WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycling periods affect

  1. Universal cycle periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cycles in historical economic data. The literature on stochastic and deterministic cycles in variables such as the consumer price index, employment, interest rates, commodity prices, and GDP is huge and scattered, but our meta-analysis reveals various communalities. Our

  2. New Realization of Periodic Cycled Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegard, Bjarne; Clausen, Charlotte H.; Jørgensen, Sten B.

    2016-01-01

    A new realization of periodic cycled gas/liquid separation is presented. Separation factors and column efficiencies are compared for a column stripping ammonia from water with air, using three different sets of internals: conventional sieve trays, Sulzer BX gauze packings, and periodically cycled...... trays. The proposed new periodic trays are shown to be advantageous compared to their continuous alternatives. It is demonstrated experimentally that periodic tray efficiencies of up to 300% are achievable. With the proposed new tray design, a new operation form is also introduced in which the trays...... are drained sequentially rather than simultaneously, such that the vapor flow is not interrupted during the liquid drainage. For different ratios of counter-current vapor/liquid flow rates, column efficiencies for periodically cycled columns are shown experimentally to be two times greater than those...

  3. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, CJ

    2015-01-01

    The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016) to be of extraordinarily low amplitude. PMID:26339557

  4. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Ginzburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016 to be of extraordinarily low amplitude.

  5. Moonstruck how lunar cycles affect life

    CERN Document Server

    Naylor, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, the influence of the full Moon on humans and animals has featured in folklore and myths. Yet it has become increasingly apparent that many organisms really are influenced indirectly, and in some cases directly, by the lunar cycle. Breeding behaviour among some marine animals has been demonstrated to be controlled by internal circalunar biological clocks, to the point where lunar-daily and lunar-monthly patterns of Moon-generated tides are embedded in their genes. Yet, intriguingly, Moon-related behaviours are also found in dry land and fresh water species living far beyond the influence of any tides. In Moonstruck, Ernest Naylor dismisses the myths concerning the influence of the Moon, but shows through a range of fascinating examples the remarkable real effects that we are now finding through science. He suggests that since the advent of evolution on Earth, which occurred shortly after the formation of the Moon, animals evolved adaptations to the lunar cycle, and considers whether, if Moo...

  6. Diurnal cycles in water quality across the periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, James

    2014-05-01

    Diurnal cycles in water quality can provide important clues to the processes that regulate aquatic chemistry, but they often are masked by longer-term, larger-amplitude variability, making their detection and quantification difficult. Here I outline methods that can detect diurnal cycles even when they are massively obscured by statistically ill-behaved noise. I demonstrate these methods using high-frequency water quality data from the Plylimon catchment in mid-Wales (Neal et al., 2013; Kirchner and Neal, 2013). Several aspects combine to make the Plynlimon data set unique worldwide. Collected at 7-hour intervals, the Plynlimon data set is much more densely sampled than typical long-term weekly or monthly water quality data. This 7-hour sampling was also continued for two years, much longer than typical intensive sampling campaigns, and the resulting time series encompass a wide range of climatic and hydrological conditions. Furthermore, each sample was analyzed for a wide range of solutes with diverse sources in the natural environment. However, the 7-hour sampling frequency is both coarse and irregular in comparison to diurnal cycles, making their detection and quantification difficult. Nonetheless, the methods outlined here enable detection of statistically significant diurnal cycles in over 30 solutes at Plynlimon, including alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), alkaline earths (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba), transition metals (Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb), nonmetals (B, NO3, Si, As, and Se), lanthanides and actinides (La, Ce, Pr, and U), as well as total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Gran alkalinity, pH, and electrical conductivity. These solutes span every row of the periodic table, and more than six orders of magnitude in concentration. Many of these diurnal cycles are subtle, representing only a few percent, at most, of the total variance in the concentration time series. Nonetheless they are diagnostically useful

  7. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training.

  8. How life affects the geochemical cycle of carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Developing a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they have worked throughout Earth history on various time scales, how they have been affected by biological evolution, and how changes in the carbon content of ocean and atmosphere may have affected climate and the evolution of life are the goals of the research. Theoretical simulations were developed that can be tuned to reproduce such data as exist and, once tuned, can be used to predict properties that have not yet been observed. This is an ongoing process, in which models and results are refined as new data and interpretations become available and as understanding of the global system improves. Results of the research are described in several papers which were published or submitted for publication. These papers are summarized. Future research plans are presented.

  9. Life cycle replacement by gene introduction under an allee effect in periodical cicadas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Nariai

    Full Text Available Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp. in the USA are divided into three species groups (-decim, -cassini, -decula of similar but distinct morphology and behavior. Each group contains at least one species with a 17-year life cycle and one with a 13-year cycle; each species is most closely related to one with the other cycle. One explanation for the apparent polyphyly of 13- and 17-year life cycles is that populations switch between the two cycles. Using a numerical model, we test the general feasibility of life cycle switching by the introduction of alleles for one cycle into populations of the other cycle. Our results suggest that fitness reductions at low population densities of mating individuals (the Allee effect could play a role in life cycle switching. In our model, if the 13-year cycle is genetically dominant, a 17-year cycle population will switch to a 13-year cycle given the introduction of a few 13-year cycle alleles under a moderate Allee effect. We also show that under a weak Allee effect, different year-classes ("broods" with 17-year life cycles can be generated. Remarkably, the outcomes of our models depend only on the dominance relationships of the cycle alleles, irrespective of any fitness advantages.

  10. Permanence induced by life-cycle resonances: the periodical cicada problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Ryusuke

    2012-01-01

    Periodical cicadas are known for their unusually long life cycle for insects and their prime periodicity of either 13 or 17 years. One of the explanations for the prime periodicity is that the prime periods are selected to prevent cicadas from resonating with predators with submultiple periods. This paper considers this hypothesis by investigating a population model for periodical predator and prey. The study shows that if the periods of the two periodical species are not coprime, then the predator cannot resist the invasion of the prey. On the other hand, if the periods are coprime, then the predator can resist the invasion of the prey. It is also shown that if the periods are not coprime, then the life-cycle resonance can induce a permanent system, in which no cohorts are missing in both populations. On the other hand, if the periods are coprime, then the system cannot be permanent.

  11. Does the phase of menstrual cycle affect MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine leiomyomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Minna J. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Fennessy, Fiona M. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Zou, Kelly H. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); McDannold, Nathan [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hynynen, Kullervo [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Jolesz, Ferenc A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Stewart, Elizabeth A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Rybicki, Frank J. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tempany, Clare M. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: ctempanyafdhal@partners.org

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the phase of menstrual cycle at the time of MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) treatment for uterine leiomyomas affects treatment outcome. Methods: We enrolled all patients participating in a prospective phase III clinical trial from our center who completed 6 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. Patients with irregular cycles and those on oral contraceptives were excluded. Data prospectively documenting the date of the last menstrual period (LMP) at the time of treatment, length and duration of cycle, and raw symptom severity score (SSS) from the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire, at baseline and 6 months were collected. Proliferative phase patients were determined retrospectively as those who were treated within less than 14 days from LMP; secretory phase patients were classified as those who were treated greater than 14 days from LMP. Results: A total of 58 patients were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the mean SSS at baseline and mean SSS at 6 months between patients treated in the proliferative versus secretory phase of the cycle. No significant difference in the SSS change from baseline to 6 months was seen between the two groups. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase does not influence MRgFUS treatment outcome. Symptomatic improvement occurs with treatment during either phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, the scheduling of MRgFUS treatment need not be based upon the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  12. North–South Asymmetry in Rieger-type Periodicity during Solar Cycles 19–23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgenashvili, Eka; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Kukhianidze, Vasil [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory at Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Dikpati, Mausumi; McIntosh, Scott W., E-mail: Eka.gurgenashvili.1@iliauni.edu.ge [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Rieger-type periodicity has been detected in different activity indices over many solar cycles. It was recently shown that the periodicity correlates with solar activity having a shorter period during stronger cycles. Solar activity level is generally asymmetric between northern and southern hemispheres, which could suggest the presence of a similar behavior in the Rieger-type periodicity. We analyze the sunspot area/number and the total magnetic flux data for northern and southern hemispheres during solar cycles 19–23, which had remarkable north–south asymmetry. Using wavelet analysis of sunspot area and number during the north-dominated cycles (19–20), we obtained the periodicity of 160–165 days in the stronger northern hemisphere and 180–190 days in the weaker southern hemisphere. On the other hand, south-dominated cycles (21–23) display the periodicity of 155–160 days in the stronger southern hemisphere and 175–188 days in the weaker northern hemisphere. Therefore, the Rieger-type periodicity has the north–south asymmetry in sunspot area/number data during solar cycles with strong hemispheric asymmetry. We suggest that the periodicity is caused by magnetic Rossby waves in the internal dynamo layer. Using the dispersion relation of magnetic Rossby waves and observed Rieger periodicity, we estimated the magnetic field strength in the layer as 45–49 kG in more active hemispheres (north during cycles 19–20 and south during cycles 21–23) and 33–40 kG in weaker hemispheres. The estimated difference in the hemispheric field strength is around 10 kG, which provides a challenge for dynamo models. Total magnetic flux data during cycles 20–23 reveals no clear north–south asymmetry, which needs to be explained in the future.

  13. Loss in microbial diversity affects nitrogen cycling in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Laurent; Spor, Aymé; Hénault, Catherine; Bru, David; Bizouard, Florian; Jones, Christopher M; Sarr, Amadou; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2013-08-01

    Microbial communities have a central role in ecosystem processes by driving the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. However, the importance of microbial diversity for ecosystem functioning is still debated. Here, we experimentally manipulated the soil microbial community using a dilution approach to analyze the functional consequences of diversity loss. A trait-centered approach was embraced using the denitrifiers as model guild due to their role in nitrogen cycling, a major ecosystem service. How various diversity metrics related to richness, eveness and phylogenetic diversity of the soil denitrifier community were affected by the removal experiment was assessed by 454 sequencing. As expected, the diversity metrics indicated a decrease in diversity in the 1/10(3) and 1/10(5) dilution treatments compared with the undiluted one. However, the extent of dilution and the corresponding reduction in diversity were not commensurate, as a dilution of five orders of magnitude resulted in a 75% decrease in estimated richness. This reduction in denitrifier diversity resulted in a significantly lower potential denitrification activity in soil of up to 4-5 folds. Addition of wheat residues significantly increased differences in potential denitrification between diversity levels, indicating that the resource level can influence the shape of the microbial diversity-functioning relationship. This study shows that microbial diversity loss can alter terrestrial ecosystem processes, which suggests that the importance of functional redundancy in soil microbial communities has been overstated.

  14. Cycling before and after Exhaustion Differently Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control during Heart Rate Matched Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    During cycling before (PRE) and after exhaustion (POST) different modes of autonomic cardiac control might occur due to different interoceptive input and altered influences from higher brain centers. We hypothesized that heart rate variability (HRV) is significantly affected by an interaction of the experimental period (PRE vs. POST) and exercise intensity (HIGH vs. LOW; HIGH = HR > HR at the lactate threshold (HR LT ), LOW = HR ≤ HR LT ) despite identical average HR. Methods: Fifty healthy volunteers completed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion. Workload started with 30 W at a constant pedaling rate (60 revolutions · min -1 ) and was gradually increased by 30 W · 5 min -1 . Five adjacent 60 s inter-beat (R-R) interval segments from the immediate recovery period (POST 1-5 at 30 W and 60 rpm) were each matched with their HR-corresponding 60 s-segments during the cycle test (PRE 1-5). An analysis of covariance was carried out with one repeated-measures factor (PRE vs. POST exhaustion), one between-subject factor (HIGH vs. LOW intensity) and respiration rate as covariate to test for significant effects ( p exhaustion at HIGH intensity. On the opposite, at LOW intensity cycling, a stronger coactivational cardiac autonomic modulation pattern occurs during PRE-exhaustion if compared to POST-exhaustion cycling. The different autonomic modes during these phases might be the result of different afferent and/or central inputs to the cardiovascular control centers in the brainstem.

  15. An extensive program of periodic alternative splicing linked to cell cycle progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Daniel; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Weatheritt, Robert; Wang, Yang; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-01-01

    Progression through the mitotic cell cycle requires periodic regulation of gene function at the levels of transcription, translation, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modification and degradation. However, the role of alternative splicing (AS) in the temporal control of cell cycle is not well understood. By sequencing the human transcriptome through two continuous cell cycles, we identify ~1300 genes with cell cycle-dependent AS changes. These genes are significantly enriched in functions linked to cell cycle control, yet they do not significantly overlap genes subject to periodic changes in steady-state transcript levels. Many of the periodically spliced genes are controlled by the SR protein kinase CLK1, whose level undergoes cell cycle-dependent fluctuations via an auto-inhibitory circuit. Disruption of CLK1 causes pleiotropic cell cycle defects and loss of proliferation, whereas CLK1 over-expression is associated with various cancers. These results thus reveal a large program of CLK1-regulated periodic AS intimately associated with cell cycle control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10288.001 PMID:27015110

  16. Conditioning of the membrane fatty acid profile of Escherichia coli during periodic temperature cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Tina; Vodovnik, Masa; Marinsek-Logar, Romana; Stopar, David

    2009-10-01

    The membrane fatty acid composition of Escherichia coli becomes conditioned during periodic temperature cycling between 37 and 8 degrees C. After several cycles of temperature change, the bacteria become locked into a low-temperature physiology. Even after a prolonged incubation at high temperature the membrane fatty acid composition of conditioned cells was similar to that of cold-stressed cells.

  17. Periodic enzyme synthesis and oscillatory repression: why is the period of oscillation close to the cell cycle time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, J J

    1983-07-21

    During exponential growth of a cell culture, some enzymes are synthesized periodically. In a synchronous culture, in which all cells undergo DNA synthesis and division more-or-less synchronously, the burst of enzyme synthesis also occurs synchronously in each cell once per division cycle. However, there are a number of interesting cases in which periodic enzyme synthesis continues in the absence of synchronous DNA replication or cell division. In all cases of periodic enzyme synthesis in asynchronous cultures, the time between bursts of enzyme synthesis, though no longer identical to the cell cycle time, is still close to the interdivision time of the growing, replicating cells. The theory of oscillatory repression looks for an explanation of this phenomenon in the periodic repression of gene transcription caused by periodic fluctuations in the concentration of the endproduct of the metabolic pathway of which the enzyme is a part. A major difficulty with this theory is that there is no obvious relationship between the periodicity of the negative feedback loop, which is determined by the kinetics of synthesis and degradation of the individual components of the feedback loop, and the periodicity of the cell cycle, which is determined by overall net synthetic rates of cellular macromolecules. Why should the period of oscillation of a repressible gene transcription system be close to the interdivision time of a population of growing cells? In this paper, I show that the relationship may be coincidental: the two fundamental periods are close to each other because they are both close to the mass-doubling time of the cell culture. That the mean interdivision time must be close to the mass-doubling time is a consequence of "balanced" growth: there is a stable size distribution of cells in a growing culture. That the period of oscillation of the negative feedback loop is also close to the mass-doubling time is shown to be a consequence of the large, nearly constant demand

  18. Adult circadian behavior in Drosophila requires developmental expression of cycle, but not period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Goda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks have evolved as internal time keeping mechanisms that allow anticipation of daily environmental changes and organization of a daily program of physiological and behavioral rhythms. To better examine the mechanisms underlying circadian clocks in animals and to ask whether clock gene expression and function during development affected subsequent daily time keeping in the adult, we used the genetic tools available in Drosophila to conditionally manipulate the function of the CYCLE component of the positive regulator CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC or its negative feedback inhibitor PERIOD (PER. Differential manipulation of clock function during development and in adulthood indicated that there is no developmental requirement for either a running clock mechanism or expression of per. However, conditional suppression of CLK/CYC activity either via per over-expression or cyc depletion during metamorphosis resulted in persistent arrhythmic behavior in the adult. Two distinct mechanisms were identified that may contribute to this developmental function of CLK/CYC and both involve the ventral lateral clock neurons (LN(vs that are crucial to circadian control of locomotor behavior: (1 selective depletion of cyc expression in the LN(vs resulted in abnormal peptidergic small-LN(v dorsal projections, and (2 PER expression rhythms in the adult LN(vs appeared to be affected by developmental inhibition of CLK/CYC activity. Given the conservation of clock genes and circuits among animals, this study provides a rationale for investigating a possible similar developmental role of the homologous mammalian CLOCK/BMAL1 complex.

  19. Blanching and drying period affect moisture loss and vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the effect of pre-drying treatment, drying method and the subsequent duration of storage on the quality attributes of Z. mauritiana fruits harvested from the Zambezi Valley. The vitamin C content was high at the beginning of the drying period and progressively decreased as the drying increased, and was lowest at ...

  20. Root volume and raising period affect field performance of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The propagation of pines through cuttings has become a commercial means of rapidly multiplying improved genetic material for operational use in forestry companies. Cuttings of pines are produced entirely in containers in South Africa. Containers, however, can negatively affect plant growth and post-planting field ...

  1. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  2. Cycling before and after Exhaustion Differently Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control during Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During cycling before (PRE and after exhaustion (POST different modes of autonomic cardiac control might occur due to different interoceptive input and altered influences from higher brain centers. We hypothesized that heart rate variability (HRV is significantly affected by an interaction of the experimental period (PRE vs. POST and exercise intensity (HIGH vs. LOW; HIGH = HR > HR at the lactate threshold (HRLT, LOW = HR ≤ HRLT despite identical average HR.Methods: Fifty healthy volunteers completed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion. Workload started with 30 W at a constant pedaling rate (60 revolutions · min−1 and was gradually increased by 30 W · 5 min−1. Five adjacent 60 s inter-beat (R-R interval segments from the immediate recovery period (POST 1–5 at 30 W and 60 rpm were each matched with their HR-corresponding 60 s-segments during the cycle test (PRE 1–5. An analysis of covariance was carried out with one repeated-measures factor (PRE vs. POST exhaustion, one between-subject factor (HIGH vs. LOW intensity and respiration rate as covariate to test for significant effects (p < 0.050 on the natural log-transformed root mean square of successive differences between adjacent R-R intervals (lnRMSSD60s.Results: LnRMSSD60s was significantly affected by the interaction of experimental period × intensity [F(1, 242 = 30.233, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.111]. LnRMSSD60s was higher during PRE compared to POST at LOW intensity (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 ms; p < 0.001. In contrast, at HIGH intensity lnRMSSD60s was lower during PRE compared to POST (1.0 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4 ms; p < 0.001.Conclusion: Identical net HR during cycling can result from distinct autonomic modulation patterns. Results suggest a pronounced sympathetic-parasympathetic coactivation immediately after the cessation of peak workload compared to HR-matched cycling before exhaustion at HIGH intensity. On the opposite, at LOW intensity cycling, a stronger coactivational

  3. To What Degree Thermal Cycles Affect Chalk Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livada, Tijana; Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar Inger

    and water saturated chalk. Sixty disks of dry Kansas chalk exposed to different number of temperature cycles were tested for tensile strength using a Brazilian test. Changes in elastic properties as function of number of temperature cycles of the same chalk, but now saturated in water, were studied using...... triaxial cell experiments. For dry rock, no significant effects of temperature cycling was found on average tensile strength, however the range of the tensile failure stress is doubled for the samples exposed to 50 temperature cycles, as opposed to those to none. For water saturated cores, the temperature...

  4. Cold shock CspA and CspB protein production during periodic temperature cycling in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Tina; Jamnik, Polona; Stopar, David

    2013-07-02

    Temperature is an important environmental factor which can dramatically affect biochemical processes in bacteria. Temperatures above optimal cause heat shock, while low temperatures induce cold shock. Since the physiological response of the bacterium Escherichia coli to slow temperature fluctuation is not well known, we investigated the effect of periodic temperature cycling between 37° and 8°C with a period of 2 h on proteome profile, cold shock CspA and CspB protein and gene production. Several proteins (i.e. succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit alpha, periplasmic oligopeptide-binding protein, maltose-binding periplasmic protein, outer membrane porin protein, flavodoxin-1, phosphoserine aminotransferase) were up or down regulated during temperature cycling, in addition to CspA and CspB production. The results indicate that transcription of cspA and cspB increased during each temperature downshift and consistently decreased after each temperature upshift. In sharp contrast CspA-FLAG and CspB-FLAG protein concentrations in the cell increased during the first temperature down-shift and remained unresponsive to further temperature fluctuations. The proteins CspA-FLAG and CspB-FLAG were not significantly degraded during the temperature cycling. The study demonstrated that slow periodic temperature cycling affected protein production compared to cells constantly incubated at 37°C or during classical cold shock. Bacterial cspA and cspB mRNA transcript levels fluctuated in synchrony with the temperature fluctuations. There was no corresponding pattern of CspA and CspB protein production during temperature cycling.

  5. MetaCycle: an integrated R package to evaluate periodicity in large scale data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Anafi, Ron C; Hughes, Michael E; Kornacker, Karl; Hogenesch, John B

    2016-11-01

    Detecting periodicity in large scale data remains a challenge. While efforts have been made to identify best of breed algorithms, relatively little research has gone into integrating these methods in a generalizable method. Here, we present MetaCycle, an R package that incorporates ARSER, JTK_CYCLE and Lomb-Scargle to conveniently evaluate periodicity in time-series data. MetaCycle has two functions, meta2d and meta3d, designed to analyze two-dimensional and three-dimensional time-series datasets, respectively. Meta2d implements N-version programming concepts using a suite of algorithms and integrating their results. MetaCycle package is available on the CRAN repository (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MetaCycle/index.html) and GitHub (https://github.com/gangwug/MetaCycle). hogenesch@gmail.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sulfur bacteria in wastewater stabilization ponds periodically affected by the ‘red-water’ phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; Abbas, B.; Fazaa, I.; Saidi, N.; Snoussi, M.; Hassen, A.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Several wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) in Tunisia suffer periodically from the ‘red-water’ phenomenon due to blooming of purple sulfur bacteria, indicating that sulfur cycle is one of the main element cycles in these ponds. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity of the El

  7. Sulfur bacteria in wastewater stabilization ponds periodically affected by the 'red-water' phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; Abbas, B.; Fazaa, I.; Saidi, N.; Snoussi, M.; Hassen, A.; Muyzer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Several wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) in Tunisia suffer periodically from the ‘red-water’ phenomenon due to blooming of purple sulfur bacteria, indicating that sulfur cycle is one of the main element cycles in these ponds. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity of the El

  8. The Carbon Cycle as the Main Determinant of Glacial-Interglacial Periods

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cuesta, Diego Jiménez; Núñez, Darío; Rumbos, Beatriz; Vergara-Cervantes, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An intriguing problem in climate science is the existence of Earth's glacial cycle. We show that it is possible to generate these periodic changes in climate by means of the Earth's carbon cycle as the main source factor. The carbon exchange between the Ocean, the Continent and the Atmosphere is modeled by means of a Lotka-Volterra three species system and the resulting atmospheric carbon cycle is used as the unique radiative forcing mechanism. It is shown that the carbon dioxide and temperature paths that are thus obtained have the same qualitative structure as the 100 kyr glacial-interglacial cycles depicted by the Vostok ice core data, reproducing the asymmetries of rapid heating--slow cooling, and short interglacial--long glacial ages.

  9. Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Koenig; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization,...

  10. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. METHODS: Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running

  11. Family Forest Owner Characteristics Shaped by Life Cycle, Cohort, and Period Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Butler; Brett J. Butler; Marla Markowski-Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Understanding differences and similarities among family forest owners is important in the context of forest land conservation. This study assesses similarities and differences in landowners by analyzing life cycle effects, cohort differences, and period-specific events that shape people's attitudes and behaviors towards their forestland over time. Using data...

  12. Effect of a 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling exercise on spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob; Motl, Robert W; Snook, Erin M; Wynn, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a small pilot study that examined the effect of a 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling on spasticity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The sample included 22 individuals with MS who were assigned using a quasi-experimental method into either exercise (n = 12) or control (n = 10) conditions. The exercise condition consisted of unloaded leg cycling for 30 minutes per session, 3 times per week, across a 4-week period. The control condition served as a control for passage of time and instrumentation effects. The H-reflex, modified Ashworth scale (MAS), and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88) were collected before, 1-day after, and 1 and 4 weeks after the 4-week period. The 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling exercise was not associated with reductions in the H-reflex or MAS, whereas the exercise condition was associated with a reduction in MSSS-88 scores. This pattern of results suggests that chronic, unloaded leg cycling exercise is associated with improvements in spasticity from the participant's perspective, but neither improves nor worsens spasticity from electrophysiological and clinical perspectives.

  13. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables, such as m...

  14. On period doubling bifurcations of cycles and the harmonic balance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itovich, Griselda R. [Departamento de Matematica, FAEA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Neuquen Q8300BCX (Argentina)] e-mail: gitovich@arnet.com.ar; Moiola, Jorge L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y de Computadoras Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina)] e-mail: jmoiola@criba.edu.ar

    2006-02-01

    This works attempts to give quasi-analytical expressions for subharmonic solutions appearing in the vicinity of a Hopf bifurcation. Starting with well-known tools as the graphical Hopf method for recovering the periodic branch emerging from classical Hopf bifurcation, precise frequency and amplitude estimations of the limit cycle can be obtained. These results allow to attain approximations for period doubling orbits by means of harmonic balance techniques, whose accuracy is established by comparison of Floquet multipliers with continuation software packages. Setting up a few coefficients, the proposed methodology yields to approximate solutions that result from a second period doubling bifurcation of cycles and to extend the validity limits of the graphical Hopf method.

  15. Oceanic crustal carbon cycle drives 26-million-year atmospheric carbon dioxide periodicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R Dietmar; Dutkiewicz, Adriana

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) data for the last 420 million years (My) show long-term fluctuations related to supercontinent cycles as well as shorter cycles at 26 to 32 My whose origin is unknown. Periodicities of 26 to 30 My occur in diverse geological phenomena including mass extinctions, flood basalt volcanism, ocean anoxic events, deposition of massive evaporites, sequence boundaries, and orogenic events and have previously been linked to an extraterrestrial mechanism. The vast oceanic crustal carbon reservoir is an alternative potential driving force of climate fluctuations at these time scales, with hydrothermal crustal carbon uptake occurring mostly in young crust with a strong dependence on ocean bottom water temperature. We combine a global plate model and oceanic paleo-age grids with estimates of paleo-ocean bottom water temperatures to track the evolution of the oceanic crustal carbon reservoir over the past 230 My. We show that seafloor spreading rates as well as the storage, subduction, and emission of oceanic crustal and mantle CO 2 fluctuate with a period of 26 My. A connection with seafloor spreading rates and equivalent cycles in subduction zone rollback suggests that these periodicities are driven by the dynamics of subduction zone migration. The oceanic crust-mantle carbon cycle is thus a previously overlooked mechanism that connects plate tectonic pulsing with fluctuations in atmospheric carbon and surface environments.

  16. Experimental modeling of weld thermal cycle of the heat affected zone (HAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kulhánek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contribution deals with experimental modeling of quick thermal cycles of metal specimens. In the introduction of contribution will be presented measured graphs of thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ of weld. Next will be presented experimental simulation of measured thermal cycle on the standard specimens, useable for material testing. This approach makes possible to create material structures of heat affected zone of weld, big enough for standard material testing.

  17. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Luques Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h, diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h, proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7. Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy.

  18. Finite difference method to find period-one gait cycles of simple passive walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardel, Morteza; Safartoobi, Masoumeh; Pashaei, Mohammad Hadi; Ghasemi, Mohammad Hassan; Navaei, Mostafa Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Passive dynamic walking refers to a class of bipedal robots that can walk down an incline with no actuation or control input. These bipeds are sensitive to initial conditions due to their style of walking. According to small basin of attraction of passive limit cycles, it is important to start with an initial condition in the basin of attraction of stable walking (limit cycle). This paper presents a study of the simplest passive walker with point and curved feet. A new approach is proposed to find proper initial conditions for a pair of stable and unstable period-one gait limit cycles. This methodology is based on finite difference method which can solve the nonlinear differential equations of motion on a discrete time. Also, to investigate the physical configurations of the walkers and the environmental influence such as the slope angle, the parameter analysis is applied. Numerical simulations reveal the performance of the presented method in finding two stable and unstable gait patterns.

  19. Regulation of the yeast metabolic cycle by transcription factors with periodic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Matteo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When growing budding yeast under continuous, nutrient-limited conditions, over half of yeast genes exhibit periodic expression patterns. Periodicity can also be observed in respiration, in the timing of cell division, as well as in various metabolite levels. Knowing the transcription factors involved in the yeast metabolic cycle is helpful for determining the cascade of regulatory events that cause these patterns. Results Transcription factor activities were estimated by linear regression using time series and genome-wide transcription factor binding data. Time-translation matrices were estimated using least squares and were used to model the interactions between the most significant transcription factors. The top transcription factors have functions involving respiration, cell cycle events, amino acid metabolism and glycolysis. Key regulators of transitions between phases of the yeast metabolic cycle appear to be Hap1, Hap4, Gcn4, Msn4, Swi6 and Adr1. Conclusions Analysis of the phases at which transcription factor activities peak supports previous findings suggesting that the various cellular functions occur during specific phases of the yeast metabolic cycle.

  20. Breaking the cycle: extending the persistent pain cycle diagram using an affective pictorial metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Catherine; Cole, Frances

    2014-01-01

    The persistent pain cycle diagram is a common feature of pain management literature. but how is it designed and is it fulfilling its potential in terms of providing information to motivate behavioral change? This article examines on-line persistent pain diagrams and critically discusses their purpose and design approach. By using broad information design theories by Karabeg and particular approaches to dialogic visual communications in business, this article argues the need for motivational as well as cognitive diagrams. It also outlines the design of a new persistent pain cycle that is currently being used with chronic pain patients in NHS Bradford, UK. This new cycle adopts and then visually extends an established verbal metaphor within acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in an attempt to increase the motivational aspects of the vicious circle diagram format.

  1. Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Walter D; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization, have been hypothesized to shape the evolution of this system, no empirical support for these mechanisms has previously been reported, beyond the observation that bird predation can extirpate small, experimentally mistimed emergences. Here we show that periodical cicada emergences appear to set populations of potential avian predators on numerical trajectories that result in significantly lower potential predation pressure during the subsequent emergence. This result provides new support for the importance of predators in shaping periodical cicada life history, offers an ecological rationale for why emergences are synchronized at the observed multiyear intervals, and may explain some of the developmental plasticity observed in these unique insects.

  2. The factors affecting the outcome of frozen–thawed embryo transfer cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Protocol type, gonadotrophin preparations, fresh-cycle outcome, endometrial thickness and the numbers of obtained oocytes, embryos, and high-quality thawed embryos transferred are the factors affecting pregnancy outcome of frozen–thawed embryo transfer.

  3. How inhibiting nitrification affects nitrogen cycle and reduces ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 103 nitrification inhibitor (NI) studies, and evaluated how NI application affects crop productivity and other ecosystem services in agricultural systems. Our results showed that, compared to conventional fertilizer practice, applications of NI along with nitrogen (N) fertilizer increased crop nitrogen use efficiency, crop yield, and altered the pathways and the amount of N loss to environment. NI application increased ammonia emission, but reduced nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emission, which led to a reduction of 12.9% of the total N loss. The cost and benefit analysis showed that the economic benefit of reducing N’s environmental impacts offset the cost of NI. NI application could bring additional revenue of $163.72 ha-1 for a maize farm. Taken together, our findings show that NI application may create a win-win scenario that increases agricultural output, while reducing the negative impact on the environment. Policies that encourage NI application would reduce N’s environmental impacts. A group from Chinese Academy of Sciences, US EPA-ORD and North Carolina examined the net environmental and economic effects of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrate leaching associated with farm fertilizers. They conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining nitrification inhibitors, and found that NI application increased ammonia emission, but reduced nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emission, which led to a reduction of 12.9

  4. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  5. Periodicities in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions and geomagnetic activity during the past solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, T.; Andriyas, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the solar-terrestrial relation through the wavelet analysis. We report periodicities common between multiple solar wind coupling functions and geomagnetic indices during five solar cycles and also and the strength of this correspondence. The Dst (found to be most predictable in Newell et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 112(A1):A01206, 2007) and AL (least predictable in Newell et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 112(A1):A01206, 2007) indices are used for this purpose. During the years 1966-2016 (which includes five solar cycles 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24), prominent periodicities ≤720 days with power above 95% confidence level were found to occur around 27, 182, 385, and 648 days in the Dst index while those in the AL index were found in bands around 27, 187, and 472 days. Ten solar wind coupling functions were then used to find periodicities common with the indices. All the coupling functions had significant power in bands centered around 27, 280, and 648 days while powers in fluctuations around 182, 385, and 472 days were only found in some coupling functions. All the drivers and their variants had power above the significant level in the 280-288 days band, which was absent in the Dst and AL indices. The normalized scale averaged spectral power around the common periods in the coupling functions and the indices indicated that the coupling functions most correlated with the Dst index were the Newell (27 and 385 days), Wygant (182 days), and Scurry-Russell and Boynton (648 days) functions. An absence of common power between the coupling functions and the Dst index around the annual periodicity was noted during the even solar cycles. A similar analysis for the AL index indicated that Newell (27 days), Rectified (187 days), and Boynton (472 days) were the most correlated functions. It was also found that the correlation numbers were relatively weaker for the AL index, specially for the 187 day periodicity. It is concluded that as the two

  6. Considering the Case for Biodiversity Cycles: Reexamining the Evidence for Periodicity in the Fossil Record

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Medvedev and Melott (2007) have suggested that periodicity in fossil biodiversity may be induced by cosmic rays which vary as the Solar System oscillates normal to the galactic disk. We re-examine the evidence for a 62 million year (Myr) periodicity in biodiversity throughout the Phanerozoic history of animal life reported by Rohde & Mueller (2005), as well as related questions of periodicity in origination and extinction. We find that the signal is robust against variations in methods of analysis, and is based on fluctuations in the Paleozoic and a substantial part of the Mesozoic. Examination of origination and extinction is somewhat ambiguous, with results depending upon procedure. Origination and extinction intensity as defined by RM may be affected by an artifact at 27 Myr in the duration of stratigraphic intervals. Nevertheless, when a procedure free of this artifact is implemented, the 27 Myr periodicity appears in origination, suggesting that the artifact may ultimately be based on a signal in the...

  7. An EOQ Model for Phase Inventory with Induced Demand and Periodic Cycle Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar De

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a stock flow of an inventory problem over induced demand. The inventory is consumed through “core customer” or chain marketing system in an induced environment (inductance to exhaust all the items of the stock inventory in an indefinite time. The demand rate is depicted due to induced factor which is generated from the same inventory presented nearby. The inventory cycle time is split into several periodic times due to oscillatory feature of the inventory which is called phase inventory. Considering uniform demand, this cycle time splits into two basic parts, namely, “first shift” (phase and “second shift” (phase. Since the process dampens over time, so the whole inventory will exhaust after few periods. A cost function consisted of inventory cost, setup cost, and loss for induced items is minimized to obtain optimal order quantity and replenishment time. The multivariate lagrange interpolation (MLI over the average values of the postsensitivity analysis is developed here. Finally, graphical illustrations are made to justify the model.

  8. A Study of the Earth-Affecting CMEs of Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Using in situ observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we have identified 70 Earth-affecting interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in Solar Cycle 24. Because of the unprecedented extent of heliospheric observations in Cycle 24 that has been achieved thanks to the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) instruments onboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), we observe these events throughout the heliosphere from the Sun to the Earth, and we can relate these in situ signatures to remote sensing data. This allows us to completely track the event back to the source of the eruption in the low corona. We present a summary of the Earth-affecting CMEs in Solar Cycle 24 and a statistical study of the properties of these events including the source region. We examine the characteristics of CMEs that are more likely to be strongly geoeffective and examine the effect of the flare strength on in situ properties. We find that Earth-affecting CMEs in the first half of Cycle 24 are more likely to come from the northern hemisphere, but after April 2012, this reverses, and these events are more likely to originate in the southern hemisphere, following the observed magnetic asymmetry in the two hemispheres. We also find that as in past solar cycles, CMEs from the western hemisphere are more likely to reach Earth. We find that Cycle 24 lacks in events driving extreme geomagnetic storms compared to past solar cycles.

  9. Effect of different feeding levels during three short periods of gestation on sow and litter performance over two reproductive cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, P; Yang, X J; Kim, J S; Menon, D; Baidoo, S K

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation on sow and litter performance and its impact on subsequent reproductive performance. A total of 160 multiparous sows were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block design with initial body weight (BW) and backfat (BF) as the blocking criteria. All sows were fed one common corn-soybean meal-based diet with the amount of 1.0×maintenance energy intake (100×BW0.75kcalME/d) throughout gestation except 3 periods of 7 d when dietary treatments were imposed on d 27, d 55 and d 83 of gestation. During the 3 short periods, sows were fed 1 of 4 different feeding levels: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×maintenance energy level (0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M, respectively). Results showed that both BW gain (16.12, 24.74, 30.62 and 36.71kg, respectively) and BF change (-0.27, 0.99, 1.49 and 2.45mm, respectively) from d 27 to 109 of gestation increased linearly (Ppiglet birth weights increased linearly (Ppiglet weaning weights were similar (P>0.10) among treatments. Subsequent reproductive performance was not affected (P>0.10) by feeding levels during the previous reproductive cycle. In conclusion, increasing feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation increased BW and BF gains during gestation and caused less BW gain and more BF loss during lactation due to the reduction of lactation feed intake in response to increasing gestation feeding levels. Increasing feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation increased piglet birth weight, but did not affect piglet weaning weight. The feeding strategies in the current reproductive cycle did not impact subsequent reproductive performance. It was estimated that requirements of 1.20M, 0.66M and 0.65M feeding levels were needed to maintain a constant BW during d 27-34, d 55-62 and d 83-90 of gestation, respectively, indicating current maintenance energy requirement may underestimate the actual

  10. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  11. Updated on effluents releases of the CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities - 1995 to 2010 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Nelson Luiz Dias [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The environmental impact assessment of the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) facilities has been presented in a former work, based on the measured effluent releases data, for the period from 1995 to 2007. This work shows the update up to 2010. The effluents releases to the environment result from the routine operation of CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities (LEI - Isotopic Enrichment Laboratory, USIDE - Pilot Plant for Industrial Verification of Uranium Enrichment and LABMAT - Nuclear Materials Laboratory). Basically, this work presents the radioactive release source terms, as described at the CEA Effluent Report sent to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) each semester, and a historical assessment of the critical group annual doses from 1995 up to 2010. The assessed doses are compared to the maximum dose constraint as well as to the exemption level specified by CNEN. (author)

  12. Affective temperaments during pregnancy and postpartum period: a click to hyperthymic temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Esra; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila

    2017-10-26

    Pregnancy and postpartum periods are the main reproductive periods during which women experience mood disorders. Affective temperaments are known antecedents of mood disorders and their importance is increasing in time for early diagnosis and determining risky groups. But data about affective temperaments during perinatal period is limited. Women during pregnancy and perinatal period and healthy controls who are not in perinatal period are included in the study. 83 pregnant women in 1st trimester, 94 pregnant women in 2nd trimester and 115 pregnant women in 3rd trimester; 32 women in 1st month postpartum and 89 women in 2nd month postpartum; and 88 healthy non-pregnant women with similar ages were evaluated regarding their temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) scores. Women in perinatal period had higher scores of hyperthymic temperaments than the control group. Women in the 2nd month of postpartum period had also higher anxious temperament scores. And women in the second trimester had the highest hyperthymic temperament scores. Pregnancy and postpartum periods correlate with hyperthymic temperament characteristics in women without active psychiatric diagnosis. Future studies will help to understand if this is a mental quietness or increased risk for bipolarity.

  13. Sustainability of a Compartmentalized Host-Parasite Replicator System under Periodic Washout-Mixing Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Furubayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and dominance of parasitic replicators are among the major hurdles for the proliferation of primitive replicators. Compartmentalization of replicators is proposed to relieve the parasite dominance; however, it remains unclear under what conditions simple compartmentalization uncoupled with internal reaction secures the long-term survival of a population of primitive replicators against incessant parasite emergence. Here, we investigate the sustainability of a compartmentalized host-parasite replicator (CHPR system undergoing periodic washout-mixing cycles, by constructing a mathematical model and performing extensive simulations. We describe sustainable landscapes of the CHPR system in the parameter space and elucidate the mechanism of phase transitions between sustainable and extinct regions. Our findings revealed that a large population size of compartments, a high mixing intensity, and a modest amount of nutrients are important factors for the robust survival of replicators. We also found two distinctive sustainable phases with different mixing intensities. These results suggest that a population of simple host–parasite replicators assumed before the origin of life can be sustained by a simple compartmentalization with periodic washout-mixing processes.

  14. [The medical and psychological support for the child athletes during different periods of the training cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, N P; Levitskaia, T E; Matveeva, E A; Zaĭtsev, A A; Konovalov, A B; Tren'kaeva, N A; Akimova, K K; Kremeno, S V; Dostovalova, O V; Merzliakova, N V

    2014-01-01

    To study dynamics of the indicators of the hormonal and psychological status as well as psychological features of significance for the sportive performance under conditions of rehabilitative treatment during training and post-training periods in the child athlete engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The study included 42 child athletes at the age from 8 to 15 years engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The children of the study group (group 1, n=17) received the combined restorative treatment under conditions of regular training while those comprising group 2 group (n=25) were given a similar treatment in the absence of the training load. All athletes underwent clinical and laboratory examination before and after the treatment for the assessment of their psychological status. The study has demonstrated that additional physical activities were responsible for the development of negative changes in the hormonal and psychological spheres of the child athletes. As a result, they experienced the impairment of certain qualities significant for their sportive performance. The rehabilitative measures during different periods of the training cycle promote normalization of all parameters of the hormonal, psychological, and physical status of the child athletes; moreover, they improve the adaptive capacity of the children.

  15. Periodicity in a Conceptual Model of Glacial Cycles in the Absence of Milankovitch Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J.; Walsh, J.; Widiasih, E.; McGehee, R.

    2015-12-01

    Previously, McGehee and Widiasih coupled Budyko's Energy Balance Model with dynamics of a latitudinal ice-line incorporating the albedo feedback effect. They reduced this model to a two-dimensional equation of global mean temperature and a latitudinal ice-line. With this conceptual model, we now include dynamics of the ablation and accumulation of ice, to form a three-dimensional system that partitions the regions of the Earth latitudinally into an accumulation zone, ablation zone, and ice-free zone. Motivated by the findings of Abe-Ouchi et al that the fast retreat of ice-sheets is due to an increased rate of ablation via the effects of delayed isostatic rebound, we incorporate a simple switching mechanism to the model which increases the rate of ablation during periods of glacial retreat. This forms a discontinuous system of the Earth's temperature and ice-volume in which we find a stable periodic orbit. This can be interpreted as a intrinsic cycling of the Earth's climate in the absence of Milankovitch forcing.

  16. Evaluation of Physicochemical Deterioration and Lipid Oxidation of Beef Muscle Affected by Freeze-thaw Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. H.; Hossain, M. M.; Rahman, S. M. E.; Amin, M. R.; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the deterioration of physicochemical quality of beef hind limb during frozen storage at −20℃, affected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef hind limb were investigated comparing with unfrozen beef muscle for 80 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to select the best one on the basis of deterioration of physicochemical properties of beef. As the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased, drip loss decreased and water holding capacity (WHC) increased (pphysicochemical quality of beef muscle, causing the degradation of its quality. PMID:26877637

  17. Low-intensity cycling affects the muscle activation pattern of consequent countermovement jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Gonzalo J; Mon, Javier; Acero, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jose A; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Players (eg, basketball, soccer, and football) often use a static bicycle during a game to maintain warming. However, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been addressed in the literature. Thus, it remains unknown whether low-intensity cycling movement can affect explosive movement performance. In this study, 10 male subjects performed countermovement jumps before and after a 15-minutes cycling bout at 35% of their maximal power output. Three sessions were tested for 3 different cadences of cycling: freely chosen cadence, 20% lower than freely chosen cadence (FCC-20%), and 20% higher than freely chosen cadence (FCC+20%). Jump height, kinematics, and electromyogram were recorded simultaneously during the countermovement jumps. The results showed a significant decreasing in the height of countermovement jump after cycling at freely chosen cadence and FCC-20% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively), but not for FCC+20% cadences. The electromyographic parameters suggest that changes in the countermovement jump after cycling can be attributed to alteration of the pattern of activation and may be modulated by the preceding cycling cadence. Our study indicates that to avoid a possible negative effect of the cycling in the subsequent explosive movements, a cadence 20% higher than the preferred cadence must be used.

  18. Sleep-wake cycle of the healthy term newborn infant in the immediate postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchikova, Irina; Stevenson, Nathan J; Livingstone, Vicki; Ryan, C Anthony; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-04-01

    To examine sleep-wake cycle (SWC) composition of healthy term infants in the immediate postnatal period using EEG, and investigate factors that might influence it. Multichannel video-EEG was recorded for a median of 61.9 min (IQR: 60.0-69.3). The absolute and relative scores of sleep states were calculated for each infant's recording. Parametric/non-parametric statistical tests and multiple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the influence of perinatal factors on SWC composition. Eighty healthy term infants aged 1-36 h were studied. A well-developed SWC was evident as early as within the first 6h after birth. The mean (SD) percentage of active sleep (AS) was 52.1% (12.9) and quiet sleep (QS) was 38.6% (12.5). AS was longer and QS shorter in infants delivered by elective caesarean section (CS) compared to infants delivered by vaginal delivery or emergency CS. This is the first large cohort EEG study that has quantified neonatal sleep. SWC is clearly present immediately after birth, it is dominated by AS, and is influenced by mode of delivery. This knowledge of the early neonatal EEG/SWC can be used as reference data for EEG studies of neurologically compromised infants. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Forms of Affect, Relationality, and Periodical Encounters, or ‘Pine-Apple for the Million’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionnuala Dillane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The social, economic, intellectual, cultural, and material relations that comprise periodical encounters have been attended to in analyses that invoke the concept of the network, what Nathan Hensley has described as a ‘chain of visible or material interactions among human and nonhuman entities’. The affective dimensions of these relations, however, are neither material nor always visible, yet they are fundamental to all such interactions. This article argues that the periodical’s capacity to communicate, the contours, scope, and effects of that capacity, and in particular its genre traction, are everywhere underscored by a relationality that is charged with affect and emotions, shaped by what Raymond Williams famously described as ‘structures of feeling’. My focus on the haptic currents that drive periodical exchanges (taking examples from George Eliot at the Cornhill Magazine, Joseph Conrad in Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, and James Joyce in the Irish Homestead follows from important theorizations of the unique affordances of this ‘most time-oriented of print forms’ (Beetham. Affect, feelings, and emotive responses are messy and cannot be pressed into a discrete methodology, but when considering the open-ended, multi-textured, serial form that is the periodical, there is something to be gained, I suggest, from trying to understand the operations of affect, its openness, its aleatoric potential, and its emotion-based effects.

  20. Follicular flushing in natural cycle IVF does not affect the luteal phase - a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wolff, M; Kohl Schwartz, A; Stute, P; Fäh, M; Otti, G; Schürch, R; Rohner, S

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to multifollicular IVF, follicular flushing seems to increase the efficacy of monofollicular IVF treatments such as natural cycle IVF (NC-IVF). However, because follicular flushing causes loss of granulosa cells, it might negatively affect luteal phase length and endocrine function of the luteal body. A prospective cohort Phase II study was performed in 24 women undergoing NC-IVF. Women underwent a reference cycle with human chorionic gonadotrophin-induced ovulation without follicle aspiration and analysis of the length of the luteal phase and luteal concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol. In addition, they underwent a NC-IVF cycle which was performed identically but follicles were aspirated and flushed three times. The luteal phase was shorter in 29.2%, equal in 16.7% and longer in 50.0% of cases following flushing of the follicles. Overall, neither difference in luteal phase length was significant [median duration (interquartile range) in reference cycle: 13 (12; 14.5), IVF (flushing) cycle: 14 (12.5; 14.5), median difference (95% CI): 0.5 (-0.5 to 1.5)] nor median progesterone and oestradiol concentrations. In conclusion, follicular flushing in NC-IVF affects neither the length of the luteal phase nor the luteal phase concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol, questioning the need for luteal phase supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic Copy Number Variation Affecting Genes Involved in the Cell Cycle Pathway: Implications for Somatic Mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Y. Iourov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic genome variations (mosaicism seem to represent a common mechanism for human intercellular/interindividual diversity in health and disease. However, origins and mechanisms of somatic mosaicism remain a matter of conjecture. Recently, it has been hypothesized that zygotic genomic variation naturally occurring in humans is likely to predispose to nonheritable genetic changes (aneuploidy acquired during the lifetime through affecting cell cycle regulation, genome stability maintenance, and related pathways. Here, we have evaluated genomic copy number variation (CNV in genes implicated in the cell cycle pathway (according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes/KEGG within a cohort of patients with intellectual disability, autism, and/or epilepsy, in which the phenotype was not associated with genomic rearrangements altering this pathway. Benign CNVs affecting 20 genes of the cell cycle pathway were detected in 161 out of 255 patients (71.6%. Among them, 62 individuals exhibited >2 CNVs affecting the cell cycle pathway. Taking into account the number of individuals demonstrating CNV of these genes, a support for this hypothesis appears to be presented. Accordingly, we speculate that further studies of CNV burden across the genes implicated in related pathways might clarify whether zygotic genomic variation generates somatic mosaicism in health and disease.

