health care units. The introduction of a quality management system according to ISO 9001: 2000 in a university department of cardiovascular surgery is described. First a thorough analysis of all processes of patient treatment and clinical research was obtained. Multiple interfaces had to be defined to different departments as well as to administration units. All necessary resources were evaluated and optimised. Customer satisfaction was evaluated by surveys of patients and collaborating physicians. Quality rounds including physicians, nurses and technicians were instituted. Based on these preparatory works all processes including their responsibilities and necessary resources were redefined and described in the quality manual. After 18 months' of certification of our quality management system according to ISO 9001: 2000 was recommended by an independent, accredited organisation. In summary, certification of a university department of cardiovascular surgery according to ISO 9001: 2000 is possible and may represent the first step towards total quality management. In complex health care units the certification of individual departments may help to generate a consciousness for quality on the road to total quality management.

  11. Study of first harmonic field effects on beam extraction for VEC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.; Debnath, J.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    In superconducting cyclotron large momentum compaction at extraction region makes the turn separation very small. The first harmonic effects on the He +1 beam using simulated magnetic field for VEC K500 cyclotron is reported

  12. User requirements and conceptual design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carannante, Giuseppe, E-mail: Giuseppe.Carannante@F4E.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Cavinato, Mario [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Gandini, Franco [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Granucci, Gustavo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Henderson, Mark; Purohit, Dharmesh [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Saibene, Gabriella; Sartori, Filippo [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sozzi, Carlo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Electron Cyclotron (EC) plant is a complex system, essential for plasma operation. The system is being designed to supply up to 20 MW of power at 170 GHz; it consists of 24 RF sources (or Gyrotrons) connected by switchable transmission lines to four upper and one equatorial launcher. The complexity of the EC plant requires a Plant Controller, which provides the functional and operational interface with CODAC and the Plasma Control System and coordinates the various Subsystem Control Units, i.e. the local controllers of power supplies, Gyrotrons, transmission lines and launchers. A conceptual design of the Electron Cyclotron Control System (ECCS) was developed, starting from the collection of the user requirements, which have then been organized as a set of operational scenarios exploiting the EC system. The design consists in a thorough functional analysis, including also protection functions, and in the development of a conceptual I&C architecture. The main aim of the work was to identify the physics requirements and to translate them into control system requirements, in order to define the interfaces within the components of the ECCS. The definition of these interfaces is urgent because some of the subsystems are already in an advanced design phase. The present paper describes both the methodology used and the resulting design.

  13. Superconducting cyclotron deflector conditioning status - an experience with high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhash; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bhattacharjee, Tanushyam; De, Anirban; Paul, Santanu; Pal, Gautam; Saha, Subimal; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report about the status of the electrostatic deflector which will be used in K500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata. For extraction of beams from superconducting cyclotron we have to achieve 130 kV/cm. Titanium and tungsten are used for anode and septum respectively. The deflector fits within the median plane of the superconducting magnet. We report here the voltage limit, sparking rates, dark current levels and the effects observed on conditioning. For commissioning of the superconducting cyclotron, the plan is to accelerate Neon beam of 50 MeV/n for which the required extraction voltage is 81 kV/cm and we reached up to 110 kV/cm. The conditioning test chamber is maintained at a pressure of 8.0 x 10 -7 mbar. (author)

  14. Electron cyclotron waves, transport and instabilities in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    1987-01-01

    A number of topics relevant to the magnetic confinement approach to the thermonuclear fusion is addressed. The absorption and emission of electron cyclotron waves in a thermal plasma with a small population of supra-thermal, streaming electrons is examined and the properties of electron cyclotron waves in a plasma with a pure loss-cone distribution are studied. A report is given on the 1-D transport code simulations that were performed to assist the interpretation of the electron cyclotron heating experiments on the TFR tokamak. Transport code simulations of sawteeth discharges in the T-10 tokamak are discussed in order to compare the predictions of different models for the sawtooth oscillations with the experimental findings. 149 refs.; 69 figs.; 7 tabs

  15. Radioisotope production by reactors and cyclotrons in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yukio

    1978-01-01

    Present status of radioisotope production in Japan and the increasing demand from various fields are generally reviewed. Future problems associated with the shortage of economical supply are also discussed. The first half of this report is devoted to general review of the increasing demand for various radioisotopes from increasing number of users. The present status and future trends of the distribution of users of specific radioisotopes and their demands are shown. The remaining half of this report reviews the production with reactors and cyclotrons. The Japanese reactors producing radioisotopes are limited to low flux (10 13 ) research reactors at JAERI. Some problems associated with the improvement of availability and with the organizational structure are discussed. As for the production with cyclotrons, available facilities and the method of production are explained in detail. For clinical use, especially for the production of short lived radioisotopes, the advantage of a small special purpose cyclotron at each medical organization is emphasized. (Aoki, K.)

