Sample records for cyclic lipopeptide surfactants


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog


    Full Text Available The classification and the chemical structure of the lipopeptides and their producers (bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas are given. The role of the lipopeptides in cells motility, biofilm formation, metal binding and xenobiotics degradation and their action on the cells of pro- and eukaryotes is summarized. The stages of the nonribosomal lipopeptides synthesis and the role of two-component (GacA/GacS, ComA/ComP and the quorum system regulation of this process are shown. The potential of lactic acid bacteria and marine microorganisms as alternative surfactants producers (glycolipids, lipopeptides, phospholipids and fatty acids, glycolipopeptides are discussed. Their productivity and advantages over traditional producers are given as well. The properties of surfactants synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (the reduction of the surface tension, the critical micelle concentration, the stability in a wide range of pH, the temperature, the biological activity are summarized. Surfactants of nonpathogenic probiotic bacteria could be used as effective antimicrobial agents and antiadhesive and marine producers which able to synthesize unique metabolites that are not produced by other microorganisms.

  2. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyclic lipopeptides in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de I.


    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence and

  3. Natural functions of lipopeptides from Bacillus and Pseudomonas: more than surfactants and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, de I.; Nybroe, O.; Ongena, M.


    Lipopeptides constitute a structurally diverse group of metabolites produced by various bacterial and fungal genera. In the past decades, research on lipopeptides has been fueled by their antimicrobial, antitumour, immunosuppressant and surfactant activities. However, the natural functions of

  4. Lipopeptide surfactants: Production, recovery and pore forming capacity. (United States)

    Inès, Mnif; Dhouha, Ghribi


    Lipopeptides are microbial surface active compounds produced by a wide variety of bacteria, fungi and yeast. They are characterized by highly structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Surfactin, iturin and fengycin of Bacillus subtilis are among the most studied lipopeptides. This review will present the main factors encountering lipopeptides production along with the techniques developed for their extraction and purification. Moreover, we will discuss their ability to form pores and destabilize biological membrane permitting their use as antimicrobial, hemolytic and antitumor agents. These open great potential applications in biomediacal, pharmaceutic and agriculture fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-based discovery, structure prediction and functional analysis of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics in Pseudomonas species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de I.; Kock, de M.J.D.; Meng, Y.; Waard, de P.; Beek, van T.A.; Raaijmakers, J.M.


    Analysis of microbial genome sequences have revealed numerous genes involved in antibiotic biosynthesis. In Pseudomonads, several gene clusters encoding non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) were predicted to be involved in the synthesis of cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) antibiotics. Most of these

  6. Cyclic lipopeptide production by plant-associated Pseudomonas spp.: diversity, activity, biosynthesis, and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, de I.; Kock, de M.J.D.


    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are versatile molecules produced by a variety of bacterial genera, including plant-associated Pseudomonas spp. CLPs are composed of a fatty acid tail linked to a short oligopeptide, which is cyclized to form a lactone ring between two amino acids in the peptide chain. CLPs

  7. Regulation of the biosynthesis of cyclic lipopeptides from Pseudomonas putida PCL1445

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubern, Jean-Frédéric


    Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1445 produces two cyclic lipopeptides, named putisolvins I and II, which represent a Novel class of biosurfactants. Putisolvins reduce the surface tension between liquid and air, and disrupt already existing biofilms of several Pseudomonas sp., including those of the

  8. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg


    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX...

  9. Isolation and identification of cyclic lipopeptides from Paenibacillus ehimensis, strain IB-X-b. (United States)

    Aktuganov, Gleb; Jokela, Jouni; Kivelä, Henri; Khalikova, Elvira; Melentjev, Alexander; Galimzianova, Nailia; Kuzmina, Lyudmila; Kouvonen, Petri; Himanen, Juha-Pekka; Susi, Petri; Korpela, Timo


    Antifungal lipopeptides produced by an antagonistic bacterium, Paenibacillus ehimensis strain IB-X-b, were purified and analyzed. The acetone extract of the culture supernatant contained an antifungal amphiphilic fraction stainable with ninhydrin on thin layer chromatography. The fraction was further purified with water-methanol extraction followed by a chromatography on a C 18 -support. The analysis with LC-MS showed presence of two main series of homologous compounds, family of depsipeptides containing a hydroxy fatty acid, three 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (Dab) residues, five hydrophobic amino acids and one Ser/Thr residue, and cyclic lipopeptides of bacillomycin L and fengycin/plipastatin/agrastatin families. The prevailing compounds in this group are bacillomycin L-C 15 , fengycin/plipastatin A-C 16 together with their homologues responsible for the majority of fungal growth inhibition by P. ehimensis IB-X-b. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocontrol of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici using cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Mejri, Samara; Siah, Ali; Coutte, François; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Randoux, Béatrice; Tisserant, Benoit; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Reignault, Philippe; Halama, Patrice


    Innovation toward ecofriendly plant protection products compatible with sustainable agriculture and healthy food is today strongly encouraged. Here, we assessed the biocontrol activity of three cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis (mycosubtilin, M; surfactin, S; fengycin, F) and two mixtures (M + S and M + S + F) on wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici, the main pathogen on this crop. Foliar application of these biomolecules at a 100-mg L -1 concentration on the wheat cultivars Dinosor and Alixan, 2 days before fungal inoculation, provided significant reductions of disease severity. The best protection levels were recorded with the M-containing formulations (up to 82% disease reduction with M + S on Dinosor), while S and F treatments resulted in lower but significant disease reductions. In vitro and in planta investigations revealed that M-based formulations inhibit fungal growth, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 1.4 mg L -1 for both M and M + S and 4.5 mg L -1 for M + S + F, thus revealing that the observed efficacy of these products may rely mainly on antifungal property. By contrast, S and F had no direct activity on the pathogen, hence suggesting that these lipopeptides act on wheat against Z. tritici as resistance inducers rather than as biofungicides. This study highlighted the efficacy of several lipopeptides from B. subtilis to biocontrol Z. tritici through likely distinct and biomolecule-dependent modes of action.

  11. Protozoan-Induced Regulation of Cyclic Lipopeptide Biosynthesis Is an Effective Predation Defense Mechanism for Pseudomonas fluorescens▿ (United States)

    Mazzola, Mark; de Bruijn, Irene; Cohen, Michael F.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.


    Environmental bacteria are exposed to a myriad of biotic interactions that influence their function and survival. The grazing activity of protozoan predators significantly impacts the dynamics, diversification, and evolution of bacterial communities in soil ecosystems. To evade protozoan predation, bacteria employ various defense strategies. Soil-dwelling Pseudomonas fluorescens strains SS101 and SBW25 produce the cyclic lipopeptide surfactants (CLPs) massetolide and viscosin, respectively, in a quorum-sensing-independent manner. In this study, CLP production was shown to protect these bacteria from protozoan predation as, compared to CLP-deficient mutants, strains SS101 and SBW25 exhibited resistance to grazing by Naegleria americana in vitro and superior persistence in soil in the presence of this bacterial predator. In the wheat rhizosphere, CLP-producing strains had a direct deleterious impact on the survival of N. americana. In vitro assays further showed that N. americana was three times more sensitive to viscosin than to massetolide and that exposure of strain SS101 or SBW25 to this protozoan resulted in upregulation of CLP biosynthesis genes. Enhanced expression of the massABC and viscABC genes did not require physical contact between the two organisms as gene expression levels were up to threefold higher in bacterial cells harvested 1 cm from feeding protozoans than in cells collected 4 cm from feeding protozoans. These findings document a new natural function of CLPs and highlight that bacterium-protozoan interactions can result in activation of an antipredator response in prey populations. PMID:19717630

  12. Diversity and functional analysis of LuxR-type transcriptional regulators of cyclic lipopeptide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de I.; Raaijmakers, J.M.


    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are produced by many Pseudomonas species and have several biological functions, including a role in surface motility, biofilm formation, virulence, and antimicrobial activity. This study focused on the diversity and role of LuxR-type transcriptional regulators in CLP

  13. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit (United States)

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides obtained from B. subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level ...

  14. Lipopeptides in microbial infection control: scope and reality for industry. (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Franco, Octavio L


    Lipopeptides are compounds that are formed by cyclic or short linear peptides linked with a lipid tail or other lipophilic molecules. Recently, several lipopeptides were characterized, showing surfactant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The properties of lipopeptides may lead to applications in diverse industrial fields including the pharmaceutical industry as conventional antibiotics; the cosmetic industry for dermatological product development due to surfactant and anti-wrinkle properties; in food production acting as emulsifiers in various foodstuffs; and also in the field of biotechnology as biosurfactants. Some lipopeptides have reached a commercial antibiotic status, such as daptomycin, caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. This will be the focus of this review. Moreover, the review presented here will focus on the biotechnological utilization of lipopeptides in different fields as well as the functional-structure relation, connecting recent aspects of synthesis and structure diversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A multicomponent macrocyclization strategy to natural product-like cyclic lipopeptides: synthesis and anticancer evaluation of surfactin and mycosubtilin analogues. (United States)

    Morejón, Micjel C; Laub, Annegret; Kaluđerović, Goran N; Puentes, Alfredo R; Hmedat, Ali N; Otero-González, Anselmo J; Rivera, Daniel G; Wessjohann, Ludger A


    A multicomponent macrocyclization strategy towards cyclic lipopeptides is described. The approach relies on the utilization of the Ugi and Passerini multicomponent reactions for the cyclization of peptides and oxo-peptides, and here it is employed for the construction of a small library of analogues of the natural products mycosubtilin and surfactin A. A key feature of this method is the simultaneous incorporation of either one or two exocyclic lipid tails along with the macrocyclic ring closure, which is only possible due to the multicomponent nature of the macrocyclization step. The evaluation of the anticancer activity of the lipopeptide library showed that the installation of a second lipid moiety in the surfactin scaffold leads to a more potent cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This is a new example of the multicomponent reaction potential in rapidly producing natural product analogues for biological screening.