  2. Classifying the wandering mind: revealing the affective content of thoughts during task-free rest periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusche, Anita; Smallwood, Jonathan; Bernhardt, Boris C; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-15

    Many powerful human emotional thoughts are generated in the absence of a precipitating event in the environment. Here, we tested whether we can decode the valence of internally driven, self-generated thoughts during task-free rest based on neural similarities with task-related affective mental states. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants generated positive and negative thoughts as part of an attribution task (Session A) and while they reported the occurrence of comparable mental states during task-free rest periods (Session B). With the use of multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA), we identified response patterns in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) that encode the affective content of thoughts that are generated in response to an external experimental cue. Importantly, these task driven response patterns reliably predicted the occurrence of affective thoughts generated during unconstrained rest periods recorded one week apart. This demonstrates that at least certain elements of task-cued and task-free affective experiences rely on a common neural code. Furthermore, our findings reveal the role that the mOFC plays in determining the affective tone of unconstrained thoughts. More generally, our results suggest that MVPA is an important methodological tool for attempts to understand unguided subject driven mental states such as mind-wandering and daydreaming based on neural similarities with task-based experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  4. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battur, Banzragch; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Liao, Min; Battsetseg, Badgar; Taylor, DeMar; Baymbaa, Badarch; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2009-09-23

    Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH) is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8) and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9) from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  5. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron; Gnyawali, Surya; Stewart, Richard; Teplitsky, Seth; Harris, Hallie; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic stroke results in excessive release of glutamate, which contributes to neuronal cell death. Here, we test the hypothesis that otherwise neurotoxic glutamate can be productively metabolized by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to maintain cellular energetics and protect the brain from ischemic stroke injury. The GOT-dependent metabolism of glutamate was studied in primary neural cells and in stroke-affected C57-BL6 mice using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS. Extracellular Glu sustained cell viability under hypoglycemic conditions and increased GOT-mediated metabolism in vitro Correction of stroke-induced hypoxia using supplemental oxygen in vivo lowered Glu levels as measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GOT knockdown abrogated this effect and caused ATP loss in the stroke-affected brain. GOT overexpression increased anaplerotic refilling of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in mouse brain during ischemic stroke. Furthermore, GOT overexpression not only reduced ischemic stroke lesion volume but also attenuated neurodegeneration and improved poststroke sensorimotor function. Taken together, our results support a new paradigm that GOT enables metabolism of otherwise neurotoxic extracellular Glu through a truncated tricarboxylic acid cycle under hypoglycemic conditions.-Rink, C., Gnyawali, S., Stewart, R., Teplitsky, S., Harris, H., Roy, S., Sen, C. K., Khanna, S. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain. © FASEB.

  6. Menstrual cycle phase does not affect sympathetic neural activity in women with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickford, Abigail S L; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Women with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) report fluctuations in orthostatic tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle. The mechanism(s) underlying blood pressure control across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS are unknown. The findings of the present study indicate that the menstrual cycle does not affect muscle sympathetic nerve activity but modulates blood pressure and vasoconstriction in POTS women during orthostatic stress. Factors other than sympathetic neural activity are likely responsible for the symptoms of orthostatic intolerance across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS. Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are primarily premenopausal women, which may be attributed to female sex hormones. We tested the hypothesis that hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle alter sympathetic neural activity and orthostatic tolerance in POTS women. Ten POTS women were studied during the early follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Haemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured when supine, during 60 deg upright tilt for 45 min or until presyncope, and during the cold pressor test (CPT) and Valsalva manoeuvres. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were higher during rest and tilting in the ML than EF phase; however, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output were similar between phases. There were no mean ± SD differences in MSNA burst frequency (8 ± 8 EF phase vs. 10 ± 10 bursts min(-1) ML phase at rest; 34 ± 15 EF phase vs. 36 ± 16 bursts min(-1) ML phase at 5 min tilt), burst incidence or total activity, nor any differences in the cardiovagal and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivities between phases under any condition. The incidence of presyncope was also the same between phases. There were no differences in haemodynamic or sympathetic responses to CPT or Valsalva. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does

  7. Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2017-11-01

    An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/oral contraceptives (OC) cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad. Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants' own experience of the training programs. No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive. The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

  8. Effects of acute resistance training of different intensities and rest periods on anxiety and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Vargas-Tonsing, Tiffanye; Bartholomew, John B

    2010-08-01

    The affective benefits associated with aerobic exercise are well documented. However, literature concerning resistance exercise has suggested a more variable response (i.e., a short duration increase in state anxiety, which eventually is reduced below baseline) and thus may play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of a resistance training program. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of different intensities and rest period during resistance exercise on anxiety, positive affect, and negative affect while holding volume constant and controlling for self-efficacy. Using an experimental design, individuals enrolled in a weight training class (n = 104) were randomly assigned 1 of 5 exercise conditions (control, low-long, low-short, high-long, and high-short), varying intensities, and rest time. Anxiety and positive and negative affect measurements were collected immediately following the exercise workouts. Data from separate analyses of covariance revealed a significant main effect for condition on positive affect (p = 0.026), in which the low-long group reported significantly higher positive affect than the control group, at 5-minute postexercise. Similar analysis indicated a significant main effect for time on anxiety (p = 0.003), with the highest anxiety detected at 5-minute postexercise, and significant reductions in anxiety at both 20-minute and 40-minute postexercise. In conclusion, these results suggest that the variation of intensity and rest time had a modest short-term effect on psychological states, following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Personal trainers and health professionals may want to emphasize light-intensity resistance programs for novice clients to maximize psychological benefits, which in turn, may positively affect compliance and adherence.

  9. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  10. Cycle affects imidacloprid efficiency by mediating cytochrome P450 expression in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K; Yang, P; Pang, R; Yue, L; Zhang, W

    2017-10-01

    Circadian clocks influence most behaviours and physiological activities in animals, including daily fluctuations in metabolism. However, how the clock gene cycle influences insects' responses to pesticides has rarely been reported. Here, we provide evidence that cycle affects imidacloprid efficacy by mediating the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice. Survival bioassays showed that the susceptibility of BPH adults to imidacloprid differed significantly between the two time points tested [Zeitgeber Time 8 (ZT8) and ZT4]. After cloning the cycle gene in the BPH (Nlcycle), we found that Nlcycle was expressed at higher levels in the fat body and midgut, and its expression was rhythmic with two peaks. Knockdown of Nlcycle affected the expression levels and rhythms of cytochrome P450 genes as well as susceptibility to imidacloprid. The survival rates of BPH adults after treatment with imidacloprid did not significantly differ between ZT4 and ZT8 after double-stranded Nlcycle treatment. These findings can be used to improve pesticide use and increase pesticide efficiency in the field. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  12. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhe

    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  13. Nurses’ perceptions of discomforts that affect the elderly in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Álvares de Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available his study aimed to identify the perceptions of hospital nurses about the concept of comfort and discomfort that affect the elderly in the postoperative period. Exploratory, descriptive research, conducted in May and June 2014, with 30 nurses from a university hospital in Natal, RN, Brazil. It was used a questionnaire based on Kolcaba’s theory of holistic comfort. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Nurses (96.7% conceptualized comfort as well-being. In the four contexts, physical, environmental, socio-cultural and psycho-spiritual, two or more discomforts were observed by more than 50% of the nurses. Pain (100%, excessive noise (56.7%, feeling of displacement of their home environment (76.7% and anxiety (93.3% were more frequent. The nurses identified discomforts that affect the elderly during postoperative period in the several contexts studied, with greater emphasis on physical discomforts, especially pain. The perception of the nurses surveyed about the concept of comfort demonstrates synonymy with well-being.

  14. Steroid hormone profile of Markhoz does (Iranian Angora) throughout estrous cycle and gestation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Javad; Moghaddam, Aliasghar; Souri, Manocher; Mirmahmoudi, Rouhollah

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims were to determine the profiles of changes in progesterone (P4) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in the peripheral blood of Markhoz goat (Iranian Angora) during estrous cycle, gestation, and parturition throughout natural breeding season. Gestation length averaged 145.3 ± 0.8 days, and the litter size was 1.1 ± 0.1. Birth weight ranged 2.4-2.8 and 1.5-2.5 kg in male and female kids, respectively. The mean estrous cycle lengths were 20.3 ± 0.4 and 20.9 ± 0.4 days for PGF(2α)-induced and natural cycles, respectively. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and weekly during gestation till parturition. E2 attained higher level (24.7 ± 2.15 pg mL(-1)) at estrus phase and dropped down to the lower level (18.80 ± 1.16 pg mL(-1)) within 3 to 4 days post-estrus. Concomitantly, P4 started to increase from the mean basal value of 0.5 ± 0.03 ng mL(-1) on day 0 to 6.88 ± 0.95 ng mL(-1) on day 6 of estrous cycle and reached the peak value of 12.8 ± 0.61 ng mL(-1) on day 12. From day 15, a decline was observed in P4 values till the end of the cycle. P4 remained at lower concentrations for 20-50 days of gestation, then increased and reached to its maximum level (13.51 ± 0.279 ng mL(-1)) in week 15 and returned again to its basal values within 1-2 weeks before parturition. The results will be discussed in terms of the usage of steroid hormone profile in several assisted reproductive technologies.

  15. Expression of cell cycle regulator p16 is not affected by diabetes during oral oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Goutzanis, Lambros; Nkenke, Emeka; Spyridonidou, Sofia; Vassiliou, Stavros; Derka, Spyridoula; Vylliotis, Antonis; Yapijakis, Christos; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Efstratios

    2007-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p16 plays a vital role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The expression of p16 was investigated in an experimental model of chemically induced carcinogenesis in normal and diabetic (type I) Sprague-Dawley rats. Tissue sections ranging from normal oral mucosa to moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied immunohistochemically. In normal rats p16 expression increased gradually during oral oncogenesis, but a significant increase was observed only in moderately differentiated OSCC (p=0.038). On the contrary, in diabetic rats the detected gradual increase was significant in hyperplasia, dysplasia, early invasion and well-differentiated OSCC (panimals. It seems that the expression of cell cycle regulator p16 is not affected by diabetes in the studied animal model of oral oncogenesis.

  16. A stochastic model correctly predicts changes in budding yeast cell cycle dynamics upon periodic expression of CLN2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Oguz

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on a recent stochastic budding yeast cell cycle model. First, we estimate the model parameters using extensive data sets: phenotypes of 110 genetic strains, single cell statistics of wild type and cln3 strains. Optimization of stochastic model parameters is achieved by an automated algorithm we recently used for a deterministic cell cycle model. Next, in order to test the predictive ability of the stochastic model, we focus on a recent experimental study in which forced periodic expression of CLN2 cyclin (driven by MET3 promoter in cln3 background has been used to synchronize budding yeast cell colonies. We demonstrate that the model correctly predicts the experimentally observed synchronization levels and cell cycle statistics of mother and daughter cells under various experimental conditions (numerical data that is not enforced in parameter optimization, in addition to correctly predicting the qualitative changes in size control due to forced CLN2 expression. Our model also generates a novel prediction: under frequent CLN2 expression pulses, G1 phase duration is bimodal among small-born cells. These cells originate from daughters with extended budded periods due to size control during the budded period. This novel prediction and the experimental trends captured by the model illustrate the interplay between cell cycle dynamics, synchronization of cell colonies, and size control in budding yeast.

  17. The CDK-APC/C Oscillator Predominantly Entrains Periodic Cell-Cycle Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Pecani, Kresti; Ondracka, Andrej; Oikonomou, Catherine; Cross, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout cell cycle progression, the expression of multiple transcripts oscillate, and whether these are under the centralized control of the CDK-APC/C proteins or can be driven by a de-centralized transcription factor (TF) cascade is a fundamental question for understanding cell cycle regulation. In budding yeast, we find that the transcription of nearly all genes, as assessed by RNA-seq or fluorescence microscopy in single cells, is dictated by CDK-APC/C. Three exceptional genes are transcribed in a pulsatile pattern in a variety of CDK-APC/C arrests. Pursuing one of these transcripts, the SIC1 inhibitor of B-type cyclins, we use a combination of mathematical modeling and experimentation to provide evidence that, counter-intuitively, Sic1 provides a failsafe mechanism promoting nuclear division when levels of mitotic cyclins are low. PMID:27058667

  18. Association between seasonal affective disorder and subjective quality of the sleep/wake cycle in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Erbacci, Alex; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2014-03-30

    The relationship between seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subjective quality of sleep/wake cycle in adolescents was explored. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (SPAQ-CA) and Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to 345 adolescents living in the city of Cesena (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) (299 females; age range: 14-18 years), to determine SAD and perceived quality of the sleep/wake cycle. The response rate was 92% for females and 90.2% for males. The MSQ includes two factors, sleep and wake, with lower scores corresponding to a lower quality of sleep and wake. The MSQ includes cut-off criteria to detect a good or bad sleep and wake quality. Adolescents with SAD (16 ± 5.7) scored significantly lower than those not affected on wake factor (19.5 ± 4.3), while no effect has been observed on sleep factor. SAD was the only one significant predictor of good/bad wake quality, while it did not reach significant level with reference to good/bad sleep quality. Present results are indications of a possible influence of SAD on wake quality and further studies are necessary to confirm them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ observations of the basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda reveal a long fruiting cycle overlapping two annual flowering periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, Fanny; Pouteau, Robin; Jaffré, Tanguy; Marmey, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Amborella trichopoda is the sole living angiosperm species belonging to the sister lineage of all other extant flowering plants. In the last decade, the species has been the focus of many phylogenetic, genomic and reproductive biology studies, bringing new highlights regarding the evolution of flowering plants. However, little attention has been paid to in situ A. trichopoda populations, particularly to their fruiting cycle. In this study, an A. trichopoda population was observed during three annual flowering cycles. Individuals and branches were labeled in order to monitor the fruiting cycle precisely, from the flowering stage until the abscission of the fruit. Fruit exocarp was green during the first 9 months following flowering, turned red when the next flowering started a year later then remained on the branch during another year, between fruit ripping and abscission. Presence of fruits with two stages of maturity on shrubs was always noticed. Germination tests showed that seeds acquired their germination capacity 1 year after flowering, when fruits changed color. A. trichopoda's fruiting cycle is a long process overlapping two annual flowering periods. These results introduce a new model for flowering and fruiting cycles. The availability of mature seeds on shrubs for more than 1 year is likely to maximize opportunities to be dispersed, thus promoting the survival of this basal angiosperm.

  20. Anatomy of a population cycle: the role of density dependence and demographic variability on numerical instability and periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-07-01

    Determining the causes of cyclic fluctuations in population size is a central tenet in population ecology and provides insights into population regulatory mechanisms. We have a firm understanding of how direct and delayed density dependence affects population stability and cyclic dynamics, but there remains considerable uncertainty in the specific processes contributing to demographic variability and consequent change in cyclic propensity. Spatiotemporal variability in cyclic propensity, including recent attenuation or loss of cyclicity among several temperate populations and the implications of habitat fragmentation and climate change on this pattern, highlights the heightened need to understand processes underlying cyclic variation. Because these stressors can differentially impact survival and productivity and thereby impose variable time delays in density dependence, there is a specific need to elucidate how demographic vital rates interact with the type and action of density dependence to contribute to population stability and cyclic variation. Here, we address this knowledge gap by comparing the stability of time series derived from general and species-specific (Canada lynx: Lynx canadensis; small rodents: Microtus, Lemmus and Clethrionomys spp.) matrix population models, which vary in their demographic rates and the direct action of density dependence. Our results reveal that density dependence acting exclusively on survival as opposed to productivity is destabilizing, suggesting that a shift in the action of population regulation toward reproductive output may decrease cyclic propensity and cycle amplitude. This result was the same whether delayed density dependence was pulsatile and acted on a single time period (e.g. t-1, t-2 or t-3) vs. more constant by affecting a successive range of years (e.g. t-1,…, t-3). Consistent with our general models, reductions in reproductive potential in both the lynx and small rodent systems led to notably large drops in

  1. Nutrient solution aeration and growing cycles affect quality and yield of fresh-cut baby leaf red lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Conesa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of nutrient solution aeration [no aeration (NA, low aeration (LA or high aeration (HA] and growing cycle (autumn, winter and summer on the yield, quality, and shelf life of red lettuce as a fresh-cut product grown in a floating system. The specific leaf area, yield and root diameter were affected by the growing cycle. The percentage of dry matter and the nitrate content were affected by growing cycle and aeration, total phenolics and mesophilic microorganism by aeration and storage time, hue angle and chromacity by growing cycle and storage time, and antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, lightness and psychrophilic microorganisms were affected by all three factors. NA conditions increased the antioxidant capacity in summer and vitamin C content in winter. The lowest mesophilic and psychrophilic count was observed in autumn. The effect of aeration on most of the quality parameters measured was influenced by the growing cycle.

  2. Hydration status affects mood state and pain sensation during ultra-endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Nicole E; Ganio, Matthew S; Wiersma, Lenny D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Gray, Michelle; McDermott, Brendon P; Adams, J D; Binns, Ashley P; Judelson, Daniel A; McKenzie, Amy L; Johnson, Evan C; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kunces, Laura J; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-based studies indicate mild dehydration adversely affects mood. Although ultra-endurance events often result in mild to moderate dehydration, little research has evaluated whether the relationship between hydration status and mood state also exists in these arduous events. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how hydration status affected mood state and perceptual measures during a 161 km ultra-endurance cycling event. One hundred and nineteen cyclists (103 males, 16 females; age = 46 ± 9 years; height = 175.4 ± 17.9 cm; mass = 82.8 ± 16.3 kg) from the 2011 and 2013 Hotter'N Hell events participated. Perceived exertion, Thermal, Thirst, and Pain sensations, Brunel Profile of Mood States, and urine specific gravity (USG) were measured pre- (~1 h before), mid- (~97 km), and post-ride. Participants were classified at each time point as dehydrated (USG ≥ 1.022) or euhydrated (USG ≤ 1.018). Independent of time point, dehydrated participants (USG = 1.027 ± 0.004) had decreased Vigour and increased Fatigue, Pain, Thirst, and Thermal sensations compared to euhydrated participants (USG = 1.012 ± 0.004; all P findings indicate dehydration may adversely affect mood state and perceptual ratings during ultra-endurance cycling.

  3. Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisz, M; Wen, S-Y; Routtu, J; Klappert, K; Mazzi, D; Morales-Hojas, R; Schäfer, M A; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Butlin, R K

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic signals often have a significant role in pair formation and in species recognition. Determining the genetic basis of signal divergence will help to understand signal evolution by sexual selection and its role in the speciation process. An earlier study investigated quantitative trait locus for male courtship song carrier frequency (FRE) in Drosophila montana using microsatellite markers. We refined this study by adding to the linkage map markers for 10 candidate genes known to affect song production in Drosophila melanogaster. We also extended the analyses to additional song characters (pulse train length (PTL), pulse number (PN), interpulse interval, pulse length (PL) and cycle number (CN)). Our results indicate that loci in two different regions of the genome control distinct features of the courtship song. Pulse train traits (PTL and PN) mapped to the X chromosome, showing significant linkage with the period gene. In contrast, characters related to song pulse properties (PL, CN and carrier FRE) mapped to the region of chromosome 2 near the candidate gene fruitless, identifying these genes as suitable loci for further investigations. In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice. PMID:22234247

  4. Periodicity of variations in galactic cosmic ray fluxes and solar activity parameters near 20th cycle minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Y. V.; Ignatyev, P. P.; Okhlopkov, V. P.; Shvidkovskaya, T. Y.

    1985-05-01

    An autocorrelation analysis of Wolf numbers clearly reveals a two year periodicity in solar activity during the period 1970-1975. Then, up to 1978, no such periodicity was detected and there was no correlation with earlier data (probably attributable to the low level of solar activity and the onset of a new solar activity cycle). Against this background, a correlation analysis was made of the mean monthly fluxes of cosmic rays measured aboard spacecraft, in the stratosphere (at Murmansk) and at the Earth's surface (Deep River), as well as Wolf numbers. The objective was to find a periodicity on the basis of the correlation dependences of two year intervals of data on cosmic rays and Wolf numbers. An approximately two year periodicity in the modulation of cosmic rays was discovered. The manifestation of this periodicity is different for different measurement periods and different energies of galactic cosmic rays. A table gives data on the maxima of the correlation coefficients, the lag relative to Wolf numbers and the extent of the modulation region on the assumption of a plasma velocity of 300 km/sec. The tabulated data characterize the dependence of the extent of the modulation region on the energy of GCR particles.

  5. Analysis of thermal cycles and microstructure of heat affected zone for a low alloy carbon steel pipe under multipass weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woan; Ha, Joon Wook; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jeong Tae [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze thermal cycles and to investigate microstructures of heat affected zones for a low alloy carbon steel pipe under a multipass weld. The commercial finite element code SYSWELD is used to compute thermal cycles during multipass weld. The numerical results such as thermal cycles and size of heat affected zone are compared with those of the experiment and the two results show a good agreement. In addition, the microstructure and hardness and investigated from the weldment in detail. The weakest location is founded at intercritical region near the base metal.

  6. Overstocking dairy cows during the dry period affects dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustini, M; Galeati, G; Gabai, G; Mammi, L E; Bucci, D; Baratta, M; Accorsi, P A; Formigoni, A

    2017-01-01

    Stressful situations trigger several changes such as the secretion of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the adrenal cortex, in response to ACTH. The aim of this study was to verify whether overstocking during the dry period (from 21±3 d to the expected calving until calving) affects DHEA and cortisol secretion and behavior in Holstein Friesian cows. Twenty-eight cows were randomly divided into 2 groups (14 animals each), balanced for the number of lactations, body condition score, and expected date of calving. Cows in the far-off phase of the dry period (from 60 to 21 d before the expected calving date) were housed together in a bedded pack. Then, animals from 21±3 d before the expected calving until calving were housed in pens with the same size but under different crowding conditions due to the introduction of heifers (interference animals) into the pen. The control condition (CTR) had 2 animals per pen with 12.0m(2) each, whereas the overstocked condition (OS) had 3 interference animals in the same pen with 4.8m(2) for each animal. On d -30±3, -21±3, -15±3, -10±3, and -5±3 before and 10, 20, and 30 after calving, blood samples were collected from each cow for the determination of plasma DHEA and cortisol concentrations by RIA. Rumination time (min/d), activity (steps/h), lying time (min/d), and lying bouts (bouts/d) were individually recorded daily. In both groups, DHEA increased before calving and the concentration declined rapidly after parturition. Overstocking significantly increased DHEA concentration compared with the CTR group at d -10 (1.79±0.09 vs. 1.24±0.14 pmol/mL), whereas an increase of cortisol was observed at d -15 (3.64±0.52 vs. 1.64±0.46ng/mL). The OS group showed significantly higher activity (steps/h) compared with the CTR group. Daily lying bouts tended to be higher for the OS group compared with CTR group in the first week of treatment. The overall results of this study documented that overstocking during the dry

  7. Genetic Dissociation of Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle Affects Neither Normal nor Neoplastic Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura E; Kulkarni, Sucheta; Wang, Huabo; Lu, Jie; Dolezal, James M; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Patel, Mulchand S; Deshpande, Rahul; Alencastro, Frances; Wendell, Stacy G; Goetzman, Eric S; Duncan, Andrew W; Prochownik, Edward V

    2017-11-01

    Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic, and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation. In PDC "knockout" (KO) animals, the long-term regenerative potential of hepatocytes was unimpaired, and growth of aggressive experimental hepatoblastomas was only modestly slowed in the face of 80%-90% reductions in AcCoA and significant alterations in the levels of key tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and amino acids. Overall, oxphos activity in KO livers and hepatoblastoma was comparable with that of control counterparts, with evidence that metabolic substrate abnormalities were compensated for by increased mitochondrial mass. These findings demonstrate that the biochemical link between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can be completely severed without affecting normal or neoplastic proliferation, even under the most demanding circumstances. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5795-807. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Microbial Succession and Nitrogen Cycling in Cultured Biofilms as Affected by the Inorganic Nitrogen Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangshuang; Peng, Chengrong; Wang, Chun; Zheng, Jiaoli; Hu, Yao; Li, Dunhai

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms play important roles in nutrients and energy cycling in aquatic ecosystems. We hypothesized that as eutrophication could change phytoplankton community and decrease phytoplankton diversity, ambient inorganic nitrogen level will affect the microbial community and diversity of biofilms and the roles of biofilms in nutrient cycling. Biofilms were cultured using a flow incubator either with replete inorganic nitrogen (N-rep) or without exogenous inorganic nitrogen supply (N-def). The results showed that the biomass and nitrogen and phosphorous accumulation of biofilms were limited by N deficiency; however, as expected, the N-def biofilms had significantly higher microbial diversity than that of N-rep biofilms. The microbial community of biofilms shifted in composition and abundance in response to ambient inorganic nitrogen level. For example, as compared between the N-def and the N-rep biofilms, the former consisted of more diazotrophs, while the latter consisted of more denitrifying bacteria. As a result of the shift of the functional microbial community, the N concentration of N-rep medium kept decreasing, while that of N-def medium showed an increasing trend in the late stage. This indicates that biofilms can serve as the source or the sink of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems, and it depends on the inorganic nitrogen availability.

  9. Nrf2 inhibition affects cell cycle progression during early mouse embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Sui, Liu-Cai; Wu, Rong-Hua; Ma, Ru-Jun; Fu, Hai-Yan; Xu, Juan-Juan; Qiu, Xu-Hua; Chen, Li

    2017-12-16

    Brusatol, a quassinoid isolated from the fruit of Bruceajavanica, has recently been shown to inhibit nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) via Keap1-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation or protein synthesis. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates the cellular defense response. Most studies have focused on the effects of Nrf2in tumor development. Here, the critical roles of Nrf2 in mouse early embryonic development were investigated. We found that brusatol treatment at the zygotic stage prevented the early embryo development. Most embryos stayed at the two-cell stage after 5 days of culture (P CRISPR activation plasmid. Thus, brusatol inhibited early embryo development by affecting Nrf2-related cell cycle transition from G2 to M phase that is dependent on cyclin B-CDK1 complex.

  10. Increase of Intracellular Cyclic AMP by PDE4 Inhibitors Affects HepG2 Cell Cycle Progression and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Mara; Cardarelli, Silvia; Galli, Francesca; Giardi, Maria Federica; Ragusa, Federica; Panera, Nadia; Cinque, Benedetta; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Biagioni, Stefano; Giorgi, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4) are major members of a superfamily of enzymes (PDE) involved in modulation of intracellular signaling mediated by cAMP. Broadly expressed in most human tissues and present in large amounts in the liver, PDEs have in the last decade been key therapeutic targets for several inflammatory diseases. Recently, a significant body of work has underscored their involvement in different kinds of cancer, but with no attention paid to liver cancer. The present study investigated the effects of two PDE4 inhibitors, rolipram and DC-TA-46, on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Treatment with these inhibitors caused a marked increase of intracellular cAMP level and a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell growth. The concentrations of inhibitors that halved cell proliferation to about 50% were used for cell cycle experiments. Rolipram (10 μM) and DC-TA-46 (0.5 μM) produced a decrease of cyclin expression, in particular of cyclin A, as well as an increase in p21, p27 and p53, as evaluated by Western blot analysis. Changes in the intracellular localization of cyclin D1 were also observed after treatments. In addition, both inhibitors caused apoptosis, as demonstrated by an Annexin-V cytofluorimetric assay and analysis of caspase-3/7 activity. Results demonstrated that treatment with PDE4 inhibitors affected HepG2 cell cycle and survival, suggesting that they might be useful as potential adjuvant, chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents in hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1401-1411, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch K; Kasten N; Fuchs R

    2017-01-01

    ...) and T2-T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period). They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect...

  12. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  13. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  14. Period doubling cascades of limit cycles in cardiac action potential models as precursors to chaotic early Afterdepolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Philipp; Bulelzai, M A K; Erhardt, André H

    2017-04-04

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological voltage oscillations during the repolarization phase of cardiac action potentials (APs). EADs are caused by drugs, oxidative stress or ion channel disease, and they are considered as potential precursors to cardiac arrhythmias in recent attempts to redefine the cardiac drug safety paradigm. The irregular behaviour of EADs observed in experiments has been previously attributed to chaotic EAD dynamics under periodic pacing, made possible by a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the deterministic AP system of differential equations. In this article we demonstrate that a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential model is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the genesis of chaotic EADs. We rather argue that a cascade of period doubling (PD) bifurcations of limit cycles in the full AP system paves the way to chaotic EAD dynamics across a variety of models including a) periodically paced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes, b) periodically paced and non-active cardiomyocytes as well as c) unpaced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our bifurcation analysis reveals that chaotic EAD dynamics may coexist in a stable manner with fully regular AP dynamics, where only the initial conditions decide which type of dynamics is displayed. EADs are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias and hence are of relevance both from the viewpoint of drug cardiotoxicity testing and the treatment of cardiomyopathies. The model-independent association of chaotic EADs with period doubling cascades of limit cycles introduced in this article opens novel opportunities to study chaotic EADs by means of bifurcation control theory and inverse bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, our results may shed new light on the synchronization and propagation of chaotic EADs in homogeneous and heterogeneous multicellular and cardiac tissue preparations.

  15. The Influence of Various Distraction Stimuli on Affective Responses during Recumbent Cycle Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with and without distraction. (2 Methods: 25 individuals volunteered for this investigation and completed all three conditions. This study included three 30 min cycle ergometry exercise conditions, a control condition with no stimuli and two test conditions; one supplemented with a self-selected video and the other self-selected music. The Feeling Scale (FS was administered prior to, every 10 min during, immediately following, and 10 min post exercise. (3 Results: These data demonstrate a significant condition effect for FS during exercise. The condition effect was due to FS being greater in the video and distraction conditions. There was no time by condition interaction seen during exercise. (4 Conclusion: These data indicate that distraction may be effective in supporting a more pleasant exercise experience and could potentially increase exercise adherence.

  16. Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H K L; Hansen, J S; Elfving, B; Lund, S P; Kyjovska, Z O; Loft, S; Barfod, K K; Jackson, P; Vogel, U; Hougaard, K S

    2017-05-30

    The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) is increasing due to a growing use in a variety of products across several industries. Thus, occupational exposure is also of increasing concern, particularly since airway exposure to MWCNTs can induce sustained pulmonary acute phase response and inflammation in experimental animals, which may affect female reproduction. This proof-of-principle study therefore aimed to investigate if lung exposure by intratracheal instillation of the MWCNT NM-400 would affect the estrous cycle and reproductive function in female mice. Estrous cycle regularity was investigated by comparing vaginal smears before and after exposure to 67 μg of NM-400, whereas reproductive function was analyzed by measuring time to delivery of litters after instillation of 2, 18 or 67 μg of NM-400. Compared to normal estrous cycling determined prior to exposure, exposure to MWCNT significantly prolonged the estrous cycle during which exposure took place, but significantly shortened the estrous cycle immediately after the exposed cycle. No consistent effects were seen on time to delivery of litter or other gestational or litter parameters, such as litter size, sex ratio, implantations and implantation loss. Lung exposure to MWCNT interfered with estrous cycling. Effects caused by MWCNTs depended on the time of exposure: the estrous stage was particularly sensitive to exposure, as animals exposed during this stage showed a higher incidence of irregular cycling after exposure. Our data indicates that MWCNT exposure may interfere with events leading to ovulation.

  17. Hyperlactemia induction modes affect the lactate minimum power and physiological responses in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Padulo, Johnny; Müller, Paulo T G; Miyagi, Willian E; Malta, Elvis S; Papoti, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of hyperlactemia and blood acidosis induction on lactate minimum intensity (LMI). Twenty recreationally trained males who were experienced in cycling (15 cyclists and 5 triathletes) participated in this study. The athletes underwent 3 lactate minimum tests on an electromagnetic cycle ergometer. The hyperlactemia induction methods used were graded exercise test (GXT), Wingate test (WAnT), and 2 consecutive Wingate tests (2 × WAnTs). The LMI at 2 × WAnTs (200.3 ± 25.8 W) was statistically higher than the LMI at GXT (187.3 ± 31.9 W) and WAnT (189.8 ± 26.0 W), with similar findings for blood lactate, oxygen uptake, and pulmonary ventilation at LMI. The venous pH after 2 × WAnTs was lower (7.04 ± 0.24) than in (p ≤ 0.05) the GXT (7.19 ± 0.05) and WAnT (7.19 ± 0.05), whereas the blood lactate response was higher. In addition, similar findings were observed for bicarbonate concentration [HCO3] (2 × WAnTs lower than WAnT; 15.3 ± 2.6 mmol·L and 18.2 ± 2.7 mmol·L1, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). However, the maximal aerobic power and total time measured during the incremental phase also did not differ. Therefore, we can conclude that the induction mode significantly affects pH, blood lactate, and [HCO3] and consequently they alter the LMI and physiological parameters at LMI.

  18. Novel analysis of sleep patterns in rats separates periods of vigilance cycling from long-duration wake events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simasko, Steven M; Mukherjee, Sanjib

    2009-01-23

    Rats are polyphasic sleepers. However, a formal definition of when one sleep episode ends and another begins has not been put forth. In the present study we examine the distribution of wake episode durations and based on this distribution conclude there are multiple components of wake. If the wake episode exceeds 300 s the wake episode is assigned to long-duration wake (LDW), if the episode is less than 300 s it is assigned to brief wake (BW). Further support for this separation was found in close analysis of the EEG power spectrum in BW versus LDW. We then used LDW episodes to separate one sleep episode from another. We term the sleep episodes vigilance cycling (VC) because the rat is cycling between the vigilance states of BW, slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS). We find that the characteristics of VC are different in the light period versus the dark period. We further find that as VC episodes progress, SWS pressure lessens, but the amount of time spent in REMS increases. These findings suggest that VC episodes are regulated and meaningful to the sleep behavior of rats. The use of the concepts of LDW and VC provides additional insights into the description of sleep patterns in rats that may be important in the development of a complete description of sleep behavior in this animal.

  19. How would the ocean carbon cycle be affected by radiation management geoengineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvset, Siv K.; Tjiputra, Jerry; Muri, Helene; Grini, Alf

    2017-04-01

    Human emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is unequivocally causing global warming and climate change (IPCC, 2013). At the 21st United Nations Framework Convention on climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties it was agreed to limit the increase in global average temperature to 2˚C above pre-industrial levels. We have used the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-ME) and applied radiation management (RM) methods in order to bring the future radiative forcing change in the RCP8.5 CO2 emission scenario in line with that of the RCP4.5 CO2 emission scenario. Three different RM methods, with varying effects on atmospheric physics, were used in these experiments: stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI); marine sky brightening (MSB); and cirrus cloud thinning (CCT). Here we will present how the different methods affect the ocean carbon cycle, which is a well-known and important feedback on climate change. In particular, we focus on changes to the ocean primary production, which are known to be spatially and temporally complex. We show that while the global mean temperature when applying RM is similar to that in the RCP4.5 scenario, no RM method produce similar ocean primary production as in the RCP4.5 scenario. Our simulations indicate that when it comes to the ocean primary productivity there will be regional winners and losers. The different RM methods also produce spatially very different results, partly linked to how the different RM methods affect clouds. The results of this work does nothing to diminish the complexity of climate impacts on primary production, but rather highlights that any change in ocean primary production is driven by a combination of several parameters, which all change in different ways. The experiments highlight the, at present, uncertain changes to ocean productivity in the future and highlights the caution necessary before additional human perturbations to the Earth system is attempted.

  20. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  1. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  2. How will climate change affect the vegetation cycle over France? A generic modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laanaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of adaptation strategies of agriculture and forestry to climate change is conditioned by the knowledge of the impacts of climate change on the vegetation cycle and of the associated uncertainties. Using the same generic Land Surface Model (LSM to simulate the response of various vegetation types is more straightforward than using several specialized crop and forestry models, as model implementation differences are difficult to assess. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of a LSM to address this issue. Using the SURFEX (“Surface Externalisée” modeling platform, we produced and analyzed 150-yr (1950–2100 simulations of the biomass of four vegetation types (rainfed straw cereals, rainfed grasslands, broadleaf and needleleaf forests and of the soil water content associated to each of these vegetation types over France. Statistical methods were used to quantify the impact of climate change on simulated phenological dates. The duration of soil moisture stress periods increases everywhere in France, especially for grasslands with, on average, an increase of 9 days per year in near-future (NF conditions and 36 days per year in distant-future (DF conditions. For all the vegetation types, leaf onset and the annual maximum LAI occur earlier. For straw cereals in the Languedoc-Provence-Corsica area, NF leaf onset occurs 18 days earlier and 37 days earlier in DF conditions, on average. On the other hand, local discrepancies are simulated for the senescence period (e.g. earlier in western and southern France for broadleaf forests, slightly later in mountainous areas of eastern France for both NF and DF. Changes in phenological dates are more uncertain in DF than in NF conditions in relation to differences in climate models, especially for forests. Finally, it is shown that while changes in leaf onset are mainly driven by air temperature, longer soil moisture stress periods trigger earlier leaf senescence

  3. Magnolol causes alterations in the cell cycle in androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro by affecting expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Brendan T; McDougall, Luke; Catalli, Adriana; Hurta, Robert A R

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in the Western world, affects many men worldwide. This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on the behavior of 2 androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, in vitro. Magnolol, in a 24-h exposure at 40 and 80 μM, was found to be cytotoxic to cells. Magnolol also affected cell cycle progression of DU145 and PC3 cells, resulting in alterations to the cell cycle and subsequently decreasing the proportion of cells entering the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. Protein expression levels of pRBp107 decreased and pRBp130 protein expression levels increased in response to magnolol exposure, whereas p16(INK4a), p21, and p27 protein expression levels were apparently unchanged post 24-h exposure. Magnolol exposure at 6 h did increase p27 protein expression levels. This study has demonstrated that magnolol can alter the behavior of androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and suggests that magnolol may have potential as a novel anti-prostate cancer agent.

  4. The Menstrual Cycle-Response and Developmental Affective-Risk Model: A multilevel and integrative model of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesner, Jeff

    2017-03-01

    An integrative developmental model is presented in which menstrual cycle-related symptoms are hypothesized to result in a cascade of developmental challenges that contribute to increased affective symptoms among adolescent girls, and to long-term developmental sequelae. To provide the basis for this model a broad foundation is developed considering (a) psychological symptoms and disorders associated with reproductive events across the life span, and (b) the many and complicated effects that female reproductive steroids (estrogen & progesterone) have which trigger a variety of physical and psychological changes that are commonly associated with the menstrual cycle. The Menstrual Cycle-Response and Developmental Affective-Risk Model is driven by 3 central concepts: (a) individual differences in response to steroids are very large and thus require analysis of individual response, rather than group-level tendencies; (b) the menstrual cycle itself represents an important and complex set of biological, physical, psychological, behavioral, and social changes, and should not be studied exclusively as changing steroid levels; and (c) the effects of the menstrual cycle during adolescence and early adulthood may have long-term developmental consequences. This model integrates specific effects of the menstrual cycle with contextual and social developmental variables, and with past theoretical models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    to the latest IPCC report. In summary, our measurements show that dryland emissions of nitrogen oxides are largely driven by biocrusts and not by the underlying soil. As precipitation patterns, which influence biocrust activity, are affected by climate change, alterations in global nitrogen oxide emissions are to be expected. Thus, the role of biocrusts in the global cycling of reactive nitrogen needs to be followed and also implemented in regional and global models of biogeochemistry, air chemistry and climate.

  6. Oxytocin injections in the postpartal period affect mammary tight junctions in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, C.; Lessard, M.; Knight, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of injecting oxytocin (OXY) to sows in the early postpartum period on the quality of mammary tight junctions, milk composition, and immune status of sows and piglets were studied. Postparturient sows received i.m. injections of either saline (control [CTL]; n = 10) or 75 IU...

  7. Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevřelová Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus. The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7% of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%.

  8. Power series expansions for the frequency and period of the limit cycle of the van der Pol equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C. M.; Geer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    An equation reported by van der Pol (1926) in connection with relaxation-oscillations studies is considered. The equation contains the factor epsilon which can assume values in the range from zero to infinity. The period T(epsilon), or equivalently the frequency nu(epsilon) of the limit cycle has been studied. However, to date there has been little success in discovering the analytical structure of T(epsilon) as a function of epsilon. The present investigation has the objectives to present the Taylor series expansion of nu(epsilon), to locate the singularities which determine the radius of convergence of that expansion, to introduce a new damping variable in terms of which the expansion converges for all epsilon, to form a new expansion for the period T(epsilon) which improves the rate of convergence of the series, to attempt to 'complete' the series, and to compare the obtained results with the numerically determined values of T(epsilon) and with the asymptotic approximation valid for large epsilon.

  9. Intergenerational considerations affecting the future of nuclear power: equity as a framework for assessing fuel cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Behnam; Kadak, Andrew C

    2010-09-01

    Alternative fuel cycles are being considered in an effort to prolong uranium fuel supplies for thousands of years to come and to manage nuclear waste. These strategies bring with them different benefits and burdens for the present generation and for future generations. In this article, we present a method that provides insight into future fuel cycle alternatives and into the conflicts arising between generations within the framework of intergenerational equity. A set of intersubjective values is drawn from the notion of sustainable development. By operationalizing these values and mapping out their impacts, value criteria are introduced for the assessment of fuel cycles, which are based on the distribution of burdens and benefits between generations. The once-through fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States and three future fuel cycles are subsequently assessed according to these criteria. The four alternatives are then compared in an integrated analysis in which we shed light on the implicit tradeoffs made by decisionmakers when they choose a certain fuel cycle. When choosing a fuel cycle, what are the societal costs and burdens accepted for each generation and how can these factors be justified? This article presents an integrated decision-making method, which considers intergenerational aspects of such decisions; this method could also be applied to other technologies. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Relevant risk factors affecting time of ventilation during early postoperative period after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Yao, Gaiqi; Ge, Qinggang; Yi, Min; Gao, Jing; Xi, Zhu

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relevant factors affecting the duration of mechanical ventilation after orthotopic liver transplantation. The 96 patients who underwent liver transplantation were divided into 2 groups according to whether or not the duration of mechanical ventilation after operation was longer than 24 hours. Nineteen variables, including clinical and experimental variables, were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and chi(2) test for discrete variables. The variables with significance (P postoperative renal failure, and postoperative pulmonary edema revealed significant differences between the 2 groups. Stepwise logistic regression analysis for 9 variables indicated that volume of intraoperative blood loss, volume of intraoperative urine, and postoperative renal failure are relevant independent risk factors. The relevant risks affecting the time of ventilation in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation are multiple. The volume of intraoperative blood loss, volume of intraoperative urine, and postoperative renal failure are independent risk factors. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract affects human prostate cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest by modulating expression of cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déziel, Bob; MacPhee, James; Patel, Kunal; Catalli, Adriana; Kulka, Marianna; Neto, Catherine; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Hurta, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its prevalence is expected to increase appreciably in the coming decades. As such, more research is necessary to understand the etiology, progression and possible preventative measures to delay or to stop the development of this disease. Recently, there has been interest in examining the effects of whole extracts from commonly harvested crops on the behaviour and progression of cancer. Here, we describe the effects of whole cranberry extract (WCE) on the behaviour of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 10, 25 and 50 μg ml⁻¹ of WCE, respectively for 6 h, WCE significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. WCE also decreased the proportion of cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following treatment of cells with 25 and 50 μg ml⁻¹ treatment of WCE for 6 h. These alterations in cell cycle were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. WCE decreased the expression of CDK4, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and increased the expression of p27. Changes in p16(INK4a) and pRBp107 protein expression levels also were evident, however, the changes noted in p16(INK4a) and pRBp107 protein expression levels were not statistically significant. These findings demonstrate that phytochemical extracts from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries.

  12. Glutamate availability is important in intramuscular amino acid metabolism and TCA cycle intermediates but does not affect peak oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzakis, M; Graham, T E; González-Alonso, J; Saltin, B

    2008-08-01

    Muscle glutamate is central to reactions producing 2-oxoglutarate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate that essentially expands the TCA cycle intermediate pool during exercise. Paradoxically, muscle glutamate drops approximately 40-80% with the onset of exercise and 2-oxoglutarate declines in early exercise. To investigate the physiological relationship between glutamate, oxidative metabolism, and TCA cycle intermediates (i.e., fumarate, malate, 2-oxoglutarate), healthy subjects trained (T) the quadriceps of one thigh on the single-legged knee extensor ergometer (1 h/day at 70% maximum workload for 5 days/wk), while their contralateral quadriceps remained untrained (UT). After 5 wk of training, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in the T thigh was greater than that in the UT thigh (PTCA cycle intermediates. In the UT thigh, peak exercise (vs. rest) induced an increase in fumarate (0.33+/-0.07 vs. 0.02+/-0.01 mmol/kg dry wt (dw), PTCA cycle, glutamate and TCA cycle intermediates do not directly affect VO2peak in either trained or untrained muscle.

  13. Human Milk Analyser shows that the lactation period affects protein levels in preterm breastmilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl, Alexandra; Zwiauer, Valentina; Repa, Andreas; Binder, Christoph; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Jilma, Bernd; Berger, Angelika; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the composition of preterm human breastmilk, particularly the protein content, with the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser, compared our results with published values and determined the relationship between protein content and lactation period. We analysed 83 samples of 24-hour pooled human milk from 76 mothers who delivered preterm infants weighing under 1500 g at less than 32 weeks of gestational age. The milk's protein, fat and energy were measured by the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser and compared to reference values. The relationship between protein content and lactation period was quantified. On average, the samples contained 1.1 ± 0.37 g (0.2-2.2 g) of protein, 3.2 ± 0.85 g (range 1.1-6.1 g) of fat, 6.6 ± 0.34 g of lactose (5.5-8.0 g) and 60 ± 11 kcal (39-94 kcal) of energy per 100 mL. The wide variations in macronutrient content were not influenced by the gestational age of the infant and the lactation day results from 70 of the mothers correlated inversely with the protein content (p lactation. With adjustments, the MIRIS might provide a helpful tool for individualised fortification. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunsch K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathrin Wunsch, Nadine Kasten, Reinhard Fuchs Department of Sport Science, Sport Psychology Unit, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Abstract: The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can successfully diminish these negative effects. Sixty-four subjects participated in this study and completed a total of five surveys, with T1 at the end of the semester break (baseline and T2–T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period. They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect. Hierarchical linear models showed significant dependencies on time for all dependent measures. The expansion of the model for exercise also showed significant main effects of this predictor on well-being and positive affect (PA and negative affect. Moreover, significant interactions with time for sleep quality and PA were found. Results suggest that physical activity and exercise in the academic examination period may be able to buffer the negative effects of stress on health-related outcomes. Therefore, activity levels should be maintained in times of high stress to prevent negative effects on sleep, well-being and affect in students. Keywords: examination stress, exercise, stress-buffering hypothesis

  15. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Kathrin; Kasten, Nadine; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic) stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can successfully diminish these negative effects. Sixty-four subjects participated in this study and completed a total of five surveys, with T1 at the end of the semester break (baseline) and T2–T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period). They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect. Hierarchical linear models showed significant dependencies on time for all dependent measures. The expansion of the model for exercise also showed significant main effects of this predictor on well-being and positive affect (PA) and negative affect. Moreover, significant interactions with time for sleep quality and PA were found. Results suggest that physical activity and exercise in the academic examination period may be able to buffer the negative effects of stress on health-related outcomes. Therefore, activity levels should be maintained in times of high stress to prevent negative effects on sleep, well-being and affect in students. PMID:28490911

  16. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Kathrin; Kasten, Nadine; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic) stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can successfully diminish these negative effects. Sixty-four subjects participated in this study and completed a total of five surveys, with T1 at the end of the semester break (baseline) and T2-T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period). They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect. Hierarchical linear models showed significant dependencies on time for all dependent measures. The expansion of the model for exercise also showed significant main effects of this predictor on well-being and positive affect (PA) and negative affect. Moreover, significant interactions with time for sleep quality and PA were found. Results suggest that physical activity and exercise in the academic examination period may be able to buffer the negative effects of stress on health-related outcomes. Therefore, activity levels should be maintained in times of high stress to prevent negative effects on sleep, well-being and affect in students.