  16. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  17. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...... of the electron cyclotron frequency. These are injected obliquely from the outside of the tokamak near an optimal angle to the magnetic field lines. This method involves two mode conversions. The ordinary waves are converted into extraordinary waves near the plasma cut-off layer. The extraordinary waves...... are subsequently converted into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer, and the Bernstein waves are completely absorbed close to the plasma centre. Results are presented from ray-tracinq calculations in full three-dimensional geometry using the dispersion function for a hot non...

  18. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-01-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the "1"2C"6"+ ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  19. Radiation monitoring in a self-shielded cyclotron installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, L.; Gori, C.; Mazzocchi, S.; Spano, G.

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear medicine is approaching a new era with the spectacular growth of PET diagnosis, the number of medical cyclotrons installed within the major hospitals is increasing accordingly. Therefore modern medical cyclotron are highly engineered and highly reliable apparatus, characterised with reduced accelerating energies (as the major goal is the production of fluorine 18) and often self-shielded. However specific dedicated monitors are still necessary in order to assure the proper radioprotection. At the Careggi University Hospital in Florence a Mini trace 10 MeV self-shielded cyclotron produced by General Electric has been installed in 2000. In a contiguous radiochemistry laboratory, the preparation and quality control of 1 8F DG and other radiopharmaceuticals takes place. Aim of this work is the characterisation and the proper calibration of the above mentioned monitors and control devices

  20. Isochronous variable energy cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, G.; Zanchetta, A.A.; Gouveia, S.; Klein, H.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron CV-28 installed at the Radiation Damage Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP is a multi-particle radiation source where protons, deuterons, 3 He ions and alpha particles can be accelerated with variable energy up to 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively. The cyclotron is a versatile machine that can be applied in research and development of : radioisotope production - materials science - nuclear physics - activation analysis and others. First internal beam with 24 MeV protons has been obtained in April 23, 1981. First irradiation of Cu sample, at the external beam (beam current 1.5 μA), with 28 MeV alpha particles was performed in December 29, 1983. Main characteristics of the cyclotron are given together with a description of peripheral systems and experimental capability. Presently the accelerator is being optimized for cpontinuous running. (Author) [pt

  1. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun, E-mail: genuinei@kirams.re.kr; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-07-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  2. Radiation effects testing at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Koga, Rokotura

    2002-01-01

    The effects of ionizing particles on sensitive microelectronics is an important component of the design of systems as diverse as satellites and space probes, detectors for high energy physics experiments and even internet server farms. Understanding the effects of radiation on human cells is an equally important endeavor directed towards future manned missions in space and towards cancer therapy. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Berkeley Laboratory, facilities are available for radiation effects testing (RET) with heavy ions and with protons. The techniques for doing these measurements and the advantages of using a cyclotron will be discussed, and the Cyclotron facilities will be compared with other facilities worldwide. RET of the same part at several facilities of varying beam energy can provide tests of the simple models used in this field and elucidate the relative importance of atomic and nuclear effects. The results and implications of such measurements will be discussed

  3. Automatized target devices for radioisotope production at the RITs cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Karasev, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    An automation target device intended for isotope production on the internal beam of the RITs cyclotron is decribed. The target device comprises the following main units: target head, vacuum lock, charging device, transport system for bringing the target for charging; mechanism of target discharge transport device, control interlocking and signalling control system of target radiation power. The automation target device permits radioisotope production on the cyclotron in commercial scales with automation substitution of irradiated targets. The time of substitution of one of six targets makes up only 5 min. The time of charging a new group of targets to the charge device - 60 min. Contact of the personnel with irradiated targets is practically excluded and the necessity of entering the cyclotron room for maintenance of the plant is reduced to the minimum [ru