  16. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis activate distinct patterns of defence responses in grapevine. (United States)

    Farace, Giovanni; Fernandez, Olivier; Jacquens, Lucile; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Jacquard, Cédric; Dorey, Stéphan


    Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B. subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B. subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo. cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. Interaction of antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis influences their effect on spore germination and membrane permeability in fungal plant pathogens. (United States)

    Liu, Jiajie; Hagberg, Ingrid; Novitsky, Laura; Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Avis, Tyler J


    Bacillus subtilis cyclic lipopeptides are known to have various antimicrobial effects including different types of interactions with the cell membranes of plant pathogenic fungi. The various spectra of activities of the three main lipopeptide families (fengycins, iturins, and surfactins) seem to be linked to their respective mechanisms of action on the fungal biomembrane. Few studies have shown the combined effect of more than one family of lipopeptides on fungal plant pathogens. In an effort to understand the effect of producing multiple lipopeptide families, sensitivity and membrane permeability of spores from four fungal plant pathogens (Alternaria solani, Fusarium sambucinum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Verticillium dahliae) were assayed in response to lipopeptides, both individually and as combined treatments. Results showed that inhibition of spores was highly variable depending on the tested fungus-lipopeptide treatment. Results also showed that inhibition of the spores was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption suggesting effects of efficient treatments on membrane permeability. Combined lipopeptide treatments revealed additive, synergistic or sometimes mutual inhibition of beneficial effects. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit. (United States)

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg


    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection.

  19. Biosynthesis of the antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides nunamycin and nunapeptin by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain In5 is regulated by the LuxR-type transcriptional regulator NunF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Phippen, Christopher; Nielsen, Kristian Fog


    Nunamycin and nunapeptin are two antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens In5 and synthesized by nonribosomal synthetases (NRPS) located on two gene clusters designated the nun-nup regulon. Organization of the regulon is similar to clusters found in other CLP-p...... that environmental elicitors may also influence nunF expression which upon activation regulates nunamycin and nunapeptin production required for the growth inhibition of phytopathogens....

  20. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways. (United States)

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji


    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and dynamic characterization of a freestanding acyl carrier protein involved in the biosynthesis of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. (United States)

    Paul, Subrata; Ishida, Hiroaki; Nguyen, Leonard T; Liu, Zhihong; Vogel, Hans J


    Friulimicin is a cyclic lipodecapeptide antibiotic that is produced by Actinoplanes friuliensis. Similar to the related lipopeptide drug daptomycin, the peptide skeleton of friulimicin is synthesized by a large multienzyme nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) system. The LipD protein plays a major role in the acylation reaction of friulimicin. The attachment of the fatty acid group promotes its antibiotic activity. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that LipD is most closely related to other freestanding acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), for which the genes are located near to NRPS gene clusters. Here, we report that the solution NMR structure of apo-LipD is very similar to other four-helix bundle forming ACPs from fatty acid synthase (FAS), polyketide synthase, and NRPS systems. By recording NMR dynamics data, we found that the backbone motions in holo-LipD are more restricted than in apo-LipD due to the attachment of phosphopantetheine moiety. This enhanced stability of holo-LipD was also observed in differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, unlike several other ACPs, the folding of LipD does not depend on the presence of divalent cations, although the presence of Mg 2+ or Ca 2+ can increase the protein stability. We propose that small structural rearrangements in the tertiary structure of holo-LipD which lead to the enhanced stability are important for the cognate enzyme recognition for the acylation reaction. Our results also highlight the different surface charges of LipD and FAS-ACP from A. friuliensis that would allow the acyl-CoA ligase to interact preferentially with the LipD instead of binding to the FAS-ACP. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  2. Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihyun Kim


    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides for controlling FHB without the negative effects of chemical management. Out of 500 bacterial strains isolated from soil, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed strong antifungal activity and was considered a potential source for control strategies to reduce FHB. B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 produces several cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs including iturin A, fengycin, and surfactin. Iturin A inhibits spore germination of F. graminearum. Fengycin or surfactin alone did not display any inhibitory activity against spore germination at concentrations less than 30 μg/ml, but a mixture of iturin A, fengycin, and surfactin showed a remarkable synergistic inhibitory effect on F. graminearum spore germination. The fermentation broth and formulation of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 strain reduced the disease incidence of FHB in wheat. Furthermore, co-application of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 and chemical fungicides resulted in synergistic in vitro antifungal effects and significant disease control efficacy against FHB under greenhouse and field conditions, suggesting that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 has a strong chemosensitizing effect. The synergistic antifungal effect of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 and chemical fungicides in combination may result from the cell wall damage and altered cell membrane permeability in the phytopathogenic fungi caused by the CLP mixtures and subsequent increased sensitivity of F. graminearum to fungicides. In addition, B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed the potential to reduce trichothecenes mycotoxin production. The results of this study indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 could

  3. Evaluation of Antifungal Efficacy of Three New Cyclic Lipopeptides of the Class Bacillomycin from Bacillus subtilis RLID 12.1. (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramya; Shrivastava, Manjari; Narayanan, Namitha N; Thakur, Ram Lal; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Roy, Utpal


    New lipopeptide homologues (AF3, AF4, and AF5) with antifungal activities against Candida and Cryptococcus spp. were purified from a cell-free supernatant of Bacillus subtilis RLID 12.1. The lipopeptides AF3, AF4, and AF5 were identified with the same peptide sequence Asn-Pro-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Thr-Ser with variations in the fatty acid branching type and chain length (anteiso-C17, iso-C17, and iso-C18, respectively). Upon comparing the three homologues for MICs against 81 Candida (n = 64) and Cryptococcus (n = 17) clinical isolates and their cytotoxicities, we found that AF4 was the most promising antifungal lipopeptide, since it demonstrated 100% inhibition at geometric mean MICs of 3.31, 3.41, 3.48, and 2.83 μg/ml against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida auris, and Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, with low hemolysis values (70% cell survival with low hemolysis (<5%), were found to be comparatively effective. We describe here the additive effects of lipopeptide homologues showing reduced cytotoxicity against mammalian cells; these combinations might serve as a potent antibiofilm-forming substitute. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Biosynthesis of the antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides nunamycin and nunapeptin by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain In5 is regulated by the LuxR-type transcriptional regulator NunF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Phippen, Christopher; Nielsen, Kristian Fog


    Nunamycin and nunapeptin are two antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens In5 and synthesized by nonribosomal synthetases (NRPS) located on two gene clusters designated the nun-nup regulon. Organization of the regulon is similar to clusters found in other CLP......-producing pseudomonads except for the border regions where putative LuxR-type regulators are located. This study focuses on understanding the regulatory role of the LuxR-type-encoding gene nunF in CLP production of P. fluorescens In5. Functional analysis of nunF coupled with liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass...... spectrometry (LC-HRMS) showed that CLP biosynthesis is regulated by nunF. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that transcription of the NRPS genes catalyzing CLP production is strongly reduced when nunF is mutated indicating that nunF is part of the nun-nup regulon. Swarming and biofilm formation...

  5. Solution- and Solid-Phase Macrocyclization of Peptides by the Ugi-Smiles Multicomponent Reaction: Synthesis of N-Aryl-Bridged Cyclic Lipopeptides. (United States)

    Morejón, Micjel C; Laub, Annegret; Westermann, Bernhard; Rivera, Daniel G; Wessjohann, Ludger A


    A new multicomponent methodology for the solution- and solid-phase macrocyclization of peptides is described. The approach comprises the utilization of the Ugi-Smiles reaction for the cyclization of 3-nitrotyrosine-containing peptides either by the N-terminus or the lysine side-chain amino groups. Both the on-resin and solution cyclizations took place with good to excellent efficiency in the presence of an aldehyde and a lipidic isocyanide, while the use of paraformaldehyde required an aminocatalysis-mediated imine formation prior to the on-resin Ugi-Smiles ring closure. The introduction of a turn motif in the peptide sequence facilitated the cyclization step, shortened the reaction time, and delivered crude products with >90% purity. This powerful method provided a variety of structurally novel N-aryl-bridged cyclic lipopeptides occurring as single atropisomers.

  6. Identification and functional analysis of gene cluster involvement in biosynthesis of the cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic pelgipeptin produced by Paenibacillus elgii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chao-Dong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelgipeptin, a potent antibacterial and antifungal agent, is a non-ribosomally synthesised lipopeptide antibiotic. This compound consists of a β-hydroxy fatty acid and nine amino acids. To date, there is no information about its biosynthetic pathway. Results A potential pelgipeptin synthetase gene cluster (plp was identified from Paenibacillus elgii B69 through genome analysis. The gene cluster spans 40.8 kb with eight open reading frames. Among the genes in this cluster, three large genes, plpD, plpE, and plpF, were shown to encode non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs, with one, seven, and one module(s, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of the substrate specificity of all nine adenylation domains indicated that the sequence of the NRPS modules is well collinear with the order of amino acids in pelgipeptin. Additional biochemical analysis of four recombinant adenylation domains (PlpD A1, PlpE A1, PlpE A3, and PlpF A1 provided further evidence that the plp gene cluster involved in pelgipeptin biosynthesis. Conclusions In this study, a gene cluster (plp responsible for the biosynthesis of pelgipeptin was identified from the genome sequence of Paenibacillus elgii B69. The identification of the plp gene cluster provides an opportunity to develop novel lipopeptide antibiotics by genetic engineering.