  17. Does MW Radiation Affect Gene Expression, Apoptotic Level, and Cell Cycle Progression of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Handan; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Saglam, Atiye Seda Yar; Tuysuz, Mehmed Zahid; Canseven, Ayşe Gulnihal; Yagci, Abdullah Munci; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants. SH-SY5Y NB cells were exposed to 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation for 24 h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491 W/kg. Control samples were in the same conditions with MW-exposed samples but they were not exposed to MW radiation. The apoptotic activity of cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Moreover, mRNA levels of proliferative and cell cycle proteins were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The change in cell cycle progression was observed by using CycleTest-Plus DNA reagent. No significant change was observed in apoptotic activity of MW-exposed cells compared to control cells. The mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in MW group (p cells in G1 phase was significantly higher than the percentage of control cells in G1 phase. MW radiation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. These results showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but changed cell cycle progression.

  18. Periodic letter strokes within a word affect fixation disparity during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, Stephanie; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2010-11-02

    We investigated the way in which binocular coordination in reading is affected by the spatial structure of text. Vergence eye movements were measured (EyeLink II) in 32 observers while they read 120 single German sentences (Potsdam Sentence Corpus) silently for comprehension. The similarity in shape between the neighboring strokes of component letters, as measured by the first peak in the horizontal auto-correlation of the images of the words, was found to be associated with (i) a smaller minimum fixation disparity (i.e. vergence error) during fixation; (ii) a longer time to reach this minimum disparity and (iii) a longer overall fixation duration. The results were obtained only for binocular reading: no effects of auto-correlation could be observed for monocular reading. The findings help to explain the longer reading times reported for words and fonts with high auto-correlation and may also begin to provide a causal link between poor binocular control and reading difficulties.

  19. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  20. Phase synchronization of baroclinic waves in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment subject to periodic forcing with a variable duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P. L.; Morice-Atkinson, X.; Allen, E. J.; Castrejón-Pita, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments in a thermally driven, rotating fluid annulus are presented that investigate the onset and characteristics of phase synchronization and frequency entrainment between the intrinsic, chaotic, oscillatory amplitude modulation of travelling baroclinic waves and a periodic modulation of the (axisymmetric) thermal boundary conditions, subject to time-dependent coupling. The time-dependence is in the form of a prescribed duty cycle in which the periodic forcing of the boundary conditions is applied for only a fraction δ of each oscillation. For the rest of the oscillation, the boundary conditions are held fixed. Two profiles of forcing were investigated that capture different parts of the sinusoidal variation and δ was varied over the range 0.1 ≤δ≤1 . Reducing δ was found to act in a similar way to a reduction in a constant coupling coefficient in reducing the width of the interval in forcing frequency or period over which complete synchronization was observed (the "Arnol'd tongue") with respect to the detuning, although for the strongest pulse-like forcing profile some degree of synchronization was discernible even at δ=0.1 . Complete phase synchronization was obtained within the Arnol'd tongue itself, although the strength of the amplitude modulation of the baroclinic wave was not significantly affected. These experiments demonstrate a possible mechanism for intraseasonal and/or interannual "teleconnections" within the climate system of the Earth and other planets that does not rely on Rossby wave propagation across the planet along great circles.

  1. Ovarian cycle-linked plasticity of δ-GABAA receptor subunits in hippocampal interneurons affects γ oscillations in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Miklos Barth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors containing δ subunits (δ-GABAARs are GABA-gated ion channels with extra- and perisynaptic localization, strong sensitivity to neurosteroids (NS, and a high degree of plasticity. In selective brain regions they are expressed on specific principal cells and interneurons (INs, and generate a tonic conductance that controls neuronal excitability and oscillations. Plasticity of δ-GABAARs in principal cells has been described during states of altered NS synthesis including acute stress, puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy and the postpartum period, with direct consequences on neuronal excitability and network dynamics. The defining network events implicated in cognitive function, memory formation and encoding are γ oscillations (30-120 Hz, a well-timed loop of excitation and inhibition between principal cells and PV-expressing INs (PV+INs. The δ-GABAARs of INs can modify γ oscillations, and a lower expression of δ-GABAARs on INs during pregnancy alters γ frequency recorded in vitro. The ovarian cycle is another physiological event with large fluctuations in NS levels and δ-GABAARs. Stages of the cycle are paralleled by swings in memory performance, cognitive function, and mood in both humans and rodents. Here we show δ-GABAARs changes during the mouse ovarian cycle in hippocampal cell types, with enhanced expression during diestrus in principal cells and specific INs. The plasticity of δ-GABAARs on PV-INs decreases the magnitude of γ oscillations continuously recorded in area CA1 throughout several days in vivo during diestrus and increases it during estrus. Such recurring changes in γ magnitude were not observed in non-cycling wild-type (WT females, cycling females lacking δ-GABAARs only on PV-INs (PV-Gabrd-/-, and in male mice during a time course equivalent to the ovarian cycle. Our findings may explain the impaired memory and cognitive performance experienced by women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS or premenstrual

  2. How Business Cycles Affect the Healthcare Sector: A Cross-country Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Lamey, Lien; Meyer, Jan-Hinrich; De Ruyter, Ko

    2016-07-01

    The long-term relationship between the general economy and healthcare expenditures has been extensively researched, to explain differences in healthcare spending between countries, but the midterm (i.e., business cycle) perspective has been overlooked. This study explores business cycle sensitivity in both public and private parts of the healthcare sector across 32 countries. Responses to the business cycle vary notably, both across spending sources and across countries. Whereas in some countries, consumers and/or governments cut back, in others, private and/or public healthcare buyers tend to spend more. We also assess long-term consequences of business cycle sensitivity and show that public cost cutting during economic downturns deflates the mortality rates, whereas private cut backs increase the long-term growth in total healthcare expenditures. Finally, multiple factors help explain variability in cyclical sensitivity. Private cost cuts during economic downturns are smaller in countries with a predominantly publicly funded healthcare system and more preventive public activities. Public cut backs during contractions are smaller in countries that rely more on tax-based resources rather than social health insurances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. How does a modal shift from short car trips to cycling affect road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, J. P.; Heinen, E.

    Governments aim to promote a shift from car to bicycle, but concerns about road safety seem to represent an important argument against this encouragement. This study examines the road safety impact of a modal shift from short car trips to cycling in Dutch municipalities. The road safety effect is

  4. Proliferation marker pKi-67 affects the cell cycle in a self-regulated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Duchrow, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation marker pKi-67 is commonly used in research and pathology to detect proliferating cells. In a previous work, we found the protein to be associated with regulators of the cell cycle, controlling S-phase progression, as well as entry into and exit from mitosis. Here we investigate whether pKi-67 has a regulative effect on the cell cycle itself. For that purpose we cloned four fragments of pKi-67, together representing nearly the whole protein, and an N-terminal pKi-67 antisense oligonucleotide into a tetracycline inducible gene expression system. The sense fragments were C-terminally modified by addition of either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a STOP codon to address the impact of their intracellular distribution. FACS based cell cycle analysis revealed that expression of nearly all pKi-67 domains and the antisense oligonucleotide led to a decreased amount of cells in S-phase and an increased number of cells in G(2)/M- and G(1)-phase. Subsequent analysis of the endogenous pKi-67 mRNA and protein levels revealed that the constructs with the most significant impact on the cell cycle were able to silence pKi-67 transcription as well. We conclude from the data that pKi-67 influences progression of S-phase and mitosis in a self-regulated manner and, therefore, effects the cell cycle checkpoints within both phases. Furthermore, we found pKi-67 mediates an anti-apoptotic effect on the cell and we verified that this marker, although it is a potential ribosomal catalyst, is not expressed in differentiated tissues with a high transcriptional activity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Rébecca Robillard; Lee, Rico S.C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Django White; Bradley Whitwell; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disord...

  6. Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972-2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment

  7. High gonadotropin dosage does not affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in IVF PGS cycles with single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Oleksii O; Hinckley, Mary D; Rosenbluth, Evan M; Ivani, Kristen A; Weckstein, Louis N

    2017-11-01

    Does high gonadotropin dosage affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer? High gonadotropin dosage does NOT affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer. PGS has been proven to be the most effective and reliable method for embryo selection in IVF cycles. Euploidy and blastulation rates decrease significantly with advancing maternal age. In order to recruit an adequate number of follicles, the average dosage of gonadotropins administered during controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles often increases significantly with advancing maternal age. A retrospective study of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) PGS outcome data from blastocysts biopsied on day 5 or day 6 was conducted to identify differences in euploidy and clinical pregnancy rates. Seven hundred and ninety four cycles of IVF treatment with PGS between January 2013 and January 2017 followed by 651 frozen embryo transfers were included in the study (506 patients, maternal age (y.o.) - 37.2 ± 4.31). A total of 4034 embryos were analyzed (5.1 ± 3.76 per case) for euploidy status. All embryos were vitrified after biopsy, and selected embryos were subsequently thawed for a hormone replacement frozen embryo transfer cycle. All cycles were analyzed by total gonadotropin dosage (5000 IU), by number of eggs retrieved (1-5, 5-10, 10-15 and >15 eggs) and patient's age (IVF cycles) euploidy rates ranged from 62.3% (IVF cycle) to 67.5% (>5000 IU were used in the IVF cycle) (OR = 0.862, 95% CI 0.687-1.082, P = 0.2) and from 69.5% (1-5 eggs retrieved) to 60.0% (>15 eggs retrieved) (OR = 0.658, 95% CI 0.405-1.071, P = 0.09). Similar data were obtained in the oldest group of patients (≥41 y.o. - 189 IVF cycles): euploidy rates ranged from 30.7 to 26.4% (OR = 0.811, 95% CI 0.452-1.454, P = 0.481) when analyzed by total dosage of gonadotropins used in the IVF cycle and from 40.0 to 30.7% (OR = 0.531, 95% CI 0.204-1.384, P = 0.19), when assessed by the

  8. Ulipristal acetate administration at mid-cycle changes gene expression profiling of endometrial biopsies taken during the receptive period of the human menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Albarrán, Saúl; Durand, Marta; Larrea-Schiavon, Marco F; González, Leticia; Barrera, David; Vega, Claudia; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Rangel, Claudia; Larrea, Fernando

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of mid-cycle administration of Ulipristal acetate (UPA) on gene expression in endometrial biopsies taken during the receptive phase of the cycle. Fourteen healthy menstruating women were studied during 14 control non-treated and 12 treated cycles with a single dose of 30 mg UPA when follicle diameter reached 20 mm. Ovulation in both treated and control cycles was confirmed by serial determinations of serum LH, progesterone and vaginal ultrasound. An endometrial biopsy at day LH+7, in each cycle, was taken for RNA microarray and qPCR analysis or prepared for histological and immunohistochemistry studies. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes showed the presence of changes compatible with a non-receptive endometrial phenotype, further confirmed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. This study suggests the effects of UPA on endometrial receptivity, offering a plausible explanation for the higher contraceptive efficacy of this method compared to that of levonorgestrel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Variations of the tropical hydrological cycle during the last glacial-interglacial period: a model-data intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khon, Vyacheslav; Wang, Yiming; Schneider, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the mechanisms controlling past variations of the tropical hydrological cycle during the last glacial-interglacial period using climate model simulations and paleoreconstructions. To this end, results of Holocene and Eemian climate simulations with the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) together with PMIP3 simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are analyzed. For the model-data comparison we use paleoreconstructions of dD values of terrestrial plant leaf waxes preserved in a marine sediment core close to the mouth of the Zambezi over last 37,000 years. The estimated rainfall based on dD suggests a gradual increase in rainy season precipitation over the Zambezi basin from the early to late Holocene. This gradual increase in rainfall during the Holocene is very likely to be linked to increase in austral summer insolation over the southern tropical Africa. A similar trend is well reproduced by KCM simulations using orbital configuration changes as an external forcing. However, simulated LGM-preindustrial changes in precipitation vary substantially among the suite of PMIP3 models. Three models (MRI-CGCM3, IPSL-CM5A and CCSM4) demonstrate decreasing tendency towards the LGM while remaining models simulate an increasing amount of rainfall during the LGM. Nevertheless, the average of rainfall changes from these models suggests a minor intensification of southern African monsoon during the LGM. The latter estimate is in a qualitative agreement with the estimated rainfall based on our dD paleorecord. Characteristics of the Asian summer monsoon (onset and withdrawal date, monsoon length, mean rainfall and its extremes) are analyzed using pentad precipitation from KCM simulations of the Holocene period. We found an overall increase in a length of the Asian summer monsoon which is primarily associated with earlier monsoon onset during the early Holocene. Our model results show that a weakening of the Indian summer monsoon during the

  10. Previous cycling does not affect running efficiency during a triathlon world cup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, A; Veiga, S; García, A; Navarro, E

    2009-06-01

    The most strategic part of a triathlon is the cycle-run transition. However, all the studies about this situation have been carried out in laboratory conditions and there is a need to perform this kind of study during competition, when the triathletes are highly motivated and the effort is maximum.1 Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the effect of prior 40-km cycling on the 10-km running kinematics during a Triathlon World Cup competition, and 2) to examine the possible differences between males and females. Ten men and ten women, selected among the first ten competitors at the end of the cycling part at Madrid 2006 BG Triathlon World Cup, were enrolled in the study. The kinematic analysis was carried out using a photogrammetric technique (DLT algorithms) in the saggital plane (2D). There are significant differences (Prunning efficiency during a elite triathlon competition. On the other hand, the running technique profile during a triathlon competition is very different between men and women.

  11. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors affecting the level and pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Gosan, Korea during a dust period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Ghim, Young Sung, E-mail: ysghim@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Wangsan-ri, Mohyeon-myeon, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, BK21 Team for Biohydrogen Production, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young [Center for Environmental Technology Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Pyo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected air samples at a remote site during an Asian dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed levels, patterns, and gas/particle partitioning of PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particulate PAHs were highly correlated with PM{sub 2.5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fraction of particulate PAHs increased during the dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine particles might be an important carrier of PAHs emitted from China. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both gas and total suspended particles were measured at Gosan, Jeju Island in Korea, a remote background site, for 15 days (March 29-April 12, 2002). During the sampling period, a severe three-day Asian dust (AD) event originating from Mongolia and northern China was observed throughout the Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island. In addition, pollution (PO) and normal (NO) periods were also identified based on the levels of anthropogenic pollutants. Despite a large difference of PM{sub 10} concentrations between the AD and PO periods, the levels of particulate PAHs in both periods were comparable (2.7 {+-} 1.0 and 2.4 {+-} 0.5 ng m{sup -3}, respectively) since they were determined by the concentration of anthropogenic PM{sub 2.5} transported from industrial areas of China. In the AD period, the level of gaseous PAHs, which were mostly from local sources, was the lowest due to strong winds; the gas/particle partitioning was close to equilibrium as the effect of long-range transport was manifested. The results of backward air trajectories, correlation analysis, and diagnostic ratios show that long-range transport of particulate PAHs produced by coal/biomass burning in China could strongly affect the levels and patterns of PAHs at Gosan, Korea.

  13. The effect on cardiorespiratory fitness after an 8-week period of commuter cycling - A randomized controlled study in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Gade, Jens Raaberg

    2011-01-01

    change in lifestyle" or to "minimum 20minutes of daily commuter cycling during 8weeks". Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed directly during a progressive cycle-ergometer-test, sum of skinfolds was used as an estimate of body fat, and blood pressure was measured using a Dinamap monitor. Measurements were...

  14. Periodic cycle number modulating effect on crystallization temperature in superlattice-like [Ge/Ge8Sb92]n phase-change films and exploration of mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyi; Hu, Yifeng; Lai, Tianshu

    2017-06-01

    Superlattice-like (SLL) phase-change films provide more controllable parameters for the optimization of the performance of phase-change films, including the thickness of each constituent layer, the thickness ratio of two constituent layers and cycle number of periodicity. The effects of the first two parameters on the performance of SLL films have been studied widely. However, the influence of last parameter, cycle number of periodicity, was studied sparsely. In this study, we have studied the period number effect on crystallization temperature of SLL [Ge/Ge8Sb92]n films, and designed and fabricated a series of superlattice-like (SLL) [Ge/Ge8Sb92]n phase-change films. Their crystallization behaviors are studied by the measurement of temperature-dependent sheet resistance. We find that crystallization temperature decreases with increasing cycle number of periodicity, revealing period-cycle-number modulation effect. However, such the effect cannot be explained by current interface effect model. We test the existence of periodic structures of the crystallized SLL films by coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) spectroscopy. Apparent folded CAP modes related to SLL nanostructures are observed, implying the existence of excellent periodic structures or no alloying within one period in crystallized SLL films. Therefore, such period number manipulation effect cannot be explained by the cooperative effects of interface and alloying effects either, implying new mechanisms to be unveiled. We tentatively propose two kinds of possible long-range effects, built-in electric field and strain effects. Based on strain effect, our results can be explained phenomenologically.

  15. Perifollicular vascularity as a potential variable affecting outcome in stimulated intrauterine insemination treatment cycles: a study using transvaginal power Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhal, P S; Pugh, N D; Gregory, L; O'Brien, S; Shaw, R W

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess any potential relationship between perifollicular vascularity and outcome in an in-vivo environment following human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration. A total of 182 unselected consecutive patients undergoing stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles was recruited where the perifollicular vascularity of follicles > or =16 mm was studied using a subjective grading system and transvaginal power Doppler ultrasonography, 36 h after HCG administration. A total of 601 follicles was studied. The incidence of follicles showing high-grade perifollicular vascularity (3 and 4) was higher than those with low-grade vascularity (1 and 2) (80 versus 20%). Treatment cycles were divided according to uniformity of vascularity grades of follicles > or =16 mm on the day of IUI [55% all high (3/4) grade; 33% mixed (1/2 and 3/4) and 12% all low (1/2) grade]. The mean age and duration of subfertility were significantly higher (P or =16 mm pre/post HCG, serum oestradiol and incidence of ultrashort gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use were all significantly lower (P cycles with uniformly low follicular vascularity grades compared with mixed or uniformly high-grade cycles. However, on subjecting the data to multiple logistic regression analysis, the only independent variables that affected pregnancy rates appeared to be serum oestradiol (OR 1.28, 1.01--1.62) and high-grade follicular vascularity (OR 2.41, 1.08--5.40). These data would suggest that perifollicular vascularity has an important role to play in the outcome of IUI cycles, and that power Doppler has the potential to refine the management of assisted reproduction treatment cycles.

  16. How inhibiting nitrification affects nitrogen cycle and reduces environmental impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen input

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 103 nitrification inhibitor (NI) studies, and evaluated how NI application affects crop productivity and other ecosystem services in agricultural systems. Our results showed that, compared to conventional fertilizer practice, applications of NI alo...

  17. PKA-mediated responses in females' estrous cycle affect cocaine-induced responses in dopamine-mediated intracellular cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J; Sun, W Lun; Zhou, L; Kreiter, C M; Jenab, S; Quiñones-Jenab, V

    2009-07-07

    An extensive body of literature provides evidence for both sexual dimorphism and menstrual cycle effects in drug abuse patterns and behavioral responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying sexually dimorphic responses to and hormonal effects on cocaine use remain unclear. We hypothesized that endogenous hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle of rats modulate cocaine's effects on dopamine- and PKA-mediated intracellular responses. To test this hypothesis, intact female rats at different stages of their cycle received a single injection of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) and were sacrificed after 15 or 60 min. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate putamen (CPu) were dissected and analyzed via Western blot for total and phosphorylated (p-thr34) dopamine- and 3'-5'-cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), PP1, PP2B (CNA1 and CNB1 subunits), PKA, CREB, cFOS, and Delta-FosB. Our results show that saline-treated rats had estrous cycle-related differences in protein levels of pCREB, DARPP-32, p-thr34-DARPP-32, PP1, and CNA1. Saline-treated female rats in the estrus stage had higher levels of pCREB in the NAc, but cocaine-treatment lowered pCREB levels. The estrous cycle also significantly affected the magnitude of change for p-thr34-DARPP-32 protein levels in both the NAc and CPu. Sixty minutes of cocaine administration increased p-thr34-DARPP-32 levels in the NAc of rats during estrus and proestrus and in the CPu of rats in diestrus. Furthermore, cocaine-induced changes in PP1 protein levels in the NAc were also affected by the stage of the cycle; 60 min of cocaine administration increased PP1 levels in the NAc of rats during diestrus, whereas PP-1 levels decreased in rats during estrus. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle may contribute to the previously reported sex differences in the PKA pathway and in behavioral responses to cocaine.

  18. The CYCLOCALYX study: Ovulatory cycle affects circulating compartments of the endothelial glycocalyx in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulde, Nikolai; Rogenhofer, Nina; Brettner, Florian; Eckert, Nicole C; Götzfried, Isabella; Nguyen, Thu; Pagel, Judith-I; Kammerer, Tobias; Hofmann-Kiefer, Klaus F; Schelling, Gustav; Dendorfer, Andreas; Rehm, Markus; Thaler, Christian J

    2017-10-11

    The endothelial glycocalyx (EGX) plays an important role in vascular integrity. Recently, increased levels of EGX components were detected in the circulating blood of healthy pregnant women and were related to the increased tendency to edema formation during gestation. However, the EGX has not yet been systematically studied in non-pregnant women during ovulatory cycles. Serum levels of EGX components syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronan in healthy women (n = 16) at 3 phases of the ovulatory cycle (early follicular phase, at ovulation, and mid-luteal phase) were compared with a control group of healthy men (n = 10). Using immunofluorescence microscopy in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the effects of progesterone and estrogen on the EGX were measured. Syndecan-1 increased from 11.1 ± 2.4 ng/mL at ovulation to 12.6 ± 2.3 ng/mL in mid-luteal phase (P = .031) and of heparan sulfate from 663 ± 35 ng/mL to 782 ± 55 ng/mL (P = .011). In contrast to estrogen, there was a detrimental effect of progesterone on the EGX in HUVECs. The relationship between the natural menstrual cycle and the EGX as an indicator of vascular permeability may provide a new explanation for premenstrual edema in healthy women. This may be an attendant phenomenon of a regular physiological process, the hormonal downregulation of the vascular barrier during pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Day-night cycles and the sleep-promoting factor, Sleepless, affect stem cell activity in the Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, Natalia M; Chen, Wen-Feng; Chen, Jung Hsuan; Sowcik, Mallory; Sehgal, Amita

    2014-02-25

    Adult stem cells maintain tissue integrity and function by renewing cellular content of the organism through regulated mitotic divisions. Previous studies showed that stem cell activity is affected by local, systemic, and environmental cues. Here, we explore a role of environmental day-night cycles in modulating cell cycle progression in populations of adult stem cells. Using a classic stem cell system, the Drosophila spermatogonial stem cell niche, we reveal daily rhythms in division frequencies of germ-line and somatic stem cells that act cooperatively to produce male gametes. We also examine whether behavioral sleep-wake cycles, which are driven by the environmental day-night cycles, regulate stem cell function. We find that flies lacking the sleep-promoting factor Sleepless, which maintains normal sleep in Drosophila, have increased germ-line stem cell (GSC) division rates, and this effect is mediated, in part, through a GABAergic signaling pathway. We suggest that alterations in sleep can influence the daily dynamics of GSC divisions.

  20. The Formation of Tight Tumor Clusters Affects the Efficacy of Cell Cycle Inhibitors: A Hybrid Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MunJu; Reed, Damon; Rejniak, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are vital in regulating cell cycle progression, and, thus, in highly proliferating tumor cells CDK inhibitors are gaining interest as potential anticancer agents. Clonogenic assay experiments are frequently used to determine drug efficacy against the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. While the anticancer mechanisms of drugs are usually described at the intracellular single-cell level, the experimental measurements are sampled from the entire cancer cell population. This approach may lead to discrepancies between the experimental observations and theoretical explanations of anticipated drug mechanisms. To determine how individual cell responses to drugs that inhibit CDKs affect the growth of cancer cell populations, we developed a spatially explicit hybrid agent-based model. In this model, each cell is equipped with internal cell cycle regulation mechanisms, but it is also able to interact physically with its neighbors. We model cell cycle progression, focusing on the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints, as well as on related essential components, such as CDK1, CDK2, cell size, and DNA damage. We present detailed studies of how the emergent properties (e.g., cluster formation) of an entire cell population depend on altered physical and physiological parameters. We analyze the effects of CDK1 and CKD2 inhibitors on population growth, time-dependent changes in cell cycle distributions, and the dynamic evolution of spatial cell patterns. We show that cell cycle inhibitors that cause cell arrest at different cell cycle phases are not necessarily synergistically super-additive. Finally, we demonstrate that the physical aspects of cell population growth, such as the formation of tight cell clusters versus dispersed colonies, alter the efficacy of cell cycle inhibitors, both in 2D and 3D simulations. This finding may have implications for interpreting the treatment efficacy results of in vitro experiments, in which treatment is

  1. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  2. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  3. Different periods of uranium and thorium occurrence in Madagascar (1960); Cycles uraniferes et thoriferes a Madagascar (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In Madagascar, the first typical occurrences of thorium and uranium are about 500 million years old. Previously thorium and uranium were rather concentrated in the granitic and charnockitic zones, chiefly in minerals such as monazite, apatite and zircon. At the end of the Precambrian period, metasomatic granites occur especially in the anticlinal series (Andriba orthite granite). The granitization is followed by the formation of the main pegmatitic areas in the Island with Th-U niobotantalates, uraninite and beryl. The pegmatites are well developed in the synclinal series with a poor migmatization or no migmatization at all. In the same time a large uranium and thorium province with uranothorianite deposits appears within the calcomagnesian series of the Southern part of Madagascar. Later, large amounts of monazite were carried down to the detritic Karroo sediments during tile erosion of the metamorphic precambrian rocks. Monazite has been concentrated again by frequent marine incursions, till the present time. In the medium Karroo, near Folakara, uranium minerals occur in direct relation with carbonaceous material. Finally we must note the uranium occurrence in the pleistocene carbonaceous shales of Antsirabe basin, in contact with crystalline rocks. (author) [French] A Madagascar, le premier cycle uranifere et thorifere bien caracterise se situe aux alentours de 500 millions d'annees. Auparavant, le thorium et l'uranium sont concentres de preference dans les zones granitiques et charnockites sous forme de monazite, apatite ou zircon. Vers la fin du Precambrien, se produisent des granitisations metasomatiques, surtout dans les zones anticlinales (type Andriba a orthite). La fin de cette granitisation s'accompagne de la formation des principaux champs pegmatitiques de l'Ile a niobotantalates uraniferes, uraninite et beryl, qui se developpent de preference dans les series synclinales peu ou pas migmatisees. A cette meme epoque s

  4. Keeping the clock set under the midnight sun : diurnal periodicity and synchrony of avian Isospora parasites cycle in the High Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolnik, Olga V.; Metzger, Benjamin J.; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    For Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) parasites of passerine birds, diurnal periodicity of oocyst output is a well-described phenomenon. From the temporal zone to the tropics, oocyst production is correlated with the light-dark cycle, peaking in the afternoon hours. However, nothing is known about the

  5. "I like the way you move": how hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle affect female perceptions of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rick; Herbert, Natasha

    2012-08-21

    Variations in hormone concentrations across the menstrual cycle affect human female mate preferences. It has been shown that around the time of ovulation human females prefer more masculine male voices, faces, and bodies while simultaneously preferring less faces that are more feminine. They prefer also displays of male dominance, males with more symmetrical faces, and the scent of males with high levels of body symmetry. The aim of the experiments reported here was to investigate whether there are changes in female preferences for walking gaits across the menstrual cycle. Experiment 1 showed female observers could discriminate between point-light walkers with low and high levels of fluctuating asymmetries in their gaits. Female observers were more sensitive to asymmetries in female gaits than they were for asymmetries in male gaits. Experiment 2 showed that level of gait asymmetry did not affect the abilities of observers to discriminate female from male walkers. Experiment 3 showed that female observers did not change their preference for low and high asymmetry walkers across their menstrual cycles. However, females showed a decreased preference for all female walkers at the time during which it was estimated observers were at peak fertility. That same change in preference was not observed for male walkers. These data suggest female observers may not value gait asymmetry, as a mate selection cue, in the same way that they value asymmetries in faces and bodies. While only "average" gaits were used in these experiments, rather than the gaits of individual walkers, the types of asymmetries in gait tested here were not used in the same way as static cues for judging the apparent healthiness of individuals. Females do discriminate well average female gait asymmetries and do change their preferences for those gaits across their menstrual cycle. Doing so may reflect the operation of processes that equip females with an advantage when competing for mates at times of peak

  6. Factors affecting {sup 223}Ra therapy: clinical experience after 532 cycles from a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchebehere, Elba C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Campinas State University (Unicamp), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Campinas (Brazil); Milton, Denai R. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Araujo, John C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Swanston, Nancy M.; Macapinlac, Homer A.; Rohren, Eric M. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to identify baseline features that predict outcome in {sup 223}Ra therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 110 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with {sup 223}Ra. End points were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), bone event-free survival (BeFS), and bone marrow failure (BMF). The following parameters were evaluated prior to the first {sup 223}Ra cycle: serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, pain score, use of chemotherapy, and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). During/after {sup 223}Ra we evaluated: the total number of radium cycles (Ra{sub Tot}), the PSA doubling time (PSA{sub DT}), and the use of chemotherapy, EBRT, abiraterone, and enzalutamide. A significant reduction of ALP (p < 0.001) and pain score (p = 0.041) occurred throughout the {sup 223} Ra cycles. The risk of progression was associated with declining ECOG status [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.79; p < 0.001] and decrease in PSA{sub DT} (HR = 8.22; p < 0.001). Ra{sub Tot}, ALP, initial ECOG status, initial pain score, and use of abiraterone were associated with OS (p ≤ 0.008), PFS (p ≤ 0.003), and BeFS (p ≤ 0.020). Ra{sub Tot}, ALP, initial ECOG status, and initial pain score were significantly associated with BMF (p ≤ 0.001) as well as Hb (p < 0.001) and EBRT (p = 0.009). On multivariable analysis, only Ra{sub Tot} and abiraterone remained significantly associated with OS (p < 0.001; p = 0.033, respectively), PFS (p < 0.001; p = 0.041, respectively), and BeFS (p < 0.001; p = 0.019, respectively). Additionally, Ra{sub Tot} (p = 0.027) and EBRT (p = 0.013) remained significantly associated with BMF. Concomitant use of abiraterone and {sup 223}Ra seems to have a beneficial effect, while the EBRT may increase the risk of BMF. (orig.)

  7. Understanding the Cycle of Military Deployment: How It Affects Young Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of children and families experiencing military life and affected by deployment are astounding. Many children who have an uncle, aunt, brother, or other family member serving in the military live near a military duty station, but others live far from other military families. Caregivers and teachers of young children share a common…

  8. Rheum emodin inhibits enterovirus 71 viral replication and affects the host cell cycle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ying; Wang, Zeng-Yan; Wang, Yue; Song, Feng-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Yu, Jing-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative agent of recent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia. Currently, there are no drugs available for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. In this study, we compared the anti-EV71 activities of three natural compounds, rheum emodin, artemisinin and astragaloside extracted from Chinese herbs Chinese rhubarb, Artemisia carvifolia and Astragalus, respectively, which have been traditionally used for the treatment and prevention of epidemic diseases. Human lung fibroblast cell line MRC5 was mock-infected or infected with EV71, and treated with drugs. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was detected with MTT assay. The cytopathic effects such as cell death and condensed nuclei were morphologically observed. The VP1-coding sequence required for EV71 genome replication was assayed with qRT-PCR. Viral protein expression was analyzed with Western blotting. Viral TCID50 was determined to evaluate EV71 virulence. Flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide staining was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution of MRC5 cells. Rheum emodin (29.6 μmol/L) effectively protected MRC5 cells from EV71-induced cytopathic effects, which resulted from the inhibiting viral replication: rheum emodin treatment decreased viral genomic levels by 5.34-fold, viral protein expression by less than 30-fold and EV71 virulence by 0.33107-fold. The fact that inhibition of rheum emodin on viral virulence was much stronger than its effects on genomic levels and viral protein expression suggested that rheum emodin inhibited viral maturation. Furthermore, rheum emodin treatment markedly diminished cell cycle arrest at S phase in MRC5 cells, which was induced by EV71 infection and favored the viral replication. In contrast, neither astragaloside (50 μmol/L) nor artemisinin (50 μmol/L) showed similar anti-EV71 activities. Among the three natural compounds tested, rheum emodin effectively suppressed EV71 viral replication

  9. Caffeine Affects Time to Exhaustion and Substrate Oxidation during Cycling at Maximal Lactate Steady State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of caffeine intake on whole-body substrate metabolism and exercise tolerance during cycling by using a more individualized intensity for merging the subjects into homogeneous metabolic responses (the workload associated with the maximal lactate steady state—MLSS. MLSS was firstly determined in eight active males (25 ± 4 years, 176 ± 7 cm, 77 ± 11 kg using from two to four constant-load tests of 30 min. On two following occasions, participants performed a test until exhaustion at the MLSS workload 1 h after taking either 6 mg/kg of body mass of caffeine or placebo (dextrose, in a randomized, double-blinded manner. Respiratory exchange ratio was calculated from gas exchange measurements. There was an improvement of 22.7% in time to exhaustion at MLSS workload following caffeine ingestion (95% confidence limits of ±10.3%, p = 0.002, which was accompanied by decrease in respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.001. These results reinforce findings indicating that sparing of the endogenous carbohydrate stores could be one of the several physiological effects of caffeine during submaximal performance around 1 h.

  10. DNA Damage during G2 Phase Does Not Affect Cell Cycle Progression of the Green Alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase. PMID:21603605

  11. DNA damage during G2 phase does not affect cell cycle progression of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hlavová

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase.

  12. Supporting high-technology systems during periods of extended life-cycles by means of integrated logistics support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert, K. R.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is constantly changing. For organisations to gain competitive advantage, they require innovative methods to achieve future business goals. The capital assets of an organisation, such as its high-technology, complex systems, typically have long life-cycles, and are susceptible to obsolescence, requiring multifaceted support. Implementing integrated logistic support principles in supporting such systems improves the organisation’s bottom line and reduces the total ownership and life-cycle costs. The research consists of a literature review, a case study analysis, and a questionnaire.

  13. Gonotrophic cycle duration, fecundity and parity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes during an extended period of dry weather in a semi arid area in Baringo County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert O. Mala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An entomological longitudinal survey was carried out over a 22 month period in two semi-arid villages in Baringo District in Kenya to study how adult malaria vectors survive under semi-arid conditions and during extended periods of dry weather. Methods Wild caught female mosquitoes were dissected to examine ovarian lobes for parity status and to determine number of gonotrophic cycles they had undergone. Duration of the first and second gonotrophic cycles were estimated using cage-reared F1 females. Blood-fed females were kept individually in plastic vials and percent oviposition incidence recorded. Results Significantly fewer mosquitoes laid eggs during the dry than the wet season. The average duration of the first gonotrophic cycle in the wet season was 4.1 d after blood feeding, 1.1 d (36% longer than the dry season (3.0 d. The average duration of the second gonotrophic cycle in the wet season was 2.9 d after second blood meal, 0.7 d (31.8% longer than those in the dry season. Chi-square tests showed the gonotrophic cycle duration was significantly shorter during the dry than the wet season. Both gonotrophic cycle duration and physiological age varied significantly between wet and dry seasons. Conclusion These findings suggest the duration of gonotrophic cycle among Anopheles gambiae in dry lands with scarce breeding sites is shorter during the dry than wet season. Low fecundity rates during the dry season could be a sign of reduced reproductive activity. However lack of variation in seasonal mating frequency is a clear indication that oviposition and mating kinetics are influenced differently even under the same environmental conditions. It is likely that the results of this study will shed an understanding on spatial and temporal heterogeneities experienced in malaria transmission in semi-arid regions of the world where malaria and indeed mosquito-borne diseases are a public health menace.

  14. Embryo quality is the main factor affecting cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in fresh stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Veleva, Zdravka; Martikainen, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate which factors affect the cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in women younger than 36 years. Additionally, number of children in women with more than one delivery per ovum pick-up after fresh elective single embryo transfer and subsequent frozen embryo transfers was assessed. Retrospective cohort study analysing data of a university hospital's infertility clinic in 2001-2010. A total of 739 IVF/ICSI cycles with elective single embryo transfer were included. Analyses were made per ovum pick-up including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers. Factors affecting cumulative live birth rates were examined in uni- and multivariate analyses. A secondary endpoint was the number of children born after all treatments. In the fresh cycles, the live birth rate was 29.2% and the cumulative live birth rate was 51.3%, with a twin rate of 3.4%. In the multivariate analysis, having two (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.67) or ≥3 top embryos (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.79-3.95) was associated with higher odds for live birth after fresh and frozen embryo cycles. Age, body mass index, duration of infertility, diagnosis or total gonadotropin dose were not associated with the cumulative live birth rate. In cycles with one top embryo, the cumulative live birth rate was 40.2%, whereas it was 64.1% in those with at least three top embryos. Of women who had a live birth in the fresh cycle, 20.4% had more than one child after all frozen embryo transfers. Among women with three or more top embryos after ovum pick-up, 16.1% gave birth to more than one child. The cumulative live birth rate in this age group varies from 40% to 64% and is dependent on the quality of embryos. Women with three or more top embryos have good chance of having more than one child per ovum pick-up without elevated risk of multiple pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring global changes in nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in agriculture induced by livestock production over the 1900-2050 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lex; Van Der Hoek, Klaas W.; Beusen, Arthur H W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109357302; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Willems, Jaap; Rufino, Mariana C.; Stehfest, Elke; Klein Goldewijk, Kees|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/15867457X

    2013-01-01

    Crop-livestock production systems are the largest cause of human alteration of the global nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles. Our comprehensive spatially explicit inventory of N and P budgets in livestock and crop production systems shows that in the beginning of the 20th century, nutrient

  16. Trace metal partitioning over a tidal cycle in an estuary affected by acid mine drainage (Tinto estuary, SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, A. [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Olías, M., E-mail: manuel.olias@dgyp.uhu.es [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Cánovas, C.R. [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Martín, J.E.; Bolivar, J.P. [Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    The Tinto River estuary is highly polluted with the acid lixiviates from old sulphide mines. In this work the behaviour of dissolved and particulate trace metals under strong chemical gradients during a tidal cycle is studied. The pH values range from 4.4 with low tide to 6.9 with high tide. Precipitation of Fe and Al is intense during rising tides and As and Pb are almost exclusively found in the particulate matter (PM). Sorption processes are very important in controlling the mobility (and hence bioavailability) of some metals and particularly affect Cu below pH 6. Above pH ∼ 6 Cu is desorbed, probably by the formation of Cu(I)–chloride complexes. Although less pronounced than Cu, also Zn desorption above pH 6.5 seems to occur. Mn and Co are affected by sorption processes at pH higher than ca. 6. Cd behaves conservatively and Ni is slightly affected by sorption processes. - Highlights: • The Tinto estuary shows strong pH gradients and high trace elements concentrations. • PM has a hysteretic relationship with tides and high contents of Fe, Al, As and Pb. • Co and Mn are controlled by river and sea water mixing and sorption processes. • Sorption processes strongly affect Cu below pH 6, above this value Cu is desorpted. • Cadmium behaves conservatively along the pH range studied (4.4–6.9)

  17. Levels of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines, and most trienoate-containing polar lipid molecular species increase during the dark period of the diurnal cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMaatta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that plant leaf polar lipid fatty acid composition varies during the diurnal (dark-light cycle. Fatty acid synthesis occurs primarily during the light, but fatty acid desaturation continues in the absence of light, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids reaching their highest levels toward the end of the dark period. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana were grown at constant (21°C temperature with 12-h light and 12-h dark periods. Collision induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that 16:3 and 18:3 fatty acid content in membrane lipids of leaves are higher at the end of the dark than at the end of the light period, while 16:1, 16:2, 18:0, and 18:1 content are higher at the end of the light period. Lipid profiling of membrane galactolipids, phospholipids, and lysophospholipids by electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry indicated that the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine classes include molecular species whose levels are highest at end of the light period and others that are highest at the end of the dark period. The levels of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine classes were higher at the end of the dark period, and molecular species within these classes either followed the class pattern or were not significantly changed in the diurnal cycle. Phospholipase D (PLD is a family of enzymes that hydrolyzes phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid. Analysis of several PLD mutant lines suggests that PLDζ2 and possibly PLDα1 may contribute to diurnal cycling of phosphatidic acid. The polar lipid compositional changes are considered in relation to recent data that demonstrate phosphatidylcholine acyl editing.

  18. Terpenoids inhibit Candida albicans growth by affecting membrane integrity and arrest of cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zore, Gajanan B; Thakre, Archana D; Jadhav, Sitaram; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-10-15

    Anti-Candida potential of six terpenoids were evaluated in this study against various isolates of Candida albicans (n=39) and non-C. albicans (n=9) that are differentially susceptible to fluconazole. All the six terpenoids tested, showed excellent activity and were equally effective against isolates of Candida sps., tested in this study. Linalool and citral were the most effective ones, inhibiting all the isolates at ≤0.064% (v/v). Five among the six terpenoids tested were fungicidal. Time dependent kill curve assay showed that MFCs of linalool and eugenol were highly toxic to C. albicans, killing 99.9% inoculum within seven min of exposure, while that of citronellal, linalyl acetate and citral required 15min, 1h and 2h, respectively. FIC index values (Linalool - 0.140, benzyl benzoate - 0.156, eugenol - 0.265, citral - 0.281 and 0.312 for linalyl acetate and citronellal) and isobologram obtained by checker board assay showed that all the six terpenoids tested exhibit excellent synergistic activity with fluconazole against a fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans. Terpenoids tested arrested C. albicans cells at different phases of the cell cycle i.e. linalool and LA at G1, citral and citronellal at S phase and benzyl benzoate at G2-M phase and induced apoptosis. Linalool, citral, citronellal and benzyl benzoate caused more than 50% inhibition of germ tube induction at 0.008%, while eugenol and LA required 0.032 and 0.016% (v/v) concentrations, respectively. MICs of all the terpenoids for the C. albicans growth were non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested exhibited excellent activity against C. albicans yeast and hyphal form growth at the concentrations that are non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested in this study may find use in antifungal chemotherapy, not only as antifungal agents but also as synergistic agents along with conventional drugs like fluconazole. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Sources and Processes Affecting Fine Particulate Matter Pollution over North China: An Adjoint Analysis of the Beijing APEC Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Shao, Jingyuan; Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Yuanhong; Hu, Yongyun; Henze, Daven K; Liao, Hong; Gong, Sunling; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-16

    The stringent emission controls during the APEC 2014 (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit; November 5-11, 2014) offer a unique opportunity to quantify factors affecting fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China. Here we apply a four-dimensional variational data assimilation system using the adjoint model of GEOS-Chem to address this issue. Hourly surface measurements of PM2.5 and SO2 for October 15-November 14, 2014 are assimilated into the model to optimize daily aerosol primary and precursor emissions over North China. Measured PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing average 50.3 μg m(-3) during APEC, 43% lower than the mean concentration (88.2 μg m(-3)) for the whole period including APEC. Model results attribute about half of the reduction to meteorology due to active cold surge occurrences during APEC. Assimilation of surface measurements largely reduces the model biases and estimates 6%-30% lower aerosol emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during APEC than in late October. We further demonstrate that high PM2.5 events in Beijing during this period can be occasionally contributed by natural mineral dust, but more events show large sensitivities to inorganic aerosol sources, particularly emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) reflecting strong formation of aerosol nitrate in the fall season.

  20. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pmetabolic flexibility was unaffected by refeeding at 50% CHO but clearly impaired by 65% CHO diet (Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  1. Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Teixeira, C M; Mahadevia, D; Huang, Y; Balsam, D; Mann, J J; Gingrich, J A; Ansorge, M S

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypoactivity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (>P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction.

  2. Differences in Corneal Parameters Between Affected and Normal Contralateral Eyes in Patients With Hemifacial Spasm Treated With Botulinum Toxin-A: Outcomes During One Complete Treatment Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Teissy; Osaki, Midori H; Osaki, Tammy H; Hirai, Flavio E; Campos, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    To investigate possible temporary differences in corneal topographic parameters between affected and normal eyes in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) treated with botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A), over the course of 1 treatment cycle. This prospective study evaluated corneal topographic differences between affected and normal contralateral eyes during a 4-month period in patients with HFS treated with BTX-A (the duration of action of BTX-A for HFS ranges from 2 to 4 months). Corneal topographic analysis was performed using a conventional topographer (Atlas; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Steep K and astigmatism measurements were evaluated before BTX-A application and after 15 days and 2, 3, and 4 months. Twenty-four patients (16 women and 8 men) were evaluated. Steep K [46.9 ± 3.6 diopters (D)] and astigmatism values (2.6 ± 2.5 D) were significantly higher in affected eyes of HFS patients than in nonaffected eyes (45.0 ± 1.4 D and 0.9 ± 0.6 D) before treatment (P = 0.001 for steep K and P = 0.0003 for astigmatism). Astigmatism values also showed significant differences between the affected eye (1.4 ± 0.8 D) and nonaffected eye (0.9 ± 0.6 D) at 4 months (P = 0.006), whereas steep K showed significant differences between both eyes at 15 days (affected eye: 45.6 ± 1.5 D, nonaffected eye: 45.0 ± 1.4 D, P = 0.008), 3 months (affected eye: 45.6 ± 1.8 D, nonaffected eye: 45.1 ± 1.3 D, P = 0.03) and 4 months (affected eye: 45.8 ± 1.2 D, nonaffected eye: 45.1 ± 1.4 D, P = 0.003) after treatment. The differences in steep K, and especially in astigmatism values, between eyes tended to reduce during the period of action of BTX-A. At 4 months, when the BTX-A effect is considered to be over or very reduced, a significant difference between eyes for both parameters was noted again.

  3. E2F1-mediated upregulation of p19INK4d determines its periodic expression during cell cycle and regulates cellular proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel L Carcagno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A central aspect of development and disease is the control of cell proliferation through regulation of the mitotic cycle. Cell cycle progression and directionality requires an appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators whose expression must fluctuate in a coordinated manner. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors, has a unique feature that distinguishes it from the remaining INK4 and makes it a likely candidate for contributing to the directionality of the cell cycle. p19INK4d mRNA and protein levels accumulate periodically during the cell cycle under normal conditions, a feature reminiscent of cyclins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate that p19INK4d is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1 through two response elements present in the p19INK4d promoter. Ablation of this regulation reduced p19 levels and restricted its expression during the cell cycle, reflecting the contribution of a transcriptional effect of E2F1 on p19 periodicity. The induction of p19INK4d is delayed during the cell cycle compared to that of cyclin E, temporally separating the induction of these proliferative and antiproliferative target genes. Specific inhibition of the E2F1-p19INK4d pathway using triplex-forming oligonucleotides that block E2F1 binding on p19 promoter, stimulated cell proliferation and increased the fraction of cells in S phase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results described here support a model of normal cell cycle progression in which, following phosphorylation of pRb, free E2F induces cyclin E, among other target genes. Once cyclinE/CDK2 takes over as the cell cycle driving kinase activity, the induction of p19 mediated by E2F1 leads to inhibition of the CDK4,6-containing complexes, bringing the G1 phase to an end. This regulatory mechanism constitutes a new negative feedback loop that terminates the G1 phase proliferative signal, contributing to the proper coordination of the cell

  4. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status.