  4. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.; Kleevan, W.J.; Laxdal, R.E.; Milton, B.F.; Otter, A.J.; Pearson, J.B.; Poirier, R.L.; Schmor, P.W.; Schneider, H.R.; Erdman, K.L.; Walker, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. We describe such a cyclotron currently under construction. It is a 30 MeV H - design that exploits a newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source which is capable of H - currents of up to 5 mA. This together with careful beam matching then makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of 500 μA. The cyclotron being built is a four sector radial ridge design with two 45 degree dees in opposite valleys. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Two extraction probes will allow simultaneous extraction of two beams, each with an intensity of up to 200 μA. Energy variation from 15 MeV to 30 MeV is achieved by varying the radial position of the extraction foil. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. The Ion Cyclotron, Lower Hybrid, and Alfven Wave Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    2004-01-01

    This lecture covers the practical features and experimental results of the three heating methods. The emphasis is on ion cyclotron heating. First, we briefly come back to the main non-collisional heating mechanisms and to the particular features of the quasilinear coefficient in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The specific case of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is treated, as well as the polarisation issue and minority heating scheme. The various ICRF scenarios are reviewed. The experimental applications of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems are outlined. Then, the lower hybrid and Alfven wave heating and current drive experimental results are covered more briefly. Where applicable, the prospects for ITER are commented

  6. Nonlinear cyclotron-resonance accelerations by a generalized EM wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Hojo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerations by a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, dispersive pulse in an external magnetic field are investigated. It is found that the well-known cyclotron resonance may be classified into three regimes as the length and/or the amplitude of the pulse are varied. Namely, as the pulse amplitude increases, the transit-time cyclotron-resonance acceleration (CRA) evolves to phase trapping, and reflect particles. The amplitude and wave dispersion as well as the pulse length strongly affect those accelerations. The interesting phenomena of quantization of resonance velocities in between the two regimes are also investigated. This new mechanism may lead to wave amplification at some discrete frequencies other than the cyclotron frequency. (authors)

  7. Calibration of the simulation model of the VINCY cyclotron magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Saša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The MERMAID program will be used to isochronise the nominal magnetic field of the VINCY Cyclotron. This program simulates the response, i. e. calculates the magnetic field, of a previously defined model of a magnet. The accuracy of 3D field calculation depends on the density of the grid points in the simulation model grid. The size of the VINCY Cyclotron and the maximum number of grid points in the XY plane limited by MERMAID define the maximumobtainable accuracy of field calculations. Comparisons of the field simulated with maximum obtainable accuracy with the magnetic field measured in the first phase of the VINCY Cyclotron magnetic field measurements campaign has shown that the difference between these two fields is not as small as required. Further decrease of the difference between these fields is obtained by the simulation model calibration, i. e. by adjusting the current through the main coils in the simulation model.

  8. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  9. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  10. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, S [ed.

    1996-03-04

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being `Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications`. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.).

  11. Band rejection filter for measurement of electron cyclotron emission during electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Makoto; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Kubo, Shin; Idei, Hiroshi.

    1996-05-01

    For the measurement of electron cyclotron emission from the high temperature plasma, a band rejection filter in the range of 40-60 GHz is designed to reject the 53.2 GHz signal with large amplitude from the gyrotron for the purpose of plasma electron heating. The filter developed with ten sets of three quarters-wavelength coupled by TE 111 mode of tunable resonant cavity has rejection of 50 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz. The modified model of Tschebysheff type for the prediction of rejection is proposed. It is confirmed that the measured rejection as a function of frequency agrees well with the experimental results for small coupling hole, and also clarified that the rejection ratio increases for the large coupling hole. (author)

  12. Electron cyclotron resonance plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: Physics and technology (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are scientific instruments particularly useful for physics: they are extensively used in atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics, for the production of multicharged beams. Moreover, these sources are also of fundamental interest for plasma physics, because of the very particular properties of the ECR plasma. This article describes the state of the art on the physics of the ECR plasma related to multiply charged ion sources. In Sec. I, we describe the general aspects of ECR ion sources. Physics related to the electrons is presented in Sec. II: we discuss there the problems of heating and confinement. In Sec. III, the problem of ion production and confinement is presented. A numerical code is presented, and some particular and important effects, specific to ECR ion sources, are shown in Sec. IV. Eventually, in Sec. V, technological aspects of ECR are presented and different types of sources are shown

  13. Calculations for the design and modification of the 2 cyclotrons of S.A.R.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrand, P.S.; Belmont, J.L.; Ripouteau, F.