  7. Aggregation of the naturally occurring lipopeptide, surfactin, at interfaces and in solution: an unusual type of surfactant? (United States)

    Shen, Hsin-Hui; Thomas, Robert K; Chen, Chien-Yen; Darton, Richard C; Baker, Simon C; Penfold, Jeffrey


    Neutron reflectometry has been used to study the structure of the biosurfactant, surfactin, at the air/water and at the hydrophobic solid/water interfaces. Three different deuterated surfactins were produced from the Bacillus subtilis strain: one perdeuterated, one with the four leucines perdeuterated, and one with everything except the four leucines perdeuterated. The neutron reflectivity profiles of these three samples in null reflecting water and in D20 with a seventh profile of the protonated surfactin in D2O were measured at pH 7.5. This combination of different isotopic compositions made it possible to deduce the distribution of each type of labeled fragment in the surfactin. Surfactin is found to adopt a ball-like structure with a thickness of 14 +/- A and an area per molecule of 147 +/- 5 A2. This makes it more like a hydrophobic nanoparticle, whose solubility in water is maintained only by its charge, than a conventional surfactant. This is probably what makes it surface-active at such low concentrations and what contributes to its forming very compact surface layers that are more dense than observed for most conventional amphiphiles. The reflectivity data were fitted by a model in which the structure of surfactin was divided into three fragments: the four leucines taken as a group, the hydrocarbon chain, and a hydrophilic group containing the two negative charges. An analysis of the reflectivity gave the following separations between fragments, where zero corresponds to the Gibbs plane for zero water adsorption: chain-water 7 A, hydrophile-water 1 A, and leucines-water 6.5 A, all +/- 1 A. The overall structure of the layer appears to be identical at a hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane-coated silicon surface where the thickness of the surfactin layer is 15 +/- 1 A and the area per molecule is 145 +/- 5 A2. Finally, the structure of surfactin micelles has been examined by means of small-angle neutron scattering. The aggregation number was found to be

  8. Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies with Lipopeptide Antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, L.H.J.


    The cyclic lipopeptides comprise a number of clinically relevant classes of antibiotics that date back from the discovery of the polymyxins in 1947 to the recent introduction of the lipoglycopeptides. These natural products and natural product derivatives generally originate from soil-inhabiting

  9. Lipopeptides in cosmetics. (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N


    Lipopeptides are biosurfactants extensively used in cosmetics. The consumption of cosmetics containing lipopeptides is increasing as a result of the exceptional surface properties and diverse biological activities of lipopeptides which facilitate a vast number of applications not only in the pharmaceutics industry which includes cosmetics but also in the food industry. Cosmetics containing lipopeptides are available in various dosage forms according to their beneficial surface properties, which include anti-wrinkle and moisturizing activities and cleansing cosmetics. The microbial production of lipopeptides particularly those with biological and surface activities applicable to cosmetics are summarized based on appropriate studies and patents up to the year 2008 to manage the information and sufficiently review the data.

  10. Cyclic Lipopeptides of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum Colonizing the Lettuce Rhizosphere Enhance Plant Defense Responses Toward the Bottom Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Uhl, Jenny; Grosch, Rita; Alquéres, Sylvia; Pittroff, Sabrina; Dietel, Kristin; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton


    The commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is able to considerably reduce lettuce bottom rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To understand the interaction between FZB42 and R. solani in the rhizosphere of lettuce, we used an axenic system with lettuce bacterized with FZB42 and inoculated with R. solani. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that FZB42 could delay the initial establishment of R. solani on the plants. To show which secondary metabolites of FZB42 are produced under these in-situ conditions, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry-based method and identified surfactin, fengycin, and bacillomycin D in the lettuce rhizosphere. We hypothesized that lipopeptides and polyketides play a role in enhancing the plant defense responses in addition to the direct antagonistic effect toward R. solani and used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay for marker genes involved in defense signaling pathways in lettuce. A significant higher expression of PDF 1.2 observed in the bacterized plants in response to subsequent pathogen challenge showed that FZB42 could enhance the lettuce defense response toward the fungal pathogen. To identify if surfactin or other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites could elicit the observed enhanced defense gene expression, we examined two mutants of FZB42 deficient in production of surfactin and the lipopetides and polyketides, by expression analysis and pot experiments. In the absence of surfactin and other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites, there was no enhanced PDF 1.2-mediated response to the pathogen challenge. Pot experiment results showed that the mutants failed to reduce disease incidence in lettuce as compared with the FZB42 wild type, indicating, that surfactin as well as other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites play a role in the actual disease suppression and on lettuce

  11. Pseudomonas Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise

    Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions...... in biofilm formation, however, detailed studies of these roles have not yet been carried out. The overall aim of this PhD project was therefore to elucidate in more depth the roles played by Pseudomonas lipopetides in pollutant biodegradation and biofilm formation. This study investigated the effect...... of the Pseudomonas lipopeptides belonging to different structural groups on important biodegradation parameters, mainly; solubilization and emulsification of hydrophobic pollutants (alkanes and PAHs) and increase of cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial degraders. Ultimately, it was tested if these parameters led...

  12. Characterization of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus licheniformis MB01 from Marine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Chen


    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become one of the world’s most severe problems because of the overuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are more difficult to kill and more expensive to treat. Researchers have been studied on antibiotic alternatives such as antimicrobial peptides and lipopeptides. A functional bacteria MB01 producing lipopeptides which can be used as bacteriostat was isolated from the Bohai Sea sediments, which had been identified as Bacillus licheniformis by the morphological, physiological, and biochemical identification and 16s rDNA sequence. The lipopeptides produced by MB01 were determined to be cyclic surfactin homologs by LC-ESI-MS structural identification after crude extraction and LH-20 chromatography. [M+H]+m/z 994, 1008, 1022, and 1036 were all the characteristic molecular weight of surfactin homologs. CID analysis revealed that the molecular structure of the lipopeptides was Rn-Glu1-Leu/Ile2-Leu3-Val4-Asp5-Leu6-Leu/Ile7. The lipopeptides showed well resistance to UV light and the change of pH and temperature.

  13. Production and characterization of Iturinic lipopeptides as antifungal agents and biosurfactants produced by a marine pinctada martensii-derived Bacillus mojavensis B0621A. (United States)

    Ma, Zongwang; Hu, Jiangchun


    Bacillus mojavensis B0621A was isolated from a pearl oyster Pinctada martensii collected from South China Sea. While screening for cyclic lipopeptides potentially useful as lead compounds for biological control against soil-bone fungal plant pathogens, three lipopeptides were isolated and purified from the fermentation broth of B. mojavensis B0621A via vacuum flash chromatography coupled with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The structural characterization and identification of these cyclic lipopeptides were performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis as well as chemical degradation. These lipopeptides were finally characterized as homologues of mojavensins, which contained identical amino acids back bones of asparagine1, tyrosine2, asparagine3, glutamine4, proline5, asparagine6, and asparagine7 and differed from each other by their saturated β-amino fatty acid chain residues, namely, iso-C14 mojavensin, iso-C16 mojavensin, and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, respectively. All lipopeptide isomers, especially iso-C16 mojavensin and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, displayed moderate antagonism and dose-dependent activity against several formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum and presented surface tension activities. These properties demonstrated that the lipopeptides produced by B. mojavensis B0621A may be useful as biological control agent to fungal plant pathogens.

  14. Interactions of surfactants with lipid membranes. (United States)

    Heerklotz, Heiko


    Surfactants are surface-active, amphiphilic compounds that are water-soluble in the micro- to millimolar range, and self-assemble to form micelles or other aggregates above a critical concentration. This definition comprises synthetic detergents as well as amphiphilic peptides and lipopeptides, bile salts and many other compounds. This paper reviews the biophysics of the interactions of surfactants with membranes of insoluble, naturally occurring lipids. It discusses structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of membrane-water partitioning, changes in membrane properties induced by surfactants, membrane solubilisation to micelles and other phases formed by lipid-surfactant systems. Each section defines and derives key parameters, mentions experimental methods for their measurement and compiles and discusses published data. Additionally, a brief overview is given of surfactant-like effects in biological systems, technical applications of surfactants that involve membrane interactions, and surfactant-based protocols to study biological membranes.

  15. Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ant colony optimization; Bacillus subtilis; central composite rotatable design; lipopeptide; response surface methodology. Abstract. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of experiments was used to obtain data for Lipopeptide and Biomass concentrations from fermentation medium containing the following ...

  16. Involvement of phenazines and lipopeptides in interactions between Pseudomonas species and Sclerotium rolfsii, causal agent of stem rot disease on groundnut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, N.C.; Kruijt, M.; Raaijmakers, J.


    Aims: To determine the role of phenazines (PHZ) and lipopeptide surfactants (LPs) produced by Pseudomonas in suppression of stem rot disease of groundnut, caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. Methods and Results: In vitro assays showed that PHZ-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain

  17. Solid-Phase Synthesis of PEGylated Lipopeptides Using Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Andresen, Thomas Lars


    A versatile methodology for efficient synthesis of PEGylated lipopeptides via CuAAC “Click” conjugation between alkyne-bearing solid-supported lipopeptides and azido-functionalized PEGs is described. This new and very robust method offers a unique platform for synthesizing PEGylated lipopeptides ...

  18. Comparative Study on Antistaphylococcal Activity of Lipopeptides in Various Culture Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Jaśkiewicz


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the leading microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections as well as being the primary causative pathogen of skin and wound infections. Currently, the therapy of staphylococcal diseases faces many difficulties, due to a variety of mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Moreover, a number of infections caused by S. aureus are connected with biofilm formation that impairs effectiveness of the therapy. Short cationic lipopeptides that are designed on the basis of the structure of antimicrobial peptides are likely to provide a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Many research groups have proved a high antistaphylococcal potential of lipopeptides, however, the use of different protocols for determination of antimicrobial activity may be the reason for inconsistency of the results. The aim of this study was to learn how the use of various bacteriological media as well as solvents may affect activity of lipopeptides and their cyclic analogs. Obtained results showed a great impact of these variables. For example, cyclic analogs were more effective when dissolved in an aqueous solution of acetic acid and bovine serum albumin (BSA. The greater activity against planktonic cultures was found in brain-heart infusion broth (BHI and tryptic-soy broth (TSB, while the antibiofilm activity was higher in the Mueller-Hinton medium.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog


    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  20. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 32a as a source of lipopeptides for biocontrol of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains. (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, D; Frikha-Gargouri, O; Tounsi, S


    A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain, designated 32a, was used to identify new compounds active against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and to evaluate their efficiency to control crown gall on carrot discs. Based on PCR-assays, four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A, bacillomycin D and fengycin. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatant led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, except bacillomycin, with heterogeneous mixture of homologues. Antimicrobial assays using lipopeptides-enriched extract showed a strong inhibitory activity against several bacterial and fungal strains, including Ag. tumefaciens. Biological control assays on carrot discs using both 32a spores and extract resulted in significant protection against crown gall disease, similar to that provided by the reference antagonistic strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K1026. In contrast to all active compounds against Ag. tumefaciens that are of proteinaceous nature, this work enables for the first time to correlate the strong protective effect of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 32a towards crown gall disease with the production of a mixture of lipopeptides. The findings could be useful for growers and nursery men who are particularly interested in the biocontrol of the crown gall disease. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. P.