  5. Periodization Training Focused on Technical-Tactical Ability in Young Soccer Players Positively Affects Biochemical Markers and Game Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Q T Aquino, Rodrigo; Cruz Gonçalves, Luiz G; Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; Oliveira, Lucas P; Alves, Guilherme F; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Puggina, Enrico F

    2016-10-01

    Aquino, RLQT, Cruz Gonçalves, LG, Palucci Vieira, LH, Oliveira, LP, Alves, GF, Pereira Santiago, PR, and Puggina, EF. Periodization training focused on technical-tactical ability in young soccer players positively affects biochemical markers and game performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2723-2732, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 22 weeks of periodized training, with an emphasis on technical-tactical ability, on indirect markers of muscle damage, and the on-field performance of young soccer players. Fifteen players (age 15.4 ± 0.2 years, height 172.8 ± 3.6 cm; body mass 61.9 ± 2.9 kg; % fat 11.7 ± 1.6; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 48.67 ± 3.24 ml·kg·min) underwent 4 stages of evaluation: prepreparatory stage-T0; postpreparatory stage-T1; postcompetitive stage I-T2 and; postcompetitive stage II-T3. The plasmatic activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated, as well as the on-field performance (movement patterns, tactical variables). Regarding the plasmatic activity of CK and LDH, there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the periodization training (T0: 350 U·L; T3: 150 U·L). Significant increases were observed (p ≤ 0.05) in the intensity of the game, high-intensity activities (HIA) (T0: 22%; T3: 27%), maximum speed (T0: 30 km·h; T3: 34 km·h) and tactical performance, team surface area (T0: 515 m; T3: 683 m), and spread (T0: 130 m; T3: 148 m). In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between the percentage variation of T0 to T3 in CK and LDH activities with percentage variation in high-intensity running (r = -0.85; p ≤ 0.05 and r = -0.84; p muscle damage, as well as increases in-game high-intensity performance and the tactical performance of the study participants. Furthermore, players who showed greater reduction in plasma activity of CK and LDH also obtained greater increases in-game high-intensity performance along the periodization. These results may

  6. Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale-tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almazán Consuelo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, undergoes a developmental cycle in ticks that begins in gut cells. Transmission to cattle occurs from salivary glands during a second tick feeding. At each site of development two forms of A. marginale (reticulated and dense occur within a parasitophorous vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm. However, the role of tick genes in pathogen development is unknown. Four genes, found in previous studies to be differentially expressed in Dermacentor variabilis ticks in response to infection with A. marginale, were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi to determine the effect of silencing on the A. marginale developmental cycle. These four genes encoded for putative glutathione S-transferase (GST, salivary selenoprotein M (SelM, H+ transporting lysosomal vacuolar proton pump (vATPase and subolesin. Results The impact of gene knockdown on A. marginale tick infections, both after acquiring infection and after a second transmission feeding, was determined and studied by light microscopy. Silencing of these genes had a different impact on A. marginale development in different tick tissues by affecting infection levels, the densities of colonies containing reticulated or dense forms and tissue morphology. Salivary gland infections were not seen in any of the gene-silenced ticks, raising the question of whether these ticks were able to transmit the pathogen. Conclusion The results of this RNAi and light microscopic analyses of tick tissues infected with A. marginale after the silencing of genes functionally important for pathogen development suggest a role for these molecules during pathogen life cycle in ticks.

  7. Shift of effective lightning areas during pre to post period of solar cycle minimum of 2008-2009 as determined from Schumann resonance studies at Agra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birbal Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Employing a set of 3-component search coil magnetometer, Schumann resonance studies have been in progress at Agra (Geograph. lat. 27.2°N, long. 78°E, India since 01 April, 2007. We have analysed the data for two periods; first from 01 April, 2007 to 31 March, 2008 (period-I, and then from 01 March, 2011 to 29 February, 2012 (period-II which correspond to pre and post periods of solar cycle minimum of 2008-2009. From the diurnal variation of first mode intensity and frequency, we study the seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity, effective source distance and level of lightning during both the periods. We show that world thunderstorm activity shifts to summer in the northern hemisphere as the effective source distance approaches close to the observer, and the level of intense lightning shifts from the month of July, 2007 in period-I to August, 2011 in period-II. This is supported by Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS satellite data also. A possible explanation in terms of increasing solar activity is suggested.

  8. Ocean acidification affects redox-balance and ion-homeostasis in the life-cycle stages of Emiliania huxleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D Rokitta

    Full Text Available Ocean Acidification (OA has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO(2 partial pressures (pCO(2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO(2 under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1. Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects

  9. Nitrogen deposition may enhance soil carbon storage via change of soil respiration dynamic during a spring freeze-thaw cycle period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoyong; Xing, Yajuan; Xu, Lijian; Wang, Jianyu; Meng, Wei; Wang, Qinggui; Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Zhidong; Jiang, Siling; Liu, Boqi; Han, Shijie

    2016-06-30

    As crucial terrestrial ecosystems, temperate forests play an important role in global soil carbon dioxide flux, and this process can be sensitive to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. It is often reported that the nitrogen addition induces a change in soil carbon dioxide emission in growing season. However, the important effects of interactions between nitrogen deposition and the freeze-thaw-cycle have never been investigated. Here we show nitrogen deposition delays spikes of soil respiration and weaken soil respiration. We found the nitrogen addition, time and nitrogen addition×time exerted the negative impact on the soil respiration of spring freeze-thaw periods due to delay of spikes and inhibition of soil respiration (p nitrogen), 39% (medium-nitrogen) and 36% (high-nitrogen) compared with the control. And the decrease values of soil respiration under medium- and high-nitrogen treatments during spring freeze-thaw-cycle period in temperate forest would be approximately equivalent to 1% of global annual C emissions. Therefore, we show interactions between nitrogen deposition and freeze-thaw-cycle in temperate forest ecosystems are important to predict global carbon emissions and sequestrations. We anticipate our finding to be a starting point for more sophisticated prediction of soil respirations in temperate forests ecosystems.

  10. Nitrogen Cycle Modeling: a Mechanistic Estimate of N-losses From Agricultural Fields Over the Seasonal Time Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Venterea, R.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen and production of NO, N2O, and CO2 gas and NO2- and NO3- ions in nutrient-enriched agricultural fields is mediated by soil microbial activity, the hydrological cycle, plant dynamics, and climatic forcing. Understanding how NO, N2O, CO2 gases and NO2- and NO3- ions are released from agricultural fields to the environment is a key factor in controlling the green-house effect and water contamination, and assumes ever greater importance in view of the foreseen increase in biofuel, food, and fiber production. To address these issues we have developed a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) for various nitrification and denitrification pathways, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, heat and water flows, and various chemical reactions at local and kinetic equilibrium. The soil column is represented in a 1D framework, with hydraulic properties described by a water tension-saturation model. Biotic and abiotic reactions are assumed to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, while a consortium of several micro-organismal strains is assumed to follow multiple Monod growth kinetics accounting for electron donor, electron acceptor, and inhibitor concentrations. Water flow is modeled with the Darcy-Richards equation, while nutrient transport is modeled by Fickian advective and diffusive processes in both gaseous and liquid phases. Heat flow is modeled with the Fourier equation. Plant dynamics is taken into account by coupling TOUGHREACT-N with CERES to determine water and nutrient uptake, and soil carbon accumulation. TOUGHREACT-N was calibrated against field measurements to assess pathways of N losses following fertilization. A good agreement between field observations and model predictions was found. We identified two dominant time scales in the system response that depended on plants dynamics. Before plants have substantial impact on soil nutrients and moisture content, N losses are characterized by rapid increases as a function of water application

  11. National plan of quotas assignment. 2005-2007 reference period; Plan national d'affectation des quotas. Periode de reference 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document described the national plan of greenhouse gases quotas allocation, in application of the directive 2003/87/CE. Data and results presented could well be modified in particular in function of corrective demands proposed by the owners since the beginning of the public consulting to the notification of the affected quotas quantity. It presents in seven chapters the determination of the final quotas quantity, the determination of the final quotas quantity per each activity sectors and per installation, the technical aspects, the community policy and legislation, the public consultation and other criteria analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. c-fos mRNA is spontaneously induced in the rat brain during the activity period of the circadian cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Zucconi, G; Menegazzi, M; De Prati, A C; Bassetti, A; Montagnese, P; Mandile, P; Cosi, C; Bentivoglio, M

    1993-08-01

    The basal expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos was studied by Northern blot analysis in different regions of the rat brain during 24 h. A striking spontaneous oscillation of c-fos mRNA expression was detected in animals kept in basal conditions with a 12 h light/12 h dark cycle. In these animals c-fos mRNA was just detectable during the rest hours (morning through afternoon), and was high during the activity hours (night). The periodicity of this oscillation persisted and became free-running when the animals were exposed for 6 consecutive days to constant light or darkness. It was thus demonstrated that the fluctuation of c-fos expression is circadian and is not created by the light-dark cycle, but the latter exerts a synchronizing effect. The oscillation of c-fos mRNA was modified by manipulations of the rest-activity cycle. In particular, the fluctuation observed in basal conditions was inverted, keeping the animals awake during the rest hours (diurnal) and allowing them to sleep in the activity period (nocturnal). These data indicated a close relationship between the oscillation of c-fos expression and the rest-activity cycle. Finally, electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed under behavioural control for 3 h before the animals were killed. These experiments confirmed that, irrespective of the time of day, the EEG pattern typical of a state of sleep (including both slow waves and paradoxical sleep) was associated with low or undetectable c-fos levels, whereas the protracted EEG desynchronization corresponding to wakefulness was associated with high c-fos expression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Electric stimulation of the tuberomamillary nucleus affects epileptic activity and sleep-wake cycle in a genetic absence epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blik, Vitaliya

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach for epilepsy treatment, but the optimal targets and parameters of stimulation are yet to be investigated. Tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) is involved in EEG desynchronization-one of the proposed mechanisms for DBS action. We studied whether TMN stimulation could interfere with epileptic spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats with inherited absence epilepsy and whether such stimulation would affect sleep-wake cycle. EEG and video registration were used to determine SWD occurrence and stages of sleep and wake during three-hours recording sessions. Stimulation (100Hz) was applied in two modes: closed-loop (with previously determined interruption threshold intensity) or open-loop mode (with 50% or 70% threshold intensity). Closed-loop stimulation successfully interrupted SWDs but elevated their number by 148 ± 54% compared to baseline. It was accompanied by increase in number of episodes but not total duration of both active and passive wakefulness. Open-loop stimulation with amplitude 50% threshold did not change measured parameters, though 70% threshold stimulation reduced SWDs number by 40 ± 9%, significantly raised the amount of active wakefulness and decreased the amount of both slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that the TMN is unfavorable as a target for DBS as its stimulation may cause alterations in sleep-wake cycle. A careful choosing of parameters and control of sleep-wake activity is necessary when applying DBS in epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The public health impact of economic fluctuations in a Latin American country: mortality and the business cycle in Colombia in the period 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, Ivan; Hessel, Philipp; Burdorf, Alex; Rodriguez-Garcia, Jesus; Cardona, Doris; Avendaño, Mauricio

    2015-05-27

    Studies in high-income countries suggest that mortality is related to economic cycles, but few studies have examined how fluctuations in the economy influence mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We exploit regional variations in gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) over the period 1980-2010 in Colombia to examine how changes in economic output relate to adult mortality. Data on the number of annual deaths at ages 20 years and older (n = 3,506,600) from mortality registries, disaggregated by age groups, sex and region, were linked to population counts for the period 1980-2010. We used region fixed effect models to examine whether changes in regional GDPpc were associated with changes in mortality. We carried out separate analyses for the periods 1980-1995 and 2000-2010 as well as by sex, distinguishing three age groups: 20-44 (predominantly young working adults), 45-64 (middle aged working adults), and 65+ (senior, predominantly retired individuals). The association between regional economic conditions and mortality varied by period and age groups. From 1980 to 1995, increases in GDPpc were unrelated to mortality at ages 20 to 64, but they were associated with reductions in mortality for senior men. In contrast, from 2000 to 2010, changes in GDPpc were not associated with old age mortality, while an increase in GDPpc was associated with a decline in mortality at ages 20-44 years. Analyses restricted to regions with high registration coverage yielded similar albeit less precise estimates for most sub-groups. The relationship between business cycles and mortality varied by period and age in Colombia. Most notably, mortality shifted from being acyclical to being countercyclical for males aged 20-44, while it shifted from being countercyclical to being acyclical for males aged 65+.

  15. CLOCKWORK ORANGE Enhances PERIOD Mediated Rhythms in Transcriptional Repression by Antagonizing E-box Binding by CLOCK-CYCLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes. PER rhythmically binds CLK-CYC to initiate transcriptional repression, and subsequently promotes the removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes. However, little is known about the mechanism by which CLK-CYC is removed from DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that the transcription repressor CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO contributes to core feedback loop function by repressing per and tim transcription in cultured S2 cells and in flies. Here we show that CWO rhythmically binds E-boxes upstream of core clock genes in a reciprocal manner to CLK, thereby promoting PER-dependent removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes, and maintaining repression until PER is degraded and CLK-CYC displaces CWO from E-boxes to initiate transcription. These results suggest a model in which CWO co-represses CLK-CYC transcriptional activity in conjunction with PER by competing for E-box binding once CLK-CYC-PER complexes have formed. Given that CWO orthologs DEC1 and DEC2 also target E-boxes bound by CLOCK-BMAL1, a similar mechanism may operate in the mammalian clock.

  16. CLOCKWORK ORANGE Enhances PERIOD Mediated Rhythms in Transcriptional Repression by Antagonizing E-box Binding by CLOCK-CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Wangjie; Hardin, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes. PER rhythmically binds CLK-CYC to initiate transcriptional repression, and subsequently promotes the removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes. However, little is known about the mechanism by which CLK-CYC is removed from DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that the transcription repressor CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO) contributes to core feedback loop function by repressing per and tim transcription in cultured S2 cells and in flies. Here we show that CWO rhythmically binds E-boxes upstream of core clock genes in a reciprocal manner to CLK, thereby promoting PER-dependent removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes, and maintaining repression until PER is degraded and CLK-CYC displaces CWO from E-boxes to initiate transcription. These results suggest a model in which CWO co-represses CLK-CYC transcriptional activity in conjunction with PER by competing for E-box binding once CLK-CYC-PER complexes have formed. Given that CWO orthologs DEC1 and DEC2 also target E-boxes bound by CLOCK-BMAL1, a similar mechanism may operate in the mammalian clock.

  17. Nutritional, Biophysical and Physiological Characteristics of Wild Rocket Genotypes As Affected by Soilless Cultivation System, Salinity Level of Nutrient Solution and Growing Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of defining the best management of nutrient solution (NS) in a soilless system for obtaining high quality baby-leaf rocket, the present study focuses on two wild rocket genotypes ("Nature" and "Naturelle"), grown in a greenhouse under two Southern Italy growing conditions-autumn-winter (AW) and winter-spring (WS)-using two soilless cultivation systems (SCS)-at two electrical conductivity values (EC) of NS. The SCSs used were the Floating System (FS) and Ebb and Flow System (EFS) and the EC values were 2.5 and 3.5 dS m(-1) (EC2.5; EC3.5) for the AW cycle and 3.5 and 4.5 dS m(-1) (EC3.5; EC4.5) for the WS cycle. The yield, bio-physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. Higher fresh (FY) (2.25 vs. 1.50 kg m(-2)) and dry (DY) (230.6 vs. 106.1 g m(-2)) weight yield, leaf firmness (dry matter, 104.3 vs. 83.2 g kg(-1) FW; specific leaf area, 34.8 vs. 24.2 g cm(-2)) and antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, 239.0 vs. 152.7 mg kg(-1) FW; total phenols, 997 vs. 450 mg GAE mg kg(-1) FW; total glucosinulates-GLSs, 1,078.8 vs. 405.7 mg kg(-1) DW; total antioxidant capacity-TAC, 11,534 vs. 8,637 μmol eq trolox kg(-1) FW) and lower nitrates (1,470 vs. 3,460 mg kg(-1) FW) were obtained under WS conditions. The seasonal differences were evident on the GLS profile: some aliphatic GLSs (gluconapoleiferin, glucobrassicanapin) and indolic 4-OH-glucobrassicin were only expressed in WS conditions, while indolic glucobrassicin was only detected in the AW period. Compared with EFS, FS improved leaf firmness, visual quality, antioxidant content (TAC, +11.6%) and reduced nitrate leaf accumulation (-37%). "Naturelle" performed better than "Nature" in terms of yield, visual quality and nutritional profile, with differences more evident under less favorable climatic conditions and when the cultivars were grown in FS. Compared to EC2.5, the EC3.5 treatment did not affect DY while enhancing firmness, visual quality, and antioxidant compounds (TAC, +8%), and

  18. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  19. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.wilson@fda.hhs.gov

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  20. Daily exposure to summer circadian cycles affects spermatogenesis, but not fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Torres-Mejia, Elen; Taberner, Ester; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Tusell, Llibertat; Ramon, Josep; Dalmau, Antoni; Piles, Miriam; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2015-01-15

    Heat stress (HS) in mammals is a determining factor in the deterioration of spermatogenesis and can cause infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous summer circadian cycles on semen production, sperm cell features, fertility, prolificacy, and fecal cortisol metabolites from rabbits kept under an in vivo HS model. We split randomly 60 New Zealand White rabbits into two temperature-controlled rooms: The control group was maintained at comfort temperature (18 °C-22 °C) and an HS group, where the environmental temperature was programmed to increase from 22 °C to 31 °C and be maintained for 3 hours to this temperature at the central part of the day. Fecal cortisol metabolites were assessed to evaluate the stress conditions. Seminal parameters were analyzed. Although animals exposed to HS showed higher values of fecal cortisol metabolites (P = 0.0003), no differences were detected in fertility or prolificacy. Semen samples from HS males showed a significant decrease (P natural conditions. Although negative effects have been detected in several sperm parameters, fertility and prolificacy were not affected, suggesting a recovery of the reproductive function when normal conditions are reestablished. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac myosin binding protein C phosphorylation affects cross-bridge cycle's elementary steps in a site-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Based on our recent finding that cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C phosphorylation affects muscle contractility in a site-specific manner, we further studied the force per cross-bridge and the kinetic constants of the elementary steps in the six-state cross-bridge model in cMyBP-C mutated transgenic mice for better understanding of the influence of cMyBP-C phosphorylation on contractile functions. Papillary muscle fibres were dissected from cMyBP-C mutated mice of ADA (Ala273-Asp282-Ala302, DAD (Asp273-Ala282-Asp302, SAS (Ser273-Ala282-Ser302, and t/t (cMyBP-C null genotypes, and the results were compared to transgenic mice expressing wide-type (WT cMyBP-C. Sinusoidal analyses were performed with serial concentrations of ATP, phosphate (Pi, and ADP. Both t/t and DAD mutants significantly reduced active tension, force per cross-bridge, apparent rate constant (2πc, and the rate constant of cross-bridge detachment. In contrast to the weakened ATP binding and enhanced Pi and ADP release steps in t/t mice, DAD mice showed a decreased ADP release without affecting the ATP binding and the Pi release. ADA showed decreased ADP release, and slightly increased ATP binding and cross-bridge detachment steps, whereas SAS diminished the ATP binding step and accelerated the ADP release step. t/t has the broadest effects with changes in most elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle, DAD mimics t/t to a large extent, and ADA and SAS predominantly affect the nucleotide binding steps. We conclude that the reduced tension production in DAD and t/t is the result of reduced force per cross-bridge, instead of the less number of strongly attached cross-bridges. We further conclude that cMyBP-C is an allosteric activator of myosin to increase cross-bridge force, and its phosphorylation status modulates the force, which is regulated by variety of protein kinases.

  2. Optimality of cycle time and inventory decisions in a two echelon inventory system with exponential price dependent demand under credit period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugon, Seelam; Nagaraju, Dega

    2017-05-01

    This work describes and proposes an two echelon inventory system under supply chain, where the manufacturer offers credit period to the retailer with exponential price dependent demand. The model is framed as demand is expressed as exponential function of retailer’s unit selling price. Mathematical model is framed to demonstrate the optimality of cycle time, retailer replenishment quantity, number of shipments, and total relevant cost of the supply chain. The major objective of the paper is to provide trade credit concept from the manufacturer to the retailer with exponential price dependent demand. The retailer would like to delay the payments of the manufacturer. At the first stage retailer and manufacturer expressions are expressed with the functions of ordering cost, carrying cost, transportation cost. In second stage combining of the manufacturer and retailer expressions are expressed. A MATLAB program is written to derive the optimality of cycle time, retailer replenishment quantity, number of shipments, and total relevant cost of the supply chain. From the optimality criteria derived managerial insights can be made. From the research findings, it is evident that the total cost of the supply chain is decreased with the increase in credit period under exponential price dependent demand. To analyse the influence of the model parameters, parametric analysis is also done by taking with help of numerical example.

  3. Evaluation of venous blood gas levels, blood chemistry and haemocytometric parameters in milk fed veal calves at different periods of livestock cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, S; Fiore, E; Sadocco, A; Gianesella, M; Vazzana, I; Orefice, T; Morgante, M

    2016-12-01

    An evaluation of blood chemistry profile in relation to specific stages of livestock cycle can help better understand variations in physiological conditions in order to adjust management systems to animal needs. In addition to basal hematological investigation, the acid-base balance and blood gases are essential tools in evaluating metabolism in calves. The relationship between blood gas parameters, diet and growth should be further investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in acid-base status, blood gases, serum chemistry and hematological parameters in veal calves at different periods of livestock cycle. One hundred twenty-eight healthy cross breeding calves were enrolled in a farm in North-East Italy. Blood samplings were carried out from the jugular vein on day 1 (t1), 60 (t2) and 150 (t3) after arrival. Blood gas analysis was performed and hematological parameters were evaluated. One-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test were performed to assess differences between blood parameter values at the different periods. The main differences in blood gas parameter levels during the livestock cycle concerned pH, Base Excess and HCO3 with higher values recorded in t3. Urea, creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and bilirubin mean values were significantly higher in t1 than in t2 and t3. Aspartate aminotransferase increased from t1 to t2 and t3. Alkaline Phosphatase was higher in t2. Fe levels severely dropped in t2 and in t3, and the decrease led to a restrained but significant reduction in haemoglobin values. A correspondent decrease in the other haemocytometric parameters was found.

  4. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  5. Dispersion of the intrinsic neuronal periods affects the relationship of the entrainment range to the coupling strength in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie; Wang, Man

    2017-11-01

    Living beings on the Earth are subjected to and entrained (synchronized) to the natural 24-h light-dark cycle. Interestingly, they can also be entrained to an external artificial cycle of non-24-h periods. The range of these periods is called the entrainment range and it differs among species. In mammals, the entrainment range is regulated by a main clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which is composed of 10 000 neurons in the brain. Previous works have found that the entrainment range depends on the cellular coupling strength in the SCN. In particular, the entrainment range decreases with the increase of the cellular coupling strength, provided that all the neuronal oscillators are identical. However, the SCN neurons differ in the intrinsic periods that follow a normal distribution in a range from 22 to 28 h. In the present study, taking the dispersion of the intrinsic neuronal periods into account, we examined the relationship between the entrainment range and the coupling strength. Results from numerical simulations and theoretical analyses both show that the relationship is altered to be paraboliclike if the intrinsic neuronal periods are nonidentical, and the maximal entrainment range is obtained with a suitable coupling strength. Our results shed light on the role of the cellular coupling in the entrainment ability of the SCN network.

  6. The Association between Short Periods of Everyday Life Activities and Affective States: A Replication Study Using Ambulatory Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, Thomas; Kanning, Martina; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Hey, Stefan; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity (PA) of 10 min or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal) in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA) was used to investigate the association between actual PA and affective states during the course of 1 day. Seventy-seven students ages 19-30 participated in the study. PA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = 0.001) and valence (p = 0.005) were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the 10-min prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants' positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students' calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 min or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  7. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  8. Retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with up-stream and down-stream trade credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Gour Chandra

    2015-03-01

    In practice, the supplier often offers the retailers a trade credit period and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit period to her/his customer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the retailer's perspective, granting trade credit not only increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the customer will not be able to pay off his/her debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase retailer's profitability. Also, the selling items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, pharmaceuticals and volatile liquids deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage. In this paper, we propose an economic order quantity model for the retailer where (1) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (2) the retailer's down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (3) the selling items are perishable. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the retailer's optimal replenishment decisions under the supply chain management. We then show that the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. We deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, we use some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.

  9. Multiple autoclave cycles affect the surface of rotary nickel-titanium files: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Caroline R A; Silva, Luciano P; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files after multiple autoclave cycles. Two different types of rotary Ni-Ti (Greater Taper and ProFile) were attached to a glass base. After 1, 5, and 10 autoclave cycles the files were positioned in the atomic force microscope. The analyses were performed on 15 different points. The same files were used as control before any autoclave cycle. The following vertical topographic parameters were measured: arithmetic mean roughness, maximum height, and root mean square. The differences were tested by analysis of variance with Tukey test. All topographic parameters were higher for both Greater Taper and ProFile after 10 cycles compared with the control (P autoclave cycles increase the depth of surface irregularities located on rotary Ni-Ti files.

  10. In vitro effects of both dopaminergic and enkephalinergic antagonists on the ovarian growth of Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda, Parastacidae), at different periods of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahansky, Alejandra Valeria; Medesani, Daniel Alberto; Chaulet, Anouk; Rodríguez, Enrique Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro effect of both spiperone (dopaminergic antagonist) and naloxone (enkephalinergic antagonist), was assayed on small pieces of ovary dissected from C. quadricarinatus females, with the eventual addition of some neuroendocrine organs, such as thoracic ganglion or eyestalk tissue. The incorporation of tritiated leucine by the ovary was measured in order to estimate the ovarian growth. During the post-reproductive period, both mentioned antagonists were able to significantly stimulate the ovary in the presence of thoracic ganglion, but did not produce any significant effect in the preparation containing ovary and eyestalk tissue, or only ovary. No significant effects of the assayed antagonists were noted during the pre-reproductive period. These results were in accordance with previous models describing the neuroendocrine control of crustacean reproduction, and represent new findings about the hormonal context in different periods of the reproductive cycle of crayfish. Besides, by means of the experimental combination of the tested antagonists with dopamine or met-enkephalin, a new model dealing with the interaction of these two neurotransmitters on the hormonal secretion of thoracic ganglion has been proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body weight cycling with identical diet composition does not affect energy balance and has no adverse affect on metabolic health parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, I.F.; Schram, Rianne; Swarts, J.J.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters measured,

  12. Fruit set and the effective pollination period in apple and pear as affected by bloom and post-bloom temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, J.; Borsboom, O.

    1996-01-01

    Under controlled temperature conditions fruit set and the effective pollination period (EPP) of pear cv. Doyenné du Comice and apple cv. Golden Delicious were studied at 4 temperature regimes, i.e. 13°(bloom)-13°C (post-bloom), 13–17, 17–17, and 17–13. The post-bloom temperature was applied from 1

  13. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and lactation affects mammary gland gene expression in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and reduce milk production when fed to lactating cows. However, we have shown this affect is temporal in that pre-partum consumption of inflected seed throughout the dry period does not inhibit subsequent milk productio...

  14. Glutamate availability is important in intramuscular amino acid metabolism and TCA cycle intermediates but does not affect peak oxidative metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, M.; Graham, T.E.; Gonzalez-Alonso, J.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle glutamate is central to reactions producing 2-oxoglutarate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate that essentially expands the TCA cycle intermediate pool during exercise. Paradoxically, muscle glutamate drops approximately 40-80% with the onset of exercise and 2-oxoglutarate...... declines in early exercise. To investigate the physiological relationship between glutamate, oxidative metabolism, and TCA cycle intermediates (i.e., fumarate, malate, 2-oxoglutarate), healthy subjects trained (T) the quadriceps of one thigh on the single-legged knee extensor ergometer (1 h/day at 70...... exercise under control conditions revealed a greater glutamate uptake in the T thigh compared with rest (7.3+/-3.7 vs. 1.0+/-0.1 micromol.min(-1).kg wet wt(-1), PTCA cycle intermediates. In the UT thigh, peak exercise (vs. rest) induced an increase in fumarate (0.33+/-0.07 vs. 0...

  15. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periods

    OpenAIRE

    Wunsch K; Kasten N; Fuchs R

    2017-01-01

    Kathrin Wunsch, Nadine Kasten, Reinhard Fuchs Department of Sport Science, Sport Psychology Unit, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Abstract: The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic) stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can ...

  16. Black bear femoral geometry and cortical porosity are not adversely affected by ageing despite annual periods of disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Miller, Danielle L; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Donahue, Seth W

    2007-02-01

    Disuse (i.e. inactivity) causes bone loss, and a recovery period that is 2-3 times longer than the inactive period is usually required to recover lost bone. However, black bears experience annual disuse (hibernation) and remobilization periods that are approximately equal in length, yet bears maintain or increase cortical bone material properties and whole bone mechanical properties with age. In this study, we investigated the architectural properties of bear femurs to determine whether cortical structure is preserved with age in bears. We showed that cross-sectional geometric properties increase with age, but porosity and resorption cavity density do not change with age in skeletally immature male and female bears. These findings suggest that structural properties substantially contribute to increasing whole bone strength with age in bears, particularly during skeletal maturation. Porosity was not different between skeletally immature and mature bears, and showed minimal regional variations between anatomical quadrants and radial positions that were similar in pattern and magnitude between skeletally immature and mature bears. We also found gender dimorphisms in bear cortical bone properties: females have smaller, less porous bones than males. Our results provide further support for the idea that black bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  17. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Brenzinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2 concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2. We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected eCO2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term eCO2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot, which were fumigated with eCO2 and aCO2, respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under eCO2 differed only slightly from soil under aCO2. Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% eCO2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling in the

  18. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzinger, Kristof; Kujala, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A; Moser, Gerald; Guillet, Cécile; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Braker, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations) at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE) sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2). We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected eCO2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term eCO2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing). Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot), which were fumigated with eCO2 and aCO2, respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under eCO2 differed only slightly from soil under aCO2. Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content) due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% eCO2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling in the soil but that

  19. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread......-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable...

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soil aggregation as affected by cultivation of various crops during the sugarcane fallow period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Viviane Truber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Management systems involving crop rotation, ground cover species and reduced soil tillage can improve the soil physical and biological properties and reduce degradation. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of various crops grown during the sugarcane fallow period on the production of glomalin and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Latosols, as well as their influence on soil aggregation. The experiment was conducted on an eutroferric Red Latosol with high-clay texture (680 g clay kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol with clayey texture (440 g kg-1 clay in Jaboticabal (São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block design involving five blocks and four crops [soybean (S, soybean/fallow/soybean (SFS, soybean/millet/soybean (SMS and soybean/sunn hemp/soybean (SHS] was used to this end. Soil samples for analysis were collected in June 2011. No significant differences in total glomalin production were detected between the soils after the different crops. However, total external mycelium length was greater in the soils under SMS and SHS. Also, there were differences in easily extractable glomalin, total glomalin and aggregate stability, which were all greater in the eutroferric Red Latosol than in the acric Red Latosol. None of the cover crops planted in the fallow period of sugarcane improved aggregate stability in either Latosol.

  1. Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol: a review of key factors and methods affecting calculated GHG emissions and energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Chu, Pei Lin; Simmonds, Allison; Mullins, Kimberley A; MacLean, Heather L; Griffin, W Michael; Saville, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline and conventional grain-based ethanol. Ethanol production 'pathways' need to meet economic and environmental goals. Numerous life cycle assessments of lignocellulosic ethanol have been published over the last 15 years, but gaps remain in understanding life cycle performance due to insufficient data, and model and methodological issues. We highlight key aspects of these issues, drawing on literature and a case study of corn stover ethanol. Challenges include the complexity of feedstock/ecosystems and market-mediated aspects and the short history of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol facilities, which collectively have led to uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates, and to debates on LCA methods and the role of uncertainty in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression or silencing of FOXO3a affects proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells and expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Sang

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been considered to be of great significance in therapeutic angiogenesis. Furthermore, the Forkhead box O (FOXO transcription factors are known to be important regulators of cell cycle. Therefore, we investigated the effects of changes in FOXO3a activity on cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins in EPCs. The constructed recombinant adenovirus vectors Ad-TM (triple mutant-FOXO3a, Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a and the control Ad-GFP were transfected into EPCs derived from human umbilical cord blood. Assessment of transfection efficiency using an inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry indicated a successful transfection. Additionally, the expression of FOXO3a was markedly increased in the Ad-TM-FOXO3a group but was inhibited in the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group as seen by western blotting. Overexpression of FOXO3a suppressed EPC proliferation and modulated expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins including upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1 and downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. In the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group, the results were counter-productive. Furthermore, flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis suggested that the active mutant of FOXO3a caused a noticeable increase in G1- and S-phase frequencies, while a decrease was observed after FOXO3a silencing. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that FOXO3a could possibly inhibit EPC proliferation via cell cycle arrest involving upregulation of p27(kip1 and downregulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and PCNA.

  3. How do changes in the Diurnal Cycle affect Bi-stability and Climate Sensitivity in the Habitable Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, R.; Valerio, L.

    2013-09-01

    In this study we deal with the effect of varying the length of the diurnal cycle on its bi-stability properties. By using a general circulation model, PlaSim, we consider several values for the diurnal cycle, from tidally locked, to that of 1 Earth day. For each value of the diurnal cycle, we slowly modulate the solar constant between 1510 and 1000 Wm-2 and perform a hysteresis experiment. It is found that the width of the bi-stable region, i.e. the range of climate states - determined here by changes in S* - which support two climatic attractors, reduces when the diurnal cycle is increased in length and disappears - signifying the merging of both attractors - for climates with a diurnal cycle greater than 180 days. Crucial to the loss of bi-stability is the longitudinally asymmetric distribution of solar radiation, incident on the planet's surface, leading to the development of equatorial sea-ice. For diurnal cycles where bi-stability is found, the longitudinally asymmetric heating is sufficiently compensated for by the strength of the zonal winds and the rate of solar distribution, which redistribute heat and maintain the meridional temperature gradient across all longitudes. Conversely, for mono-stable regimes, the energy transport associated with zonal winds becomes insufficient to compensate for the increase in the length of the diurnal cycle, resulting in large zonal temperature gradients along the equatorial band. Furthermore, the results found here confirm and reenforce the robustness of those found in Boschi et al (2013), showing that, for climates which support bistability, it may be possible to parameterise variables such as the material entropy production and the meridional heat transport in terms of the surface and emission temperatures, within reasonably well defined upper and lower bounds, even when considering a wide range of planetary rotation speeds and changes to the infrared opacity. This paves the way for the possibility of practically deducing

  4. How does socioeconomic development affect COPD mortality? An age-period-cohort analysis from a recently transitioned population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Little is known about the effects of economic development on COPD mortality, although economic development may potentially have positive and negative influences over the life course on COPD. We took advantage of a unique population whose rapid and recent economic development is marked by changes at clearly delineated and identifiable time points, and where few women smoke, to examine the effect of macro-level events on COPD mortality. METHODS: We used Poisson regression to decompose sex-specific COPD mortality rates in Hong Kong from 1981 to 2005 into the effects of age, period and cohort. RESULTS: COPD mortality declined strongly over generations for people born from the early to mid 20th century, which was particularly evident for the first generation to grow up in a more economically developed environment for both sexes. Population wide COPD mortality decreased when air quality improved and increased with increasing air pollution. COPD mortality increased with age, particularly after menopause among women. CONCLUSIONS: Economic development may reduce vulnerability to COPD by reducing long-lasting insults to the respiratory system, such as infections, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution. However, some of these gains may be offset if economic development results in increasing air pollution or increasing smoking.

  5. Chlorpyrifos Exposure During Perinatal Period Affects Intestinal Microbiota Associated With Delay of Maturation of Digestive Tract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly Condette, Claire; Bach, Véronique; Mayeur, Camille; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida

    2015-07-01

    Pesticide exposure via residues in food may be especially harmful when it takes place in the developing child. The present study was designed to assess the impact of perinatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF, an insecticide known to cross the placental barrier). Female rats were exposed to oral CPF (1 or 5 mg kg day vs vehicle controls) from gestation onset up to weaning of the pups that were individually gavaged (CPF or vehicle) thereafter. Two developmental time points were studied: weaning (day 21) and adulthood (day 60). After sacrifice, samples from the intestinal tract and other organs underwent microbiological and histological analyses. Rat pups exposed to 5 mg kg day CPF were both significantly smaller (body length) and lighter than controls. Exposure to CPF was associated with changes in the histological structures (shorter and thinner intestinal villosities), an intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and increased bacterial translocation in the spleen and liver. These significant microbial changes in the gut were associated with impaired epithelium protection (mucin-2) and microbial pattern recognition receptor (Toll-like 2 and 4) gene expression. Exposure to CPF during gestation and development affected the pups' intestinal development, with morphological alteration of the structures involved in nutrient absorption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, alteration of mucosal barrier (mucin-2), stimulation of the innate immune system, and increased bacterial translocation. Perinatal exposure to CPF may therefore have short- and long-term impacts on the digestive tract.

  6. Memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor, affects cell proliferation, differentiation and the intracellular cycle and induces apoptosis in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Damasceno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects approximately 10 million people in endemic areas of Mexico and Central and South America. Currently available chemotherapies are limited to two compounds: Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. Both drugs reduce the symptoms of the disease and mortality among infected individuals when used during the acute phase, but their efficacy during the chronic phase (during which the majority of cases are diagnosed remains controversial. Moreover, these drugs have several side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Memantine, an antagonist of the glutamate receptor in the CNS of mammals, on the life cycle of T. cruzi. Memantine exhibited a trypanocidal effect, inhibiting the proliferation of epimastigotes (IC50 172.6 µM. Furthermore, this compound interfered with metacyclogenesis (approximately 30% reduction and affected the energy metabolism of the parasite. In addition, Memantine triggered mechanisms that led to the apoptosis-like cell death of epimastigotes, with extracellular exposure of phosphatidylserine, increased production of reactive oxygen species, decreased ATP levels, increased intracellular Ca(2+ and morphological changes. Moreover, Memantine interfered with the intracellular cycle of the parasite, specifically the amastigote stage (IC50 31 µM. Interestingly, the stages of the parasite life cycle that require more energy (epimastigote and amastigote were more affected as were the processes of differentiation and cell invasion.

  7. Feed-borne Outbreak of Salmonella Cubana in Swedish Pig Farms: Risk Factors and Factors Affecting the Restriction Period in Infected Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Österberg J; Vågsholm I; Boqvist S; Lewerin S Sternberg

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a feed-borne outbreak of Salmonella Cubana occurred in Sweden as a result of contamination in a feed plant. Salmonella Cubana was detected in 49 out of 77 pig farms having received possibly contaminated feed. In this study, potential risk factors for farms being salmonella positive were examined, and a survival analysis was performed to investigate risk factors affecting the restriction period for salmonella positive farms. The median restriction time for all 49 farms was 17 weeks. ...

  8. The Factors Affecting Individuals’ Participation in Cycling, Mountaineering and Trekking Activities: An Application of Probit Analysis for Turkey Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ardahan, Faik; MERT, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and explain the impacts of the independent variables as gender, marital status, income, education level, age, Life Satisfaction (LS) level, Emotional Intelligence (EQ) level and Ecological values and behavior level on participating in outdoor activities as cycling, trekking and mountaineering by using Probit Model, as Turkey case. To determine the EQ level, Ecological values and behavior level, and LS levels of participants, EQ, LS and New Ecological Paradi...

  9. A review of factors affecting environmental and economic life-cycle performance for electrically-driven heat pumps

    OpenAIRE

    VELLEI MARIKA

    2014-01-01

    Space heating and cooling together with sanitary hot water supply have a significant share, approximately 50 %, of the global energy consumption of buildings. In order to fulfil energy and energy-efficiency building requirements, European and national legislations encourage the use of more sustainable heating and cooling options. A sustainable dimension implies that both environmental and economic aspects are taken into account; the life-cycle comparisons of different heating and cooling syst...

  10. The Coupled Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Understanding How Clouds Affect the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The dust and water cycles are crucial to the current Martian climate, and they are coupled through cloud formation. Dust strongly impacts the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation, while clouds provide radiative forcing and control the hemispheric exchange of water through the modification of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent improvements in the quality and sophistication of both observations and climate models allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how the interaction between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) affects the dust and water cycles individually. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distribution of dust and water, and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. For this study, we utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) combined with the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM). We demonstrate that the magnitude and nature of the net meridional transport of water between the northern and southern hemispheres during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. We further examine how clouds influence the atmospheric thermal structure and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to identify and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting carbon footprint of fossil fuel power plants based on life cycle assessment scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dalir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pseudo comprehensive carbon footprint model for fossil fuel power plants is presented. Parameters which their effects are considered in this study include: plant type, fuel type, fuel transmission type, internal consumption of the plant, degradation, site ambient condition, transmission and distribution losses. Investigating internal consumption, degradation and site ambient condition effect on carbon footprint assessment of fossil fuel power plant is the specific feature of the proposed model. To evaluate the model, a sensitivity analysis is performed under different scenarios covering all possible choices for investigated parameters. The results show that carbon footprint of fossil fuel electrical energy that is produced, transmitted and distributed, varies from 321 g CO2 eq/kWh to 980 g CO2 equivalent /kWh. Carbon footprint of combined cycle with natural gas as main fuel is the minimum carbon footprint. Other factors can also cause indicative variation. Fuel type causes a variation of 28%. Ambient condition may change the result up to 13%. Transmission makes the carbon footprint larger by 4%. Internal consumption and degradation influence the result by 2 and 2.5%, respectively. Therefore, to minimize the carbon footprint of fossil fuel electricity, it is recommended to construct natural gas ignited combined cycles in low lands where the temperature is low and relative humidity is high. And the internal consumption is as least as possible and the maintenance and overhaul is as regular as possible.

  12. Phytoplankton Biomass Dynamics in the Strait of Malacca within the Period of the SeaWiFS Full Mission: Seasonal Cycles, Interannual Variations and Decadal-Scale Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Siswanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cycles, interannual variations and decadal trends of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS-retrieved chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a in the Strait of Malacca (SM were investigated with reconstructed, cloud-free SeaWiFS Chl-a during the period of the SeaWiFS full mission (September 1997 to December 2010. Pixel-based non-parametric correlations of SeaWiFS Chl-a on environmental variables were used to identify the probable causes of the observed spatio-temporal variations of SeaWiFS Chl-a in northern, middle and southern regions of the SM. Chl-a was high (low during the northeast (southwest monsoon. The principal causes of the seasonality were wind-driven vertical mixing in the northern region and wind-driven coastal upwelling and possibly river discharges in the middle region. Among the three regions, the southern region showed the largest interannual variations of Chl-a. These variations were associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and river runoff. Interannual variations of Chl-a in the middle and northern regions were more responsive to the Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO, respectively, with atmospheric deposition being the most important driver. The most significant decadal-scale trend of increasing Chl-a was in the southern region; the trend was moderate in the middle region. This increasing trend was probably caused by environmental changes unrelated to the variables investigated in this study.

  13. Are there different factors affecting walking speed and gait cycle variability between men and women in community-dwelling older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Wakako; Ikezoe, Tome; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Sato, Ikuya; Malinowska, Katarzyna Bronislawa; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakayama, Takeo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have examined the relationships between walking speed and gait cycle variability, and muscle strength and postural stability, with a focus on gender differences. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are different factors affecting walking speed and gait cycle variability between men and women in community-dwelling older adults. The subjects comprised 712 community-dwelling older adults (252 men, 460 women, aged 68.7 ± 4.8 years). Walking speed and coefficient of variation (CV) of step time at a comfortable walking pace were measured. The maximal isometric strength of six lower limb muscles and postural stability were evaluated. Stepwise regression analysis was performed, using lower limb muscle strength and postural stability as independent variables, to investigate the association with walking speed or CV. For older men, age, body mass index (BMI) and quadriceps setting (QS) strength were significant and independent determinants of walking speed. No variables were identified as significant determinants of CV. For older women, BMI and hip flexion, hip abduction, QS muscle strength were significant determinants of walking speed. Only hip abduction strength was a significant determinant of CV. The results of this study suggest that QS strength is related to walking speed in both men and women, whereas hip flexion and abduction muscle strength are related to walking speed, and hip abduction muscle strength is related to gait cycle variability in older women. Gender differences exist in factors affecting walking speed and gait cycle variability in community-dwelling older adults.

  14. Total flavonoid aglycones extract in Radix scutellariae inhibits lung carcinoma and lung metastasis by affecting cell cycle and DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Hui-Juan; Sun, Shu-Jun; Dai, Jian-Ye; Fang, Jun-Wei; Li, Qian-Hua; Yan, Chao; Mao, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Yu

    2016-12-24

    Radix Scutellariae (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, RS), a traditional herbal medicine commonly used to treat inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, bacterial and viral infections, is reported to treat lung cancer by supplements of modern medicine. The total flavonoid aglycones extract (TFAE) from RS is the most important composition for the pharmacodynamic effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-lung tumor effect of TFAE on A549 cells and A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of TFAE treating non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of TFAE in vitro was investigated using the MTT assay. The changes of cell invasion and migration were detected by Transwell assay and tube formation experiments were used to detect the anti-angiogenic effect. The anti-tumor effects of TFAE in vivo were evaluated in A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The mechanism of TFAE was detected by flow cytometry technology, western blot assay and immuno-histochemistry assay. In vitro, TFAE inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, TFAE by oral administration at 100mg/kg for 30 days decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight in A549 cell xenograft by 25.5% with no statistical significance (P<0.05) compared to the cis-platinum positive control group (30.0%). The cell cycle and DNA synthesis experiment illustrated that TFAE could induce A549 cell cycle to arreste in S phase and DNA synthesis in A549 cells be inhibited, while TFAE had no influence on apoptosis of A549 cells. Western Blot assay demonstrated that the treatment of TFAE could make Cyclin D1 decrease and p53 increase both in vitro and in vivo. TFAE displayed the inhibition effects of non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanism might be related to the increased p53 protein expression and decreased Cyclin D1

  15. Extended burnup core management for once-through uranium fuel cycles in LWRS. First annual report for the period 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesonske, A.

    1980-08-01

    Detailed core management arrangements are developed requiring four operating cycles for the transition from present three-batch loading to an extended burnup four-batch plan for Zion-1. The ARMP code EPRI-NODE-P was used for core modeling. Although this work is preliminary, uranium and economic savings during the transition cycles appear of the order of 6 percent.

  16. Mutations in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Affect the Errors Made in a Single Cycle of Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Michael E.; Ferris, Andrea L.; Das, Kalyan; Quinoñes, Octavio; Shao, Wei; Tuske, Steven; Alvord, W. Gregory; Arnold, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic variation in HIV-1 in patients is due to the high rate of viral replication, the high viral load, and the errors made during viral replication. Some of the mutations in reverse transcriptase (RT) that alter the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP)-binding pocket, including those that confer resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, affect dNTP selection during replication. The effects of mutations in RT on the spectrum (nature, position, and frequency) of errors made in vivo are poorly understood. We previously determined the mutation rate and the frequency of different types of mutations and identified hot spots for mutations in a lacZα (the α complementing region of lacZ) reporter gene carried by an HIV-1 vector that replicates using wild-type RT. We show here that four mutations (Y115F, M184V, M184I, and Q151M) in the dNTP-binding pocket of RT that had relatively small effects on the overall HIV-1 mutation rate (less than 3-fold compared to the wild type) significantly increased mutations at some specific positions in the lacZα reporter gene. We also show that changes in a sequence that flanks the reporter gene can affect the mutations that arise in the reporter. These data show that changes either in HIV-1 RT or in the sequence of the nucleic acid template can affect the spectrum of mutations made during viral replication. This could, by implication, affect the generation of drug-resistant mutants and immunological-escape mutants in patients. IMPORTANCE RT is the viral enzyme that converts the RNA genome of HIV into DNA. Errors made during replication allow the virus to escape from the host's immune system and to develop resistance to the available anti-HIV drugs. We show that four different mutations in RT which are known to be associated with resistance to anti-RT drugs modestly increased the overall frequency of errors made during viral replication. However, the increased errors were not uniformly distributed; the additional errors

  17. Proanthocyanidins from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Induce Cell Cycle Alterations in DU145 Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Vitro by Affecting the Expression of Cell Cycle-Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. There are genetic and environmental factors that can potentially impact the development and progression of many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. As a consequence of environmental factors, such as diet having a potential effect on the development of prostate cancer, considerable interest in the possible health benefits associated with the inclusion and consumption of certain foods in the diet exists. Context and purpose of this study: This study describes the effects of a proanthocyanidinenriched fraction (PACs isolated from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon on the behaviour of androgen-refractory (insensitive DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Results: Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 25 µg/mL of PACs for six hours, PACs significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. PACs treatment (25 µg/mL for 6 hours of DU145 cells increased the proportion of cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle and decreased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These alterations were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. PACs increased the expression of cyclin E, cyclin D1, CDK2 and CDK4, and decreased the expression of cyclin A and cyclin B1. The protein expression level of p27 increased, and the protein expression levels of p16INK4a, p21, and pRBp107 decreased in response to PACs treatment. The protein expression level of pRBp130 was unchanged in Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(2:130- 146 Page 131 of 146 response to PACs treatment. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that proanthocyanidins from the American cranberry can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries.