    1983-09-01

    S.A.R.A. is a heavy ion accelerator constituted by 2 cyclotrons. The second cyclotron (post-accelerator) was entirely calculated at the I.S.N. The pole tips of the first cyclotron which is much older, have recently been modified. An almost identical procedure was used for the calculation of each element of the post-accelerator of S.A.R.A. and also for the modifications to the first cyclotron

  14. Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. 1997 (April 1, 1997-March 31, 1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, Hiroshi; Sakai, Tsutomu; Hirata, Maiko

    1998-01-01

    Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) is the national center of nuclear physics in Japan, which is a laboratory complex of the cyclotron laboratory, the laser electron photon laboratory, and the Oto underground laboratory and aims at studies of nucleon meson nuclear physics and quark lepton nuclear physics. In the cyclotron laboratory, AVF/Ring cyclotron complex provides high quality beams of polarized protons and light ions in the medium energy region. Experimental studies have extensively been carried out on nucleon meson nuclear physics. The subjects studied include the nucleon mass and the nuclear interaction in nuclear medium, nuclear spin isospin motions and nuclear responses for neutrinos, pions and isobars interactions, medium energy nuclear reactions of light heavy ions, medical applications, and so on. The Oto Cosmo Observatory is the low background underground laboratory for lepton nuclear physics, and is used for applied science. The laser photon laboratory is used to study quark nuclear physics by means of the multi-GeV laser electron photon beam, and will be ready in the academic year of 1998 to be used for studying quark gluon structures and low-energy QCD. The accelerator researches and developments are being carried out for the new future plan of the multi-GeV electron proton collider. Theoretical works on nuclear particle physics have extensively been made by the RCNP theory groups and laser groups. Computer, network and DAQ systems, including the supercomputer system and the new generation network, have been developed. In this report, 25 reports of nuclear physics, 8 reports of lepton nuclear physics, 1 report of quark nuclear physics, and 2 reports of interdisciplinary physics are described in the experimental nuclear physics. And, 16 reports of quark nuclear physics, 9 reports of intermediate nuclear physics, 19 reports of nuclear physics, and 1 report of miscellaneous are described in the theoretical physics. (G.K.)

  15. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  16. The Juelich compact cyclotron - a multi-purpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmerich, J.; Hoelzle, R.; Kogler, W.

    1977-01-01

    A commercially available variable-energy compact cyclotron has been installed at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich. It is equipped to accelerate protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles. A +- 60 0 switching magnet allows to switch the beam to any of seven external target stations. Three separately shielded target rooms allow a flexible use of the cyclotron for a wide range of applications such as production of short-lived nuclides, activation analysis, radiation damage studies in metals and studies of biological effects of fast neutron irradiation. (orig.) [de

  17. Superconducting conversion of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Ball, J.B.; Cleary, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The superconducting conversion of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) will replace the existing aluminum main magnet coils with a NbTi superconducting coil system to provide an increase in magnetic field from 1.9 to 3.3 T. The higher magnetic field will provide a three-fold increase in maximum energy capability of the cyclotron for high mass ions. The conversion will include a new beam extraction system, magnet yoke stiffening to counteract the increased magnetic forces, and minor modifications to the beam transport systems and shielding

  18. The National Medical Cyclotron - An Australian experience in technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, R K [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). National Medical Cyclotron

    1998-12-31

    The establishment of the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) in the early 1990`s was the practical outcome of a vision, held by nuclear medicine professionals, to complement the available neutron-rich radionuclides produced in Australia, with neutron-deficient radionuclides. The NMC is operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in collaboration with the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) in Sydney where the PET department is able to use the short-lived radiotracers to good advantage. Neutron-deficient radionuclides, are also produced by the NMC laboratories. The cyclotron-generated radionuclides are used in over 70,000 patient studies per year. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  19. The National Medical Cyclotron - An Australian experience in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) in the early 1990's was the practical outcome of a vision, held by nuclear medicine professionals, to complement the available neutron-rich radionuclides produced in Australia, with neutron-deficient radionuclides. The NMC is operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in collaboration with the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) in Sydney where the PET department is able to use the short-lived radiotracers to good advantage. Neutron-deficient radionuclides, are also produced by the NMC laboratories. The cyclotron-generated radionuclides are used in over 70,000 patient studies per year

  20. New type sector cyclotron and improvement of EULIMA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shuyang

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the two sorts of new type sector cyclotron have been discussed. Both of them remain with the same structure as straight-side sector magnet; but the annular shim systems are added on the pole faces of the every sectors. One of them has one group of the shim system; another has the three groups on the every sector. The analytical expressions of the magnetic field for the structure have been given. The linear motion stability of the particles has been proved. The new type of the compact superconducting cyclotron in the median energy is put forward as an instance for its application to the EULIMA project. (author)