    Full Text Available The literature and own experimental data on the synthesis of microbial surfactants of different chemical nature (rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, manozylerythritollipids, lipopeptides at various waste (vegetable oil and fat, sugar, dairy industry, agriculture, forestry, biodiesel, as well as waste — fried vegetable oils are presented. Most suitable substrates for the synthesis of microbial surfactants are oil containing waste that, unlike, for example, lignocellulose, whey, technical glycerol do not require pre-treatment and purification. Replacing traditional substrates for the biosynthesis of surfactant with industrial waste will help to reduce the cost of technology by several times, dispose of unwanted waste, solve the problem of storage or disposal of large amounts of waste from the food industry, agricultural sector and companies that produce biodiesel, which spent large amount of energy and money for such needs

  2. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H Kügler


    Full Text Available Gloablly, the drive towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.

  3. Lipopeptide biosurfactant viscosin enhances dispersal of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise; Svenningsen, Nanna Bygvraa; Rybtke, Morten Levin


    Pseudomonads produce several lipopeptide biosurfactants that have antimicrobial properties but that also facilitate surface motility and influence biofilm formation. Detailed studies addressing the significance of lipopeptides for biofilm formation and architecture are rare. Hence, the present st...

  4. NMR structural studies of the antibiotic lipopeptide daptomycin in DHPC micelles. (United States)

    Scott, Walter R P; Baek, Seung-Bin; Jung, David; Hancock, Robert E W; Straus, Suzana K


    Daptomycin is a cyclic anionic lipopeptide that exerts its rapid bactericidal effect by perturbing the bacterial cell membrane, a mode of action different from most other currently commercially available antibiotics (except e.g. polymyxin and gramicidin). Recent work has shown that daptomycin requires calcium in the form of Ca2+ to form a micellar structure in solution and to bind to bacterial model membranes. This evidence sheds light on the initial steps in the mechanism of action of this novel antibiotic. To understand how daptomycin goes on to perturb bacterial membranes, its three-dimensional structure has been determined in the presence of 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micelles. NMR spectra of daptomycin in DHPC were obtained under two conditions, namely in the presence of Ca2+ as used by Jung et al. [D. Jung, A. Rozek, M. Okon, R.E.W. Hancock, Structural transitions as determinants of the action of the calcium-dependent antibiotic daptomycin, Chem. Biol. 11 (2004) 949-57] to solve the calcium-conjugated structure of daptomycin in solution and in a phosphate buffer as used by Rotondi and Gierasch [K.S. Rotondi, L.M. Gierasch, A well-defined amphipathic conformation for the calcium-free cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, daptomycin, in aqueous solution, Biopolymers 80 (2005) 374-85] to solve the structure of apo-daptomycin. The structures were calculated using molecular dynamics time-averaged refinement. The different sample conditions used to obtain the NMR spectra are discussed in light of fluorescence data, lipid flip-flop and calcein release assays in PC liposomes, in the presence and absence of Ca2+ [D. Jung, A. Rozek, M. Okon, R.E.W. Hancock, Structural transitions as determinants of the action of the calcium-dependent antibiotic daptomycin, Chem. Biol. 11 (2004) 949-57]. The implications of these results for the membrane perturbation mechanism of daptomycin are discussed.

  5. Potential application of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 lipopeptides in toothpaste formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Bouassida


    Full Text Available Toothpaste is a gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean, keep and promote oral hygiene. The literature review suggests that there are many different formulations of toothpastes and that each of their individual components present specific functions. The concentration of the toothpaste ingredients must be appropriately chosen taking into account the purposes of the toothpaste. Biosurfactants are considered as suitable molecules for application in many formulations such as in toothpaste one. In the present work, two dentifrice formulations were investigated and their efficiencies were tested using chemical surfactant agent and lipopeptide biosurfactant isolated from Bacillus subtilis SPB1. The physicochemical properties were analyzed considering several tests mainly spreading ability, water activity, pH, foaming and cleaning tests. The obtained results indicated that the SPB1 biosurfactant was as efficient as the chemical surfactant confirming its potential utilization in toothpaste formulation compared to the commercial one. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the formulated dentifrice was carried out against eight bacteria. The results demonstrated that the biosurfactant-based product exhibited an important antimicrobial activity, which was very effective against Enterobacter sp and Salmonella typhinirium.

  6. Lipopeptide biosurfactant pseudofactin II induced apoptosis of melanoma A 375 cells by specific interaction with the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Janek

    Full Text Available In the case of melanoma, advances in therapies are slow, which raises the need to evaluate new therapeutic strategies and natural products with potential cancer cell inhibiting effect. Pseudofactin II (PFII, a novel cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant has been isolated from the Arctic strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PFII on A375 melanoma cells compared with the effect of PFII on Normal Human Dermis Fibroblast (NHDF cells and elucidate the underlying mechanism of PFII cytotoxic activity. Melanoma A375 cells and NHDF cells were exposed to PFII or staurosporine and apoptotic death was assessed by monitoring caspase 3-like activity and DNA fragmentation. From time-dependent monitoring of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, Ca(2+ influx, and a correlation between Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC we concluded that cell death is the consequence of plasma membrane permeabilisation by micelles. This finding suggests that pro-apoptotic mechanism of PFII is different from previously described cyclic lipopeptides. The mechanism of PFII specificity towards malignant cells remains to be discovered. The results of this study show that PFII could be a new promising anti-melanoma agent.

  7. Key Impact of an Uncommon Plasmid on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum S499 Developmental Traits and Lipopeptide Production. (United States)

    Molinatto, Giulia; Franzil, Laurent; Steels, Sébastien; Puopolo, Gerardo; Pertot, Ilaria; Ongena, Marc


    The rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum S499 (S499) is particularly efficient in terms of the production of cyclic lipopeptides, which are responsible for the high level of plant disease protection provided by this strain. Sequencing of the S499 genome has highlighted genetic differences and similarities with the closely related rhizobacterium B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 (FZB42). More specifically, a rare 8008 bp plasmid (pS499) harboring a rap-phr cassette constitutes a major distinctive element between S499 and FZB42. By curing this plasmid, we demonstrated that its presence is crucial for preserving the typical physiology of S499 cells. Indeed, the growth rate and extracellular proteolytic activity were significantly affected in the cured strain (S499 P(-)). Furthermore, pS499 made a significant contribution to the regulation of cyclic lipopeptide production. Surfactins and fengycins were produced in higher quantities by S499 P(-), whereas lower amounts of iturins were detected. In line with the increase in surfactin release, bacterial motility improved after curing, whereas the ability to form biofilm was reduced in vitro. The antagonistic effect against phytopathogenic fungi was also limited for S499 P(-), most probably due to the reduction of iturin production. With the exception of this last aspect, S499 P(-) behavior fell between that of S499 and FZB42, suggesting a role for the plasmid in shaping some of the phenotypic differences observed in the two strains.

  8. Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by Bacillus subtilis using response .... Hence the total number of tests required for five independent variables is 24+ (2×5) +. Table 1. Experimental design matrix. Actual values. Coded values. Responses. 0 x1 x2 ...... intelligence versus a statistical approach.

  9. Antifungal Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus sp. FJAT-14262 Isolated from Rhizosphere Soil of the Medicinal Plant Anoectochilus roxburghii. (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieping; Che, Jianmei; Liu, Guohong; Guan, Xiong


    This study aimed to develop biocontrol Bacillus and explore bacterial biocontrol substances. According to the blood agar test, strain FJAT-14262 was screened as a biosurfactant-producer. The biosurfactant-producing ability of FJAT-14262 was further confirmed by the oil spreading tests because of its amphipathic character. Furthermore, its fermentation supernatant could decrease the surface tension from 74.1 to 32.7 mN m(-1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the biosurfactant produced by the strain FJAT-14262 was a kind of lipopeptides. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis demonstrated that this lipopeptide contained surfactin with polar amino acids and hydrophobic fatty acid chains. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis revealed that the nonribosomal peptide synthetases genes srfAA, srfAB, and srfAC were structurally conserved in the FJAT-14262 genome. Importantly, the crude surfactant exhibited strong inhibitory activities against Fusarium oxysporum, suggesting that strain FJAT-14262 could be a potential biological control agent against Fusarium wilt.

  10. Structural diversity of marine cyclic peptides and their molecular mechanisms for anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and other clinical applications. (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Phat, Chanvorleak; Hong, Soon-Cheol


    Many cyclic peptides and analogues derived from marine sources are known to possess biological properties, including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammation, anti-proliferative, anti-hypertensive, cytotoxic, and antibiotic properties. These compounds demonstrate different activities and modes of action according to their structure such as cyclic oligopeptide, cyclic lipopeptide, cyclic glycopeptide and cyclic depsipeptide. The recent advances in application of the above-mentioned cyclic peptides were reported in dolastatins, soblidotin, didemnin B, aplidine, salinosporamide A, kahalalide F and bryostatin 1 and they are currently in clinical trials. These cyclic peptides are possible novel drugs discovered and developed from marine origin. Literature data concerning the potential properties of marine cyclic peptides were reviewed here, and the structural diversity and biological activities of marine cyclic peptides are discussed in relation to the molecular mechanisms of these marine cyclic peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Switchable Surfactants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yingxin Liu; Philip G. Jessop; Michael Cunningham; Charles A. Eckert; Charles L. Liotta


    .... We report that long-chain alkyl amidine compounds can be reversibly transformed into charged surfactants by exposure to an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, thereby stabilizing water/alkane emulsions...