  18. Menstrual Cycle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Menstrual Cycle ProblemsFrom missed periods to painful periods, menstrual cycle problems are common, but usually not serious. Follow ...

  19. Temperature regime of solonetzic meadow-chernozemic permafrost-affected soil in a long-term cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desyatkin, R. V.; Desyatkin, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    The characteristics of temperature dynamics in a solonetzic meadow-chernozemic soil of alas depression in Central Yakutia are described on the basis of long-term (2005-2014) stationary studies. Quick changes in weather conditions accompanied by changes in the soil temperature regime were observed during that period. Thus, the beginning of soil thawing in the spring shifted to earlier dates, and the beginning of soil freezing in the fall shifted to later dates. Temperature trends demonstrate an increase in the mean annual soil temperatures at all the depths. In total, the period of the frozen state of the soil became considerably shorter: in the middle-profile horizons, by 30-39 days. The obtained results attest to the high dynamism in temperature parameters of meadow soils in alas depressions of Central Yakutia under conditions of global climate changes.

  20. Changes in rumen microbiota composition and in situ degradation kinetics during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieho, K; van den Bogert, B; Henderson, G; Bannink, A; Ramiro-Garcia, J; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-04-01

    methylotrophic Methanomassiliicoccaceae and Methanosphaera increased. The in situ degradation of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and crude protein was neither affected by treatment nor by transition from the dry period to lactation. Results show that the composition of the rumen microbiota can change quickly from the dry period to the lactation period, in particular with a rapid increase in fermentable substrate supply postpartum, but this was not associated with changes in rumen degradation kinetics. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Successive chlorothalonil applications inhibit soil nitrification and discrepantly affect abundances of functional genes in soil nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Zhang, Manyun; Yang, Guangmei; Wang, Jun; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2017-02-01

    Broad-spectrum fungicide chlorothalonil (CTN) is successively applied into intensive agriculture soil. However, the impacts of successive CTN applications on soil nitrification and related microorganisms remain poorly understood. A microcosm study was conducted to reveal the effects of successive CTN applications on soil nitrification and functional genes involved in soil nitrogen (N) cycling. The CTN at the dosages of 5 mg kg-1 dry soil (RD) and 25 mg kg-1 dry soil (5RD) was successively applied into the test soil at 7-day intervals which resulted in the accumulations of CTN residues. After 28 days of incubation, CTN residues in the RD and 5RD treatments were 3.14 and 69.7 mg kg-1 dry soil respectively. Net nitrification rates in the RD and 5RD treatments were lower than that obtained from the blank control (CK). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances were significantly decreased by CTN applications. Moreover, CTN applications also discrepantly decreased the abundances of functional genes involved in soil denitrification, with the exception of nosZ gene. Principal component analysis further supported the observation that successive CTN applications could result in enhanced ecological toxicity.

  2. Effect of thermal and thermo-mechanical cycling on the boron segregation behavior in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone of low-alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sanghoon; Kang, Yongjoon; Lee, Changhee, E-mail: chlee@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-06-15

    The boron segregation behavior in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of 10 ppm boron-added low-alloy steel during the welding cycle was investigated by taking the changes in the microstructure and hardness into account. Various CGHAZs were simulated with a Gleeble system as a function of the heat input and external stress, and the boron segregation behavior was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and particle tracking autoradiography (PTA). The segregation of boron was found to initially increase, and then decrease with an increase in the heat input. This is believed to be due to the back-diffusion of boron with an increase in the exposure time at high temperature after non-equilibrium grain boundary segregation. The grain boundary segregation of boron could be decreased by an external stress applied during the welding cycle. Such behavior may be due to an increase in the grain boundary area as a result of the grain size reduction induced by the external stress. - Highlights: • Boron segregation behavior in the CGHAZ of low-alloy steel during a welding cycle was investigated. • Various CGHAZs were simulated with a Gleeble system as a function of the heat input and external stress. • Boron segregation behavior was analyzed using SIMS and PTA techniques.

  3. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  4. Thermoperiod affects the diurnal cycle of nitrate reductase expression and activity in pineapple plants by modulating the endogenous levels of cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Nievola, Catarina Carvalho; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Mercier, Helenice

    2009-11-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) activity in higher plants is regulated by a variety of environmental factors and oscillates with a characteristic diurnal rhythm. In this study, we have demonstrated that the diurnal cycle of NR expression and activity in pineapple (Ananas comosus, cv. Smooth Cayenne) can be strongly modified by changes in the day/night temperature regime. Plants grown under constant temperature (28 degrees C light/dark) showed a marked increase in the shoot NR activity (NRA) during the first half of the light period, whereas under thermoperiodic conditions (28 degrees C light/15 degrees C dark) significant elevations in the NRA were detected only in the root tissues at night. Under both conditions, increases in NR transcript levels occurred synchronically about 4 h prior to the corresponding elevation of the NRA. Diurnal analysis of endogenous cytokinins indicated that transitory increases in the levels of zeatin, zeatin riboside and isopentenyladenine riboside coincided with the accumulation of NR transcripts and preceded the rise of NRA in the shoot during the day and in the root at night, suggesting these hormones as mediators of the temperature-induced modifications of the NR cycle. Moreover, these cytokinins also induced NRA in pineapple when applied exogenously. Altogether, these results provide evidence that thermoperiodism can modify the diurnal cycle of NR expression and activity in pineapple both temporally and spatially, possibly by modulating the day/night changes in the cytokinin levels. A potential relationship between the day/night NR cycle and the photosynthetic pathway performed by the pineapple plants (C(3) or CAM) is also discussed.

  5. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of lost time from ...

  6. Accumulation of nutrients in soils affected by perennial colonies of piscivorous birds with reference to biogeochemical cycles of elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Slawomir; Smal, Halina

    2003-07-01

    The accumulation of selected N, K, and P forms in soils within three perennial colonies of black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and grey heron (Ardea cinerea) located in northern and eastern Poland were investigated. Soil samples were collected beneath the nests from the most representative for each colony plots. Control samples were taken outside the colonies within sites adjacent to the nesting areas but not affected by bird excrement. From each genetic horizon (20 horizons) in soil profiles, a cumulative sample of about 25-30 kg of soil was taken for analysis. Nitrogen by Kjeldahl, ammonium ions (N(NH(4))), nitrates (N(NO(3))), exchangeable potassium (K(ex)), available potassium (K(av)), and available phosphorus (P(av)) were determined. The soils affected by birds demonstrated a very strong enrichment with N, K, and P in comparison to the control sites, especially in the topsoil horizons. The content of N(NH(4)) in individual soil horizons from the colonies was from 1.7 to 10.1 times higher than the respective control, N(NO(3)) from 2.9 to 215.7, K(ex) from 2.0 to 35.1, K(av) from 1.1 to 48.1, and P(av) in the range from 2.4 to 53.0 times. The highest increment of chemical elements was noticeable in the soils of territories inhabited by cormorants and the least in forest occupied by herons. Some relationships between soil texture and accumulation of biogenic nutrients were determined. Clay loam soil showed the greatest enrichment with analysed forms of elements with the exception of N(NH(4)).

  7. CO2leakage from carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) systems affects organic matter cycling in surface marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Greco, Silvestro; Lo Martire, Marco; Carugati, Laura; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), involving the injection of CO 2 into the sub-seabed, is being promoted worldwide as a feasible option for reducing the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, the effects on the marine ecosystems of potential CO 2 leakages originating from these storage sites have only recently received scientific attention, and little information is available on the possible impacts of the resulting CO 2 -enriched seawater plumes on the surrounding benthic ecosystem. In the present study, we conducted a 20-weeks mesocosm experiment exposing coastal sediments to CO 2 -enriched seawater (at 5000 or 20,000 ppm), to test the effects on the microbial enzymatic activities responsible for the decomposition and turnover of the sedimentary organic matter in surface sediments down to 15 cm depth. Our results indicate that the exposure to high-CO 2 concentrations reduced significantly the enzymatic activities in the top 5 cm of sediments, but had no effects on subsurface sediment horizons (from 5 to 15 cm depth). In the surface sediments, both 5000 and 20,000 ppm CO 2 treatments determined a progressive decrease over time in the protein degradation (up to 80%). Conversely, the degradation rates of carbohydrates and organic phosphorous remained unaltered in the first 2 weeks, but decreased significantly (up to 50%) in the longer term when exposed at 20,000 ppm of CO 2 . Such effects were associated with a significant change in the composition of the biopolymeric carbon (due to the accumulation of proteins over time in sediments exposed to high-pCO 2 treatments), and a significant decrease (∼20-50% at 5000 and 20,000 ppm respectively) in nitrogen regeneration. We conclude that in areas immediately surrounding an active and long-lasting leak of CO 2 from CCS reservoirs, organic matter cycling would be significantly impacted in the surface sediment layers. The evidence of negligible impacts on the deeper sediments should be

  8. Periodic acid‑Schiff staining method for function detection of liver cells is affected by 2% horse serum in induction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hui; Ma, Wenjun; Cui, Jiejie; Gong, Mengjia; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Tongchuan; Bi, Yang; He, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Developing a thorough understanding of experimental methods of hepatic differentiation in hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) should expand the knowledge of hepatocyte induction in vitro and may help to develop cell transplantation therapies for the clinical usage of HPCs in liver diseases. A previous induction method effectively induced differentiation and metabolic abilities in HPCs. Periodic acid‑Schiff (PAS) staining is used to identify glycogen synthesis and hepatocyte function; however, this method failed to detect induced hepatocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the possible factors affecting the previous confusing results of PAS staining. Removal of single induction factors, including dexamethasone, hepatic growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 4 from the induction media did not restore PAS staining, whereas replacement of 2% horse serum (HS) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) significantly increased the number of PAS positive cells. Following 12 days of basal induction, replacing the induction medium with media containing 10% FBS for 12‑72 h significantly improved PAS staining, but did not influence indocyanine green uptake. Furthermore, incubation in induction medium with 10% FBS following 12 days of normal induction did not affect the expression of hepatic markers and mature function of HPCs. Therefore, the present study suggested that 2% HS in the induction medium did not affect the hepatic function of induced cells, but did affect glycogen storage, whereas replacement of medium with 10% FBS in advance of PAS staining may restore the failure of PAS staining in low serum concentrations of induced hepatocytes.

  9. Agricultural management and labile carbon additions affect soil microbial community structure and interact with carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Buckley, Daniel H; Drinkwater, Laurie E

    2013-07-01

    We investigated how conversion from conventional agriculture to organic management affected the structure and biogeochemical function of soil microbial communities. We hypothesized the following. (1) Changing agricultural management practices will alter soil microbial community structure driven by increasing microbial diversity in organic management. (2) Organically managed soil microbial communities will mineralize more N and will also mineralize more N in response to substrate addition than conventionally managed soil communities. (3) Microbial communities under organic management will be more efficient and respire less added C. Soils from organically and conventionally managed agroecosystems were incubated with and without glucose ((13)C) additions at constant soil moisture. We extracted soil genomic DNA before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting of soil bacteria and fungi. We measured soil C and N pools before and after incubation, and we tracked total C respired and N mineralized at several points during the incubation. Twenty years of organic management altered soil bacterial and fungal community structure compared to continuous conventional management with the bacterial differences caused primarily by a large increase in diversity. Organically managed soils mineralized twice as much NO3 (-) as conventionally managed ones (44 vs. 23 μg N/g soil, respectively) and increased mineralization when labile C was added. There was no difference in respiration, but organically managed soils had larger pools of C suggesting greater efficiency in terms of respiration per unit soil C. These results indicate that the organic management induced a change in community composition resulting in a more diverse community with enhanced activity towards labile substrates and greater capacity to mineralize N.

  10. Does duration of abstinence affect the live-birth rate after assisted reproductive technology? A retrospective analysis of 1,030 cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, Anurekha J; Mahasampath, Gowri; Karthikeyan, Muthukumar; Mangalaraj, Ann M; Kunjummen, Aleyamma T; Kamath, Mohan S

    2017-12-01

    To study influence of abstinence period on the live-birth rate after assisted reproductive technology (ART). Retrospective cohort study. Reproductive medicine unit, university-level hospital. A total 1,030 ART cycles evaluated from 2011 to 2015. Group I, abstinence period 2-7 days, and group II, abstinence period >7 days, were compared. Two subgroups Ia (2-4 days) and Ib (5-7 days) were also compared with group II. Primary outcome was live birth per ET. Secondary outcomes included implantation, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. The live-birth rate (34.1 % vs. 24.1%; odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.4), clinical pregnancy rate (44.4 % vs. 32.7%; OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and implantation rate (26.4% vs. 18.2%) were significantly higher in group I compared with group II. Other secondary outcomes of fertilization rate and miscarriage rate did not differ between groups I and II. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for live birth (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5) and clinical pregnancy rates (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5) were significantly higher for group I compared with group II. The live-birth rate was significantly higher in group Ia (36.1% vs. 24.1%) compared with group II. An abstinence period of more than 7 days may impact ART outcomes adversely when compared with an abstinence period of 2-7 days. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The public health impact of economic fluctuations in a Latin American country: Mortality and the business cycle in Colombia in the period 1980-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arroyave (Ivan); P. Hessel (Philipp); A. Burdorf (Alex); J. Rodriguez-Garcia (Jesus); D. Cardona (Doris); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Studies in high-income countries suggest that mortality is related to economic cycles, but few studies have examined how fluctuations in the economy influence mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We exploit regional variations in gross domestic product per capita

  12. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endometrial gene expression in primiparous dairy cows at the end of the voluntary waiting period is affected by nutrition: Total mixed ration vs increasing levels of herbage allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astessiano, A L; Carriquiry, M; Mattiauda, D A; Adrien, M L; Chilibroste, P; Meikle, A

    2017-10-01

    The study postulated that differential nutritional management during the early lactation period would be reflected in endometrial expression of genes related to embryo growth at the end of the voluntary waiting period. Thus, the effect of the combined use of total mixed ration (TMR) and grazing under different herbage allowances during the first 75 days post-partum (DPP) on endometrial gene expression was evaluated in primiparous dairy cows. Cows were blocked by body weight, age and body condition score and randomly assigned to three grazing treatments: high (HA, 30 kg DM per cow per day), medium (MA, 15 kg DM per cow per day) and low (LA, 7.5 kg DM per cow per day) herbage allowance (mixed pasture, 2,600 kg DM per ha) plus 8 kg DM of supplement or TMR (55% forage, 45% concentrate) fed ad libitum (TMR) from calving to 75 DPP. At 57 DPP, cows were synchronized for oestrus (day 0, 68 DPP) and at day 7, endometrial biopsies were obtained. The nutritional treatment did not affect insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations on days 0, 4 or 7. Expression of IGF1, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA was significantly affected by the nutritional treatment. Endometrial IGF1 and IGFBP4 mRNA were twofold greater in TMR and HA than MA and LA cows. Expression of IGFBP3 and ADIPOR1 mRNAs was greater in TMR and HA than MA cows, but did not differ from LA cows. All groups had greater expression of ADIPOR2 mRNA than MA cows. This study provided solid evidence of the importance of nutritional management during early lactation on uterine environment at the end of the voluntary waiting period. The greater expression of genes related to embryo growth and uterine function (IGF system, progesterone and adiponectin receptors) in cows fed diets maximizing energy intake suggests a favourable environment for embryonic growth, which may explain the improved reproductive performance of cows in good energy balance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Methylation at global LINE-1 repeats in human blood are affected by gender but not by age or natural hormone cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman El-Maarri

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported on inter-individual and gender specific variations of LINE-1 methylation in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether this variability could be influenced by age or sex hormones in humans. To this end, we studied LINE-1 methylation in vivo in blood-derived DNA from individuals aged 18 to 64 years and from young healthy females at various hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Our results show that no significant association with age was observed. However, the previously reported increase of LINE-1 methylation in males was reconfirmed. In females, although no correlation between LINE-1 or Alu methylation and hormone levels was observed, a significant stable individual specific level of methylation was noted. In vitro results largely confirmed these findings, as neither estrogen nor dihydrotestosterone affected LINE-1 or Alu methylation in Hek293T, HUVEC, or MDA-kb2 cell lines. In contrast, a decrease in methylation was observed in estrogen-treated T47-Kbluc cell lines strongly expressing estrogen receptor. The very low expression of estrogen receptor in blood cells could explain the observed insensitivity of methylation at LINE-1 to natural hormonal variations in females. In conclusion, neither natural cycle of hormones nor age has a detectable effect on the LINE-1 methylation in peripheral blood cells, while gender remains an important factor.

  15. The origin and evolution of short-period Miras in the solar neighborhood: Constraints on the life cycle of old stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1994-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the short-period (P less than 300 days) oxygen-rich Miras in the solar neighborhood can be fitted with an exponential scale height above the Galactic plane of about 600 pc. Using the Gliese catalog of local main-sequence stars, we estimate that the density of suitable G-type progenitor dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun for these short-period Miras is 6 x 10(exp -4)/cu pc. The portion of the H-R diagram near the main-sequence turnoff of these velocity-selected Gliese stars is intermediate between that of the old open cluster NGC 188 and that of the metal-rich globular cluster, 47 Tuc. We infer that the main-sequence progenitors of the short-period Miras have masses near 1.0 solar mass, and we estimate that these Miras have ages approximately 9 x 10(exp 9). We also identify a few old disk red giants in the neighborhood of the Sun. On the basis of very limited information, we estimate that the total amount of mass lost from these stars during their first ascent up the red giant branch is less than or equal to 0.1 solar mass. We derive a duration of the short-period Mira phase of close to 5 x 10(exp 5) yr. This estimate for the duration of the short period Mira phase is longer than our estimate of 2 x 10(exp 5) yr for the duration of the Mira phase for stars with periods longer than 300 days. From their infrared colors, we estimate a typical mass-loss rate from the short-period Miras of approximately 1 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr.

  16. The frequency of osteogenic activities and the pattern of intermittence between periods of physical activity and sedentary behaviour affects bone mineral content: the cross-sectional NHANES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastin, Sebastien Fm; Mandrichenko, Oleksii; Skelton, Dawn A

    2014-01-06

    Sedentary behaviours, defined as non exercising seated activities, have been shown to have deleterious effects on health. It has been hypothesised that too much sitting time can have a detrimental effect on bone health in youth. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by exploring the association between objectively measured volume and patterns of time spent in sedentary behaviours, time spent in specific screen-based sedentary pursuits and bone mineral content (BMC) accrual in youth. NHANES 2005-2006 cycle data includes BMC of the femoral and spinal region via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns through accelerometry, self reported time spent in screen based pursuits (watching TV and using a computer), and frequency of vigorous playtime and strengthening activities. Multiple regression analysis, stratified by gender was performed on N = 671 males and N = 677 females aged from 8 to 22 years. Time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviours is negatively associated with femoral BMC (males and females) and spinal BMC (females only) after correction for time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. Regression coefficients indicate that an additional hour per day of screen-based sitting corresponds to a difference of -0.77 g femoral BMC in females [95% CI: -1.31 to -0.22] and of -0.45 g femoral BMC in males [95% CI: -0.83 to -0.06]. This association is attenuated when self-reported engagement in regular (average 5 times per week) strengthening exercise (for males) and vigorous playing (for both males and females) is taken into account. Total sitting time and non screen-based sitting do not appear to have a negative association with BMC, whereas screen based sedentary time does. Patterns of intermittence between periods of sitting and moderate to vigorous activity appears to be positively associated with bone health when activity is clustered in time and inter-spaced with long

  17. Endometrial caspase 1 and interleukin-18 expression during the estrous cycle and peri-implantation period of porcine pregnancy and response to early exogenous estrogen administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Daniel R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role for endometrial secretion of cytokines during the establishment of pregnancy in a number of mammals is well established. The current study determined endometrial expression of caspase 1 (CASP1 and interleukin-18 (IL18 during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following early estrogen administration, which induces conceptus loss during early development in pigs. Methods Gilts were hysterectomized on either D 0, 5, 10, 12, 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle, or D 10, 12, 15 or 18 of pregnancy. The abundance of endometrial CASP1 mRNA was unaffected by day of the estrous cycle, however there was a 6 and 10-fold increase in expression on D 15 and 18 of pregnancy. Endometrial expression of IL18 mRNA increased 5-fold between D 10 to 18 in cyclic and pregnant gilts. Total recoverable IL18 in uterine flushings was greater in pregnant compared to cyclic gilts on D 15 and 18. In the second experiment, mated gilts were treated with either corn oil (CO or estrogen (E on D 9 and 10 and hysterectomized on either D 10, 12, 13, 15 or 17 of pregnancy. The current study localizes the presence of CASP1 to the epithelial layer of the endometrium for the first time. Further, a day × treatment interaction was detected for endometrial CASP1 mRNA and protein abundance as E stimulated an earlier increase on D 13 compared to CO gilts. Although IL18 mRNA expression remained unaltered from the E treatment, protein abundance was significantly attenuated on D 15 and 18 in response to E treatment. Conclusions Endometrial expression of CASP1 and IL18 is associated with establishment of pregnancy in pigs. Alteration of CASP1 and IL18 following premature exposure of the uterus to estrogen during early pregnancy may contribute to conceptus loss between Days 15 to 18 of pregnancy.

  18. A joint effort over a period of time: factors affecting use of urate-lowering therapy for long-term treatment of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jane C; Liddle, Jennifer; Mallen, Christian D; Roddy, Edward; Hider, Samantha; Prinjha, Suman; Ziebland, Sue

    2016-06-06

    Although international guidelines encourage urate lowering therapy (ULT) for people who have more than two attacks of gout, only 30 % of patients are prescribed it and only 40 % of those adhere to the treatment. The aim was to explore reasons for this through an exploration of patient experience and understanding of ULT treatment for gout. A qualitative study was conducted throughout the United Kingdom. Narrative and semi-structured video-recorded interviews and thematic analysis were used. Participants talked about their views and experiences of treatment, and the factors that affected their use of ULT. The analysis revealed five main themes: 1) knowledge and understanding of gout and its treatment; 2) resistance to taking medication; 3) uncertainty about when to start ULT; 4) experiences of using ULT; and 5) desire for information and monitoring. Patients' understanding and experiences of gout and ULT are complex and it is important for clinicians to be aware of these when working with patients. It is also important for clinicians to know that patients' perceptions and behaviour are not fixed, but can change over time, with changes to their condition, with dialogue and increased understanding. Patients want this interaction with their clinicians, through "a joint effort over a period of time".

  19. Post-learning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a post-learning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested three predictions. First, compared to naturally cycling women (NC women) in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC women) would have significantly blunted HPA reactivity to physical stress. Second, post-learning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, post-learning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared to HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared to the neutral story. In HC women, however, the post-learning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, post-learning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status. PMID:24841741

  20. HDAC8 Inhibition Blocks SMC3 Deacetylation and Delays Cell Cycle Progression without Affecting Cohesin-dependent Transcription in MCF7 Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tanushree; Antony, Jisha; Braithwaite, Antony W; Horsfield, Julia A

    2016-06-10

    Cohesin, a multi-subunit protein complex involved in chromosome organization, is frequently mutated or aberrantly expressed in cancer. Multiple functions of cohesin, including cell division and gene expression, highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target. The SMC3 subunit of cohesin is acetylated (ac) during S phase to establish cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Following anaphase, ac-SMC3 is deacetylated by HDAC8. Reversal of SMC3 acetylation is imperative for recycling cohesin so that it can be reloaded in interphase for both non-mitotic and mitotic functions. We blocked deacetylation of ac-SMC3 using an HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 in MCF7 breast cancer cells, and examined the effects on transcription of cohesin-dependent genes that respond to estrogen. HDAC8 inhibition led to accumulation of ac-SMC3 as expected, but surprisingly, had no influence on the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes that are altered by siRNA targeting of RAD21 or SMC3. Knockdown of RAD21 altered estrogen receptor α (ER) recruitment at SOX4 and IL20, and affected transcription of these genes, while HDAC8 inhibition did not. Rather, inhibition of HDAC8 delayed cell cycle progression, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that HDAC8 inhibition does not change the estrogen-specific transcriptional role of cohesin in MCF7 cells, but instead, compromises cell cycle progression and cell survival. Our results argue that candidate inhibitors of cohesin function may differ in their effects depending on the cellular genotype and should be thoroughly tested for predicted effects on cohesin's mechanistic roles. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Could empirical low-dose-aspirin administration during IVF cycle affect both the oocytes and embryos quality via COX 1-2 activity inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Capuzzo, Denise; Zicchina, Cecilia; Di Gangi, Stefania; Coronella, Maria Lia; Andrisani, Alessandra; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-03-01

    To compare qualitative and quantitative ovarian response in idiopathic infertile women treated with low-dose-aspirin (LDA) during in-vitro-fertilization (IVF) cycles (pl) versus untreated ones. We conducted an observational-cohort-study on normo-responders patients aged between 25 and 45,years referred to Assisted-Reproductive Unit --University of Padua--in order to evaluate the ovarian response effects (both qualitative and quantitative) after LDA administration. In detail we aim to assess if LDA administration could improve ovarian response, reducing the gonadotropin administration, and if its administration could increase the amount of follicles greater than 16 mm at pick-up, the amount and quality of oocytes retrieved, the amount and quality of embryos, the chance to achieve a pregnancy and to carry it on. One hundred six LDA-treated patients (Group-A) and 100 not-treated ones (Group-B) were homogeneous for age and BMI. The Group-A, compared to Group-B, showed higher gonadotropin request, higher number of ovarian follicles at pick-up, more follicles bigger than 16 mm in diameter and more retrieved oocytes (despite higher number of immature and at germinal vesicle stage oocytes) but lower quality of obtained embryos. The comparison between two Groups in term of retrieved oocytes /number of follicles, mature oocytes/retrieved oocytes, fertilized oocytes/mature oocytes and good embryos quality/mature oocytes showed a strongly advantageous ratio for Group-B. For each considered outcome, we found a dose-related effect. It is mandatory to define which patients could benefit from LDA administration and the adequate timing to administer it since the empirical administration could negatively affect both oocyte and embryo quality during IVF cycles.

  2. A gestational high protein diet affects the abundance of muscle transcripts related to cell cycle regulation throughout development in porcine progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In various animal models pregnancy diets have been shown to affect offspring phenotype. Indeed, the underlying programming of development is associated with modulations in birth weight, body composition, and continual diet-dependent modifications of offspring metabolism until adulthood, producing the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome is permanently altered depending on maternal diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess alterations of the offspring's transcriptome due to gestational protein supply, German Landrace sows were fed isoenergetic diets containing protein levels of either 30% (high protein--HP or 12% (adequate protein--AP throughout their pregnancy. Offspring muscle tissue (M. longissimus dorsi was collected at 94 days post conception (dpc, and 1, 28, and 188 days post natum (dpn for use with Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays and subsequent statistical and Ingenuity pathway analyses. Numerous transcripts were found to have altered abundance at 94 dpc and 1 dpn; at 28 dpn no transcripts were altered, and at 188 dpn only a few transcripts showed a different abundance between diet groups. However, when assessing transcriptional changes across developmental time points, marked differences were obvious among the dietary groups. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, short- and long-term effects were observed for mRNA expression of genes related to cell cycle regulation, energy metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, and nucleic acid metabolism. In particular, the abundance of transcripts related to cell cycle remained divergent among the groups during development. CONCLUSION: Expression analysis indicates that maternal protein supply induced programming of the offspring's genome; early postnatal compensation of the slight growth retardation obvious at birth in HP piglets resulted, as did a permanently different developmental alteration and responsiveness to the common environment of the

  3. Relation of the weather and the lunar cycle with the incidence of trauma in the Groningen region over a 36-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomp, W.; Fidler, V.; ten Duis, H.J.; Nijsten, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The time distribution of injuries is not random. To assess the potential impact of weather and the phase of the moon on accidents, adjustment for known periodic and nonperiodic factors may be important. We compared the incidence of injuries with quantitative and qualitative weather

  4. CO2 emissions from land-use change affected more by nitrogen cycle, than by the choice of land-cover data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Atul K; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Song, Yang; House, Joanna I

    2013-09-01

    The high uncertainty in land-based CO2 fluxes estimates is thought to be mainly due to uncertainty in not only quantifying historical changes among forests, croplands, and grassland, but also due to different processes included in calculation methods. Inclusion of a nitrogen (N) cycle in models is fairly recent and strongly affects carbon (C) fluxes. In this study, for the first time, we use a model with C and N dynamics with three distinct historical reconstructions of land-use and land-use change (LULUC) to quantify LULUC emissions and uncertainty that includes the integrated effects of not only climate and CO2 but also N. The modeled global average emissions including N dynamics for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000-2005 were 1.8 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr(-1) , respectively, (mean and range across LULUC data sets). The emissions from tropics were 0.8 ± 0.2, 0.8 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.3 GtC yr(-1) , and the non tropics were 1.1 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr(-1) . Compared to previous studies that did not include N dynamics, modeled net LULUC emissions were higher, particularly in the non tropics. In the model, N limitation reduces regrowth rates of vegetation in temperate areas resulting in higher net emissions. Our results indicate that exclusion of N dynamics leads to an underestimation of LULUC emissions by around 70% in the non tropics, 10% in the tropics, and 40% globally in the 1990s. The differences due to inclusion/exclusion of the N cycle of 0.1 GtC yr(-1) in the tropics, 0.6 GtC yr(-1) in the non tropics, and 0.7 GtC yr(-1) globally (mean across land-cover data sets) in the 1990s were greater than differences due to the land-cover data in the non tropics and globally (0.2 GtC yr(-1) ). While land-cover information is improving with satellite and inventory data, this study indicates the importance of accounting for different processes, in particular the N cycle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of Welding Thermal Cycles on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone for a Weldox 1300 Ultra-High Strength Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węglowski M. St.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the investigation of weldability of ultra-high strength steel has been presented. The thermal simulated samples were used to investigate the effect of welding cooling time t8/5 on microstructure and mechanical properties of heat affected zone (HAZ for a Weldox 1300 ultra-high strength steel. In the frame of these investigation the microstructure was studied by light and transmission electron microscopies. Mechanical properties of parent material were analysed by tensile, impact and hardness tests. In details the influence of cooling time in the range of 2,5 ÷ 300 sec. on hardness, impact toughness and microstructure of simulated HAZ was studied by using welding thermal simulation test. The microstructure of ultra-high strength steel is mainly composed of tempered martensite. The results show that the impact toughness and hardness decrease with increase of t8/5 under condition of a single thermal cycle in simulated HAZ. The increase of cooling time to 300 s causes that the microstructure consists of ferrite and bainite mixture. Lower hardness, for t8/5 ≥ 60 s indicated that low risk of cold cracking in HAZ for longer cooling time, exists.

  6. Larger earthquakes recur more periodically: New insights in the megathrust earthquake cycle from lacustrine turbidite records in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moernaut, J.; Van Daele, M.; Fontijn, K.; Heirman, K.; Kempf, P.; Pino, M.; Valdebenito, G.; Urrutia, R.; Strasser, M.; De Batist, M.

    2018-01-01

    Historical and paleoseismic records in south-central Chile indicate that giant earthquakes on the subduction megathrust - such as in AD1960 (Mw 9.5) - reoccur on average every ∼300 yr. Based on geodetic calculations of the interseismic moment accumulation since AD1960, it was postulated that the area already has the potential for a Mw 8 earthquake. However, to estimate the probability of such a great earthquake to take place in the short term, one needs to frame this hypothesis within the long-term recurrence pattern of megathrust earthquakes in south-central Chile. Here we present two long lacustrine records, comprising up to 35 earthquake-triggered turbidites over the last 4800 yr. Calibration of turbidite extent with historical earthquake intensity reveals a different macroseismic intensity threshold (≥VII1/2 vs. ≥VI1/2) for the generation of turbidites at the coring sites. The strongest earthquakes (≥VII1/2) have longer recurrence intervals (292 ±93 yrs) than earthquakes with intensity of ≥VI1/2 (139 ± 69yr). Moreover, distribution fitting and the coefficient of variation (CoV) of inter-event times indicate that the stronger earthquakes recur in a more periodic way (CoV: 0.32 vs. 0.5). Regional correlation of our multi-threshold shaking records with coastal paleoseismic data of complementary nature (tsunami, coseismic subsidence) suggests that the intensity ≥VII1/2 events repeatedly ruptured the same part of the megathrust over a distance of at least ∼300 km and can be assigned to Mw ≥ 8.6. We hypothesize that a zone of high plate locking - identified by geodetic studies and large slip in AD 1960 - acts as a dominant regional asperity, on which elastic strain builds up over several centuries and mostly gets released in quasi-periodic great and giant earthquakes. Our paleo-records indicate that Poissonian recurrence models are inadequate to describe large megathrust earthquake recurrence in south-central Chile. Moreover, they show an enhanced

  7. THE INDUCTION PERIOD IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L

    1937-11-20

    1. Measurements on the photosynthesis of Cabomba caroliniana show an induction period at low and high light intensities and CO(2) concentrations. 2. The equation which describes the data for Cabomba also describes the data obtained by other investigators on different species. The phenomenon is thus shown to be similar in plants representative of three phyla. 3. A derivation of the induction period equation is made from a consideration of the cycle of light and dark processes known to occur in photosynthesis. The equation indicates that light intensity enters as the square, and that the same light reactions are involved as those which affect the stationary state rates. However, a different dark reaction appears to limit photosynthesis during the induction period.

  8. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  9. How does vitrification affect oocyte viability in oocyte donation cycles? A prospective study to compare outcomes achieved with fresh versus vitrified sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Santaló, J; Boada, M; Clua, E; Rodríguez, I; Martínez, F; Coroleu, B; Barri, P N; Veiga, A

    2013-08-01

    How does vitrification affect oocyte viability? Vitrification does not affect oocyte viability in oocyte donation cycles. Oocyte vitrification is performed routinely and successfully in IVF and oocyte donation programs. This is a prospective study performed between June 2009 and February 2012 to compare ongoing pregnancy rates and other indices of viability between fresh and vitrified oocytes. A total of 99 donations with more than 16 oocytes (MII) in which oocytes were allocated both to a synchronous recipient (fresh oocytes) and to an asynchronous recipient (vitrified oocytes) were included. The participants were consenting couples (donors and recipients) from the oocyte donation program. On the day of retrieval, the oocytes allocated to the synchronous recipient were inseminated and those allocated for banking were denuded of cumulus and vitrified. Vitrified oocytes were microinjected with spermatozoa 2 h after warming. Embryo transfer was performed on Day 2 of development in both groups, and the remaining embryos were cryopreserved on Day 3. Clinical pregnancy was defined by a positive fetal heartbeat at 6 weeks. A total of 989 oocytes were warmed and 85.6% survived. No significant differences were observed between fresh and vitrified oocytes: fertilization rate (80.7 versus 78.2%), ongoing embryo rate (71.0 versus 68.2%) or good-quality embryo rate (54.1 versus 49.8%). The mean number of embryos transferred was similar in both groups (1.82 ± 0.44 versus 1.90 ± 0.34). The implantation rate (33.3 versus 34.0%) and the multiple pregnancy rate (27.7 versus 20.8) were also similar between both groups (P > 0.05). The live birth rate per cycle was 38.4% in the recipients of fresh oocytes and 43.4% in the recipients of vitrified oocytes (P > 0.05). Eighty five frozen embryo transfers were also evaluated. Comparing embryos from fresh and vitrified oocytes there were no significant differences in the embryo survival rate (70.1 versus 65.8%), clinical pregnancy rate

  10. Does long-term fungicide exposure affect the reproductive performance of leaf-shredders? A partial life-cycle study using Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudy, Patrick; Zubrod, Jochen P; Konschak, Marco; Weil, Mirco; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2017-03-01

    Leaf-shredding amphipods play a critical role in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, a key process in many low order streams. Fungicides, however, may adversely influence shredders' behavior and the functions they provide, while there is only limited knowledge concerning effects on their reproductive performance. To assess the latter, a semi-static 56-day partial life-cycle bioassay using the model shredder Hyalella azteca (n = 30) was performed applying two environmentally relevant concentrations of a model fungicide mixture (i.e., 5 and 25 μg/L) composed of five fungicides with different modes of toxic action. Variables related to the food processing (leaf consumption and feces production), growth (body length and dry weight), energy reserves (lipid content), and reproduction (amplexus pairs, number and length of offspring) were determined to understand potential implications in the organisms' energy budget. While the fungicides did not affect leaf consumption, both fungicide treatments significantly reduced amphipods' feces production (∼20%) compared to the control. This observation suggests an increased food utilization to counteract the elevated and stress-related energy demand: although growth as well as energy reserves were unaffected, amplexus pairs were less frequently observed in both fungicide treatments (∼50-100%) suggesting a tradeoff regarding energy allocation favoring the maintenance of fundamental functions at the organism level over reproduction. As a result, the time to release of first offspring was delayed in both fungicide treatments (7 and 14 days) and the median number of offspring was significantly lower in the 25-μg/L treatment (100%), whereas offspring length remained unaffected. The results of this study thus indicate that chronic fungicide exposures can negatively impact shredders' reproductive performance. This may translate into lower abundances and thus a reduced contribution to leaf litter breakdown in

  11. Body Weight Cycling with Identical Diet Composition Does Not Affect Energy Balance and Has No Adverse Effect on Metabolic Health Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge F. Palm

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body weight (BW cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters measured, and definitions of BW cycling. Here, we examined the effect of repetitive BW cycling versus single- and non-cycling control groups, without alterations in diet composition, on steady state BW and metabolic parameters. Methods: We induced well-defined BW cycles on a semi-purified high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, a well-described animal model for diet-induced obesity, and measured energy expenditure and relevant metabolic parameters. Results: Our setup indeed resulted in the intended BW changes and always reached a stage of energy balance. A history of weight cycling did not result in increased BW or fat mass compared with the control group, nor in deteriorated serum concentrations of glucose, adipokines and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA concentrations. If anything, BW tended to be reduced, presumably because of a reduced overall energy intake in BW cycling animals. Conclusion: Repeated cycling in BW without changes in diet composition does not lead to impaired metabolic health nor increased BW (gain.

  12. Body Weight Cycling with Identical Diet Composition Does Not Affect Energy Balance and Has No Adverse Effect on Metabolic Health Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Inge F; Schram, Rianne G A E; Swarts, Hans J M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap

    2017-10-20

    Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters measured, and definitions of BW cycling. Here, we examined the effect of repetitive BW cycling versus single- and non-cycling control groups, without alterations in diet composition, on steady state BW and metabolic parameters. We induced well-defined BW cycles on a semi-purified high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, a well-described animal model for diet-induced obesity, and measured energy expenditure and relevant metabolic parameters. Our setup indeed resulted in the intended BW changes and always reached a stage of energy balance. A history of weight cycling did not result in increased BW or fat mass compared with the control group, nor in deteriorated serum concentrations of glucose, adipokines and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. If anything, BW tended to be reduced, presumably because of a reduced overall energy intake in BW cycling animals. Repeated cycling in BW without changes in diet composition does not lead to impaired metabolic health nor increased BW (gain).

  13. Effect of Menstrual Cycle on the Exercise Concert of Zambian Female Long Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Mathivanan. D & clementchileshe

    2013-01-01

    The Focusing of the study is to determine the effect of exercise during menstrual cycle on female long distance runners. The Main objectives of this study were to assess the effect of exercise concert at the period of menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle do not affect muscle contractile characteristics. Most research also reports no changes over the menstrual cycle for the many determinants of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), such as lactate response to exercise, bodyweight, plasma volume...

  14. Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): identifying critically vulnerable periods of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Duarte, Paula; Wade, Michael G; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-05-01

    During the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog, there are critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive developmental periods for estrogenic endocrine disruption in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) using short, targeted exposures to the synthetic estrogen, ethinylestradiol (EE2). Post-hatch tadpoles (Gosner stage 27) were exposed over five distinct periods of metamorphosis: early (stage 27-30), mid (stage 30-36), early and mid (stage 27-36), late (stage 36-42), and the entire metamorphic period (chronic; stage 27-42). For each period, animals were sampled immediately following the EE2 exposure and at metamorphic climax (stage 42). The effects of EE2 on metamorphic development and sex differentiation were assessed through measures of length, weight, developmental stage, days to metamorphosis, sex ratios and incidence of gonadal intersex. Our results show that tadpoles exposed to EE2 during mid-metamorphosis were developmentally delayed immediately following exposure and took 2 weeks longer to reach metamorphic climax. In the unexposed groups, there was low proportion (0.15) of intersex tadpoles at stage 30 and gonads appeared to be morphologically distinct (male and female) in all individuals by stage 36. Tadpoles exposed early in development displayed a strong female-biased sex ratio compared to the controls. Moreover, these effects were also seen at metamorphic climax, approximately 2-3 months after the exposure period, demonstrating that transient early life-stage exposure to estrogen can induce effects on the reproductive organs that persist into the beginning of adult life-stages.

  15. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Bannink, A.; Geurts, I. A L; Schonewille, J. T.; Gort, G.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate

  16. Mycosporine-like amino acids and xanthophyll-cycle pigments favour a massive spring bloom development of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in Grande Bay (Argentina), an ozone hole affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto, José I.; Carignan, Mario O.; Montoya, Nora G.; Cozzolino, Ezequiel; Akselman, Rut

    2018-02-01

    In Grande Bay (Southern Patagonian Shelf) in a eutrophic and recirculating area slightly stratified during spring, we observed an intense (up to 1 × 107 cells L- 1) and shallow, quasi mono-specific bloom of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Peridinin was the most abundant carotenoid, but the relative amounts of the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin = DT) to light-harvesting pigments were high (DT/Chl a ratio = 0.32 and DT/peridinin ratio = 0.40). Shinorine, usujirene, palythene, mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester and palythenic acid were the primary mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), followed by mycosporine-glycine, palythine, and porphyra-334. The ΣMAAs/Chl a ratios (up to 27.9 nmol/nmol) were in the upper range reported either in nutrient-replete dinoflagellate cultures or natural populations. We monitored, from space (using satellite ocean colour data), the spatial and temporal bloom variability (from September 22 to October 31, 2005) using an approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms. The results indicated that an intense diatom bloom started in early spring but was rapidly replaced by an intense bloom of the dinoflagellate P. minimum, although the nutrient concentrations were apparently not limiting. The most notorious change in this period was a sharp increase in the levels of solar UVB radiation (UVB index 9.0) as a consequence of the overpass of the polar vortex over this area. We postulated that the synthesis and accumulation of MAAs and xanthophyll pigments, were competitive advantages for the opportunistic red tide dinoflagellate P. minimum over the sensitive diatoms, favouring the development of their surface blooms in this seasonally solar UVB radiation (UVBR) affected area.

  17. Exposure to hypergravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects metabolism and vestibular reactions in adult C57BL /6j mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojados, Mickael; Jamon, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The development of the posturo-motor control of movement is conditioned by Earth's gravity. Missing or altered gravity during the critical periods of development delays development and induces durable changes in the vestibular, cerebellar, or muscular structures, but these are not consistently mirrored at a functional level. The differences in the time schedule of vestibular and motor development could contribute to this inconstancy. To investigate the influence of gravity on the development of vestibular and locomotor functions, we analysed the performance of adult mice subjected to hypergravity during the time covering either the vestibular or locomotor development. The mice were centrifuged at 2 g from embryonic day (E) 0 to postnatal day (P) 10 (PRE), from P10 to P30 (POST), from E0 to P30 (FULL), and from E7 to P21. Their muscular force, anxiety level, vestibular reactions, and aerobic capacity during treadmill training were then evaluated at the age of 2 and 6 months. The performance of young adults varied in relation to the period of exposure to hypergravity. The mice that acquired locomotion in hypergravity (POST and FULL) showed a lower forelimb force and delayed vestibular reactions. The mice centrifuged from conception to P10 (PRE) showed a higher aerobic capacity during treadmill training. The differences in muscular force and vestibular reactions regressed with age, but the metabolic changes persisted. These results confirmed that early exposure to hypergravity induces qualitative changes depending on the period of exposure. They validated, at a functional level, the existence of several critical periods for adaptation to gravity. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Orexin receptor expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes of free-living European beavers (Castor fiber L.) in different periods of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinska, Joanna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Kaminski, Tadeusz; Bogacka, Iwona; Smolinska, Nina; Kaminska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides acting via two G protein-coupled receptors in mammals: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). In European beavers, which are seasonally breeding animals, the presence and functions of orexins and their receptors remain unknown. Our study aimed to determine the expression of OXR mRNAs and the localization of OXR proteins in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPA/HPG) axes in free-living beavers. The expression of OXR genes (OX1R, OX2R) and proteins was found in all analysed tissues during three periods of beavers' reproductive cycle (April, July, November). The expression of OXR mRNAs in the beaver HPA axis varied seasonally (PHPA and HPG axes suggest that the expression of these receptors is associated with sex-specific changes in beavers' reproductive activity and their environmental adaptations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solar Cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. We examine a number of other solar activity indicators including the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores that vary in association with the sunspots. We examine the characteristics of individual solar cycles including their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, and the nature of active latitudes, hemispheres, and longitudes. We examine long-term variability including the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle.

  20. Chromatin dynamics during cell cycle mediate conversion of DNA damage into chromatid breaks and affect formation of chromosomal aberrations: Biological and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzoudi, Georgia I.; Hatzi, Vasiliki I. [Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , 15310 Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Donta-Bakoyianni, Catherine [Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, University of Athens Dental School, Athens (Greece); Pantelias, Gabriel E., E-mail: gabriel@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , 15310 Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece)

    2011-06-03

    The formation of diverse chromosomal aberrations following irradiation and the variability in radiosensitivity at different cell-cycle stages remain a long standing controversy, probably because most of the studies have focused on elucidating the enzymatic mechanisms involved using simple DNA substrates. Yet, recognition, processing and repair of DNA damage occur within the nucleoprotein complex of chromatin which is dynamic in nature, capable of rapid unfolding, disassembling, assembling and refolding. The present work reviews experimental work designed to investigate the impact of chromatin dynamics and chromosome conformation changes during cell-cycle in the formation of chromosomal aberrations. Using conventional cytogenetics and premature chromosome condensation to visualize interphase chromatin, the data presented support the hypothesis that chromatin dynamic changes during cell-cycle are important determinants in the conversion of sub-microscopic DNA lesions into chromatid breaks. Consequently, the type and yield of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations at a given cell-cycle-stage depends on the combined effect of DNA repair processes and chromatin dynamics, which is cell-cycle-regulated and subject to up- or down-regulation following radiation exposure or genetic alterations. This new hypothesis is used to explain the variability in radiosensitivity observed at various cell-cycle-stages, among mutant cells and cells of different origin, or among different individuals, and to revisit unresolved issues and unanswered questions. In addition, it is used to better understand hypersensitivity of AT cells and to provide an improved predictive G2-assay for evaluating radiosensitivity at individual level. Finally, experimental data at single cell level obtained using hybrid cells suggest that the proposed hypothesis applies only to the irradiated component of the hybrid.

  1. Intensified Training Period Increases Salivary IgA Responses But Does Not Affect the Severity of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms in Prepuberal Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antualpa, Kizzy; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Moreira, Alexandre

    2017-09-05

    This study examined the effect of a 4-week intensified training period (IT), followed by a 2-week tapering period (TP), on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), salivary cortisol (CORT) and the severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms in 23 rhythmic gymnasts (12.1±2.6 yrs; 143.9±13.7 cm; 37.2±9.4 kg). Saliva sampling was conducted at pre- and post-IT, and post-TP (analyzed using ELISA). The WURSS-21 questionnaire was completed daily to analyze the severity of URTI symptoms. The session-RPE was used to determine the internal training load and the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACW). A higher SIgA concentration (SIgAabs [ug·mL(-1)]) (F=7.6; p=0.001) for post-IT (234±104) vs pre-IT (173±91), and post-TP (182±70), and a higher SIgA secretion rate (SIgArate [ug·min(-1)]) (F=3.4; p=0.04]) for post-IT (69±28) vs pre-IT (55±27), and post-TP (58±22) were observed. No significant change was observed for CORT (F=0.81; p=0.45) or for the severity of URTI symptoms (χ(2)=2.81; p=0.24). Internal training load was higher during IT (vs TP; ES=2.37). The ACW for the IT weeks varied from 1.2 (0.3) to 1.4 (0.3). These results suggest that a 4-week IT may temporarily augment the oral mucosal immunity, and an ACW of 1.2-1.4 seems to be a safe approach to periodized training loads in youth rhythmic gymnasts.