  12. Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Marine Nesterenkonia sp. and Its Application in Food Industry (United States)

    Kiran, George S.; Priyadharsini, Sethu; Sajayan, Arya; Priyadharsini, Gopal B.; Poulose, Navya; Selvin, Joseph


    Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index of lipopeptide MSA31 revealed “halo-alkali and thermal tolerant biosurfactant” which can be used in the food industry. Microtiter plate assay showed 125 μg/ml of lipopeptide was effective in reducing the biofilm formation activity of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The confocal laser scanning microscopic images provided further evidences that lipopeptide MSA31 was an effective antibiofilm agent. The antioxidant activity of lipopeptide MSA31 may be due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid present in the molecule. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed lipopeptide MSA31 was non-toxic and can be used as food additives. Incorporation of lipopeptide MSA31 in muffin showed improved organoleptic qualities compared to positive and negative control. This study provides a valuable input for this lipopeptide to be used in food industry as an effective emulsifier, with good antioxidant activity and as a protective agent against S. aureus. PMID

  13. Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a MarineNesterenkoniasp. and Its Application in Food Industry. (United States)

    Kiran, George S; Priyadharsini, Sethu; Sajayan, Arya; Priyadharsini, Gopal B; Poulose, Navya; Selvin, Joseph


    Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index of lipopeptide MSA31 revealed "halo-alkali and thermal tolerant biosurfactant" which can be used in the food industry. Microtiter plate assay showed 125 μg/ml of lipopeptide was effective in reducing the biofilm formation activity of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus . The confocal laser scanning microscopic images provided further evidences that lipopeptide MSA31 was an effective antibiofilm agent. The antioxidant activity of lipopeptide MSA31 may be due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid present in the molecule. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed lipopeptide MSA31 was non-toxic and can be used as food additives. Incorporation of lipopeptide MSA31 in muffin showed improved organoleptic qualities compared to positive and negative control. This study provides a valuable input for this lipopeptide to be used in food industry as an effective emulsifier, with good antioxidant activity and as a protective agent against S. aureus .

  14. Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Marine Nesterenkonia sp. and Its Application in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Kiran


    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index of lipopeptide MSA31 revealed “halo-alkali and thermal tolerant biosurfactant” which can be used in the food industry. Microtiter plate assay showed 125 μg/ml of lipopeptide was effective in reducing the biofilm formation activity of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The confocal laser scanning microscopic images provided further evidences that lipopeptide MSA31 was an effective antibiofilm agent. The antioxidant activity of lipopeptide MSA31 may be due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid present in the molecule. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed lipopeptide MSA31 was non-toxic and can be used as food additives. Incorporation of lipopeptide MSA31 in muffin showed improved organoleptic qualities compared to positive and negative control. This study provides a valuable input for this lipopeptide to be used in food industry as an effective emulsifier, with good antioxidant activity and as a protective agent

  15. Involvement of phenazines and lipopeptides in interactions between Pseudomonas species and Sclerotium rolfsii, causal agent of stem rot disease on groundnut. (United States)

    Le, C N; Kruijt, M; Raaijmakers, J M


    To determine the role of phenazines (PHZ) and lipopeptide surfactants (LPs) produced by Pseudomonas in suppression of stem rot disease of groundnut, caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. In vitro assays showed that PHZ-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Phz24 significantly inhibited hyphal growth of S. rolfsii and suppressed stem rot disease of groundnut under field conditions. Biosynthesis and regulatory mutants of Phz24 deficient in PHZ production were less effective in pathogen suppression. Pseudomonas strains SS101, SBW25 and 267, producing viscosin or putisolvin-like LPs, only marginally inhibited hyphal growth of S. rolfsii and did not suppress stem rot disease. In contrast, Pseudomonas strain SH-C52, producing the chlorinated LP thanamycin, inhibited hyphal growth of S. rolfsii and significantly reduced stem rot disease of groundnut in nethouse and field experiments, whereas its thanamycin-deficient mutant was less effective. Phenazines and specific lipopeptides play an important role in suppression of stem rot disease of groundnut by root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains. Pseudomonas strains Phz24 and SH-C52 showed significant control of stem rot disease. Treatment of seeds or soil with these strains provides a promising supplementary strategy to control stem rot disease of groundnut. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Insights into the molecular basis of biocontrol of Brassica pathogens by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 lipopeptides. (United States)

    Asari, Shashidar; Ongena, Marc; Debois, Delphine; De Pauw, Edwin; Chen, Kunling; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan


    Certain micro-organisms can improve plant protection against pathogens. The protective effect may be direct, e.g. due to antibiotic compounds, or indirect, by priming of plant defence as induced systemic resistance (ISR). The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 shows potential for disease management of oilseed rape. To investigate the mode of action of this protection, especially in relation to jasmonic acid-dependent ISR, Bacillus UCMB5113 was tested with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and several important fungal pathogens of Brassica species. Secreted lipopeptide fractions from Bacillus UCMB5113, together with synthetic peptide mimics, were evaluated for their effects on fungal phytopathogens and A. thaliana . The structures of secreted lipopeptides were analysed using mass spectrometry. Plant mutants and reporter lines were used to identify signalling steps involved in disease suppression by lipopeptides. In plate tests Bacillus UCMB5113 and lipopeptide extracts suppressed growth of several fungal pathogens infecting Brassica plants. Separation of secreted lipopeptides using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed several fractions that inhibited fungal growth. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified the most potent compounds as novel linear forms of antifungal fengycins, with synthetic peptide mimics confirming the biological activity. Application of the lipopeptide extracts on Arabidopsis roots provided systemic protection against Alternaria brassicicola on leaves. Arabidopsis signalling mutants and PDF1.2 and VSP2 promoter-driven GUS lines indicated that the lipopeptide fraction involved jasmonic-acid-dependent host responses for suppression of fungal growth indicative of ISR. The ability of Bacillus UCMB5113 to counteract pathogens using both antagonistic lipopeptides and through ISR provides a promising tool for sustainable crop production.

  17. Production and properties of a surface-active lipopeptide produced by a new marine Brevibacterium luteolum strain. (United States)

    Vilela, W F D; Fonseca, S G; Fantinatti-Garboggini, F; Oliveira, V M; Nitschke, M


    Microbial-derived surfactants are molecules of great interest due to their environmentally friendly nature and low toxicity; however, their production cost is not competitive when compared to synthetics. Marine microorganisms are exposed to extremes of pressure, temperature, and salinity; hence, they can produce stable compounds under such conditions that are useful for industrial applications. A screening program to select marine bacteria able to produce biosurfactant using low-cost substrates (mineral oil, sucrose, soybean oil, and glycerol) was conducted. The selected bacterial strain showed potential to synthesize biosurfactants using mineral oil as carbon source and was identified as Brevibacterium luteolum. The surface-active compound reduced the surface tension of water to 27 mN m(-1) and the interfacial tension (water/hexadecane) to 0.84 mN m(-1) and showed a critical micelle concentration of 40 mg L(-1). The biosurfactant was stable over a range of temperature, pH, and salt concentration and the emulsification index (E24) with different hydrocarbons ranging from 60 to 79 %. Structural characterization revealed that the biosurfactant has a lipopeptide nature. Sand washing removed 83 % of crude oil demonstrating the potential of the biosurfactants (BS) for bioremediation purposes. The new marine B. luteolum strain showed potential to produce high surface-active and stable molecule using a low-cost substrate.

  18. [Exogenous surfactant therapy: new synthetic surfactants]. (United States)

    Lacaze-Masmonteil, Th


    There are numerous pulmonary conditions in which qualitative or quantitative anomalies of the surfactant system have been demonstrated. In premature newborns with immature lungs, a functional deficit in surfactant is the main physiopathologic mechanism of the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Since the landmark pilot study of Fujiwara, published more than 20 years ago, the efficacy of exogenous surfactant for the treatment of neonatal RDS has been established by numerous controlled studies and meta-analyses. Enlightened by a growing insight into both the structure and function of the different surfactant components, a new generation of synthetic surfactants has been developed. Various complementary approaches have confirmed the fundamental role of the two hydrophobic proteins, SP-B and SP-C, in the surfactant system, thus opening the way to the design of analogues, either by chemical synthesis or expression in a prokaryotic system. An example of these peptide-containing synthetic surfactant preparations, lucinactant (Surfaxin), has been recently tested in comparison to a synthetic surfactant that does not contain protein as well as to animal derived surfactant preparations. Major clinical outcomes between lucinactant and animal-derived surfactant preparations were fund similar in two randomized controlled trials, opening the way to a new generation of synthetic surfactants in the near future.

  19. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven


    Over the past decade, Scandinavian and German scholars have been active in the redefinition of the terms ‘Vitalism‘ and ‘Vitalist’ as descriptive categories for analytical purposes in the fields of literary and cultural history. In this context, ‘Vitalism‘ has primarily been used to describe...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...

  20. In Silico Discovery of Novel Ligands for Antimicrobial Lipopeptides for Computer-Aided Drug Design. (United States)

    Jujjavarapu, Satya Eswari; Dhagat, Swasti


    The increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens has created havoc worldwide. These antibiotic-resistant pathogens require potent drugs for their inhibition. Lipopeptides, which are produced as secondary metabolites by many microorganisms, have the ability to act as potent safe drugs. Lipopeptides are amphiphilic molecules containing a lipid chain bound to the peptide. They exhibit broad-spectrum activities against both bacteria and fungi. Other than their antimicrobial properties, they have displayed anti-cancer properties as well, but their mechanism of action is not understood. In silico drug design uses computer simulation to discover and develop new drugs. This technique reduces the need of expensive and tedious lab work and clinical trials, but this method becomes a challenge due to complex structures of lipopeptides. Specific agonists (ligands) must be identified to initiate a physiological response when combined with a receptor (lipopeptide). In silico drug design and homology modeling talks about the interaction between ligands and the binding sites. This review summarizes the mechanism of selected lipopeptides, their respective ligands, and in silico drug design.

  1. Homology modeling and molecular docking studies of Bacillomycin and Iturin synthetases with novel ligands for the production of therapeutic lipopeptides. (United States)

    Eswari, Jujjavarapu Satya; Dhagat, Swasti; Kaser, Shubham; Tiwari, Anoop


    Lipopeptide synthetases play an important role in the production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides are molecules made up of peptides and fatty acid moieties and have shown to have a broad range of antimicrobial activity. As infectious diseases have caused severe health problems mainly resulting from the development of antibiotic resistant strains of disease causing microorganisms there is a need of alternatives to antibiotics. The lipopeptide synthetase of the corresponding lipopeptides can be used as templates to design these as drugs using computational techniques. The objective of this study was homology modeling and molecular docking of two lipopeptide synthetases, bacillomycin D synthetase and iturin A synthetase, with their ligands as a means of drug design. Schrödinger software was used for homology modeling and molecular docking. After the identification of ligands, molecular docking of these ligands with the lipopeptide (bacillomycin and iturin) synthetases was performed. The docking was tested on the parameters of docking score and glide energy. 5 out of 21 ligands were found to dock with bacillomycin D synthetase whereas 8 out of 20 ligands docked with the iturin A synthetase. The knowledge of the docking sites and docking characteristics of the lipopeptide synthetases mentioned in the paper with the ligands can provide advantages of high speed and reliability, reduced costs on chemicals and experiments and the ethical issues concerned with the use of animal models for screening of drug toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  2. Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Synthesis of a Macrophage Stimulatory Lipopeptide from Mycoplasma fermentans Acting at Picomolar Concentration (United States)

    Mühlradt, Peter F.; Kieß, Michael; Meyer, Holger; Süßmuth, Roderich; Jung, Günther


    Macrophages are typically stimulated by components of microbial cell walls. Surprisingly, cell wall–less mycoplasmas can also very efficiently stimulate macrophages. We showed recently that mycoplasma-derived lipopeptides constitute the active principle. We have now isolated a clone of Mycoplasma fermentans expressing mainly one macrophage-stimulating lipopeptide. This lipopeptide was detergent-extracted and isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromotography, using nitric oxide release from C3H/HeJ mouse macrophages as bioassay for detection. In contrast to “conventional” bacterial lipoproteins, this lipopeptide had a free NH2 terminus. Amino acid composition, sequence, and the molecular weight of 2,163.3 are consistent with the following structure: S-(2,3-bisacyloxypropyl)cysteine-GNNDESNISFKEK with one mole C16:0, and a further mole of a mixture of C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid per lipopeptide molecule. The sequence could not be found in either the protein identification resource nor the Swiss Prot data bank. We named this 2-kD lipopeptide, macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2). Synthetic dipalmitoyl MALP-2 and mycoplasma-derived MALP-2 were compared with the bioassay. Both lipopeptides showed an identical dose dependency with a half-maximal response at 10−11 M concentration. MALP-2 may be one of the most potent natural macrophage stimulators besides endotoxin. PMID:9166424

  3. Cyclic multiverses (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam


    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  4. Cyclic biamperometry. (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Mikkelsen, Susan R


    Cyclic biamperometry has been investigated as a method for the quantitation of one form of a reversibly electroactive redox couple in the presence of the other form, using the ferri-ferrocyanide couple in aqueous KCl. A triangular voltage waveform applied across two equal-area, planar gold electrodes yields peak currents that depend on the square root of the applied voltage scan rate, when one form of the redox couple is present in excess. Independent measurement of electrode-to-solution potential during biamperometric scans allowed estimation of the fractional impedance at each electrode-solution interface, and these values allow calculation of the effective potential scan rates at each electrode. Results show that when one form is present in a 5-fold excess or greater, the potential scan rate for the limiting reaction is nearly identical to the applied voltage scan rate. Similar values were obtained from impedance calculations, but discrepancies between the predicted and experimental values are evident when the two forms are present at near equivalent concentrations. When one form of the redox couple is present in excess, cyclic biamperometric peak currents depend linearly on the concentration of the limiting form, and these currents can be amplified by using cells with one electrode much larger than the other. Because this method does not require a reference electrode, it can, in principle, be readily incorporated into new electrochemical array or lab-on-a-chip devices.

  5. Probing DNA-lipid membrane interactions with a lipopeptide nanopore. (United States)

    Bessonov, Andrey; Takemoto, Jon Y; Simmel, Friedrich C


    Association of DNA molecules with lipid bilayer membranes is of considerable interest for a large variety of applications in biotechnology. Here we introduce syringomycin E (SRE), a small pore-forming lipopeptide produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, as a facile sensor for the detection of DNA interactions with lipid membranes. SRE forms highly reproducible pores in cellular and artificial membranes. The pore structure involves bilayer lipids, which have a pronounced influence on open channel conductance and gating. SRE channels act as ionic diodes that serve as current rectifiers sensitive to the charge of the bilayer. We employ this intrinsic property to electronically monitor the association of DNA molecules with the membrane in a variety of different settings. We show that SRE can be used for quantitatively probing electrostatic interactions of DNA and DNA-cholesterol conjugates with a lipid membrane. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SRE channels allow monitoring of hybridization reactions between lipid-anchored probe strands and complementary strands in solution. In the presence of double-stranded DNA, SRE channels display a particularly high degree of rectification. Finally, the formation of multilayered structures assembled from poly-(L)-lysine and DNA oligonucleotides on the membrane was precisely monitored with SRE.

  6. Daptomycin: a novel lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Beiras-Fernandez


    Full Text Available Andres Beiras-Fernandez1,*, Ferdinand Vogt1,*, Ralf Sodian1, Florian Weis21Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany *Andres Beiras-Fernandez and Ferdinand Vogt contributed equally to this paperAbstract: The aim of this review is to summarize the historical background of drug resistance of Gram-positive pathogens as well as to describe in detail the novel lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects are reviewed and the current clinical use of daptomycin is presented. Daptomycin seems to be a reliable drug in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, infective right-sided endocarditis, and bacteremia caused by Gram-positive agents. Its unique mechanism of action and its low resistance profile, together with its rapid bactericidal action make it a favorable alternative to vancomycin in multi-drug resistant cocci. The role of daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic material infections, osteomyelitis, and urogenital infections needs to be evaluated in randomized clinical trials.Keywords: daptomycin, multi-drug resistance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, left-sided endocarditis

  7. Lipid composition in a strain of Bacillus subtilis, a producer of iturin A lipopeptides that are active against uropathogenic bacteria. (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Siewiera, Paulina; Moryl, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna; Chojniak, Joanna


    Urinary tract infections are a common disease in humans. Therefore, new methods are needed to destroy biofilms that are formed by uropathogens. Iturin A lipopeptides (LPs) C14 and C15 are potent biosurfactants synthetized by the Bacillus subtilis I'1a strain. The biological activity of extracted LPs was confirmed by examining extracts from I'1a cultures against uropathogenic bacteria that had been isolated from biofilms on urinary catheters. Compared with cultures of DSM 3257, which produce surfactin at a relatively low level, the extract obtained from strain I'1a exhibited a greater inhibitory effect against both planktonic and sessile forms of Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, cyclic LP biosurfactants may disturb the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes; therefore, we investigated the effects of synthetized LPs on fatty acids and phospholipids of B. subtilis. LPs and lipids were analyzed using GC-MS, LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF techniques. Compared with B. subtilis DSM 3257, membranes of the I'1a strain were characterized by an increased amount of anteiso fatty acids and a ten-fold higher ratio of phosphatidylglycerol (PG)-to-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Interestingly, in cultures of B. subtilis DSM 3257 supplemented with LP extracts of the I'1a strain, the PG-to-PE ratio was fourfold higher, and the amount of anteiso fatty acids was also increased.

  8. Thermally cleavable surfactants (United States)

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.


    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  9. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal


    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  10. Surfactant in airway disease. (United States)

    Enhorning, Goran


    Beta(2)-adrenergic agonists cause a release of pulmonary surfactant into lung airways. The surfactant phospholipids maintain the patency of the conducting airways, but this function is inhibited by plasma proteins entering an inflamed airway. The physical behavior of the surfactant can be studied with a pulsating bubble surfactometer and a capillary surfactometer. Calf lung surfactant extract was found to be inhibited by plasma proteins and by a lowering of temperature. Severe breathing difficulties and malfunctioning surfactant developed in BALB/c mice inhaling ozone or infected with respiratory syncytial virus, mainly as a result of proteins invading the airways. Patients with asthma were challenged with allergens in an area of one lung. BAL fluid (BALF) from such an area contained a surfactant that functioned poorly (ie, an inability to maintain airway openness) compared with BALF from the other lung or from the lungs of healthy volunteers. When proteins in the BALF were removed, surfactant performance clearly improved. Eosinophils, so prominent in asthmatic patients, synthesize the enzyme lysophospholipase, which, together with the enzyme phospholipase A(2), catalyzes the hydrolysis of the main component of the surfactant, phosphatidylcholine. Such hydrolysis incapacitates the ability of the surfactant to maintain airway patency. The treatment of asthma with beta(2)-adrenergic agonists and steroids will have a valuable effect on the surfactant system. It will cause a release of fresh surfactant into terminal airways. Surfactant can also be nebulized and inhaled, which has been shown to be an effective treatment.