  2. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  3. Maternal care affects EEG properties of spike-wave seizures (including pre- and post ictal periods) in adult WAG/Rij rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Evgenia; Rutskova, Elizaveta M; Raevsky, Vladimir V

    2016-10-01

    WAG/Rij rats have a genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy and develop spontaneous spike-wave discharges in EEG during late ontogenesis (SWD, EEG manifestation of absence epilepsy). Changes in an environment during early postnatal ontogenesis can influence the genetically predetermined absence epilepsy. Here we examined the effect of maternal environment during weaning period on the EEG manifestation of absence epilepsy in adulthood. Experiments were performed in the offspring of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. The newborn pups were fostered to dams of the same (in-fostering) or another strain (cross-fostering). Age-matched control WAG/Rij and Wistar rats were reared by their biological mothers. Absence seizures were uncommon in Wistar and were not aggravated in both in- and cross-fostered groups. In WAG/Rij rats, fewer SWD were found in the cross-fostered as compared to the in-fostered group. The cross-fostered WAG/Rij rats showed higher percentage of short-lasting SWD with duration EEG at the beginning of SWD in the cross-fostered WAG/Rij rats was lower than in control (8.82 vs 9.25Hz), but it was higher in a period of 1.5s before and after SWD. It was concluded that a healthier maternal environment is able to alleviate genetically predetermined absence seizures in adulthood through changes in EEG rhythmic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiphase light and temperature cycles affect PHYTOCHROME B-controlled ethylene sensitivity and biosynthesis, limiting leaf movement and growth of Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, R.M.E.H.; Zanten, van M.; Pierik, R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In the natural environment, days are generally warmer than the night, resulting in a positive day/night temperature difference (+DIF). Plants have adapted to these conditions, and when exposed to antiphase light and temperature cycles (cold photoperiod/warm night [-DIF]), most species exhibit

  5. Variation in human gape cycle kinematics and occlusal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Myra F

    2017-11-01

    This study tested hypotheses relating intraspecific variation in occlusal morphology and intraspecific variation in jaw movements during feeding. Gape cycle kinematic variation was hypothesized to correlate with gape cycle number within a chewing sequence as well as with food toughness and stiffness. Gape cycle kinematic variation was also hypothesized to correlate with variation in occlusal area, slope, and volume. Twenty-six adult human subjects chewed four foods with varying material properties while their jaw movements were recorded using three-dimensional coordinates of facial markers captured with a Vicon camera system. Post-canine occlusal morphology of each subject was quantified in ArcGIS using dental topographic analysis of dental casts. Gape cycle duration did not vary with gape cycle number, food toughness, or food stiffness. Gape cycle vertical and lateral displacement correlated negatively with gape cycle number, while foods with higher toughness and Young's modulus had greater jaw vertical and lateral displacement. Subjects with steeper occlusal slopes had longer gape cycle durations and greater amounts of vertical displacement during the slow closing phase of the gape cycle. The results suggest that gape cycle durations are relatively consistent despite changes in food properties and gape cycle number, while occlusal slope affects gape cycle duration and vertical displacement during inferred occlusal contact. However, gape cycle number and bolus properties explain greater amounts of kinematic variation than does occlusal morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [FACTORS AFFECTING THE ABANDONMENT OF BREASTFEEDING IN A SUPPORT PROGRAM FOR THE SAME IN THE HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN, MORELIA MICHOACAN IN THE PERIOD FROM SEPTEMBER TO NOVEMBER 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Jacobo, Névedy; García Rojas Vazquez, Luisa Estefanía; Reyes Barretero, Diana Yolanda; Trujano Ramos, Luis Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    there are certain factors that influence the early cessation of breastfeeding among which are the demographic, cultural, biological and psychological. to analyze sociodemographic factors influencing the abandonment of breastfeeding in a support group to it. descriptive, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study at the Hospital for Women in Morelia Michoacán, from September to November 2014, a total of 86 women in the postpartum period gynecology floor. the reasons why the LME is abandoned are: age under 25 years (19.1%), urban locality (16.9%), and marital cohabitation (15.7%), and work (9%). most of the women had that age, education level and location are the main factors that influence as to abandon breastfeeding before the recommended time. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. How Does Socioeconomic Development Affect Risk of Mortality? An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis From a Recently Transitioned Population in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y.; Schooling, C. Mary; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the 20th century, the Hong Kong Chinese population experienced 2 abrupt but temporally distinct macroenvironmental changes: The transition from essentially preindustrial living conditions to a rapidly developing economy through mass migration in the late 1940s was followed by the emergence of an infant and childhood adiposity epidemic in the 1960s. The authors aimed to delineate the effects of these 2 aspects of economic development on mortality, thus providing a sentinel for other rapidly developing economies. Sex-specific Poisson models were used to estimate effects of age, calendar period, and birth cohort on Hong Kong adult mortality between 1976 and 2005. All-cause and cause-specific mortality, including mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD), cardiovascular disease excluding IHD, lung cancer, other cancers, and respiratory disease, were considered. Male mortality from IHD and female mortality from other cancers increased with birth into a more economically developed environment. Cardiovascular disease mortality increased with birth after the start of the infant and childhood adiposity epidemic, particularly for men. Macroenvironmental changes associated with economic development had sex-specific effects over the life course, probably originating in early life. The full population health consequences of these changes are unlikely to manifest until persons who have spent their early lives in such environments reach an age at which they become vulnerable to chronic diseases. PMID:20042438

  8. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  9. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karweina, Diana; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Müller, Uwe; Franken, Tobias; Pieper, Robert; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Zentek, Jürgen; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,425 (HZn) mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 feeding (2.9·10-4 feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors.

  10. Richness, biomass, and nutrient content of a wetland macrophyte community affect soil nitrogen cycling in a diversity-ecosystem functioning experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Alicia R.; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The development of soil nitrogen (N) cycling in created wetlands promotes the maturation of multiple biogeochemical cycles necessary for ecosystem functioning. This development proceeds from gradual changes in soil physicochemical properties and influential characteristics of the plant community, such as competitive behavior, phenology, productivity, and nutrient composition. In the context of a 2-year diversity experiment in freshwater mesocosms (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 richness levels), we assessed the direct and indirect impacts of three plant community characteristics – species richness, total biomass, and tissue N concentration – on three processes in the soil N cycle – soil net ammonification, net nitrification, and denitrification potentials. Species richness had a positive effect on net ammonification potential (NAP) through higher redox potentials and likely faster microbial respiration. All NAP rates were negative, however, due to immobilization and high rates of ammonium removal. Net nitrification was inhibited at higher species richness without mediation from the measured soil properties. Higher species richness also inhibited denitrification potential through increased redox potential and decreased nitrification. Both lower biomass and/or higher tissue ratios of carbon to nitrogen, characteristics indicative of the two annual plants, were shown to have stimulatory effects on all three soil N processes. The two mediating physicochemical links between the young macrophyte community and microbial N processes were soil redox potential and temperature. Our results suggest that early-successional annual plant communities play an important role in the development of ecosystem N multifunctionality in newly created wetland soils.

  11. A novel snRNA-like transcript affects amyloidogenesis and cell cycle progression through perturbation of Fe65L1 (APBB2) alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ilaria; Vassallo, Irene; Nizzari, Mario; Russo, Debora; Costa, Delfina; Menichini, Paola; Poggi, Alessandro; Russo, Claudio; Dieci, Giorgio; Florio, Tullio; Cancedda, Ranieri; Pagano, Aldo

    2013-06-01

    FE65 proteins constitute a family of adaptors which modulates the processing of amyloid precursor protein and the consequent amyloid β production. Thus, they have been involved in the complex and partially unknown cascade of reactions at the base of Alzheimer's disease etiology. However, FE65 and FE65-like proteins may be linked to neurodegeneration through the regulation of cell cycle in post-mitotic neurons. In this work we disclose novel molecular mechanisms by which APBB2 can modulate APP processing. We show that APBB2 mRNA splicing, driven by the over-expression of a novel non-coding RNA named 45A, allow the generation of alternative protein forms endowed with differential effects on Aβ production, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. 45A overexpression also favors cell transformation and tumorigenesis leading to a marked increase of malignancy of neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, our results highlight a novel regulatory pathway of considerable interest linking APP processing with cell cycle regulation and DNA-surveillance systems, that may represent a molecular mechanism to induce neurodegeneration in post-mitotic neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The target of rapamycin kinase affects biomass accumulation and cell cycle progression by altering carbon/nitrogen balance in synchronized Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüppner, Jessica; Mubeen, Umarah; Leisse, Andrea; Caldana, Camila; Wiszniewski, Andrew; Steinhauser, Dirk; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Several metabolic processes tightly regulate growth and biomass accumulation. A highly conserved protein complex containing the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is known to integrate intra- and extracellular stimuli controlling nutrient allocation and hence cellular growth. Although several functions of TOR have been described in various heterotrophic eukaryotes, our understanding lags far behind in photosynthetic organisms. In the present investigation, we used the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to conduct a time-resolved analysis of molecular and physiological features throughout the diurnal cycle after TOR inhibition. Detailed examination of the cell cycle phases revealed that growth is not only repressed by 50%, but also that significant, non-linear delays in the progression can be observed. By using metabolomics analysis, we elucidated that the growth repression was mainly driven by differential carbon partitioning between anabolic and catabolic processes. Accordingly, the time-resolved analysis illustrated that metabolic processes including amino acid-, starch- and triacylglycerol synthesis, as well RNA degradation, were redirected within minutes of TOR inhibition. Here especially the high accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds indicated that an active TOR kinase controls the carbon to nitrogen balance of the cell, which is responsible for biomass accumulation, growth and cell cycle progression. © 2017 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Administration of a multistrain probiotic product (VSL#3) to women in the perinatal period differentially affects breast milk beneficial microbiota in relation to mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Miccheli, Alfredo; Praticò, Giulia; Campagna, Giuseppe; Laforgia, Nicola; Capursi, Teresa; Baldassarre, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation to a mother during the perinatal period can have a positive impact on the breast milk composition. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, during late pregnancy and lactation, on breast milk levels of beneficial bacteria and some functional components (oligosaccharides and lactoferrin) potentially able to have a positive influence on the microbiota. Breast milk microbiota was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took daily either the probiotic (n=33) or a placebo (n=33). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that the amounts of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the colostrum and mature milk of the mothers taking VSL#3 in comparison to those taking placebo. The analysis of bacterial strains and species present in breast milk of VSL#3 supplemented mothers indicated that the administered probiotic microorganisms did not pass from maternal gut to mammary gland. In women with vaginal delivery, significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were detected in colostrum and mature milk of probiotic treated group in comparison to placebo group, whereas no significant difference was observed between groups in women who had caesarean section, neither in colostrum nor in mature milk. Milk levels of oligosaccharides and lactoferrin were similar in placebo and probiotic supplemented groups at all timepoints and regardless of the mode of delivery. Our results indicate a probiotic-dependent modulation of breast milk microbiota in vaginally delivering women, possibly exerted through a systemic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium isotope systematics in small upland catchments affected by spruce dieback in the period of extreme acid rain (1970-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Farkas, Juraj; Holmden, Chris; Hruska, Jakub; Curik, Jan; Stepanova, Marketa; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Komarek, Arnost

    2017-04-01

    Recently, new isotope tools have become available to study the behavior of nutrients in stressed ecosystems. In this study, we focus on changes in the abundance ratio of calcium (Ca) isotopes accompanying biogeochemical processes in small forested catchments. We monitored del44Ca values in ecosystem pools and fluxes in four upland sites situated in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. A heavily acidified site in the Eagle Mts. (northern Czech Republic) experienced 13 times higher atmospheric Ca inputs, compared to the other three sites, which were less affected by forest decline. Industrial dust was responsible for the elevated Ca input. Del44Ca values of individual poos/fluxes were used to identify Ca sources for the bioavailable Ca soil reservoir and for runoff. The bedrock of the study sites differed (leucogranite, orthogneiss vs. serpentinite and amphibolite). Across the sites, mean del44Ca values increased in the order: spruce bark Plant preferentially took up isotopically light Ca, while residual isotopically heavy Ca was sorbed to soil particles or exported via runoff. Even at sites with a low del44Ca values of bedrock, runoff had a high del44Ca value. At the base-poor site, most runoff came from atmospheric deposition and residual Ca following plant uptake. It appeared that bedrock weathering did not supply enough Ca to replenish the bioavailable Ca pool in the soil. Currently, we are analyzing Ca isotope composition of individual rock-forming minerals to better assess the effect of different weathering rates of minerals with low/high radiogenic 40Ca contents on runoff del44Ca.

  15. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Karweina

    Full Text Available High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn, 164 (NZn or 2,425 (HZn mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035; the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007. In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017. The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099. The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors.

  16. Limiting Concentrate during Growing Period Affect Performance and Gene Expression of Hepatic Gluconeogenic Enzymes and Visfatin in Korean Native Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Chang

    2013-02-01

    visfatin measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver biopsies showed higher expression (p<0.05 in restricted group than control. Overall, restricting concentrate severely reduced the growth intensity and affected few plasma indices, and gene expression in liver was increased indicating that restricting concentrate in the feeding schemes during early growth for beef calves is not advocated.

  17. Raman spectral markers of collagen denaturation and hydration in human cortical bone tissue are affected by radiation sterilization and high cycle fatigue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Christopher D; Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan; Rimnac, Clare M

    2017-11-01

    Thermal denaturation and monotonic mechanical damage alter the organic and water-related compartments of cortical bone. These changes can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. However, less is known regarding Raman sensitivity to detect the effects of cyclic fatigue damage and allograft sterilization doses of gamma radiation. To determine if Raman spectroscopic biomarkers of collagen denaturation and hydration are sensitive to the effects of (a) high cycle fatigue damage and (b) 25kGy irradiation. Unirradiated and gamma-radiation sterilized human cortical bone specimens previously tested in vitro under high-cycle (> 100,000 cycles) fatigue conditions at 15MPa, 25MPa, 35MPa, 45MPa, and 55MPa cyclic stress levels were studied. Cortical bone Raman spectral profiles from wavenumber ranges of 800-1750cm-1 and 2700-3800cm-1 were obtained and compared from: a) non-fatigue vs fatigue fracture sites and b) radiated vs. unirradiated states. Raman biomarker ratios 1670/1640 and 3220/2949, which reflect collagen denaturation and organic matrix (mainly collagen)-bound water, respectively, were assessed. One- and two-way ANOVA analyses were utilized to identify differences between groups along with interaction effects between cyclic fatigue and radiation-induced damage. Cyclic fatigue damage resulted in increases in collagen denaturation (1670/1640: 1.517 ± 0.043 vs 1.579 ± 0.021, p denaturation (r = 0.514, p denaturation was sensitive to cyclic fatigue damage but not 25kGy irradiation. Collagen denaturation was correlated with organic matrix-bound water, suggesting that denaturation of collagen to gelatinous form may expose more binding sites to water by unwinding the triple alpha chains. This research may eventually be useful to help identify allograft quality and more appropriately match donors to recipients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral despair is differentially affected by the length and timing of photic stimulation in the dark phase of an L/D cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D; Aksoy, A; Canbeyli, R

    2008-07-01

    The effect of varying the length and timing of photic stimulation in the dark phase of an L/D lighting cycle on behavioral despair was investigated in female Wistar rats. Animals were kept in a vivarium on an L/D 12 h:12 h light cycle (lights on at 0700 h) except for a single day of light exposure in an insulated chamber in the dark phase of the L/D schedule. Light pulses provided by an incandescent lamp (15- and 25-W, for Exps. 1 and 2, respectively) either 2-h (Exp. 1) or 30-min in length (Exp. 2) were administered to independent groups of rats (n=8 each) either in the early, middle or late hours of the dark phase of the L/D cycle in the insulated chamber. Light pulses were delivered beginning 2 1/2, 5 1/2 or 7 1/2 h (Exp. 1) or 3 1/4, 6 1/4 and 8 1/4 h (Exp. 2) after dark onset. Control animals were treated similarly except for photic stimulation. In each experiment, an additional group received a light pulse of the appropriate length both in the early and late portion of the dark phase (double double-pulse groups): beginning 2 1/2 and 7 1/2 h (Exp. 1) or 3 1/4 and 8 1/4 h (Exp. 2) after dark onset. All animals then underwent two forced swim tests separated by 24 h with the first test occurring in the light (starting at 1500 h) following the dark phase when photic stimulation was administered. Total duration of immobility in the second swim test was measured to gauge behavioral despair. In Exp. 1, the 2-h double double-pulse group showed significantly shorter immobility compared to controls (pdespair depending on the timing and the duration of photic stimulation.

  19. Cucurbitacin B inhibits proliferation, induces G2/M cycle arrest and autophagy without affecting apoptosis but enhances MTT reduction in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhong Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of cucurbitacin B (a natural product with anti-cancer effect was studied on PC12 cells. It significantly reduced the cell number, changed cell morphology and inhibited colony formation while MTT results showed increased cell viability. Cucurbitacin B treatment increased activity of succinode hydrogenase. No alteration in the integrity of mem-brane, the release of lactic dehydrogenase, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of apoptotic proteins suggested that cucurbitacin B did not induce apoptosis. The cell cycle was remarkably arrested at G2/M phase. Furthermore, cucurbitacin B induced autophagy as evidence by accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the increase of LC3II. In addition, cucurbitacin B up-regulated the expression of p-beclin-1, p-ULK1, p-Wee1, p21 and down-regulated p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, CDC25C, CDK1, Cyclin B1. In conclusion, cucurbitacin B inhibited PC12 proliferation but caused MTT pitfall. Cucurbitacin B induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, autophagy, but not the apoptosis in PC12 cells.

  20. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl (even-odd Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  1. Combined vitamin B-12 and balanced protein-energy supplementation affect homocysteine remethylation in the methionine cycle in pregnant south Indian women of low vitamin B-12 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-quality dietary protein intake and vitamin B-12 deficiency could interact to decrease methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates during pregnancy, and may affect epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. The objective of this randomized, partially open-labeled intervention trial was...

  2. Prep1 (pKnox1 regulates mouse embryonic HSC cycling and self-renewal affecting the Stat1-Sca1 IFN-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Modica

    Full Text Available A hypomorphic Prep1 mutation results in embryonic lethality at late gestation with a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype that includes defects in all hematopoietic lineages. Reduced functionality of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs compartment might be responsible for the hematopoietic phenotype observed at mid-gestation. In this paper we demonstrate that Prep1 regulates the number of HSCs in fetal livers (FLs, their clonogenic potential and their ability to de novo generate the hematopoietic system in ablated hosts. Furthermore, we show that Prep1 controls the self-renewal ability of the FL HSC compartment as demonstrated by serial transplantation experiments. The premature exhaustion of Prep1 mutant HSCs correlates with the reduced quiescent stem cell pool thus suggesting that Prep1 regulates the self-renewal ability by controlling the quiescence/proliferation balance. Finally, we show that in FL HSCs Prep1 absence induces the interferon signaling pathway leading to premature cycling and exhaustion of fetal HSCs.

  3. Sesquiterpene lactones downregulate G2/M cell cycle regulator proteins and affect the invasive potential of human soft tissue sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohberger, Birgit; Rinner, Beate; Stuendl, Nicole; Kaltenegger, Heike; Steinecker-Frohnwieser, Bibiane; Bernhart, Eva; Bonyadi Rad, Ehsan; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Leithner, Andreas; Bauer, Rudolf; Kretschmer, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) represent a rare group of malignant tumors that frequently exhibit chemotherapeutic resistance and increased metastatic potential. Many studies have demonstrated the great potential of plant-derived agents in the treatment of various malignant entities. The present study investigates the effects of the sesquiterpene lactones costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone on cell cycle, MMP expression, and invasive potential of three human STS cell lines of various origins. Both compounds reduced cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Dehydrocostus lactone significantly inhibited cell proliferation, arrested the cells at the G2/M interface and caused a decrease in the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). In addition, accumulation of cells at the G2/M phase transition interface resulted in a significant decrease in cdc2 (CDK1) together with cyclin B1. Costunolide had no effect on the cell cycle. Based on the fact that STS tend to form daughter cell nests and metastasize, the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a crucial role in extracellular matrix degradation and metastasis, were investigated by Luminex® technology and real-time RT-PCR. In the presence of costunolide, MMP-2 and -9 levels were significantly increased in SW-982 and TE-671 cells. Dehydrocostus lactone treatment significantly reduced MMP-2 and -9 expression in TE-671 cells, but increased MMP-9 level in SW-982 cells. In addition, the invasion potential was significantly reduced after treatment with both sesquiterpene lactones as investigated by the HTS FluoroBlock™ insert system.

  4. Pathogenic Mutations Differentially Affect the Catalytic Activities of the Human B12-processing Chaperone CblC and Increase Futile Redox Cycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Carmen; Ruetz, Markus; Li, Zhu; Hudolin, Stephanie; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Human CblC catalyzes the elimination of the upper axial ligand in cobalamin or B12 derivatives entering the cell from circulation. This processing step is critical for assimilation of dietary cobalamin into the active cofactor forms that support the B12-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Using a modified nitroreductase scaffold tailored to bind cobalamin and glutathione, CblC exhibits versatility in the mechanism by which it removes cyano versus alkyl ligands in cobalamin. In this study, we have characterized the effects of two pathogenic missense mutations at the same residue, R161G and R161Q, which are associated with early and late onset of the CblC disorder, respectively. We find that the R161Q and R161G CblC mutants display lower protein stability and decreased dealkylation but not decyanation activity, suggesting that cyanocobalamin might be therapeutically useful for patients carrying mutations at Arg-161. The mutant proteins also exhibit impaired glutathione binding. In the presence of physiologically relevant glutathione concentrations, stabilization of the cob(II)alamin derivative is observed, which occurs at the expense of increased oxidation of glutathione. Futile redox cycling, which is suppressed in wild-type human CblC, explains the reported increase in oxidative stress levels associated with the CblC disorder. PMID:25809485

  5. Pathogenic mutations differentially affect the catalytic activities of the human B12-processing chaperone CblC and increase futile redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Carmen; Ruetz, Markus; Li, Zhu; Hudolin, Stephanie; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-05-01

    Human CblC catalyzes the elimination of the upper axial ligand in cobalamin or B12 derivatives entering the cell from circulation. This processing step is critical for assimilation of dietary cobalamin into the active cofactor forms that support the B12-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Using a modified nitroreductase scaffold tailored to bind cobalamin and glutathione, CblC exhibits versatility in the mechanism by which it removes cyano versus alkyl ligands in cobalamin. In this study, we have characterized the effects of two pathogenic missense mutations at the same residue, R161G and R161Q, which are associated with early and late onset of the CblC disorder, respectively. We find that the R161Q and R161G CblC mutants display lower protein stability and decreased dealkylation but not decyanation activity, suggesting that cyanocobalamin might be therapeutically useful for patients carrying mutations at Arg-161. The mutant proteins also exhibit impaired glutathione binding. In the presence of physiologically relevant glutathione concentrations, stabilization of the cob(II)alamin derivative is observed, which occurs at the expense of increased oxidation of glutathione. Futile redox cycling, which is suppressed in wild-type human CblC, explains the reported increase in oxidative stress levels associated with the CblC disorder. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Effect of Zr Addition on the Microstructure and Toughness of Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone with High-Heat Input Welding Thermal Cycle in Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-hao; Yuan, Xiao-guang; Huang, Hong-jun; Zhang, Si

    2017-07-01

    Microstructures and toughness of coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) with high-heat input welding thermal cycle in Zr-containing and Zr-free low-carbon steel were investigated by means of welding thermal cycle simulation. The specimens were subjected to a welding thermal cycle with heat inputs of 100, 400, and 800 kJ cm-1 at peak temperature of 1673 K (1400 °C) using a thermal simulator. The results indicate that excellent impact toughness at the CGHAZ was obtained in Zr-containing steel. The Zr oxide is responsible for AF transformation, providing the nucleation site for the formation AF, promoting the nucleation of AF on the multi-component inclusions. High fraction of acicular ferrite (AF) appears in Zr-containing steel, acting as an obstacle to cleavage propagation due to its high-angle grain boundary. The morphology of M-A constituents plays a key role in impact toughness of CGHAZ. Large M-A constituents with lath form can assist the micro-crack initiation and seriously decrease the crack initiation energy. The relationship of AF transformation and M-A constituents was discussed in detail.

  7. GSK3β and ERK regulate the expression of 78 kDa SG2NA and ectopic modulation of its level affects phases of cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shweta; Talukdar, Indrani; Jain, Buddhi P; Goswami, Shyamal K

    2017-08-08

    Striatin and SG2NA are essential constituents of the multi-protein STRIPAK assembly harbouring protein phosphatase PP2A and several kinases. SG2NA has several isoforms generated by mRNA splicing and editing. While the expression of striatin is largely restricted to the striatum in brain, that of SG2NAs is ubiquitous. In NIH3T3 cells, only the 78 kDa isoform is expressed. When cells enter into the S phase, the level of SG2NA increases; reaches maximum at the G2/M phase and declines thereafter. Downregulation of SG2NA extends G1 phase and its overexpression extends G2. Ectopic expression of the 35 kDa has no effects on the cell cycle. Relative abundance of phospho-SG2NA is high in the microsome and cytosol and the nucleus but low in the mitochondria. Okadoic acid, an inhibitor of PP2A, increases the level of SG2NA which is further enhanced upon inhibition of proteasomal activity. Phospho-SG2NA is thus more stable than the dephosphorylated form. Inhibition of GSK3β by LiCl reduces its level, but the inhibition of ERK by PD98059 increases it. Thus, ERK decreases the level of phospho-SG2NA by inhibiting GSK3β. In cells depleted from SG2NA by shRNA, the levels of pGSK3β and pERK are reduced, suggesting that these kinases and SG2NA regulate each other's expression.

  8. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P seeds. Significant (P fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2).

  9. ANALISIS PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL TERHADAP SIKLUS BISNIS DI ASEAN-5 PERIODE 1999-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Dinan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyze the effects of International Trade to Business Cycle in ASEAN-5. The data used in this research are the panel data in period of 1999 – 2014 and in five country in ASEAN (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. The The technique of data analysis in this research is Bayesian Vector Autoregressive (BVAR. Based on BVAR, the output has indicated the Openness to Trade and dummy Crisis are positively and significantly affected business cycles in ASEAN-5, and Intra Industry Trade is not affected to business cycles in ASEAN-5.

  10. Historiske perioder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For at forstå fortiden og fortællingerne om den, må vi skabe en form for orden og systematik. Her spiller inddelingen af fortiden i historiske perioder en afgørende rolle – og historiske perioder er da også et kompetencemål efter 6. klasse. Videoen diskuterer forskellige principper...... for periodisering. Kronologi og sammenhænge hænger naturligt sammen med historiske perioder. Videoen handler også om forståelser og brug af synkrone og diakrone sammenhænge i faget....

  11. Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  12. Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Structures from 2008 to 2013 as Observed by the Link Alignment System; Ciclos de Campo Magnético y Periodos de Estabilidad de las Estructuras del Experimento CMS de 2008 a 2013 Observados por el Sistema de Alineamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; and others

    2015-07-01

    In this document Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Experiment are studied with the recorded Alignment Link System data along the 2008 to 2013 years of operation. The motions of the mechanical structures due to the magnetic field forces are studied including an in-depth analysis of the relative distance between the endcap structures and the central Tracker body during the Stability Periods to verify the mechanical stability of the detector during the physics data taking.

  13. Period proliferation in periodic states in cyclically sheared jammed solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Liu, Andrea J.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    2017-08-01

    Athermal disordered systems can exhibit a remarkable response to an applied oscillatory shear: After a relatively few shearing cycles, the system falls into a configuration that had already been visited in a previous cycle. After this point the system repeats its dynamics periodically despite undergoing many particle rearrangements during each cycle. We study the behavior of orbits as we approach the jamming point in simulations of jammed particles subject to oscillatory shear at fixed pressure and zero temperature. As the pressure is lowered, we find that it becomes more common for the system to find periodic states where it takes multiple cycles before returning to a previously visited state. Thus, there is a proliferation of longer periods as the jamming point is approached.

  14. Role of hydrous iron oxide formation in attenuation and diel cycling of dissolved trace metals in a stream affected by acid rock drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S.R.; Gammons, C.H.; Jones, Clain A.; Nimick, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mining-impacted streams have been shown to undergo diel (24-h) fluctuations in concentrations of major and trace elements. Fisher Creek in south-central Montana, USA receives acid rock drainage (ARD) from natural and mining-related sources. A previous diel field study found substantial changes in dissolved metal concentrations at three sites with differing pH regimes during a 24-h period in August 2002. The current work discusses follow-up field sampling of Fisher Creek as well as field and laboratory experiments that examine in greater detail the underlying processes involved in the observed diel concentration changes. The field experiments employed in-stream chambers that were either transparent or opaque to light, filled with stream water and sediment (cobbles coated with hydrous Fe and Al oxides), and placed in the stream to maintain the same temperature. Three sets of laboratory experiments were performed: (1) equilibration of a Cu(II) and Zn(II) containing solution with Fisher Creek stream sediment at pH 6.9 and different temperatures; (2) titration of Fisher Creek water from pH 3.1 to 7 under four different isothermal conditions; and (3) analysis of the effects of temperature on the interaction of an Fe(II) containing solution with Fisher Creek stream sediment under non-oxidizing conditions. Results of these studies are consistent with a model in which Cu, Fe(II), and to a lesser extent Zn, are adsorbed or co-precipitated with hydrous Fe and Al oxides as the pH of Fisher Creek increases from 5.3 to 7.0. The extent of metal attenuation is strongly temperature-dependent, being more pronounced in warm vs. cold water. Furthermore, the sorption/co-precipitation process is shown to be irreversible; once the Cu, Zn, and Fe(II) are removed from solution in warm water, a decrease in temperature does not release the metals back to the water column. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  16. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances......—and in the reporting of public finances—is beginning to emerge....

  17. Weld heat-affected zone in Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Part 1: Computer simulation of the effect of weld variables on the thermal cycles in the HAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.K. [Naval Dockyard, Bombay (India). Naval Chemical and Metallurgical Lab.; Kulkarni, S.D.; Gopinathan, V. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Krishnan, R. [Gas Turbine Research Establishment, Bangalore (India)

    1995-09-01

    The weld thermal cycles encountered in the HAZ of titanium alloys have been characterized using modified Rosenthal equations. The results are shown in the form of axonometric plots depicting the effect of two weld variables keeping the other variables fixed. Computer simulation results show that the heat input and the plate thickness are the major variables affecting the thermal cycles in the HAZ. The effects of changes in welding speed are reflecting in the variation in the heat input. The electrode radius has minimal effect and can be termed as the minor variable. Preheat or interpass temperatures have an intermediate effect. An increase in electrode radius or decrease in plate thickness requires large apparent displacement of the heat source above the plate surface to be incorporated in the analytical solutions. The melt pool width increases sharply with an increase in the heat input (a/v) or a decrease in plate thickness (d); however, preheat temperature (T{sub 0}) has negligible effect. The effect of weld variables on the effective heat input is also similar. The t{sub 8/5} parameter increases sharply with reducing plate thickness or increasing heat input.

  18. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the

  19. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  20. Hydrological cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  1. Female age, serum antimüllerian hormone level, and number of oocytes affect the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Argento, Cindy; Grisendi, Valentina; Fiorentino, Francesco; Greco, Ermanno

    2017-11-01

    To study the relative role of female age and ovarian reserve, measured through serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in determining the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Retrospective analysis of cycles performed in 2014-2015. Tertiary referral IVF center. A total of 578 infertile couples undergoing IVF/ICSI and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) analysis. All embryos were cultured and biopsied at the blastocyst stage. The method involved whole-genome amplification followed by array comparative genome hybridization. Serum AMH was measured by means of the modified Beckman Coulter AMH Gen II assay. The rate and number of euploid blastocysts and their correlation with ovarian reserve and response to stimulation. The mean (±SD) age of patients was 37.6 ± 4.1 years, and the mean number of blastocysts per patient was 3.1 ± 2. The total number of blastocysts available to the analysis was 1,814, and 36% of them were euploid after PGS. Age and serum AMH were significantly and independently related to the rate of euploid blastocysts available for patients. As an effect of the cohort size, the number of mature oocytes positively affected the total number of euploid blastocysts per patient. A strong positive age-independent relationship between AMH level and the rate of euploid blastocysts was found. This confirms that the measurement of ovarian reserve by means of AMH has high relevance when counseling infertile patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental Changes in Ultradian Sleep Cycles across Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopp, Sean; Navidi, William; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique; Diniz Behn, Cecilia

    2017-02-01

    Nocturnal human sleep is composed of cycles between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. In adults, the structure of ultradian cycles between NREM and REM sleep is well characterized; however, less is known about the developmental trajectories of ultradian sleep cycles across early childhood. Cross-sectional studies indicate that the rapid ultradian cycling of active-quiet sleep in infancy shifts to a more adult-like pattern of NREM-REM sleep cycling by the school-age years, yet longitudinal studies elucidating the details of this transition are scarce. To address this gap, we examined ultradian cycling during nocturnal sleep following 13 h of prior wakefulness in 8 healthy children at 3 longitudinal points: 2Y (2.5-3.0 years of age), 3Y (3.5-4.0 years of age), and 5Y (5.5-6.0 years of age). We found that the length of ultradian cycles increased with age as a result of increased NREM sleep episode duration. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in the number of NREM sleep episodes as well as a nonsignificant trend for a decrease in the number of cycles with increasing age. Together, these findings suggest a concurrent change in which cycle duration increases and the number of cycles decreases across development. We also found that, consistent with data from adolescents and adults, the duration of NREM sleep episodes decreased with time since lights-off whereas the duration of REM sleep episodes increased over this time period. These results indicate the presence of circadian modulation of nocturnal sleep in preschool children. In addition to characterizing changes in ultradian cycling in healthy children ages 2 to 5 years, this work describes a developmental model that may provide insights into the emergence of normal adult REM sleep regulatory circuitry as well as potential trajectories of dysregulated ultradian cycles such as those associated with affective disorders.

  3. Genetic stability of ectomycorrhizal fungi is not affected by cryopreservation at -130 °C or cold storage with repeated sub-cultivations over a period of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crahay, Charlotte; Munaut, Françoise; Colpaert, Jan V; Huret, Stéphanie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Cryopreservation is considered the most reliable method for storage of filamentous fungi including ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. A number of studies, however, have reported genetic changes in fungus cultures following cryopreservation. In the present study, the genetic stability of six ECM fungus isolates was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The isolates were preserved for 2 years either by cryopreservation (at -130 °C) or by storage at 4 °C with regular sub-cultivation. A third preservation treatment consisting of isolates maintained on Petri dishes at 22-23 °C for 2 years (i.e., without any sub-cultivation) was included and used as a control. The differences observed in AFLP patterns between the three preservation methods remained within the range of the total error generated by the AFLP procedure (6.85%). Therefore, cryopreservation at -130 °C and cold storage with regular sub-cultivation did not affect the genetic stability of the ECM fungus isolates, and both methods can be used for the routine storage of ECM fungus isolates over a period of 2 years.

  4. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  5. Applied physiology of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  6. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  7. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...

  8. The influence of short-time period of an adaptation to decreased ambient temperature on interleukin-6 and corticosterone levels in female Wistar strain rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were

  9. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  10. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed......We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...

  11. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  12. Menu Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

    The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

  13. Simple cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Rivin, Igor

    1999-01-01

    We obtain sharp bounds for the number of n-cycles in a finite graph as a function of the number of edges, and prove that the complete graph is optimal in more ways than could be imagined. En route, we prove some sharp estimates on power sums.

  14. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  15. The global sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  16. Densidade e sistema de espaçamento de bananeiras ‘Nanicão’: duração do ciclo e do período de colheita Density and spacing system of ‘Nanicão’ bananas: duration of cycle and period of harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a influência de diferentes densidades e sistemas de espaçamento sobre a duração do ciclo e do período de colheita de bananeiras ‘Nanicão’, em Piracicaba (SP. Quatro densidades (1333; 1666; 2222 e 3333 plantas/ha e dois sistemas de espaçamento (retângulo e losango foram avaliados durante as quatro primeiras produções. O sistema de espaçamento teve pouco efeito sobre a duração do ciclo e do período de colheita, enquanto que, a partir da segunda safra, estes períodos foram maiores à medida que a densidade aumentou. Na densidade 3333 plantas/ha, a soma dos quatro ciclos atingiu 55,1 meses, enquanto que nas demais densidades este período foi reduzido para 50,1 meses (2222 plantas/ha, 47,7 meses (1666 plantas/ha e 45,9 meses (1333 plantas/ha. A colheita do primeiro ciclo foi realizada em quatro meses para todas as densidades. No segundo ciclo, a colheita dos plantios mais densos (2222 e 3333 plantas/ha foi realizada em oito meses, diminuindo para sete meses, com 1666 plantas/ha, e para seis meses com 1333 plantas/ha. No terceiro ciclo, a duração da colheita na maior densidade aumentou para 11 meses, enquanto que nas demais densidades a colheita processou-se em 10, 9 e 8 meses (2222; 1666 e 1333 plantas/ha, respectivamente. No quarto ciclo a colheita foi efetuada em 14; 12; 12 e 8 meses, para as densidades de 3333; 2222; 1666 e 1333 plantas/ha, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to verify the influence of the density and spacing systems on the duration of the cycle and period of harvest of the ‘Nanicão’ banana, planted in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Four densities (1333; 1666; 2222 and 3333 plants/ha and two spacing systems (rectangle and diamond were evaluated for the first four crops. The spacing system had little effect on duration of cycle and period of harvest, while after the second cycle, the harvest period increased with plant density. At the density of 3333 plants

  17. Removing Cycles in Esterel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard von Hanxleden

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Esterel belongs to the family of synchronous programming languages, which are affected by cyclic signal dependencies. This prohibits a static scheduling, limiting the choice of available compilation techniques for programs with such cycles. This work proposes an algorithm that, given a constructive synchronous Esterel program, performs a semantics-preserving source code level transformation that removes cyclic signal dependencies. The transformation is divided into two parts: detection of cycles and iterative resolution of these cycles. It is based on the replacement of cycle signals by a signal expression involving no other cycle signals, thereby breaking the cycle. This transformation of cyclic Esterel programs enables the use of efficient compilation techniques, which are only available for acyclic programs. Furthermore, experiments indicate that the code transformation can even improve code quality produced by compilers that can already handle cyclic programs.

  18. Effects of dietary trace mineral sources and levels fed to layers in their second laying cycle on the quality of eggs stored at different temperatures and for different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPB Saldanha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of trace mineral levels and sources supplemented to diets fed to semi-heavy layers in their second laying cycle on the quality of eggs stored for 14 days at different temperatures. The experimental diets consisted of the inclusion of inorganic trace minerals (T1 - control: 100% ITM and five supplementation levels of organic trace minerals (carboaminophopho chelates (110, 100, 90, 80, and 70% OTM. Trace mineral inclusion levels (mg/kg feed were: T1: control - 100% ITM: Zn (54, Fe (54, Mn (72, Cu (10, I (0.61 Se (0.3; T2 - 110% OTM: Zn (59.4, Fe (59.4, Mn (79.2, Cu (11.88, I (1.21 Se (0.59; T3 - 100%: OTM: Zn (54, Fe (54, Mn (72, Cu (10.8, I (1.10 Se (0.54; T4 - 90% OTM: Zn (48.6, Fe (48.6, Mn (64.8, Cu (9.72, I (0.99 Se (0.49; T5 - 80% OTM: Zn (43.2, Fe (43.2, Mn (57.6, Cu (8.64, I (0.88, Se (0.43; T6 - 70% OTM: Zn (37.8, Fe (37.8, Mn (50.4, Cu (7.56, I (0.77 Se (0.38. A completely randomized experimental design in a split-plot arrangement with 60 treatments of four replicates each was applied. The combination of six diets versus storage temperature (room or under refrigeration was randomized in plots, whereas the sub-plots consisted of storage times (0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days. Data were submitted to analysis of variance of a model in slip-plots in time using the software package SAS (2000 at 5% probability level. It was concluded that 70% OTM supplementation can be used with no damage to egg quality, independently from storage temperature or time. The quality of refrigerated eggs stored up to 14 days is better than those stored at room temperature.

  19. How extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycle affects Japanese economy ? Impact assessment using macroeconometric and input-output simulations; Jidosha kaikae cycle no chokika ga kokunai keizai ni ataeru eikyo ni tsuite. Makuro keizai sangyo renkan model ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry, which has inspired domestic production activities since the 1960`s, is coming up against inevitable changes. One of the typical phenomena is that the domestic motor vehicle market is getting ripe. Since almost 80 percent of households in our country already have at least one motor vehicle and the population is going to reduce, it isn`t expected that the newly car demand will increase rapidly as it did before the end of 1980`s. It is strongly predicted that purchase of cars motivated mainly for replacement is going to take a leading part of domestic sales. In this paper, we calculate the impacts of extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycles, as one aspect of maturation of the domestic motor vehicle market, on Japanese economy. Reduction of new car demands affects production not only in the motor vehicle industry, but also in the various industries. It is because motor vehicles are manufactured goods those need many step of production by the time of selling. Using CRIEPI`s macroeconometric and input-output models, we clarified that retrenchment of car replacement would decrease 2.6 trillion yen of total industry output in 1990 constant price value added terms. The loss of output in the motor vehicle industry would be 381 billion yen, and in the retail and wholesale sector it would amount td 666 billion yen. Also, electric power industry would lose 47 billion yen`s takings. Considering low economic growth since 1990, this impact could have a great influence on our prospective growing process. (author)

  20. How extending motor vehicle's replacement cycle affects Japanese economy Impact assessment using macroeconometric and input-output simulations. Jidosha kaikae cycle no chokika ga kokunai keizai ni ataeru eikyo ni tsuite. Makuro keizai sangyo renkan model ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry, which has inspired domestic production activities since the 1960's, is coming up against inevitable changes. One of the typical phenomena is that the domestic motor vehicle market is getting ripe. Since almost 80 percent of households in our country already have at least one motor vehicle and the population is going to reduce, it isn't expected that the newly car demand will increase rapidly as it did before the end of 1980's. It is strongly predicted that purchase of cars motivated mainly for replacement is going to take a leading part of domestic sales. In this paper, we calculate the impacts of extending motor vehicle's replacement cycles, as one aspect of maturation of the domestic motor vehicle market, on Japanese economy. Reduction of new car demands affects production not only in the motor vehicle industry, but also in the various industries. It is because motor vehicles are manufactured goods those need many step of production by the time of selling. Using CRIEPI's macroeconometric and input-output models, we clarified that retrenchment of car replacement would decrease 2.6 trillion yen of total industry output in 1990 constant price value added terms. The loss of output in the motor vehicle industry would be 381 billion yen, and in the retail and wholesale sector it would amount td 666 billion yen. Also, electric power industry would lose 47 billion yen's takings. Considering low economic growth since 1990, this impact could have a great influence on our prospective growing process. (author)

  1. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  2. Optimal timing for performing hysterectomy according to different phase of menstrual cycle: Which is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Jin; Kang, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Kyo Won; Kim, Kye Hyun; Song, Taejong

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the different phases of the menstrual cycle could affect operative bleeding in women undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. This was a retrospective comparative study. Based on the adjusted day of menstrual cycle, 212 women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy were classified into three groups: the follicular phase (n = 51), luteal phase group (n = 125), and menstruation group (n = 36). The primary outcome measure was the operative bleeding. There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the patients belonging to the three groups. For the groups, there were no significant differences in operative bleeding (p = .469) and change in haemoglobin (p = .330), including operative time, length of hospital stay and complications. The menstrual cycle did not affect the operative bleeding and other parameters. Therefore, no phase of the menstrual cycle could be considered as an optimal timing for performing laparoscopic hysterectomy with minimal operative bleeding. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: the menstrual cycle results in periodic changes in haemostasis and blood flow in the reproductive organs. What the results of this study add: the menstrual cycle did not affect the operative bleeding and other operative parameters during laparoscopic hysterectomy. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: no phase of the menstrual cycle could be considered as an optimal timing for performing laparoscopic hysterectomy with minimal operative bleeding.

  3. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. (USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  4. Biogeochemical cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Boersema, J.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    It is now often assumed that life first appeared on planet Earth about 3,500 million years ago. Since then ‘our’ Sun has changed considerably. While the flux of solar energy to the Earth has increased by about 30% over this period, though, this has not led to a corresponding increase in the Earth's

  5. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  6. Cycling infrastructure for reducing cycling injuries in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Caroline A; Smith, Sherie; Watson, Michael C; Parkin, John; Coupland, Carol; Miller, Philip; Kendrick, Denise; McClintock, Hugh

    2015-12-10

    reducing the risk of collision. Generally, the conversion of intersections to roundabouts may increase the number of cycle collisions. In particular, the conversion of intersections to roundabouts with cycle lanes marked as part of the circulating carriageway increased cycle collisions. However, the conversion of intersections with and without signals to roundabouts with cycle paths may reduce the odds of collision. Both continuing a cycle lane across the mouth of a side road with a give way line onto the main road, and cycle tracks, may increase the risk of injury collisions in cyclists. However, these conclusions are uncertain, being based on a narrative review of findings from included studies. There is a lack of evidence that cycle paths or advanced stop lines either reduce or increase injury collisions in cyclists. There is also insufficient evidence to draw any robust conclusions concerning the effect of cycling infrastructure on cycling collisions in terms of severity of injury, sex, age, and level of social deprivation of the casualty.In terms of quality of the evidence, there was little matching of intervention and control sites. In many studies, the comparability of the control area to the intervention site was unclear and few studies provided information on other cycling infrastructures that may be in place in the control and intervention areas. The majority of studies analysed data routinely collected by organisations external to the study team, thus reducing the risk of bias in terms of systematic differences in assessing outcomes between the control and intervention groups. Some authors did not take regression-to-mean effects into account when examining changes in collisions. Longer data collection periods pre- and post-installation would allow for regression-to-mean effects and also seasonal and time trends in traffic volume to be observed. Few studies adjusted cycle collision rates for exposure. Generally, there is a lack of high quality evidence to be able

  7. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  8. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety effects of the London cycle superhighways on cycle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Liu, Pan

    2017-02-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of the London Cycle Superhighways (CS) on cycle collisions. A total of 45 CS segments and 375 control segments are observed for a period of 8 years in London. Variables such as road characteristics, crash history and socio-economic information are included in the data set. Traffic characteristics including traffic volume, cycle volume and traffic speed are obtained from Department for Transport. We first estimate the safety effects on the CS routes using Empirical Bayes methods. Then propensity score matching methods are also applied for comparison. The introduction of cycle superhighways caused cycling traffic volumes to increase dramatically along CS routes with no significant impacts on collision rates. Our models find that the increase in traffic was associated with a rise in annual total cycle collisions of around 2.6 per km (38% in percentage). However, when we re-estimate the effects based on cycle collision rates rather than levels, our results also show that the CS routes are not more dangerous or safer than the control roads. Among the four CS routes, CS3 performs the best in protecting cyclists with a large proportion of segregated lanes whilst the cyclists have to share the lanes with motorists on other routes. It is recommended that consistent safety designs should be applied on all CS routes for a safer cycling environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of differentiated music on cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H B T; Atkinson, G; Karageorghis, C I; Eubank, M R; Eubank, M M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of music introduced and removed during a 10-km cycling time trial with reference to Rejeski's parallel processing theory and Karageorghis, Terry and Lane's conceptual framework for the prediction of responses to asynchronous music during sub-maximal exercise. A range of performance variables, ratings of perceived exertion, positive affect, negative affect, and blood lactate were assessed. Eleven males (mean age=24.9, s=6.1 years) completed a 10-km time trial under three conditions; no music, music played initially then removed between 5-10 km, and music played between 5-10 km only. Variables of time, power, cadence, speed, RPE, blood lactate, positive and negative affect were analysed using a ConditionxDistance ANOVA. There was no significant main effect for music conditions for the performance variables, perceived exertion, blood lactate, and affect (p>0.05). Nevertheless, a significant interaction effect for ConditionxDistance was found for cycling speed, with participants cycling 1-1.25 km/h faster at the start of the music introduced time trial than in both the music removed and no music time trials (pmusic during exercise and this finding can be used to extend current theory as it does not specifically address the periodic use music. The fact that participants exercised harder when they expected music to be introduced at a later stage illustrates the behavioural influences that music can engender during self-paced exercise.