  11. Chemistry, structural insight and applications of β-sheet forming lipopeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalli, Silvia


    The research described in this thesis aimed to synthesize and investigate the physical properties of a new series of amphiphilic lipopeptides, ALPs. These molecules were composed of an amphiphilic oligopeptide domain, (Leu-Glu)n , interlinked by a succinyl moiety to the phospholipid

  12. Lipopeptide-Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death Correlates with the Degree of Acylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Consequences of bacterial infection include anemia, which could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Bacterial components known to stimulate eryptosis include lipopeptides. Signaling mediating the triggering of eryptosis include increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and cellular accumulation of ceramide. The present study aimed to define the molecular requirements for lipopeptide-induced cell membrane scrambling. Methods: Human erythrocytes were incubated for 48 hours in the absence and presence of 1 or 5 µg/ml of the synthetic lipopeptides Pam1 (lipopeptide with one fatty acid, Pam2 (lipopeptide with two fatty acids, or Pam3 (lipopeptide with three fatty acids. In the following phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCF dependent fuorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: Pam1 (5 µg/ml, Pam2 (5 µg/ml and Pam3 (1 and 5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding to erythrocytes in a dose dependent manner, which was largely independent of Ca2+. Pam1-3 increased the percentage of both, swollen and shrunken erythrocytes without significantly modifying the average forward scatter. They also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS and ceramide abundance. In all assays the effect on eryptosis increased with increasing number of fatty acids, with Pam3 showing always the strongest effect. In contrast, a comparison of the effect of Pam1-3 on TLR2 dependent immune stimulation showed that not Pam3 but Pam2 displayed the strongest activity, and that immune stimulation was triggered at much lower concentrations than eryptosis. Conclusions: Lipopeptides are not only important

  13. Biological and surface-active properties of double-chain cationic amino acid-based surfactants. (United States)

    Greber, Katarzyna E; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sawicki, Wiesław; Łukasiak, Jerzy


    Cationic amino acid-based surfactants were synthesized via solid phase peptide synthesis and terminal acylation of their α and ε positions with saturated fatty acids. Five new lipopeptides, N-α-acyl-N-ε-acyl lysine analogues, were obtained. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal (fungicidal) concentration were determined on reference strains of bacteria and fungi to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the lipopeptides. Toxicity to eukaryotic cells was examined via determination of the haemolytic activities. The surface-active properties of these compounds were evaluated by measuring the surface tension and formation of micelles as a function of concentration in aqueous solution. The cationic surfactants demonstrated diverse antibacterial activities dependent on the length of the fatty acid chain. Gram-negative bacteria and fungi showed a higher resistance than Gram-positive bacterial strains. It was found that the haemolytic activities were also chain length-dependent values. The surface-active properties showed a linear correlation between the alkyl chain length and the critical micelle concentration.

  14. Pulmonary surfactant therapy.


    Poulain, F R; Clements, J. A.


    Surfactant replacement therapy is now an integral part of the care of neonates since several clinical trials of natural surfactant extracts and synthetic preparations have shown efficacy in the treatment of infants with hyaline membrane disease. In these studies, early treatment with exogenous surfactant substantially reduced mortality and the incidence of air leak, although it did not appear to reduce the incidence of other complications, in particular bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Early repor...

  15. Surfactants in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma


    Surface science and tribology play very critical roles in many industries. Manufacture and use of almost all consumer and industrial products rely on the application of advanced surface and tribological knowledge. The fourth in a series, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 4 provides an update on research and development activities connecting surfactants and tribological phenomena. Written by renowned subject matter experts, the book demonstrates how improved design of surfactants can be harnessed to control tribological phenomena. Profusely illustrated and copiously referenced, the chapters also

  16. Towards unravelling surfactant transport (United States)

    Sellier, Mathieu; Panda, Satyananda


    Surfactant transport arises in many natural or industrial settings. Examples include lipid tear layers in the eye, pulmonary surfactant replacement therapy, or industrial coating flows. Flows driven by the surface tension gradient which arises as a consequence of surfactant concentration inhomogeneity, also known as Marangoni-driven flows, have attracted the attention of fluid dynamists for several decades and has led to the development of sophisticated models and the undeniable advancement of the understanding of such flows. Yet, experimental confirmation of these models has been hampered by the difficulty in reliably and accurately measuring the surfactant concentration and its temporal evolution. In this contribution, we propose a methodology which may help shed some light on surfactant transport at the surface of thin liquid films. The surface stress induced by surfactant concentration induces a flow at the free surface which is visible and measurable. In the context of thin film flows for which the lubrication approximation hold, we demonstrate how the knowledge of this free surface flow field provides sufficient information to reconstruct the surfactant tension field. From the surface tension and an assumed equation of state, the local surfactant concentration can also be calculated and other transport parameters such as the surfactant surface diffusivity indirectly inferred. In this contribution, the proposed methodology is tested with synthetic data generated by the forward solution of the governing partial differential equations in order to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm and highlight numerical challenges.

  17. Production and identification of iturin A lipopeptide from Bacillus methyltrophicus TEB1 for control of Phoma tracheiphila. (United States)

    Kalai-Grami, Leila; Karkouch, Ines; Naili, Omar; Slimene, Imen Ben; Elkahoui, Salem; Zekri, Roudaina Ben; Touati, Ines; Mnari-Hattab, Monia; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Limam, Ferid


    A lipopeptide-producing endophytic Bacillus methyltrophicus TEB1 strain exhibited potent antifungal activity against Phoma tracheiphila. Lipopeptide production started at the early growth phase plateaued after 36 h of culture where it reduced the mycelium growth by 80%. The crude lipopeptide extract harvested at the stationary phase efficiently inhibited the growth of P. tracheiphila mycelium and MIC values displaying 50 and 90% inhibition of conidia germination were around 47.5 and 100 μg ml(-1) , respectively. Increasing lipopeptide extract till 3 mg ml(-1) induced 10% swelling and 3% crumbling of P. tracheiphila conidia whereas 5 mg ml(-1) induced 40% swelling and 20% crumbling. Mass spectrometry analysis of the lipopeptide extract indicated that surfactin production took place from 12 to 20 h, iturin A from 16 to 72 h, and fengycin from 12 to 72 h and that the main active compound against P. tracheiphila was identified as C15 iturin A lipopeptide. Iturin A appeared as a potential biological control agent able to substitute the currently used chemical pesticides in agriculture. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Mechanisms to explain surfactant responses. (United States)

    Jobe, Alan H


    Surfactant is now standard of care for infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Surfactant treatments are effective because of complex metabolic interactions between surfactant and the preterm lung. The large treatment dose functions as substrate; it is taken up by the preterm lung and is reprocessed and secreted with improved function. The components of the treatment surfactant remain in the preterm lung for days. If lung injury is avoided, then surfactant inhibition is minimized. Prenatal corticosteroids complement surfactant to further enhance lung function. The magic of surfactant therapy results from the multiple interactions between surfactant and the preterm lung. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Dynamic covalent surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkenberg, C.B.


    In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo.

  20. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (United States)

    ... anxiety to a stress management specialist for relaxation therapy or other treatments. A health care provider may prescribe medications to prevent migraines for people with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition During the prodrome and vomiting phases of cyclic ...

  1. Derringer desirability and kinetic plot LC-column comparison approach for MS-compatible lipopeptide analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias D’Hondt


    Full Text Available Lipopeptides are currently re-emerging as an interesting subgroup in the peptide research field, having historical applications as antibacterial and antifungal agents and new potential applications as antiviral, antitumor, immune-modulating and cell-penetrating compounds. However, due to their specific structure, chromatographic analysis often requires special buffer systems or the use of trifluoroacetic acid, limiting mass spectrometry detection. Therefore, we used a traditional aqueous/acetonitrile based gradient system, containing 0.1% (m/v formic acid, to separate four pharmaceutically relevant lipopeptides (polymyxin B1, caspofungin, daptomycin and gramicidin A1, which were selected based upon hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA.In total, the performance of four different C18 columns, including one UPLC column, were evaluated using two parallel approaches. First, a Derringer desirability function was used, whereby six single and multiple chromatographic response values were rescaled into one overall D-value per column. Using this approach, the YMC Pack Pro C18 column was ranked as the best column for general MS-compatible lipopeptide separation. Secondly, the kinetic plot approach was used to compare the different columns at different flow rate ranges. As the optimal kinetic column performance is obtained at its maximal pressure, the length elongation factor λ (Pmax/Pexp was used to transform the obtained experimental data (retention times and peak capacities and construct kinetic performance limit (KPL curves, allowing a direct visual and unbiased comparison of the selected columns, whereby the YMC Triart C18 UPLC and ACE C18 columns performed as best. Finally, differences in column performance and the (disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. Keywords: Lipopeptide, Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, Principal component analysis (PCA, LC–MS, Kinetic plot, Derringer desirability function

  2. The Tunisian oasis ecosystem is a source of antagonistic Bacillus spp. producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides. (United States)

    El Arbi, Amel; Rochex, Alice; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Lecouturier, Didier; Arnauld, Ségolène; Gharsallah, Néji; Jacques, Philippe


    The use of microbial products has become a promising alternative approach to controlling plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Bacteria isolated from the date palm tree rhizosphere of the Tunisian oasis ecosystem could provide new biocontrol microorganisms adapted to extreme conditions, such as drought, salinity and high temperature. The aim of this study was to screen bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree for their ability to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi, and to identify molecules responsible for their antifungal activity. Screening for antifungal activity was performed on twenty-eight isolates. Five antagonistic isolates were selected and identified as different species of Bacillus using phenotypical methods and a molecular approach. The five antagonistic Bacillus isolated showed tolerance to abiotic stresses (high temperature, salinity, drought). Their ability to produce lipopeptides was investigated using a combination of two techniques: PCR amplification and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Analyses revealed that the antagonistic isolates produced a high diversity of lipopeptides that belonged to surfactin, fengycin, iturin and kurstakin families. Their antagonistic activity, related to their capacity for producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides and their tolerance to abiotic stresses, highlighted Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree as potential biocontrol agents for combatting plant diseases in extreme environments. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods for the comprehensive structural elucidation of constitution and stereochemistry of lipopeptides. (United States)

    Gerhardt, Heike; Sievers-Engler, Adrian; Jahanshah, Ghazaleh; Pataj, Zoltán; Ianni, Federica; Gross, Harald; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael


    A panel of methods of general suitability for complete structural elucidation of the stereochemistry of cyclopeptides, depsipeptides and lipopeptides is presented and described in detail. The suitability of the proposed methods was exemplified on the lipopeptide poaeamide from Pseudomonas poae. Amino acid configurations have been assigned by direct LC enantiomer separation with Chiralpak ZWIX(+) and were confirmed by GC enantiomer separation on Chirasil L-Val. 3-Hydroxydecanoic acid absolute configuration was analyzed on Chiralpak ZWIX(+) and confirmed by injection on ZWIX(-) which showed opposite elution order. Plenty of d-amino acids have been found in this lipopeptide. It contained in total 5 Leu residues of which one had d-configuration. The position of the d-Leu in the peptide sequence was determined by pepsin and chemical digestions in combination with isolation of diagnostic peptide-fragments and subsequent identification of absolute configurations of the Leu residues. This allowed pinpointing the position of the d-amino acid. The complementarity of the peptide retention profiles on Chiralpak ZWIX column as compared to both RPLC and HILIC suggests its great utility as an alternative peptide separation tool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulmonary surfactant and lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel Elardus


    Pulmonary surfactant lowers the surface tension at the air-water interface inside the alveolus. This is achieved by adsorption of surfactant phospholipids at the air-water interface, a process controlled by surfactant-associated proteins, such as SP-A. In this way, surfactant prevents collapse of

  5. Antibiotic and biosurfactant properties of cyclic lipopeptides produced by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the sugar beet rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Sørensen, D; Tobiasen, C


    and that some also had antibiotic properties towards root-pathogenic microfungi. The CLP-producing P. fluorescens strains provide a useful resource for selection of biological control agents, whether a single strain or a consortium of strains was used to maximize the synergistic effect of multiple antagonistic...