  11. CHILDHOOD MEMORIES AND CONDITIONS AFFECTING THEIR CHILDHOOD PERIODS OF THE WRITERS IN REPUBLIC PERIOD (CUMHURİYET DEVRİ AS A SOURCE OF LITERATURE AND CHILDREN’S LITERATURE / EDEBİYATA VE ÇOCUK EDEBİYATINA BİR KAYNAK OLARAK BAZI CUMHURİYET DEVRİ YAZARLARININ ÇOCUKLUK ANILARI VE ÇOCUKLUK DÖNEMLERİNİ ETKİLEYEN SARTLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cem Sems TÜMER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The context that influences one’s childhood, themost important period of human life, is especially important for writers about the effects on both theirpersonality and their writings. In this study, childhoodmemories of fifty eight authors are investigated based onthe book titled “Çocukluk Yılları”, published by TDK, byMehmet Seyda, as the year of 1979 was declared “WorldChildren’s Year”. The conditions affecting their childhoodperiods and the effects of those conditions on themselvesand their writing ability are determined.

  12. Preliminary prediction of the 25-thTH solar cycle parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishkalo, M.

    2014-12-01

    Solar activity varies with a period of about 11 years. The solar activity variations cause changes in the interplanetary and near-Earth space. The whole space weather is mainly controlled by the solar activity. Changes in space weather affect the operation of space-borne and ground-based technological systems such as manned space flights, aero-navigation and space navigation, radars, high-frequency radio communication, GPS navigation, ground power lines. The solar activity variations influence living organisms and the climate on Earth. That is why it is important to know the level of solar activity in a solar cycle in advance. Current solar activity is near the maximum of solar cycle 24. Maximal monthly sunspot number was 102.8 in February 2014 and smoothed one was 75.4 in November 2013 (preliminary). Taking it into account and using correlation relations and regression equations from (Pishkalo, 2014: Solar Phys., vol. 289, 1815) we can estimate duration of solar cycle 24 and then predict parameters of solar cycle 25. Precursors in our calculations are the estimated duration of solar cycle 24 and sunspot number at the end of the cycle. We found that minimum and maximum of solar cycle 25 in monthly sunspot numbers will amount to 5 in April-June of 2020 and 105-110 in October-December of 2024, respectively. Solar cycle 25 will be stronger than the current cycle 24. No very deep drop in solar activity similar to Dalton or Maunder minimums was predicted.

  13. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa eRamírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  14. Absent menstrual periods - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary amenorrhea; No periods - primary; Absent periods - primary; Absent menses - primary; Absence of periods - primary ... nutrition Tumors In many cases, the cause of primary amenorrhea is not known.

  15. The Long-Term Effects of the Periconceptional Period on Embryo Epigenetic Profile and Phenotype; The Paternal Role and His Contribution, and How Males Can Affect Offspring's Phenotype/Epigenetic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Emma S; Watkins, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    The number of adults afflicted with heart disease, obesity and diabetes, central components of metabolic disorder, has grown rapidly in recent decades, affecting up to one quarter of the world's population. Typically, these diseases are attributed to lifestyle factors such as poor diet, lack of exercise and smoking. However, studies have now identified strong associations between patterns of growth during foetal and neonatal life and an increase predisposition towards developing heart disease, obesity and diabetes in adult life. While the connection between a mother's diet and the long-term health of her offspring has been studied in great detail, our understanding of whether offspring health might be affected by a father's diet remains limited. Greater insight into the impact that paternal nutrition has on sperm quality, epigenetic status and potential offspring programming mechanisms is needed to redress this parental-programming knowledge imbalance. Disturbances in paternal reproductive epigenetic status represents one key mechanism linking paternal diet with the programing of offspring development and adult health, as many enzymatic processes involved in epigenetic regulation use metabolic intermediates to modify DNA and histones. Here, poor paternal nutrition could result in perturbed sperm and testicular epigenetic status, impacting on post-fertilisation gene transcriptional regulation and protein expression in offspring tissues, resulting in increased incidences of metabolic disorder in adult life.

  16. Will Solar Cycles 25 and 26 Be Weaker than Cycle 24?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaraiah, J.

    2017-11-01

    The study of variations in solar activity is important for understanding the underlying mechanism of solar activity and for predicting the level of activity in view of the activity impact on space weather and global climate. Here we have used the amplitudes (the peak values of the 13-month smoothed international sunspot number) of Solar Cycles 1 - 24 to predict the relative amplitudes of the solar cycles during the rising phase of the upcoming Gleissberg cycle. We fitted a cosine function to the amplitudes and times of the solar cycles after subtracting a linear fit of the amplitudes. The best cosine fit shows overall properties (periods, maxima, minima, etc.) of Gleissberg cycles, but with large uncertainties. We obtain a pattern of the rising phase of the upcoming Gleissberg cycle, but there is considerable ambiguity. Using the epochs of violations of the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule (G-O rule) and the `tentative inverse G-O rule' of solar cycles during the period 1610 - 2015, and also using the epochs where the orbital angular momentum of the Sun is steeply decreased during the period 1600 - 2099, we infer that Solar Cycle 25 will be weaker than Cycle 24. Cycles 25 and 26 will have almost same strength, and their epochs are at the minimum between the current and upcoming Gleissberg cycles. In addition, Cycle 27 is expected to be stronger than Cycle 26 and weaker than Cycle 28, and Cycle 29 is expected to be stronger than both Cycles 28 and 30. The maximum of Cycle 29 is expected to represent the next Gleissberg maximum. Our analysis also suggests a much lower value (30 - 40) for the maximum amplitude of the upcoming Cycle 25.

  17. Behavior of uranium isotopes along a tidal cycle in a study affected by acid mine drainage; Comportamiento de los isotopos de uranio a lo largo de un ciclo mareal en un estuario afectado por denaje acido de minas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, A.; Martin, J. e.; Olias, M.; Garcia, C.; Bolivar, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers converge in an estuarine system known as the Ria de Huelva, which is an ecosystem of great interest, conditioned by hydrochemical facts. The main objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of uranium isotopes in the waters of the Red River estuary in a tidal cycle under hydrochemical conditions of high gradients of salinity and pH generated by the acidic waters of the Rio Tinto and seawater. (Author)

  18. Produção de chicória em função do período de cobertura com tecido de polipropileno Chicory production affected by different periods of covering with polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luiz Feltrim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na UNESP em Jaboticabal (SP com o objetivo de avaliar períodos de cobertura de plantas de chicória com polipropileno branco, de 20 g m-2, sobre a produção de chicória crespa. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de dois genótipos de chicória (cv. Chicória Crespa, da Isla Sementes, e o genótipo 'AF-218', da Sakata Seeds e de quatro sistemas de cultivo: (a ausência de cobertura com polipropileno; (b cobertura pos 15 dias após o transplantio (DAT; (c cobertura aos 30 DAT; e (d 42 DAT coberto, o qual correspondeu a todo o período de crescimento da chicória no campo. A semeadura foi realizada em 02/06/2003 e o transplantio em 27/06/2003. A colocação do polipropileno foi feita diretamente sobre as plantas, fixando-se as laterais na parte externa do canteiro. Na colheita, avaliou-se a altura, número de folhas, diâmetro das plantas, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea. O genótipo 'AF-218' apresentou maior massa fresca da parte aérea que a cv. Chicória Crespa. À medida em que houve aumento do período de cobertura com polipropileno, observou-se aumento na altura, número de folhas e na massa fresca da parte aérea dos dois genótipos. O uso do polipropileno durante todo o ciclo (42 dias resultou em maior massa seca e promoveu precocidade da colheita em oito dias, além de qualidade superior, com folhas mais tenras e limpas.The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, to evaluate the production of chicory plants subjected to periods of covering with white polypropylene of 20 g m². The experimental design was a randomized block using a factorial scheme 4x2, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two chicory genotypes (cv. Chicória Crespa, of Isla Seeds, and 'AF-218', of Sakata Seeds and four cultivation systems: (a non covering of the plants with polypropylene; (b

  19. Effect of Menstrual Cycle on the Exercise Concert of Zambian Female Long Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan. D & clementchileshe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Focusing of the study is to determine the effect of exercise during menstrual cycle on female long distance runners. The Main objectives of this study were to assess the effect of exercise concert at the period of menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle do not affect muscle contractile characteristics. Most research also reports no changes over the menstrual cycle for the many determinants of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, such as lactate response to exercise, bodyweight, plasma volume, hemoglobin concentration, heart rate and ventilation. Therefore, it is not surprising that the current literature indicates that VO2max is not affected by the menstrual cycle. These findings suggest that regularly menstruating female long distance runners, competing in strength-specific sports and intense anaerobic/aerobic sports, do not need to adjust for menstrual cycle phase to maximize performance. For prolonged exercise performance, however, the menstrual cycle may have an effect. To evaluate that whether the exercise are harmful during menstruation or not, to assess what changes occurs before, during, and after menstruation, and to know the effects of menstruation upon personal performance A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the female long distance runners. The received responses of female long distance runners were tabulated and analyzed. Main findings were that exercises are not harmful during menstruation; personal performances are increased during bleeding days

  20. Postwar fertility cycles and the Easterlin hypothesis: a life-cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, R A

    1982-01-01

    The Easterlin hypothesis is discussed in the context of the life-cycle model. Fertility rates rose by 15% after World War II, and have fallen steadily since. The Easterlin hypothesis states that such a pattern could be generated if each generation makes its fertility decisions based on its own income relative to the income of its parental generation. The income of one generation determines the level of material well-being to which its children become accustomed; when the children grow up they will desire material goods rather than children in order to retain the lifestyle they are accustomed to. In the traditional statement of the hypothesis, relative income is defined as some ratio of the current incomes of 2 generations at particular points in time; from the viewpoint of the life-cycle theory, the concept of the income of a cohort is replaced by the concept of lifetime wealth, the value of the income received over the entire life cycle. In this article, a value of lifetime wealth is constructed for each of the cohorts of childbearing age in the postwar period and for each of their parental cohorts. Regression analysis is employed to determine whether the lifetime wealth of a cohorts' parents significantly affects its fertility. Parental wealth has a strong negative effect on a cohort's age-specific fertility rate and own-cohort wealth is found to have a positive effect on fertility rates. This article contains a discussion of the life-cycle model, explains the regression equation, presents the method used to estimate lifetime wealth and fertility regressions, and provides an examination of the effect of own and parental wealth on a cohort's pattern of female labor force participation. There appear to be underlying trends in fertility rates that are independent of relative wealth, but this article demonstrates that the Easterlin hypothesis provides at least a strong partial explanation for postwar fertility cycles.

  1. (Auto)Ethnographies and Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the formation, salience and reformation of everyday bodily routines and resources in relation to cycling; it also examines how we can study them ethnographically in different places. I discuss forms of embodied, sensuous and mobile ethnography that can illuminate how routines......, habits and affective capacities of cycling are cultivated and performed. The article argues that autoethnography is particularly apt at illuminating the embodied qualities of movement, and it sits within established ethnographies of ‘excising’ and ‘mobile bodies’. In the second part of the article, I...... draw upon ongoing autoethnographies of cycling in a familiar place (my hometown, Copenhagen) and by learning to cycle ‘out-of-place’ (in London) and ‘in-a-new–way’ (when commuting long distance on a racer bike). The study challenges static notions of the body by analysing how cyclists’ (and researchers...

  2. Tram system related cycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maempel, J F; Mackenzie, S P; Stirling, P H C; McCann, C; Oliver, C W; White, T O

    2018-01-24

    Understanding of tram-system related cycling injuries (TSRCI) is poor. The aim of this study was to report the spectrum of injuries, demographics and social deprivation status of patients. Secondary aims included assessment of accident circumstances, effects of TSRCI on patients' confidence cycling, together with time off work and cycling. A retrospective review of patients presenting to emergency services across all hospitals in Edinburgh and West Lothian with tram related injuries between May 2009 and April 2016 was undertaken. Medical records and imagining were analysed and patients were contacted by telephone. 191 cyclists (119 males, 72 females) were identified. 63 patients sustained one or more fractures or dislocations. Upper limb fractures/dislocations occurred in 55, lower limb fractures in 8 and facial fractures in 2. Most patients demonstrated low levels of socioeconomic deprivation. In 142 cases, the wheel was caught in tram-tracks, while in 32 it slid on tracks. The latter occurred more commonly in wet conditions (p = 0.028). 151 patients answered detailed questionnaires. Ninety-eight were commuting. 112 patients intended to cross tramlines and 65 accidents occurred at a junction. Eighty patients reported traffic pressures contributed to their accident. 120 stated that their confidence was affected and 24 did not resume cycling. Female gender (p cycling (median 57 days vs 21, p cycling. TSRCI can result in significant loss of working and cycling days.

  3. Dietas com nitrogênio não-proteico para fêmeas bovinas superovuladas sem prévia adaptação durante curto tempo e em diferentes fases do ciclo estral Effect of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding for superovulated beef cows without previous adaptation and at different periods of the oestrus cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rocha Alves

    2010-09-01

    effects of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding at different periods of the oestrus cycle in superovulated cows, without previous adaptation, on yield, quality and development degree of recovered embryos. A total of sixty-eight Nelore cows were distributed in three groups: the control group (C and two groups with urea supply before (UB; urea supply from day -5 to day 0 and after (UA; supply from day 0 to day 5 artificial insemination. Animals were kept grazing and received 3.0 kg/animal/day of concentrate during 16 days. Two concentrates were formulated and the total diets (concentrate and estimate forage intake showed 12.0% (control diet and 14.6% (non-protein diet of crude protein. Animals were synchronized, superovulated and inseminated. The embryos were collected and analysed seven days (day 7 after insemination (day 0. Blood samples were collected on days -5, 0 and 5 to determine concentration of plasmatic urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin and progesterone. The time of urea supply affected average plasmatic urea nitrogen concentration on days -5, 0 5 but it did not affect concetrations of glucose, insulin and progesterone. The moment of urea inclusion had effect on compact morula percentage in relation to the total number of structures (UB = 51.4 vs. UA = 15.3%, to the total number of fertilized oocytes (UB = 62.5 vs. UA = 30.6% and to the total number of viable embryos (UB = 68.8 vs. UA = 38.6%. In the after insemination group of urea supply there was 70.2% of reduction on compact morula proportion over the total structures in relation to the group that received urea before insemination. Non-protein nitrogen feeding immediately after insemination promotes faster rates of embryo development.

  4. Factors that Affect the Adherence to ADHD Medications during a Treatment Continuation Period in Children and Adolescents: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study Using Korean Health Insurance Data from 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Kwack, Young Sook; Joung, Yoo-Sook; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Kim, Bongseog; Sohn, Seok Han; Chung, Un-Sun; Yang, Jaewon; Hong, Minha; Bahn, Geon Ho; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Oh, In Hwan; Lee, Yeon Jung; Hwang, Jun-Won

    2017-03-01

    Several factors, such as male gender, older age, type of insurance, comorbid conditions, and medication type, have been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication adherence rates, but the results have been inconsistent. We analyzed data to answer several questions: 1) How old were patients who first refilled their treatment medications used primarily for ADHD, regardless of the medication type? 2) What socio-demographic factors are associated with medication adherence? 3) What medical conditions, such as medication type and comorbid diagnosis, influence adherence? We analyzed National Health Insurance data, which comprised continuously enrolled Korean National Medical Insurance children (6-18 years) with at least 2 ADHD prescription claims (January 2008-December 2011). The persistence of use regarding the days of continuous therapy without a 30-day gap were measured continuously and dichotomously. Adherence, using a medication possession ratio (MPR), was measured dichotomously (80% cut-off). The cumulative incidence of index cases that initiated medication refills for ADHD treatment during the 4 year period was 0.85%. The patients who exhibited a MPR greater than 80 comprised approximately 66%. The medication type, high school age groups, physician speciality, treatment at a private clinic, and comorbid conditions were associated with medication adherence during continuous treatment using a multivariate analysis. A better understanding of ADHD treatment patterns may lead to initiatives targeted at the improvement of treatment adherence and persistence. Other factors, including the severity, family history, costs, type of comorbidities, and switching patterns, will be analyzed in future studies.

  5. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ramírez-López

    Full Text Available Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS. In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and c tissue and sex-specific changes in the expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptors and in that of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL, being the adipose tissue the most affected organ analyzed. Since the effects were observed in adult animals that were weaned while consuming a normal diet, the present results indicate that the ECS is one of the targets of maternal programming of the offspring energy expenditure. These results clearly indicate that the maternal diet has long-term effects on the development of pups through multiple alterations of signaling homeostatic pathways that include the ECS. The potential relevance of these alterations for the current obesity epidemic is discussed.

  6. Basil conservation affected by cropping season, harvest time and storage period Armazenamento e conservação de manjericão após diferentes épocas e horários de colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceli da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is used in food, phytotherapic industry, and in traditional therapeutic, due to its essential oil content and composition. Nevertheless basil can not be kept for long periods after harvest and its quality can be reduced. This work aimed to assess the influence of the season and harvest time in the postharvest conservation of basil stored for different periods. Basil was harvested at 8 am and 4 pm both in August/1999 and January/2000. Cuttings were conditioned in PVC packages and stored for 3, 6, and 9 days. During storage, chlorophyll content, essential oil content and composition were determined as well as microbiological analyses were carried out. Harvest season and the days of storage influenced the final content of essential oil. There was a linear decrease in the content of essential oil, in the chlorophyll content and in the number of mold and yeast colonies during storage. There was no effect of cropping season or harvest hour on essential oil composition, but the eugenol and linalool content increased during storage. Coliforms were under 0.3 MPN g-1 and the number of Staphylococcus aureus was under 1.0x10² UFC g-1.O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é empregado tanto na indústria culinária quanto fitoterápica e na medicina tradicional, devido ao teor e composição de seu óleo essencial. No entanto, o manjericão não pode ser conservado por longo período após a colheita e sua qualidade pode ser prejudicada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da época e do horário de colheita sobre a conservação de manjericão armazenado por diferentes períodos. O manjericão foi colhido às 8h e às 16h em agosto/1999 e em janeiro/2000. Os ramos foram acondicionados em filmes de PVC e armazenados por 3, 6 e 9 dias. Durante o armazenamento, o teor de clorofila, e o teor e a composição do óleo essencial foram determinados e foram conduzidas análises microbiológicas. A época de colheita

  7. Double Compressions of Atmospheric Depth by Geopotential Tendency, Vorticity, and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Affected Abrupt High Particulate Matter Concentrations at a Coastal City for a Yellow Dust Period in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using GRIMM-aerosol sampler, NOAA-HYSPLIT model, and 3D-WRF-3.3 model, the transportation of dusts from Gobi Desert toward Gangneung city, Korea was investigated from 09:00 LST October 27 to 04:00 LST October 28, 2003. Maximum PM10 (PM2.5, PM1 concentration was detected with 3.8 (3.4, 14.1 times higher magnitude than one in non-Yellow Dust period. The combination of dusts transported from the desert under westerly wind with particulate matters and gases from vehicles on the road of the city caused high PM concentrations near the ground surface at 09:00 LST and their maxima at 17:00 LST near sunset with further pollutants from heating boilers in the resident area. Positive geopotential tendency at the 500 hPa level of the city (∂Φ/∂t; m day−1 corresponding to negative vorticity of -4×10-5 sec−1 (-2.5×10-5 sec−1 at 0900 LST (21:00 LST; at night was +83 m day−1 (+30 m day−1 and it caused atmospheric depth between 500 hPa level and the ground surface to be vertically expanded. However, its net reduction to −53 m/12 hrs until 21:00 LST indicated synoptic-scale atmospheric layer to be vertical shrunken, resulting in the increase of PM concentrations at 17:00 LST. Simultaneously, much shallower microscale stable nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL than daytime thermal internal boundary layer induced particulate matters to be merged inside the NSIL, resulting in maximum PM concentrations at 17:00 LST.

  8. Administration of a Multi-Strain Probiotic Product to Women in the Perinatal Period Differentially Affects the Breast Milk Cytokine Profile and May Have Beneficial Effects on Neonatal Gastrointestinal Functional Symptoms. A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Maria Elisabetta; Di Mauro, Antonio; Mastromarino, Paola; Fanelli, Margherita; Martinelli, Domenico; Urbano, Flavia; Capobianco, Daniela; Laforgia, Nicola

    2016-10-27

    Probiotic supplementation to women during pregnancy and lactation can modulate breast milk composition, with immune benefits being transferred to their infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-dose probiotic supplementation to women during late pregnancy and lactation on cytokine profile and secretory IgA (sIgA) in breast milk and thus to study if differences in breast milk composition can affect lactoferrin and sIgA levels in stool samples of newborns. The safety of maternal probiotic administration on neonatal growth pattern and gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took either the probiotic (n = 33) or a placebo (n = 33) daily. Levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and sIgA in breast milk; and the level of sIgA and lactoferrin in newborn stool samples were analyzed at birth and then again at one month of life. Antropometrical evaluation and analysis of gastrointestinal events in newborns was also performed. Probiotic maternal consumption had a significant impact on IL6 mean values in colostrum and on IL10 and TGF-β1 mean values in mature breast milk. Fecal sIgA mean values were higher in newborns whose mothers took the probiotic product than in the control group. Probiotic maternal supplementation seems to decrease incidence of infantile colic and regurgitation in infants. High-dose multi-strain probiotic administration to women during pregnancy influences breast milk cytokines pattern and sIgA production in newborns, and seems to improve gastrointestinal functional symptoms in infants.

  9. Administration of a Multi-Strain Probiotic Product to Women in the Perinatal Period Differentially Affects the Breast Milk Cytokine Profile and May Have Beneficial Effects on Neonatal Gastrointestinal Functional Symptoms. A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic supplementation to women during pregnancy and lactation can modulate breast milk composition, with immune benefits being transferred to their infants. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-dose probiotic supplementation to women during late pregnancy and lactation on cytokine profile and secretory IgA (sIgA in breast milk and thus to study if differences in breast milk composition can affect lactoferrin and sIgA levels in stool samples of newborns. The safety of maternal probiotic administration on neonatal growth pattern and gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took either the probiotic (n = 33 or a placebo (n = 33 daily. Levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and sIgA in breast milk; and the level of sIgA and lactoferrin in newborn stool samples were analyzed at birth and then again at one month of life. Antropometrical evaluation and analysis of gastrointestinal events in newborns was also performed. Results: Probiotic maternal consumption had a significant impact on IL6 mean values in colostrum and on IL10 and TGF-β1 mean values in mature breast milk. Fecal sIgA mean values were higher in newborns whose mothers took the probiotic product than in the control group. Probiotic maternal supplementation seems to decrease incidence of infantile colic and regurgitation in infants. Conclusion: High-dose multi-strain probiotic administration to women during pregnancy influences breast milk cytokines pattern and sIgA production in newborns, and seems to improve gastrointestinal functional symptoms in infants.

  10. Unsuspected task for an old team: succinate, fumarate and other Krebs cycle acids in metabolic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénit, Paule; Letouzé, Eric; Rak, Malgorzata; Aubry, Laetitia; Burnichon, Nelly; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Rustin, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Seventy years from the formalization of the Krebs cycle as the central metabolic turntable sustaining the cell respiratory process, key functions of several of its intermediates, especially succinate and fumarate, have been recently uncovered. The presumably immutable organization of the cycle has been challenged by a number of observations, and the variable subcellular location of a number of its constitutive protein components is now well recognized, although yet unexplained. Nonetheless, the most striking observations have been made in the recent period while investigating human diseases, especially a set of specific cancers, revealing the crucial role of Krebs cycle intermediates as factors affecting genes methylation and thus cell remodeling. We review here the recent advances and persisting incognita about the role of Krebs cycle acids in diverse aspects of cellular life and human pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling and Improvement of Thermal Cycling in Power Electronics for Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    cycling of power devices in a motor drive application and modelling their impact on the thermal stress. The motor drive system together with the thermal cycling in the power semiconductors have been modelled, and after investigating the dynamic behavior of the system, adverse temperature swings......It is well known that the dynamical change of the thermal stress in the power devices is one of the major factors that have influences on the overall efficiency and reliability of power electronics. The main objective of this paper consists of identifying the main parameters that affect the thermal...... are identified during the acceleration and deceleration periods of the motor. The main causes for these adverse thermal cycles have been presented and, consequently, the influence of the deceleration slope, modulation technique and reactive current on the thermal cycles has been analyzed. Finally, the improved...

  12. Extending the duration of the voluntary waiting period from 60 to 88 days in cows that received timed artificial insemination after the Double-Ovsynch protocol affected the reproductive performance, herd exit dynamics, and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R W; Masello, M; Thomas, Mark J; Giordano, J O

    2017-10-18

    This experiment evaluated the reproductive performance, herd exit dynamics, and lactation performance of dairy cows managed with a voluntary waiting period (VWP) of 60 or 88 d. Secondary objectives were evaluating VWP effect on cyclicity status, uterine health, systemic inflammation, and body condition score (BCS) before first service. Lactating Holstein cows from 3 commercial farms in New York State cows were blocked by parity group and total milk yield in their previous lactation and then randomly assigned to VWP of 60 (VWP60; n = 1,352) or 88 (VWP88; n = 1,359) days in milk (DIM). All cows received the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-3 d-GnRH-7 d-GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16 to 20 h-timed artificial insemination; TAI) for synchronization of ovulation and TAI. For second and greater artificial insemination (AI), cows received AI after detection of estrus or the Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16 to 20 h-TAI) initiated 32 ± 3 d after AI for cows not re-inseminated at detected estrus. Cyclicity status (progesterone concentration), uterine health (vaginal discharge and uterine cytology), BCS, and systemic inflammation (haptoglobin concentration) were evaluated at baseline (33 ± 3 DIM for both treatments), beginning of the Double-Ovsynch protocol, and 10 d before TAI. Effects of treatments were assessed with multivariable statistical methods relevant for each outcome variable. Extending duration of VWP from 60 to 88 DIM increased pregnancies per AI (P/AI) to first service (VWP60 = 41%; VWP88 = 47%). Nonetheless, the greatest benefit of extending VWP on first-service P/AI was for primiparous cows (VWP60 = 46%; VWP88 = 55%), as P/AI did not differ within the multiparous cow group (VWP60 = 36%; VWP88 = 40%). Physiological status more conducive to pregnancy-characterized by improved uterine health, greater BCS, reduced systemic inflammation, and to a lesser extent more time to resume ovarian cyclicity-explained the increment in P/AI to first

  13. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, labor...... income, and pre-existing housing wealth but also the state of the housing market significantly affect household decisions. Consistently with the data, the model predicts that in good states of housing market cycles (1) homeownership rates increase, (2) households buying homes invest a larger share...

  14. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2 , temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1 ) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1 ), and

  15. Periodic Variations in DQ Herculis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    The DQ Herculis Stars are cataclysmic variables showing rapid, strictly periodic luminosity variations at either optical or X-ray wavelengths, and usually both. The periods range from 33 sec in AE AQR through 71 sec in DQ Her to 18690 sec in TV Col. The cataclysmic variables are all close binary stars consisting of a late-type star transferring mass to its companion white dwarf star. The white dwarf in the DQ Her stars is magnetized. The periodicities of the DQ Her stars are caused by rotation of the magnetized, acreting white dwarf. We propose to observe the DQ Her stars at ultraviolet wavelengths using the high speed photometer on the space telescope. The purpose of the observations is to investigate the physics of accretion onto compact stars. Revision History: Prepared for future cycles submission--BJW 4/22/92; Cycle 3 to cycle 2, PRISM to SINGLE--BJW 8/27/92;

  16. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  17. The lunar cycle determines availability of coral-reef fishes at fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, A R; Gumanao, G S

    2012-11-01

    During 139 visits between March 2009 and May 2011, it was found that the availability of reef fishes at a local fish market in the Philippines was highly affected by the lunar cycle. The number of vendors selling reef fishes was significantly lower (13.4%) during third lunar quarters (full moon periods) than during the first, second and fourth lunar quarters (40.2, 25.0 and 30.0%, respectively). It is recommended that the influence of the lunar cycle on fish availability is considered when designing sampling strategies for catch surveys. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. The Abbreviated Pluripotent Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinas, Kristina; Grandy, Rodrigo; Ghule, Prachi; Medina, Ricardo; Becker, Klaus; Pardee, Arthur; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Lian, Jane; Stein, Janet; van Wijnen, Andre; Stein, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells proliferate rapidly and divide symmetrically producing equivalent progeny cells. In contrast, lineage committed cells acquire an extended symmetrical cell cycle. Self-renewal of tissue-specific stem cells is sustained by asymmetric cell division where one progeny cell remains a progenitor while the partner progeny cell exits the cell cycle and differentiates. There are three principal contexts for considering the operation and regulation of the pluripotent cell cycle: temporal, regulatory andstructural. The primary temporal context that the pluripotent self-renewal cell cycle of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a short G1 period without reducing periods of time allocated to S phase, G2, and mitosis. The rules that govern proliferation in hESCs remain to be comprehensively established. However, several lines of evidence suggest a key role for the naïve transcriptome of hESCs, which is competent to stringently regulate the ESC cell cycle. This supports the requirements of pluripotent cells to self propagate while suppressing expression of genes that confer lineage commitment and/or tissue specificity. However, for the first time, we consider unique dimensions to the architectural organization and assembly of regulatory machinery for gene expression in nuclear microenviornments that define parameters of pluripotency. From both fundamental biological and clinical perspectives, understanding control of the abbreviated embryonic stem cell cycle can provide options to coordinate control of proliferation versus differentiation. Wound healing, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapy to mitigate developmental aberrations illustrate applications that benefit from knowledge of the biology of the pluripotent cell cycle. PMID:22552993

  19. Have business cycles become more synchronized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Inklaar, R; Sleijpen, O

    Will further integration make business cycles in EMU countries more similar? This article answers the question by analysing to what extent business cycles in US and German states have become more synchronized and by examining whether synchronization in OECD countries is affected by trade intensity

  20. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  1. Phenological changes in olive (Ola europaea L. reproductive cycle in southern Spain due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Garcia-Mozo

    2015-09-01

    LMMs was revealed as an appropriate technique for phenology behaviour analysis displaying both fixed and random interactions. Cultivars grown in the study province are adapted to climate with a synchronized response, although climate change is affecting theolive reproductive cycle in southern Spain; therefore, the timing of pollen release, with subsequent consequences on allergic population as phenological changes, could have impacts on flowering period and pollen production. Further investigation is required of the implications for crop production in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  2. Effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on microhardness of acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Baptista, Gabriella Trunckle; Moreno, Amália; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Dekon, Stéfan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on the microhardness of acrylic resins denture base. Four different brands of acrylic resins were evaluated: Onda Cryl, QC 20, Classico and Lucitone. Each brand of acrylic resin was divided into four groups (n = 7) according to the disinfection method (microwave, Efferdent, 4% chlorhexidine and 1% hypochlorite). Samples were disinfected during 60 days. Before and after disinfection, samples were thermal cycled between 5-55 °C with 30-s dwell times for 1000 cycles. The microhardness was measured using a microhardener, at baseline (B), after first thermal cycling (T1), after disinfection (D) and after second thermal cycling (T2). The microhardness values of all groups reduced over time. QC-20 acrylic resin exhibited the lowest microhardness values. At B and T1 periods, the acrylic resins exhibited statistically greater microhardness values when compared to D and T2 periods. It can be concluded that the microhardness values of the acrylic resins denture base were affected by the thermal cycling and disinfection procedures. However, all microhardness values obtained herein are within acceptable clinical limits for the acrylic resins.

  3. Persistence of free-living protozoan communities across rearing cycles in commercial poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

    2011-03-01

    The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

  4. Oscillatory dynamics of cell cycle proteins in single yeast cells analyzed by imaging cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Ball

    Full Text Available Progression through the cell division cycle is orchestrated by a complex network of interacting genes and proteins. Some of these proteins are known to fluctuate periodically during the cell cycle, but a systematic study of the fluctuations of a broad sample of cell-cycle proteins has not been made until now. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, we profiled 16 strains of budding yeast, each containing GFP fused to a single gene involved in cell cycle regulation. The dynamics of protein abundance and localization were characterized by extracting the amplitude, period, and other indicators from a series of images. Oscillations of protein abundance could clearly be identified for Cdc15, Clb2, Cln1, Cln2, Mcm1, Net1, Sic1, and Whi5. The period of oscillation of the fluorescently tagged proteins is generally in good agreement with the inter-bud time. The very strong oscillations of Net1 and Mcm1 expression are remarkable since little is known about the temporal expression of these genes. By collecting data from large samples of single cells, we quantified some aspects of cell-to-cell variability due presumably to intrinsic and extrinsic noise affecting the cell cycle.

  5. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  6. The period length of fibroblast circadian gene expression varies widely among human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Brown

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian circadian behavior is governed by a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus, and its intrinsic period length is believed to affect the phase of daily activities. Measurement of this period length, normally accomplished by prolonged subject observation, is difficult and costly in humans. Because a circadian clock similar to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is present in most cell types, we were able to engineer a lentiviral circadian reporter that permits characterization of circadian rhythms in single skin biopsies. Using it, we have determined the period lengths of 19 human individuals. The average value from all subjects, 24.5 h, closely matches average values for human circadian physiology obtained in studies in which circadian period was assessed in the absence of the confounding effects of light input and sleep-wake cycle feedback. Nevertheless, the distribution of period lengths measured from biopsies from different individuals was wider than those reported for circadian physiology. A similar trend was observed when comparing wheel-running behavior with fibroblast period length in mouse strains containing circadian gene disruptions. In mice, inter-individual differences in fibroblast period length correlated with the period of running-wheel activity; in humans, fibroblasts from different individuals showed widely variant circadian periods. Given its robustness, the presented procedure should permit quantitative trait mapping of human period length.

  7. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...... affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretizisation...... and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts....

  8. Endocrine profiles of sows during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, G; Perotti, L; Delrio, G; Inaudi, P; d'Istria, M; Pierantoni, R; Citarella, F; Musaro, M A; Monittola, C; Genazzani, A R

    1981-01-01

    We measured the plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), oestradiol (E2), progesterone (P), 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone (17P), androstenediona (A) and testosterone (T) at oestrus and during the oestrous cycle for four consecutive cycles in a group of 15 normal sows. The results show that at oestrus the peak LH value was preceded, 24 hours earlier, by an E2 peak, and indicate that the LH rise begins when E2 concentrations reach their highest value. During diestrus, concentrations of LH and E2 were constantly low, P and 17P were characterized by lowest concentrations during the oestrous period which showed significant (p less than 0.001), progressive increases from the second day after the LH ovulatory peak, to reach their highest values after 8-14 days. The 17P decrease in proestrus precedes that of P.T and A concentrations showed a significant (p less than 0.001) increase 2 days before the LH ovulatory peak; high plasma concentrations of both androgens were maintained until the LH peak occurred. Measurements taken in consecutive cycles in the same animals showed a high reproducibility of the hormone concentrations examined, which showed similar patterns and values in each of the cycles studied. This high reproducibility suggests that these hormones have an important physiological role and may affect oestrous behaviour.

  9. Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10 and handled (N = 11. Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip, the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11 was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10. Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.

  10. Blanching and drying period affect moisture loss and vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... The purity (chroma) and lightness (value) of fruit colour decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing ... and nutrients from the time after their harvest until they ... drying fruits. It is heat pre-treatment that inactivates enzymes that cause deterioration in food. It also destroys some micro - organisms that cause food ...

  11. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  12. Bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) extract reduces cultured Hep-G2, Caco-2, and 3T3-L1 cell viability, affects cell cycle progression, and has variable effects on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Jing, Hao; Popovich, David G

    2010-04-01

    Bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) is a blue-pigmented edible berry related to bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and the common blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a bog bilberry anthocyanin extract (BBAE) on cell growth, membrane permeability, and cell cycle of 2 malignant cancer cell lines, Caco-2 and Hep-G2, and a nonmalignant murine 3T3-L1 cell line. BBAE contained 3 identified anthocyanins. The most abundant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-glucoside (140.9 +/- 2.6 microg/mg of dry weight), followed by malvidin-3-glucoside (10.3 +/- 0.3 microg/mg) and malvidin-3-galactoside (8.1 +/- 0.4 microg/mg). Hep-G2 LC50 was calculated to be 0.563 +/- 0.04 mg/mL, Caco-2 LC50 was 0.390 +/- 0.30 mg/mL and 0.214 +/- 0.02 mg/mL for 3T3-L1 cells. LDH release, a marker of membrane permeability, was significantly increased in Hep-G2 cells and Caco-2 cells after 48 and 72 h compared to 24 h. The increase was 21% at 48 h and 57% at 72 h in Caco-2 cells and 66% and 139% in Hep-G2 cells compared to 24 h. However, 3T3-L1 cells showed an unexpected significant lower LDH activity (P < or = 0.05) after 72 h of exposure corresponding to a 21% reduction in LDH release. BBAE treatment increased sub-G1 in all 3 cell lines without influencing cells in the G2/M phase. BBAE treatment reduced the growth and increased the accumulation of sub-G1 cells in 2 malignant and 1 nonmalignant cell line; however, the effect on membrane permeability differs considerably between the malignant and nonmalignant cells and may in part be due to differences in cellular membrane composition.

  13. Solar Cycle 25: Another Moderate Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. H.; Jiang, J.; Schüssler, M.

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  14. Visual quasi-periodicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogalin, E.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Periodicity is at the core of the recognition of many actions. This paper takes the following steps to detect and measure periodicity. 1) We establish a conceptual framework of classifying periodicity in 10 essential cases, the most important of which are flashing (of a traffic light), pulsing (of

  15. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  16. Runoff and nutrient losses during winter periods in cold climates--requirements to nutrient simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Johannes; Kvaernø, Sigrun H; Granlund, Kirsti; Sileika, Antanas Sigitas; Gaigalis, Kazimieras; Kyllmar, Katarina; Vagstad, Nils

    2009-03-01

    Large areas in Europe may experience frozen soils during winter periods which pose special challenges to modelling. Extensive data are collected in small agricultural catchments in Nordic and Baltic countries. An analysis on measurements, carried out in four small agricultural catchments has shown that a considerable amount of the yearly nutrient loss occurs during the freezing period. A freezing period was defined as the time period indicated by the maximum and minimum points on the cumulative degree-day curve. On average 6-32% of the yearly runoff was generated during this period while N-loss varied from 5-35% and P loss varied from 3-33%. The results indicate that infiltration into frozen soils might occur during the freezing period and that the runoff generating processes, at least during a considerable part of the freezing period, are rather similar compared to the processes outside the freezing period. Freeze-thaw cycles affect the infiltration capacity and aggregate stability, thereby the erosion and nutrient losses. The Norwegian catchment had a high P loss during the freezing period compared to the other catchments, most likely caused by catchment characteristics such as slope, soil types, tillage methods and fertiliser application. It is proposed to use data, collected on small agricultural dominated catchments, in the calibration and validation of watershed management models and to take into account runoff and nutrient loss processes which are representative for cold climates, thereby obtaining reliable results.

  17. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  18. Redox regime shifts in microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, T.; Butler, I. B.; A. Free; R. J. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the Earth's biogeochemical cycles respond to environmental change is a prerequisite for the prediction and mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic perturbations. Microbial populations mediate key steps in these cycles, yet they are often crudely represented in biogeochemical models. Here, we show that microbial population dynamics can qualitatively affect the response of biogeochemical cycles to environmental change. U...

  19. Redox regime shifts in microbially-mediated biogeochemical cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, T.; Butler, I. B.; A. Free; R. J. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the Earth's biogeochemical cycles respond to environmental change is a prerequisite for the prediction and mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic perturbations. Microbial populations mediate key steps in these cycles, yet are often crudely represented in biogeochemical models. Here, we show that microbial population dynamics can qualitatively affect the response of biogeochemical cycles to environmental change. Using ...

  20. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  1. Regulation of salt marsh mosquito populations by the 18.6-yr lunar-nodal cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Morris, James T

    2017-08-01

    The 18.6-yr lunar-nodal cycle drives changes in tidal amplitude globally, affecting coastal habitat formation, species and communities inhabiting rocky shores, and salt marsh vegetation. However, the cycle's influence on salt marsh fauna lacked sufficient long-term data for testing its effect. We circumvented this problem by using salt marsh mosquito records obtained over a period of over four decades in two estuaries in the northeastern USA. Salt marsh mosquito habitat is near the highest tide level where the impact of the nodal cycle on flood frequency is greatest. Wavelet spectral and cross-correlation analyses revealed periodicity in salt marsh mosquito abundance that was negatively correlated with tidal amplitude. Tidal amplitude was a significant predictor of salt marsh mosquito abundance with the cycle maxima coinciding with lower mosquito populations, possibly due to access by predatory fish. However, these effects were detected only at the location with extensive salt marsh habitat and astronomical tides and were weakened or lacked significance at the location with small microtidal salt marshes and wind-driven tides. Mosquitoes can serve as proxy indicators for numerous invertebrate species on the salt marsh. These predictable cycles and their effects need to be taken into consideration when investigating, restoring, or managing intertidal communities that are also facing sea-level rise. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Nasal and sleep cycle--possible synchronization during night sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov; Dimov, Pavel Donchev

    2003-08-01

    Regular cyclic changes in nostril airflow due to a nasal congestion and decongestion are known in literature as nasal cycle. Registration of breathing from each nostril separately gives possibility to registrate moments of alternative change of airflow of nostrils and periods of nasal cycle. This registration during night sleep shows that the length of these periods are about 1.5h, 3.0 h and 4.5h. The length of these periods are multiple of mean length of sleep cycle--about 1.5h. The alternative change of airflow through nostrils occurs through some of REM stages of the sleep. This shows, that during the night sleep becomes synchronization of nasal and sleep cycles in some of the REM phases of sleep. As a result--length of periods of the nasal cycle are one or more length of sleep cycle.

  3. Cycling To Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling…

  4. A periodic table for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  5. Second Period Access Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisondieu, Christophe; Giebhardt, Jochen; Tetu, Amelie

    The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive.......The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive....

  6. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  7. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  8. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  9. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  10. Modeling Lithium Movement over Multiple Cycles in a Lithium-Metal Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-04-11

    This paper builds on the work by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem., 159, A1615 (2012)], where a model of a lithium-metal battery with a LiyCoO2 positive electrode was created in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. In this paper, the model is expanded to study the movement of lithium along the lithium-metal anode over multiple cycles. From this model, it is found that when a low percentage of lithium at the negative electrode is utilized, the movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface reaches a quasi steady state after multiple cycles. This steady state is affected by the slope of the open-circuit-potential function in the positive electrode, the rate of charge and discharge, the depth of discharge, and the length of the rest periods. However, when a high percent of the lithium at the negative electrode is utilized during cycling, the movement does not reach a steady state and pinching can occur, where the lithium nearest the negative tab becomes progressively thinner after cycling. This is another nonlinearity that leads to a progression of the movement of lithium over multiple cycles. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society.

  11. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim...... of the talk is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts for a hierarchy of four mathematical models....... In each case, special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a single periodicity cell with appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of the amount of periodicity cells in a finite compound structure on its eigenfrequency spectrum is analyzed. Several features common...

  12. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  13. Integrating Menstrual Cycle Data into The Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Menstrual cycle data gathered through self-tracking apps are increasingly used to understand, control and monitor bodies that menstruate. This work-in-progress explores the effects of representing menstrual cycle data within the smart home through critical design and planned fieldwork. Themes...... presented in this paper include the taboo of menstrual cycles, the question of what kinds of data do we represent in the smart home and menstrual cycle tracking technologies as examples of affective computing....

  14. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John; Burke, Louise; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    .... Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention-one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low...

  15. On the Period and Amplitude Changes in Polaris and Other Short-Period Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    2009-05-01

    The observed modulation of the period and amplitude of Polaris, the short-period classical Cepheid, may be cyclical, though irregular, and superimposed on the continuing evolutionary changes of this star. If so, it curiously resembles the Blazhko effect seen in RR Lyrae stars, as Evans and her colleagues have noted. The present author's recent theory of the Blazhko effect based on a solar-like magnetoconvective cycle in the stellar envelope is here applied to Polaris, with some limited success. The theory may also explain the slow cycle seen in another short-period Cepheid, V473 Lyr. It is therefore possible to predict, tentatively, an entire new class of short-period "Blazhko Cepheids."

  16. GnRH antagonist administered twice the day before hCG trigger combined with a step-down protocol may prevent OHSS in IVF/ICSI antagonist cycles at risk for OHSS without affecting the reproductive outcomes: a prospective randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapas, Yannis; Ravanos, Konstantinos; Petousis, Stamatios; Panagiotidis, Yannis; Papatheodorou, Achilleas; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Iuliano, Assunta; Gullo, Giuseppe; Prapas, Nikos

    2017-08-03

    The purpose this study is to investigate whether a double antagonist dose (0.25 mg/12 h) administered the day before hCG trigger is effective in preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in GnRH antagonist IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles at risk for OHSS. This is a prospective randomized control study, conducted from November 2012 to January 2016. A total of 194 patients undergoing a IVF/ICSI GnRH antagonist cycle that were at risk of OHSS and chose to proceed with embryo transfer and avoid cycle cancellation or embryo cryopreservation were allocated into two groups. The inclusion criteria consisted of a rapid rise of oestradiol ≥ 3500 pg/ml combined with ≥ 18 follicles > 11 mm in diameter without any mature follicle > 16 mm, in any day of stimulation. Overall, 97 patients (intervention group A) received a double dose of GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg/12 h) the day before hCG while 97 patients (control group B) did not. Recombinant FSH administration was tapered to 100 IU/24 h the day of the allocation in both groups. Incidence of early-onset moderate/severe OHSS was significantly lower in intervention group A compared to control group B (0 vs 12.37%, P < 0.001). Clinical pregnancy rate per cycle (50.52 vs 42.27%, P = 0.249) was not significantly different between the two groups. Oestradiol (3263.471 ± 1271.53 vs 5233 ± 1425.17, P < 0.001), progesterone (0.93 ± 0.12 vs 1.29 ± 0.14, P < 0.001) and luteinizing hormone (1.42 ± 0.31 vs 1.91 ± 0.33, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in group A the day of the hCG triggering. The administration of a rescue double GnRH antagonist dose the day before hCG trigger may represent a safe alternative preventive strategy for early OHSS without affecting the reproductive outcomes. ISRCTN02750360.

  17. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  18. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  19. 78 FR 52764 - Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle... Gasification Combined Cycle Project Preliminary Staff Assessment/Draft Environmental Impact Statement (PSA/DEIS...

  20. Shallowing-upward cycles in the Middle Proterozoic Altyn Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian

    1981-11-12

    Phanerozoic carbonate rocks commonly contain cycles, a few metres thick, which were deposited during progressive shallowing of their oceanic environment 1 . Each cycle represents a deepening of water in a nearshore area, followed by the accumulation of sediments up to sea level. The causes of the water deepening which begins each cycle are rarely known. Possibilities include tectonic activity that affected the depositional basin and changes in ocean volume due to the expansion and contraction of ice sheets. I report here that similar cycles occur in the Middle Proterozoic Altyn Formation, part of the Belt Supergroup 2 . The cycles are probably related to vertical tectonic activity which influenced sedimentation in the Belt basin. The presence of shallowing-upward cycles in the Altyn Formation shows that such cycles are not confined to the Phanerozoic. Other Precambrian sequences should be examined to see if they too contain cycles. Where such cycles are found they may give important information about Precambrian tectonism and glaciation.

  1. Development and infectious disease in hosts with complex life cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Searle

    Full Text Available Metamorphosis is often characterized by profound changes in morphology and physiology that can affect the dynamics of species interactions. For example, the interaction between a pathogen and its host may differ depending on the life stage of the host or pathogen. One pathogen that infects hosts with complex life cycles is the emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. We sought to determine how conditions at the larval stage can affect variation in development and patterns of Bd infection across amphibian life stages. We used outdoor experimental mesocosms to simulate natural pond habitats and manipulated the presence of Bd, the larval density, and the number of host species in larvae of two co-occurring amphibian species (Rana cascadae and Pseudacris regilla. We found that infection differed between species throughout development; P. regilla consistently had higher infection severity compared to R. cascadae. Additionally, while up to 100% of larvae were infected, only 18.2% of R. cascadae and 81.5% of P. regilla were infected after metamorphosis. This indicates that amphibians have the ability to recover from Bd infection as they undergo metamorphosis. Higher larval densities in P. regilla led to a shorter larval period, and individuals with a shorter larval period had lower infection severity. This led to a trend where P. regilla larvae reared at high densities tended to have lower infection prevalence after metamorphosis. We also found that exposure to Bd increased larval mortality and prolonged the larval period in P. regilla, indicating that P. regilla are susceptible to the negative effects of Bd as larvae. This study demonstrates that host density, species composition, and pathogen exposure may all interact to influence development and infection in hosts with complex life cycles.

  2. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  3. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  4. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  5. Blacks (African Americans) have shorter free-running circadian periods than whites (Caucasian Americans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Charmane I; Molina, Thomas A; Dziepak, Marissa E; Smith, Mark R

    2012-10-01

    The length of the free-running period (τ) affects how an animal re-entrains after phase shifts of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Those with shorter periods adapt faster to phase advances than those with longer periods, whereas those with longer periods adapt faster to phase delays than those with shorter periods. The free-running period of humans, measured in temporal isolation units and in forced desychrony protocols in which the day length is set beyond the range of entrainment, varies from about 23.5 to 26 h, depending on the individual and the experimental conditions (e.g., temporal isolation vs. forced desychrony). We studied 94 subjects free-running through an ultradian LD cycle, which was a forced desychrony with a day length of 4 h (2.5 h awake in dim light, ~35 lux, alternating with 1.5 h for sleep in darkness). Circadian phase assessments were conducted before (baseline) and after (final) three 24-h days of the ultradian LD cycle. During these assessments, saliva samples were collected every 30 min and subsequently analyzed for melatonin. The phase shift of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) from baseline to final phase assessment gave the free-running period. The mean ± SD period was 24.31 ± .23 h and ranged from 23.7 to 24.9 h. Black subjects had a significantly shorter free-running period than Whites (24.18 ± .23 h, N =20 vs. 24.37 ± .22 h, N = 55). We had a greater proportion of women than men in our Black sample, so to check the τ difference we compared the Black women to White women. Again, Black subjects had a significantly shorter free-running period (24.18 ± .23, N = 17 vs. 24.41 ± .23, N = 23). We did not find any sex differences in the free-running period. These findings give rise to several testable predictions: on average, Blacks should adapt quicker to eastward flights across time zones than Whites, whereas Whites should adjust quicker to westward flights than Blacks. Also, Blacks should have more difficulty adjusting to night

  6. Vuilleumier Cycle Cryogenic Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    changing pressure to produce a cooling effect is similar to that of the cold section of the Stirling cycle refrigerator , since the method by which the...AFFDL-TR-76-17 VUILLEUMIER CYCLE CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL BRANCH 4 VEHICLE EQUIPMENT DIVISION APRIL 1976 TECHNICAL REPORT AFFDL...WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) Cryogenic Refrigerator Vuilleumier Cycle 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  7. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  8. Period persistence of long period oscillations in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorley, N.; Foullon, C.; Hnat, B.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Shibasaki, K.

    2011-05-01

    Long period oscillations in the microwave radiation intensity generated over the sunspot of NOAA AR 10330 are studied with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph as the sunspot passes over the solar disk, over the course of 9 days (06-15 April 2003). Periodogram, Fourier and global wavelet analyses reveal the presence of a significant oscillatory component in the range P ≈ 50-120 min over the course of the observations. The spectral amplitudes of five significant Fourier components in the range P = 50-150 min are also seen to be stable over the observations, when the data are not affected by changes in magnetic configuration in the region. The ground-based nature of the instrument naturally introduces long data gaps in such long duration observations and the presence of the gaps does not allow any conclusion as to the stability of the phases of the oscillations. As a model to explain the persistence of the dominant long periods, a simple oscillator with a nonlinear driving term is proposed. The spectral difference between distinct peaks within, e.g. the 3 min spectral band, is expected to be able to resonate with the long period one hour oscillations.

  9. How does the business cycle affect eating habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M; Kelly, Inas Rashad

    2012-01-01

    As economic expansions raise employment and wages, associated shifts in income and time constraints would be expected to also impact individuals' health. This study utilizes information from the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1990-2009) to explore the relationship between the state unemployment rate and the consumption of various healthy and unhealthy foods in the United States. Estimates, based on fixed effects methodologies, indicate that unemployment is associated with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of "unhealthy" foods such as snacks and fast food. Heterogeneous responses are also identified through detailed sample stratifications and by isolating the effect for those predicted to be at highest risk of unemployment based on their socioeconomic characteristics. Among individuals predicted to be at highest risk of being unemployed, a one percentage point increase in the resident state's unemployment rate is associated with a 3-6% reduction in the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The impact is somewhat higher among younger, low-educated, and married adults. Supplementary analyses also explore specific mediating pathways, and point to reduced family income and adverse mental health as significant channels underlying the procyclical nature of healthy food consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nature's third cycle a story of sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2015-01-01

    The cycle of day and night and the cycle of seasons are two familiar natural cycles around which many human activities are organized. But is there a third natural cycle of importance for us humans? On 13 March 1989, six million people in Canada went without electricity for many hours: a large explosion on the sun was discovered as the cause of this blackout. Such explosions occur above sunspots, dark features on the surface of the Sun that have been observed through telescopes since the time of Galileo. The number of sunspots has been found to wax and wane over a period of 11 years. Although this cycle was discovered less than two centuries ago, it is becoming increasingly important for us as human society becomes more dependent on technology. For nearly a century after its discovery, the cause of the sunspot cycle remained completely shrouded in mystery. The 1908 discovery of strong magnetic fields in sunspots made it clear that the 11-year cycle is the magnetic cycle of the sun. It is only during the last ...

  11. The nitrogen cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    .... Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions...

  12. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Joseph [MIT Sloan School of Management, 50 Memorial Drive, E52-447, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States); Muehlegger, Erich [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Mailbox 25, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Samphantharak, Krislert [Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 1519, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  13. Periodicity in magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic systems show periodicity in productivity, magma chemistry and dynamics of volcanic eruptions. The timescales over which such parameters change are highly variable and ranges between several tens of millions of years down to few hundredths of thousands years. While magmatic activity appears modulated at various frequencies, the lifetime of single volcanic systems, the duration of emplacement of single plutons, or the timespan over which a given volcanic region is active, appear to last for distinct but characteristic periods of time. Hundredths of thousands of years is a typical number for the range of zircon crystallisation ages in the products of large eruptions or for the lifetime of single plutons, while activity in volcanic regions or the duration of emplacement of crustal batholiths appears to last up to about 10 Ma. Several mechanisms such as variable magma productivity in the mantle, delamination, thermal and mechanical maturation of the crust have been proposed to modulate magmatic activity. All these processes indeed contribute to modulate the periodicity of magmatic activity, but because certain timescales are recurrent, some fundamental processes must play a fundamental role in regulating the "tempo" of magmatism. Are transitions of behaviour finally the product of major changes in mantle dynamics or is the crust the plays the pivotal role in modulating periodic variations observed in magmatic systems? In this contribution I will provide an overview of existing data on periodicity of magmatic systems and use thermal modelling to show that periodic variations of magma chemistry and the physical properties of magmas are an inexorable consequence of the evolution of the thermal budget of magmatic systems. I hope to trigger discussion and collaborations between experts of geodynamics and magmatism to establish relationships between periodicity, mantle and crustal processes.

  14. Can cycling safety be improved by opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions? A theoretical examination of available literature and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methorst, Rob; Schepers, Paul; Kamminga, Jaap; Zeegers, Theo; Fishman, Elliot

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have found bicycle-motor vehicle crashes to be more likely on bidirectional cycle paths than on unidirectional cycle paths because drivers do not expect cyclists riding at the right side of the road. In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions prevent this lack of expectancy and accordingly improves cycling safety. A new national standard requires careful consideration because a reversal is difficult once cyclists are used to their new freedom of route choice. We therefore explored the hypothesis using available data, research, and theories. The results show that of the length of cycle paths along distributor roads in the Netherlands, 72% is bidirectional. If drivers would become used to cyclists riding at the left side of the road, this result raises the question of why bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands still have a poor safety record compared to unidirectional cycle paths. Moreover, our exploration suggested that bidirectional cycle paths have additional safety problems. It increases the complexity of unsignalized intersections because drivers have to scan more directions in a short period of time. Moreover, there are some indications that the likelihood of frontal crashes between cyclists increases. We reject the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions will improve cycle safety. We recommend more attention for mitigating measures given the widespread application of bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodic sediment shift in migrating ripples influences benthic microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanović, Sanja; Fabian, Jenny; Mendoza-Lera, Clara; Woodward, K. Benjamin; Premke, Katrin; Mutz, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Migrating bedforms have high levels of particulate organic matter and high rates of pore water exchange, causing them to be proposed as hot spots of carbon turnover in rivers. Yet, the shifting of sediments and associated mechanical disturbance within migrating bedforms, such as ripples, may stress and abrade microbial communities, reducing their activity. In a microcosm experiment, we replicated the mechanical disturbances caused by the periodic sediment shift within ripples under oligotrophic conditions. We assessed the effects on fungal and bacterial biomass ratio (F:B), microbial community respiration (CR), and bacterial production (BCP) and compared with stable undisturbed sediments. Interactions between periodic mechanical disturbance and sediment-associated particulate organic matter (POM) were tested by enriching sediments collected from migrating ripples with different qualities of POM (fish feces, leaf litter fragments and no addition treatments). F:B and BCP were affected by an interaction between mechanical disturbance and POM quality. Fish feces enriched sediments showed increased F:B and BCP compared to sediments with lower POM quality and responded with a decrease of F:B and BCP to sediment disturbance. In the other POM treatments F:B and BCP were not affected by disturbance. Microbial respiration was however reduced by mechanical disturbance to similar low activity levels regardless of POM qualities added, whereas fish feces enriched sediment showed short temporary boost of CR. With the worldwide proliferation of migrating sand ripples due to massive catchment erosion, suppressed mineralization of POM will increasingly affect stream metabolism, downstream transport of POM and carbon cycling from reach to catchment scale.

  16. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  17. Periods of High Intensity Solar Proton Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Thomas M.; Adams, James H.; Dietrich, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis is presented for times during a space mission that specified solar proton flux levels are exceeded. This includes both total time and continuous time periods during missions. Results for the solar maximum and solar minimum phases of the solar cycle are presented and compared for a broad range of proton energies and shielding levels. This type of approach is more amenable to reliability analysis for spacecraft systems and instrumentation than standard statistical models.

  18. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term memory in long historical temperature records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Fu, Zuntao

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the estimation of long-term correlation induced by inter-annual variability of annual cycle have been investigated by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). In a consequence of the intrinsic nonlinearity of the climate system, the annual cycle suffers from both amplitude and phase fluctuations. How does this changing annual cycle affect the fluctuation of temperature anomalies? A recently developed adaptive data analysis tool, the Nonlinear Mode Decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle. We compared the differences of the long-term correlation calculated by removing different annual cycle, time-varying and stationary. The study was based on long historical temperature records around the North Atlantic Ocean. The traditional climatology annual cycle which lack characteristic of inter-annual fluctuation would lead to: (1) the estimation of Hurst exponent (2) how to choose scaling range and (3) the goodness of fit. Especially removing steady climatology annual cycle would introduce an artificial crossover around one-year period in the DFA curve. The conclusion is verified by generating deterministic time series through Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Poarch, Hunter J; Dolbow, David D; Castillo, Teodoro; Gater, David R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively]) on oxygen uptake (VO2), cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE) percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative VO2 or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.07), whereas recovery VO2 was 23% greater in P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.03). There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001) and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001) FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative VO2 or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery VO2 and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling.

  20. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  1. Undulating periodization models for strength training & conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodized strength training refers to varying the training program at regular time intervals in an attempt to bring about optimal resistance gains. The main aim of this paper was to present a short review of the diferent aspects of training periodization and its effects with performance. as well as the differential effect of alternate periodization models on other populations, and specially the need for further research regarding the effectiveness of the undulating model as compared with the linear model. A focussed literature review reveals that most studies that examined strength training periodization utilized young males as their subject population, and the research has mainly focused on differences between periodized and non-periodized programs. Furthermore, the periodization training programs are designed and developed according to two different models: the linear model and the non-linear model. The Linear Model is characterized by high initial training volume and low and intensity. The Non-Linear Model enables variation in intensity and volume within each 7-10 day cycle by rotating different protocols to train various components of the neuromuscular system. The results showed at the scientific literature encourage researchers and exercise professionals to include non-linear (undulating periodization models during resistance training.

  2. Undulating periodization models for strength training & conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodized strength training refers to varying the training program at regular time intervals in an attempt to bring about optimal resistance gains. The main aim of this paper was to present a short review of the diferent aspects of training periodization and its effects with performance. as well as the differential effect of alternate periodization models on other populations, and specially the need for further research regarding the effectiveness of the undulating model as compared with the linear model. A focussed literature review reveals that most studies that examined strength training periodization utilized young males as their subject population, and the research has mainly focused on differences between periodized and non-periodized programs. Furthermore, the periodization training programs are designed and developed according to two different models: the linear model and the non-linear model. The Linear Model is characterized by high initial training volume and low and intensity. The Non-Linear Model enables variation in intensity and volume within each 7-10 day cycle by rotating different protocols to train various components of the neuromuscular system. The results showed at the scientific literature encourage researchers and exercise professionals to include non-linear (undulating periodization models during resistance training.

  3. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  4. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Economic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of the economic

  5. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...

  6. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  7. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  8. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the third phase of an LCA study, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) where the life cycle inventory’s information on elementary flows is translated into environmental impact scores. In contrast to the three other LCA phases, LCIA is in practice largely automated...

  9. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  10. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  11. The carbon cycle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  12. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  13. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the more traditional analysis of the nitrogen cycle itself and the role of humans in its alteration.The universe is ˜15 Gyr old. Even after its formation, there was still a period when nitrogen did not exist. It took ˜300 thousand years after the big bang for the Universe to cool enough to create atoms; hydrogen and helium formed first. Nitrogen was formed in the stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. When a star's helium mass becomes great enough to reach the necessary pressure and temperature, helium begins to fuse into still heavier elements, including nitrogen.Approximately 10 Gyr elapsed before Earth was formed (˜4.5 Ga (billion years ago)) by the accumulation of pre-assembled materials in a multistage process. Assuming that N2 was the predominate nitrogen species in these materials and given that the temperature of space is -270 °C, N2 was probably a solid when the Earth was formed since its boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) are -196 °C and -210 °C, respectively. Towards the end of the accumulation period, temperatures were probably high enough for significant melting of some of the accumulated material. The volcanic gases emitted by the resulting volcanism strongly influenced the surface environment. Nitrogen was converted from a solid to a gas and emitted as N2. Carbon and sulfur were probably emitted as CO and H2S (Holland, 1984). N2 is still the most common nitrogen volcanic gas emitted today at a rate of ˜2 TgN yr-1 (Jaffee, 1992).Once emitted, the gases either remained in the atmosphere or were deposited to the Earth's surface, thus continuing the process of biogeochemical cycling. The rate of

  14. Periodical rocking long period gratings in PANDA fibers for high temperature and refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wa; Bi, Wei-hong; Fu, Xing-hu; Fu, Guang-wei

    2017-09-01

    We report periodical rocking long period gratings (PR-LPGs) in PANDA fibers fabricated with CO2 laser. The PR-LPGs achieve very high coupling efficiency of 19 dB with 12 periods and a 3.5° twist angle in just one scanning cycle, which is much more effective than the conventional CO2 laser fabrication technique. This type of LPGs exhibits polarization-selective resonance dips which demonstrate different sensitivities to environmental parameters. The high temperature and external refractive index sensitivities are measured simultaneously, so it can be used as a wavelength-selective polarization filter and sensor.

  15. Periodicity for 50 yr of daily solar wind velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. J.; Zhang, J.; Feng, W.

    2017-11-01

    Daily mean velocity of solar wind that was surveyed near the Earth's orbit at about 1 au from 1963 November 27 to 2015 November 30 and issued by OMNIWeb is used to look into its periodicity through the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. As the strongest periodical signal, the solar activity cycle of about 10.4 yr is found in high-velocity wind, but in low-velocity wind, the 9.17-yr cycle appears instead. The rotation cycle of about 27 d and its 1/2 and 1/3 harmonic periods are clearly detected in all-, low- and high-velocity wind, and at their periodograms, several individual periodical peaks appear very close to the peaks of these three periods. The annual period of about 1.07 yr is identified for both all- and low-velocity wind, but not for high-velocity wind after 1994. The 1.68-yr period occurs in all- and high-velocity wind, but does not appear in low-velocity wind. The period of about 2.42 yr appears just in the all-velocity wind after 1994, but its twofold period (about 4.83 yr) appears in both all- and high-velocity wind. The period of about 4.1 yr occurs in all-, low- and high-velocity wind. The possible origin of these periods is discussed.

  16. Dry matter and macronutrient accumulation in fruits of Conilon coffee with different ripening cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The period between anthesis and fruit ripening varies according to the Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora genotype. Therefore, the time of the nutritional requirements for fruit formation may differ, depending on the formation phase and the genotype, and may directly affect split application of fertilizer. The aim of this study was to quantify the accumulation of dry matter and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S at several stages in the fruit of the Conilon coffee genotype with different ripening cycles, which may suggest the need for split application of fertilizer in coffee. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nova Venecia, Espírito Santo, Brazil, throughout the reproductive cycle. The treatments were composed of four coffee genotypes with different ripening cycles. A completely randomised experimental design was used. with five replicates. Plagiotropic branches were harvested from flowering to fruit ripening at 28-day intervals to determine the dry matter of the fruits and the concentration and accumulation of the nutrients they contained. The behavior of dry matter and macronutrient accumulation during the study period was similar and increasing, but it differed among genotypes sampled in the same season. Early genotypes exhibited a higher speed of dry matter and nutrient accumulation. Split application of fertilizer should differ among coffee genotypes with different ripening cycles (early, intermediate, late and very late.

  17. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  18. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  19. Sawtooth Period Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Hastie, R J; Zocco, A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the role of neoclassical resistivity and local magnetic shear in the prediction of the sawtooth period in tokamaks. When collisional detrapping of electrons is considered the value of the safety factor on axis, $q(t,0)$, evolves on a new time scale, $\\tau_{*}=\\tau_{\\eta}\

  20. The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, M.; Cloern, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are powerful climate sentinels because their annual cycles of growth, reproduction and senescence are finely tuned to the annual climate cycle having a period of one year. Consistency in the seasonal phasing of terrestrial plant activity provides a relatively low-noise background from which phenological shifts can be detected and attributed to climate change. Here, we ask whether phytoplankton biomass also fluctuates over a consistent annual cycle in lake, estuarine-coastal and ocean ecosystems and whether there is a characteristic phenology of phytoplankton as a consistent phase and amplitude of variability. We compiled 125 time series of phytoplankton biomass (chloro-phyll a concentration) from temperate and subtropical zones and used wavelet analysis to extract their dominant periods of variability and the recurrence strength at those periods. Fewer than half (48%) of the series had a dominant 12-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the canonical spring-bloom pattern. About 20 per cent had a dominant six-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the spring and autumn or winter and summer blooms of temperate lakes and oceans. These annual patterns varied in recurrence strength across sites, and did not persist over the full series duration at some sites. About a third of the series had no component of variability at either the six-or 12-month period, reflecting a series of irregular pulses of biomass. These findings show that there is high variability of annual phytoplankton cycles across ecosystems, and that climate-driven annual cycles can be obscured by other drivers of population variability, including human disturbance, aperiodic weather events and strong trophic coupling between phytoplankton and their consumers. Regulation of phytoplankton biomass by multiple processes operating at multiple time scales adds complexity to the challenge of detecting climate-driven trends in aquatic ecosystems where the noise to

  1. The parenting cycle of deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R; Ross, Abigail

    2012-02-01

    Parents of dependent children comprise approximately 42% of Active Duty and National Guard/Reserve military members serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Recent estimates indicate that more than two million children have experienced parental deployment since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. This article seeks to characterize the impact of the deployment life cycle on parenting roles among service members and at-home partners/caregivers of dependent children. Specifically, a new conceptual framework is presented for considering the ways in which parenting and co-parenting processes are affected by the demands and transitions inherent in contemporary deployment to a war zone. Although the phase-based emotional cycle of deployment continues to offer an instructive description of the broad challenges faced by military couples, a parenting cycle of deployment model shifts the perspective to the critical and largely ignored processes of parenting in the context of deployment and war, and to the realities faced by parents serving in the U.S. military. Implications for prevention, intervention, and future research related to military families are addressed.

  2. The Geologic History of the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Visser, K.

    2003-12-01

    contemporary issues and to the record of the past. Similarly, these chapters collectively reflect the collaborative efforts of biogeochemists to utilize information about past variations in the carbon cycle to understand both Earth's history and modern changes.This chapter begins with an overview of the carbon exchanges and processes that control the variations observed in the geologic record of the carbon cycle. Then examples of past carbon-cycle change are described, beginning with the most recent variations seen in cores drilled from glaciers and the sea floor, and concluding with the distant transformations inferred from the rock record of the Precambrian. Throughout this treatment, three themes are prominent. One is that different processes control carbon cycling over different timescales. A second theme is that relatively "abrupt" changes have played a central role in the evolution of the carbon cycle throughout Earth's history. The third theme is that the geologic cycling of carbon over all timescales passes through the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and "it is this common course that unites the entire carbon cycle and allows even its most remote constituents to influence our environment and biosphere" (Des Marais, 2001).The description of geologic events in this chapter includes examples from a broad span of the geologic record, but does not distribute attention in proportion to the distribution of geologic time in Earth's history. Readers will note, in particular, a disproportional emphasis on the Quaternary period, the most recent but briefest of geologic periods. The reason for this emphasis is twofold. First, the quality of the available Quaternary record of carbon-cycle change is far better than that available for earlier geologic periods. Second, the Quaternary record reveals a particularly illuminating array of details about interactions among the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the hydrosphere - the subset of the carbon cycle that must be understood in order to

  3. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    administration, e.g. the administrative buildings and the sealing of products, were abandoned. The economic decline of the Middle Bronze Age affected the social stratification as well. The changes in social stratification appear in a series of completely new burial customs which show the prevalence of social...

  4. Performance characteristics of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jizhou [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)], E-mail: hjzhou@ncu.edu.cn; Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2009-04-15

    The Diesel refrigeration cycle using an ideal quantum gas as the working substance is called quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle, which is different from Carnot, Ericsson, Brayton, Otto and Stirling refrigeration cycles. For ideal quantum gases, a corrected equation of state, which considers the quantum behavior of gas particles, is used instead of the classical one. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum gas as the working substance on the performance of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle. It is found that coefficients of performance of the cycle are not affected by the quantum degeneracy of the working substance, which is the same as that of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. However, the refrigeration load is different from those of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. Lastly, the influence of the quantum degeneracy on the performance characteristics of the quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed.

  5. Performance characteristics of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jizhou; Wang, Hao; Liu, Sanqiu [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2009-04-15

    The Diesel refrigeration cycle using an ideal quantum gas as the working substance is called quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle, which is different from Carnot, Ericsson, Brayton, Otto and Stirling refrigeration cycles. For ideal quantum gases, a corrected equation of state, which considers the quantum behavior of gas particles, is used instead of the classical one. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum gas as the working substance on the performance of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle. It is found that coefficients of performance of the cycle are not affected by the quantum degeneracy of the working substance, which is the same as that of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. However, the refrigeration load is different from those of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. Lastly, the influence of the quantum degeneracy on the performance characteristics of the quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed. (author)

  6. Galactic cycles and their relationship to life on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.P.

    1984-05-01

    This paper draws attention to episodic events in the geologic time scale of the evolution of life on earth, and discusses potentially cyclic behavior relative to galactic structure. The question is a simple one: Do galactic processes affect the solar system. It is known that the sun is moving at about 220 +- 15 km/sec at a distance of about 8.5 +- 0.5 kpc from the galactic center. This motion, if circular and unperturbed, implies an orbital period of 237 +- 21 My for the solar system around the galaxy. The Milky Way also evidences structure typically interpreted as spiral arms, in the distribution of gas clouds in its central plane. The relative motion of the spiral arms, known as the pattern speed, is about 2/3 that of the sun. Consequently the solar system gains upon and passes through all the structure in its orbital plane once in three rotations or approx.700 My. If this structure is persistent over times longer than 700 My, it is clear that the interaction (if any) can be called cyclic. Furthermore, if there is any sub-structure or inner pattern to the 700 My cycle, it may show up as higher harmonics. Age estimates for the Milky Way are 12-15 By, or approx.17 to 22 structure cycles of 0.70 By. It seems not unreasonable to expect some persistence of a pattern over a few structure cycles. It must be noted that the pattern speed is quite uncertain. Perhaps geophysical evidence can be used to improve on the nominally 700 My structure cycle which is assumed in this paper. 16 references, 8 figures.

  7. Mathematical optimization for planning and design of cycle paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LiÑan Ruiz, R.J.; Perez Aracil, J.; Cabrera Cañizares, V.

    2016-07-01

    The daily need for citizens to move for different activities, whatever its nature, has been greatly affected by the changes. The advantages resulting from the inclusion of the bicycle as a mode of transport and the proliferation of its use among citizens are numerous and extend both in the field of urban mobility and sustainable development.Currently, there are a number of programs for the implementation, promotion or increased public participation related to cycling in cities. But ultimately, each and every one of these initiatives have the same goal, to create a mesh of effective, useful and cycling trails that allow the use of bicycles in preferred routes with high guarantees of security, incorporating bicycle model intermodal urban transport.With the gradual implementation of bike lanes, many people have begun to use them to get around the city. But everything again needs a period of adaptation, and the reality is that the road network for these vehicles is full of obstacles to the rider. The current situation has led to the proposal that many kilometers of cycle paths needed to supply the demand of this mode of transport and, if implemented and planned are correct and sufficient.This paper presents a mathematical programming model for optimal design of a network for cyclists is presented. Specifically, the model determines a network of bicycle infrastructure, appropriate to the characteristics of a network of existing roads.As an application of the proposed model, the result of these experiments give a number of useful conclusions for planning and designing networks of cycle paths from a social perspective, applied to the case in the city of Malaga. (Author)

  8. Will business cycles in the euro area converge? A critical survey of empirical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Inklaar, R.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    This survey of business cycle synchronization in the European monetary union focuses on two issues: have business cycles become more similar, and which factors drive business cycle synchronization. We conclude that business cycles in the euro area have gone through periods of both convergence and

  9. Cycle 23 COS Target Acquisition Monitor Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton, Steven

    2017-08-01

    COS program 14440 was designed to verify that COS Target Acquisitions (TA) were performing nominally during Cycle 23, and to check if any of the TA patchable constants present in the COS flight software (FSW) need updating. All FUV observations in 14440 were performed at LP3, and at the nominal (LP1) NUV position. COS exposures obtained in HST program 14452 (HST Cycle 23 Focal Plane Calibration [SI-FGS Alignment]) were also used in this analysis. All three COS TA modes, FUV spectroscopic, NUV spectroscopic, and NUV imaging were verified in this Monitor. All TA modes were behaving nominally in Cycle 23, and is was determined that no SIAF, subarray, or FSW parameter updates were required during the Cycle 23 calendar period of October 1, 2015 - October 2, 2016.

  10. Synchronization ability of coupled cell-cycle oscillators in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The biochemical oscillator that controls periodic events during the Xenopus embryonic cell cycle is centered on the activity of CDKs, and the cell cycle is driven by a protein circuit that is centered on the cyclin-dependent protein kinase CDK1 and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Many studies have been conducted to confirm that the interactions in the cell cycle can produce oscillations and predict behaviors such as synchronization, but much less is known about how the various elaborations and collective behavior of the basic oscillators can affect the robustness of the system. Therefore, in this study, we investigate and model a multi-cell system of the Xenopus embryonic cell cycle oscillators that are coupled through a common complex protein, and then analyze their synchronization ability under four different external stimuli, including a constant input signal, a square-wave periodic signal, a sinusoidal signal and a noise signal. Results Through bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain synchronization intervals of the sensitive parameters in the individual oscillator and the coupling parameters in the coupled oscillators. Then, we analyze the effects of these parameters on the synchronization period and amplitude, and find interesting phenomena, e.g., there are two synchronization intervals with activation coefficient in the Hill function of the activated CDK1 that activates the Plk1, and different synchronization intervals have distinct influences on the synchronization period and amplitude. To quantify the speediness and robustness of the synchronization, we use two quantities, the synchronization time and the robustness index, to evaluate the synchronization ability. More interestingly, we find that the coupled system has an optimal signal strength that maximizes the synchronization index under different external stimuli. Simulation results also show that the ability and robustness of the synchronization for the square

  11. The glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2006-01-01

    Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate...... or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into astrocytes. In return, astrocytes release glutamine to be taken up into neurons for use as neurotransmitter precursor. In this review, the basic properties of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle will be discussed, including aspects of transport and metabolism....... Discussions of stoichiometry, the relative role of glutamate vs. GABA and pathological conditions affecting the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycling are presented. Furthermore, a section is devoted to the accompanying ammonia homeostasis of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle, examining the possible means...

  12. C-type period-doubling transition in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Jakob Lund; Mosekilde, Erik; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    -doubling bifurcations, mode-locking and other nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the tubular pressures and flows. Using a simplified nephron model, the paper examines how the regulatory mechanisms react to an external periodic variation in arterial pressure near a region of resonance with one of the internally generated...... mode-locked cycles. We show how the stable and unstable resonance cycles generated in this response undergo interconnected cascades of period-doubling bifurcations and how each period doubling leads to the formation of a new pair of saddle-node bifurcation curves along the edges of the resonance zone...

  13. Cycling environmental perception in Beijing – A study of residents' attitudes towards future cycling and car purchasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2018-01-01

    the probability that the respondents will cycle in the future and the lower probability that they will buy a car. Associations with current travel behavior indicate that long everyday travel distances (e.g. 10 km to work or longer) negatively affects the respondents attitude towards their future cycling, whereas......Abstract This study focuses on three groups: cyclists, non-cyclists, and non-car owners and examines the significance of the perceived cycling environment, current travel behavior, urban form and socio-demographic variables for the respondents' attitudes towards future cycling and car purchasing...... towards car purchasing. The perceived cycling environment was found to be associated with respondents' attitude towards future cycling and car purchasing. The higher the level of satisfaction with the clarity of cycling space allocation and the higher the agreement with pro-cycling policies, the higher...

  14. Cell cycle control in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasova, Dana; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Proper control of the cell cycle is mandatory during homeostasis and disease. The balance of p53 and MDM2 integrates numerous signalling pathways to regulate the cell cycle, which is executed by multiple proteins including the cyclins, cyclin kinases and cyclin kinase inhibitors. Mutations or environmental factors that affect cell cycle control can lead to inappropriate hyperplasia or cancer as well as to cell loss and tissue atrophy. Normal kidney function is maintained largely by post-mitotic quiescent cells in the G0 phase with a low turnover. Early cell cycle activation during kidney injury contributes to cell death via mitotic catastrophe, i.e. death via mitosis, e.g. of cell with significant DNA damage. At later stages, cell cycle entry supports tissue regeneration and functional reconstitution via cell hypertrophy and/or cell proliferation. It is of note that so-called proliferation markers such as Ki67, PCNA or BrdU identify only cell cycle entry without telling whether this results in cell hypertrophy, cell division or mitotic catastrophe. With this in mind, some established concepts on kidney injury and regeneration are to be re-evaluated. Here, we discuss the components and functional roles of p53/MDM2-mediated cell cycle regulation in kidney homeostasis and disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer Confidence or the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig V.; Nørholm, Henrik; Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Answer: The business cycle. We show that consumer confidence and the output gap both affect excess returns on stocks in many European countries: When the output gap is positive (the economy is doing well), expected returns are low, and when consumer confidence is high, expected returns are also low...... is better captured when using the European output gap as a risk factor....

  16. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2017-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision......-making processes. The chapter shows that LCA can play a key role in LCM since LCA provides quantitative performance measurements. It also explains, which stakeholders need to be considered, how LCA and LCM relate, how LCA can be used to develop Key Performance Indicators, and addresses how LCM can be integrated...

  17. Aquatic cycling-What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rewald

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. This study specifically focused on study designs, populations and outcomes. A comprehensive search of seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro,Web of Science, WorldCat was conducted up to 30th September 2016. GoogleScholar, World Cat, ResearchGate, specific aquatic therapy websites and aquatic therapy journals were searched to identify additional literature. Full-text publications in English, German or Dutch were included. Studies were included when the intervention involved head-out cycling carried out in 10° to 35° Celsius water. Exclusion criteria were the use of wet suits or confounding interventions that would affect participants' homeostasis. 63 articles were included and the study parameters of these studies were summarized. Using three grouping themes, included studies were categorised as 1 single session tests comparing aquatic versus land cycling, or 2 aquatic cycling only sessions investigating different exercise conditions and 3 aquatic cycling intervention programmes. Although the experimental conditions differed noticeably across the studies, shared characteristics were identified. Cardiovascular parameters were investigated by many of the studies with the results suggesting that the cardiac demand of aquatic cycling seems similar to land-based cycling. Only six studies evaluated the effect of aquatic cycling interventions. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of aquatic cycling interventions, preferably in individuals that are expected to gain health benefits from aquatic cycling. Moreover, this comprehensive outline of available literature could serve as a starting point for systematic reviews or clinical

  18. Aquatic cycling-What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewald, Stefanie; Mesters, Ilse; Lenssen, Antoine F; Bansi, Jens; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob A; Waller, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. This study specifically focused on study designs, populations and outcomes. A comprehensive search of seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro,Web of Science, WorldCat) was conducted up to 30th September 2016. GoogleScholar, World Cat, ResearchGate, specific aquatic therapy websites and aquatic therapy journals were searched to identify additional literature. Full-text publications in English, German or Dutch were included. Studies were included when the intervention involved head-out cycling carried out in 10° to 35° Celsius water. Exclusion criteria were the use of wet suits or confounding interventions that would affect participants' homeostasis. 63 articles were included and the study parameters of these studies were summarized. Using three grouping themes, included studies were categorised as 1) single session tests comparing aquatic versus land cycling, or 2) aquatic cycling only sessions investigating different exercise conditions and 3) aquatic cycling intervention programmes. Although the experimental conditions differed noticeably across the studies, shared characteristics were identified. Cardiovascular parameters were investigated by many of the studies with the results suggesting that the cardiac demand of aquatic cycling seems similar to land-based cycling. Only six studies evaluated the effect of aquatic cycling interventions. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of aquatic cycling interventions, preferably in individuals that are expected to gain health benefits from aquatic cycling. Moreover, this comprehensive outline of available literature could serve as a starting point for systematic reviews or clinical studies on the

  19. Product Life Cycle Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walaszek, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... This phase of work was undertaken to: (1) provide guidelines, technical support, and planning approaches for researchers that result in realistic life cycle plans for products emerging from the RSM...

  20. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  1. Cycles in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  2. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  3. Life Cycle Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  4. Solar Cycle Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristóf Petrovay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of solar cycle prediction methods and their performance is given, including forecasts for cycle 24. The review focuses on those aspects of the solar cycle prediction problem that have a bearing on dynamo theory. The scope of the review is further restricted to the issue of predicting the amplitude (and optionally the epoch of an upcoming solar maximum no later than right after the start of the given cycle. Prediction methods form three main groups. Precursor methods rely on the value of some measure of solar activity or magnetism at a specified time to predict the amplitude of the following solar maximum. Their implicit assumption is that each numbered solar cycle is a consistent unit in itself, while solar activity seems to consist of a series of much less tightly intercorrelated individual cycles. Extrapolation methods, in contrast, are based on the premise that the physical process giving rise to the sunspot number record is statistically homogeneous, i.e., the mathematical regularities underlying its variations are the same at any point of time and, therefore, it lends itself to analysis and forecasting by time series methods. Finally, instead of an analysis of observational data alone, model based predictions use physically (more or less consistent dynamo models in their attempts to predict solar activity. In their overall performance during the course of the last few solar cycles, precursor methods have clearly been superior to extrapolation methods. Nevertheless, most precursor methods overpredicted cycle 23, while some extrapolation methods may still be worth further study. Model based forecasts have not yet had a chance to prove their skills. One method that has yielded predictions consistently in the right range during the past few solar cycles is that of K. Schatten et al., whose approach is mainly based on the polar field precursor. The incipient cycle 24 will probably mark the end of the Modern Maximum, with the Sun

  5. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  6. 78 FR 54640 - Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle... Public Comment Period and Public Hearing for the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification...

  7. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Paritosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol–gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g−1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  8. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  9. Diel cycling of zinc in a stream impacted by acid rock drainage: Initial results from a new in situ Zn analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.P.; Nimick, D.A.; Gammons, C.H.; Wanty, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that many trace metals undergo dramatic diel (24-h) cycles in near neutral pH streams with metal concentrations reproducibly changing up to 500% during the diel period (Nimick et al., 2003). To examine diel zinc cycles in streams affected by acid rock drainage, we have developed a novel instrument, the Zn-DigiScan, to continuously monitor in situ zinc concentrations in near real-time. Initial results from a 3-day deployment at Fisher Creek, Montana have demonstrated the ability of the Zn-DigiScan to record diel Zn cycling at levels below 100 ??g/l. Longer deployments of this instrument could be used to examine the effects of episodic events such as rainstorms and snowmelt pulses on zinc loading in streams affected by acid rock drainage. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  10. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  11. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  12. Out of the Tropics: The Pacific, Great Basin Lakes, and Late Pleistocene Water Cycle in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Barron, John; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Herbert, Timothy; Andreasen, Dyke

    2012-09-01

    The water cycle in the western United States changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the past 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation has been hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

  13. Out of the tropics: the Pacific, Great Basin lakes, and late Pleistocene water cycle in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Barron, John; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Herbert, Timothy; Andreasen, Dyke

    2012-09-28

    The water cycle in the western United States changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the past 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation has been hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

  14. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  15. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquet, Michel; Brun, Claire; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-22

    Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6-7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves.

  16. Varenicline impairs extinction and enhances reinstatement across repeated cycles of nicotine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Claire L; Holmes, Nathan M; Westbrook, R Fred; Clemens, Kelly J

    2016-06-01

    Varenicline is a partial nicotine receptor agonist widely prescribed as a smoking cessation medication. Repeated (or long-term) use of varenicline has been proposed as a treatment option for tobacco addiction. However the effect of repeated varenicline use on motivation for nicotine is unknown. Here the intravenous nicotine self-administration paradigm in rats was used to model the consequences of varenicline treatment across repeated cycles of administration, extinction and reinstatement. Rats acquired nicotine self-administration across 20 days before undergoing 6 days of extinction, where each extinction session was preceded by a single injection of varenicline or saline. This was followed by a single varenicline-free nicotine-primed reinstatement test. All rats then reacquired nicotine self-administration for 10 days followed by a second cycle of extinction. Across this period, rats either received a second cycle of varenicline (VAR-VAR) or saline (SAL-SAL), or the alternative treatment (SAL-VAR, VAR-SAL), followed by a final reinstatement test. Treatment with varenicline increased responding across the first cycle of extinction, but did not affect responding in the reinstatement test. Across the second cycle, varenicline again increased responding across extinction, and critically, rats treated with varenicline across cycle 1 and saline across cycle 2 (Group VAR-SAL) exhibited more reinstatement than rats in any other group. The effect of VAR on nicotine seeking was not due to its effects on locomotor activity. Instead, the results suggest that a history of VAR can increase vulnerability to reinstatement/relapse when its treatment is discontinued. The possible mechanisms of this increased vulnerability are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  18. The Effect of Cycling Intensity on Cycling Economy During Seated and Standing Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkesteijn, Marco; Jobson, Simon; Hopker, James; Passfield, Louis

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that cycling in a standing position reduces cycling economy compared with seated cycling. It is unknown whether the cycling intensity moderates the reduction in cycling economy while standing. The aim was to determine whether the negative effect of standing on cycling economy would be decreased at a higher intensity. Ten cyclists cycled in 8 different conditions. Each condition was either at an intensity of 50% or 70% of maximal aerobic power at a gradient of 4% or 8% and in the seated or standing cycling position. Cycling economy and muscle activation level of 8 leg muscles were recorded. There was an interaction between cycling intensity and position for cycling economy (P = .03), the overall activation of the leg muscles (P = .02), and the activation of the lower leg muscles (P = .05). The interaction showed decreased cycling economy when standing compared with seated cycling, but the difference was reduced at higher intensity. The overall activation of the leg muscles and the lower leg muscles, respectively, increased and decreased, but the differences between standing and seated cycling were reduced at higher intensity. Cycling economy was lower during standing cycling than seated cycling, but the difference in economy diminishes when cycling intensity increases. Activation of the lower leg muscles did not explain the lower cycling economy while standing. The increased overall activation, therefore, suggests that increased activation of the upper leg muscles explains part of the lower cycling economy while standing.

  19. Effect of Menstrual Cycle on the Exercise Concert of Zambian Female Long Distance Runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathivanan. D & clementchileshe

    2013-01-01

    .... The menstrual cycle do not affect muscle contractile characteristics. Most research also reports no changes over the menstrual cycle for the many determinants of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max...

  20. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provisionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard” hierarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  1. 76 FR 44049 - Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes'' in the Federal Register for a 30 day public comment period... Change Processes.'' By e-mail ] dated July 7, 2011, the Nuclear Energy Institute (ADAMS Accession No...

  2. Reproductive cycle of the Namib giant ground gecko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive cycle of the Namib giant ground gecko, Chondrodactylus angulifer, from southern Africa was described from a histological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. Males followed a seasonal testicular cycle in which (based on available specimens) the major period of spermiogenesis ...

  3. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  4. Bioturbation: impact on the marine nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, Bonnie; Gilbert, Jack A; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Sediments play a key role in the marine nitrogen cycle and can act either as a source or a sink of biologically available (fixed) nitrogen. This cycling is driven by a number of microbial remineralization reactions, many of which occur across the oxic/anoxic interface near the sediment surface. The presence and activity of large burrowing macrofauna (bioturbators) in the sediment can significantly affect these microbial processes by altering the physicochemical properties of the sediment. For example, the building and irrigation of burrows by bioturbators introduces fresh oxygenated water into deeper sediment layers and allows the exchange of solutes between the sediment and water column. Burrows can effectively extend the oxic/anoxic interface into deeper sediment layers, thus providing a unique environment for nitrogen-cycling microbial communities. Recent studies have shown that the abundance and diversity of micro-organisms can be far greater in burrow wall sediment than in the surrounding surface or subsurface sediment; meanwhile, bioturbated sediment supports higher rates of coupled nitrification-denitrification reactions and increased fluxes of ammonium to the water column. In the present paper we discuss the potential for bioturbation to significantly affect marine nitrogen cycling, as well as the molecular techniques used to study microbial nitrogen cycling communities and directions for future study.

  5. Lactobacillus decelerates cervical epithelial cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Vielfort

    Full Text Available We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells.

  6. BUSINESS CYCLES, ELECTORAL CYCLES. TOWARD A THEORETICAL FRAME OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN-LUCIAN DOSPINESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of cyclical movement of a system: be it political, economic, institutional, is one of the constants of critical thinking. In this sense, there is a natural cyclic movement that cannot be avoided (only amplified or diminished and is connected with the nature of these systems. The economy follows a cyclical movement; a period of growth follows a period of decline, and so on. So does popularity for political parties or leaders. In this paper, I explore the links between the business cycles and electoral cycles. For this purpose, I introduce the concept of electoral perception cycles. My hypothesis is that popularity of political parties and leaders follow a cyclical evolution, both on short and long term. I show how perception cycles can impact the “political business cycle theory”. There is great interest in political science literature for the factors that influence the fluctuations in Presidents’ popularity, especially from United States. However, very little has been said about Romania’s case. I investigate the hypothesis of electoral perception cycles looking at the popularity of former president Traian Basescu, over his two terms. The variable used to measure popularity is favorability, measured in national surveys, done face to face, on representative samplez, of around 1000 subjects. I’ve correlated the fluctuations in favorability over time, with key public events or political decisions taken by Traian Băsescu. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, there are significant short term fluctuations (short term perception cycles and they are correlated with major events on the agenda. I would point the following key moments: 1. The referendum for dismissal of the President in May 2007 – Traian Băsescu’s favorability increased by 7 percentage points; 2. The referendum for unicameral Parliament with 300 MPs in the fall of 2009. Coupled with victory in the presidential election, it lead to an increase of 10 percentage

  7. Cycle mining in active database environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Jennifer; Buckley, James P.

    2000-04-01

    Traditional data mining algorithms identify patterns in data that are not explicit. These patterns are denoted in the form of IF-THEN rules (IF antecedent THEN consequent), where the antecedent and consequent are logical conjunctions of propositions or first-order predicates. Generally, the mined rules apply to all time periods and specify no temporal interval between antecedent detection and consequent firing. Cycle mining algorithms identify meta-patterns of these associations depicting inferences forming cyclic chains of rule dependencies. Because traditional rules comprise these cycles, the mined cycles also apply to all time periods and do not currently possess the temporal interval of applicability. An active database is one that responds to stimuli in real time, operating in the event-condition-action (ECA) paradigm where a specific event is monitored, a condition is evaluated, and one or more actions are taken. The actions often involve real-time modification of the database. In this paper, we introduce the concepts and present algorithms for mining rules with firing intervals, and intervals of applicability. Using an active database environment, we describe a real time framework that incorporates the active database concept in order to ascertain previously undefined cycles in data over a specific time interval and thereby introduce the concept of interval of discovery. Comprised of discovered rules with firing intervals and intervals of applicability, the encompassing discovered cycles also possess a variation of these attributes. We illustrate this framework with an example from an E-commerce endeavor where data is mined for rules with firing intervals and intervals of applicability, which amalgamate to form a cycle in its interval of discovery. We describe the computer system INDED, the author's implementation of cycle mining, which we are currently interfacing to an active Oracle database using triggers and PL/SQL stored procedures.

  8. Fuel cycles for the 80's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.(DMC)

  9. The female reproductive cycle of the european common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1982); Hanyu, Asahima & Shimizu. (1982) and Richter, Eding, Leuven & van der Wijst (1982) showed that photoperiod and environmental temperature are amongst the major factors affecting the breeding cycle. These and other related physical ...

  10. Sprint cycling training improves intermittent run performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan; Weeraya Ka-Yan Ho; Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sprint cycling training on the intermittent run performance, sprinting speed, and change of direction (COD) ability of recreational intermittent sports athletes. Methods: Sixteen participants participated in the study. The experimental group (EG, n = 8) received a total of 12 sessions of sprint cycling training in a 4-week period and the control group (CG, n = 8) received no training. Both EG and CG were instructed to...

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  12. Recent advances in sleep-wake cycle and biological rhythms in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Naismith, Sharon L; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-10-01

    The cyclical nature of periodic switches in energy, motor activation and sleep-wake cycles in bipolar disorder suggests a strong underlying relationship with disturbances in chronobiology. Current research is refining our understanding of the various patterns of sleep-wake and biological rhythms alterations at early and later stages of this illness, as well as across its depressive/fatigue, manic/hypomanic and euthymic phases. This research focuses on early detection and subsequent monitoring to predict and better manage recurrent episodes. Sleep-wake cycle and biological rhythms disturbances are also well known to affect other key aspects of physical health (notably metabolic functions), cognitive performance and elevated risks for suicide. Increasing evidence now supports the integration of behavioural or pharmacological therapeutic strategies that target the sleep-wake and circadian systems in the ongoing treatment of various phases of bipolar disorder.

  13. Development of the Mouse Circadian Pacemaker: Independence from Environmental Cycles*

    OpenAIRE

    Fred C Davis; Menaker, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The freerunning period (τ) of the circadian pacemaker underlying the wheel-running activity rhythm of Mus musculus was found to be unaffected by the periods of environmental cycles (maternal and light/dark) under which the mice are raised. Mice born to mothers entrained to periods (T) of 28 or 20 h (ratio of light to dark of 14/10) and maintained on those cycle until beyond puberty showed only a temporary difference in freerunning period when placed into constant darkness. Such temporary ‘aft...

  14. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  15. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  16. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  17. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  18. Evidence for photometric activity cycles in 3203 Kepler stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Timo; Cameron, Robert H.; Gizon, Laurent

    2017-07-01

    Context. In recent years it has been claimed that the length of stellar activity cycles is determined by the stellar rotation rate. It has been observed that the cycle period increases with rotation period along two