  6. Protozoan-induced regulation of cyclic lipopeptide biosynthesis Is an effective predation defense mechanism for Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, M.; Bruijn, de I.; Cohen, M.F.; Raaijmakers, J.M.


    Environmental bacteria are exposed to a myriad of biotic interactions that influence their function and survival. The grazing activity of protozoan predators significantly impacts the dynamics, diversification, and evolution of bacterial communities in soil ecosystems. To evade protozoan predation,

  7. Coregulation of the cyclic lipopeptides orfamide and sessilin in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olorunleke, Feyisara E; Kieu, Nam P; De Waele, Evelien; Timmerman, Marc; Ongena, Marc; Höfte, Monica


    ... ), which are often flanked by LuxR‐type transcriptional regulators. Pseudomonas sp. CMR 12a, an effective biocontrol strain, produces two different classes of CLP s namely sessilins and orfamides...

  8. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants (United States)

    Jamison, Gregory M.; Wheeler, David R.; Loy, Douglas A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Long, Timothy M.; McElhanon, James R.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Staiger, Chad L.


    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  9. Phosphine oxide surfactants revisited. (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Preisig, Natalie; Laughlin, Robert G


    This review summarizes everything we currently know about the nonionic surfactants alkyl dimethyl (C(n)DMPO) and alkyl diethyl (C(n)DEPO) phosphine oxide (PO surfactants). The review starts with the synthesis and the general properties (Section 2) of these compounds and continues with their interfacial properties (Section 3) such as surface tension, surface rheology, interfacial tension and adsorption at solid surfaces. We discuss studies on thin liquid films and foams stabilized by PO surfactants (Section 4) as well as studies on their self-assembly into lyotropic liquid crystals and microemulsions, respectively (Section 5). We aim at encouraging colleagues from both academia and industry to take on board PO surfactants whenever possible and feasible because of their broad variety of excellent properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Highly stable surfactant assisted polyaniline nanostructures with enhanced electroactivity (United States)

    Jamdegni, Monika; Kaur, Amarjeet


    Different nanostructures of Polyaniline(PANI) i.e. nanospheres, nanorods, nanofibers and layered structures have been successfully synthesized using varied concentration of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS) and cationic Hexamethyltriammonium bromide (HTAB) by electrochemical method. Surfactant assisted morphology has been studied using FESEM. Incorporation of surfactants to the polymer matrix has been confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. Electro activity and stability towards reversible redox activity was studied using cyclic voltammatry and chronoamperometry.The anionic surfactant severely enhances electroactivity and areal capacitance (3 Fcm-2) which was found to be two order higher than PANI film prepared without surfactant (0.039 Fcm-2), attributable to its additional doping effect. Immobilization of large surfactant molecule to polymer matrix inhibits its degradation due to nuleophilic attack ascribed to hydrophobic effect of surfactant. For PANI-SDS redox behavior remained almost same after 1000 reverse redox cycles while for PANI-HTAB we got only marginal changes.Our PANI-SDS samples are promising candidates for electro chromic applications.

  11. A comparative study of mechanisms of surfactant inhibition. (United States)

    Gunasekara, Lasantha; Schoel, W Michael; Schürch, Samuel; Amrein, Matthias W


    Pulmonary surfactant spreads to the hydrated air-lung interface and reduces the surface tension to a very small value. This function fails in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the surface tension stays high. Dysfunction has been attributed to competition for the air-lung interface between plasma proteins and surfactant or, alternatively, to ARDS-specific alterations of the molecular profile of surfactant. Here, we compared the two mechanisms in vitro, to assess their potential role in causing respiratory distress. Albumin and fibrinogen exposure at or above blood level concentrations served as the models for testing competitive adsorption. An elevated level of cholesterol was chosen as a known adverse change in the molecular profile of surfactant in ARDS. Bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) was spread from a small bolus of a concentrated suspension (27 mg/ml) to the air-water interface in a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) and the bubble volume was cyclically reduced and increased to assess surface activity of the spread material. Concentrations of inhibitors and the concentration and spreading method of pulmonary surfactant were chosen in an attempt to reproduce the exposure of surfactant to inhibitors in the lung. Under these conditions, neither serum albumin nor fibrinogen was persistently inhibitory and normal near-zero minimum surface tension values were obtained after a small number of cycles. In contrast, inhibition by an increased level of cholesterol persisted even after extensive cycling. These results suggest that in ARDS, competitive adsorption may not sufficiently explain high surface tension, and that disruption of the surfactant film needs to be given causal consideration.

  12. Convergent synthetic methodology for the construction of self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccines using a novel carbohydrate scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fagan


    Full Text Available A novel convergent synthetic strategy for the construction of multicomponent self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccines was developed. A tetraalkyne-functionalized glucose derivative and lipidated Fmoc-lysine were prepared by novel efficient and convenient syntheses. The carbohydrate building block was coupled to the self-adjuvanting lipidic moiety (three lipidated Fmoc-lysines on solid support. Four copies of a group A streptococcal B cell epitope (J8 were then conjugated to the glyco-lipopeptide using a copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction. The approach was elaborated by the preparation of a second vaccine candidate which incorporated an additional promiscuous T-helper epitope.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: cyclic neutropenia (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Cyclic neutropenia Cyclic neutropenia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cyclic neutropenia is a disorder that causes frequent infections and ...

  14. ATP binding by NLRP7 is required for inflammasome activation in response to bacterial lipopeptides. (United States)

    Radian, Alexander D; Khare, Sonal; Chu, Lan H; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian


    Nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in innate immune responses. NLRs encode a central nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) consisting of the NAIP, CIITA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain and the NACHT associated domain (NAD), which facilitates receptor oligomerization and downstream inflammasome signaling. The NBD contains highly conserved regions, known as Walker motifs, that are required for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. The NLR containing a PYRIN domain (PYD) 7 (NLRP7) has been recently shown to assemble an ASC and caspase-1-containing high molecular weight inflammasome complex in response to microbial acylated lipopeptides and Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NLRP7 inflammasome activation is still elusive. Here we demonstrate that the NBD of NLRP7 is an ATP binding domain and has ATPase activity. We further show that an intact nucleotide-binding Walker A motif is required for NBD-mediated nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, oligomerization, and NLRP7 inflammasome formation and activity. Accordingly, THP-1 cells expressing a mutated Walker A motif display defective NLRP7 inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL)-1β release and pyroptosis in response to acylated lipopeptides and S. aureus infection. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of NLRP7 inflammasome assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niran Roongsawang


    Full Text Available Lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBSs consist of a hydrophobic fatty acid portion linked to a hydrophilic peptide chain in the molecule. With their complex and diverse structures, LPBSs exhibit various biological activities including surface activity as well as anti-cellular and anti-enzymatic activities. LPBSs are also involved in multi-cellular behaviors such as swarming motility and biofilm formation. Among the bacterial genera, Bacillus (Gram-positive and Pseudomonas (Gram-negative have received the most attention because they produce a wide range of effective LPBSs that are potentially useful for agricultural, chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The biosynthetic mechanisms and gene regulation systems of LPBSs have been extensively analyzed over the last decade. LPBSs are generally synthesized in a ribosome-independent manner with megaenzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs. Production of active‑form NRPSs requires not only transcriptional induction and translation but also post‑translational modification and assemblage. The accumulated knowledge reveals the versatility and evolutionary lineage of the NRPSs system. This review provides an overview of the structural and functional diversity of LPBSs and their different biosynthetic mechanisms in Bacillus and Pseudomonas, including both typical and unique systems. Finally, successful genetic engineering of NRPSs for creating novel lipopeptides is also discussed.

  16. Production of lipopeptides among Bacillus strains showing growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. (United States)

    Velho, R V; Medina, L F C; Segalin, J; Brandelli, A


    The biological activity and the presence of genes sfp and ituD (surfactin and iturin A) among Bacillus strains isolated from the Amazon basin were determined. Bacillus spp. were tested for hemolytic activity and inhibition of fungal growth by agar plate assays in parallel with PCR for identification of sfp and ituD genes. All strains tested produced surface-active compounds, giving evidence by lysis of erythrocytes and emulsifying activity on mineral oil and soybean oil. These strains of Bacillus caused growth inhibition of several phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Bipolaris sorokiniana. The presence of genes ituD and sfp was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis. The only exception was Bacillus sp. P34 that lacks sfp gene. Lipopeptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Characteristic m/z peaks for surfactin and iturin were observed, and some strains also produced fengycin and bacillomycin. The remarkable antifungal activity showed by the strains could be associated with the co-production of three or more lipopeptide antibiotics. Screening for novel bacteria producing useful biosurfactants or biocontrol agents for agriculture is a topic of greatest importance to eliminate chemical pollutants.

  17. MALP-2, a Mycoplasma lipopeptide with classical endotoxic properties: end of an era of LPS monopoly? (United States)

    Galanos, C; Gumenscheimer, M; Mühlradt, P; Jirillo, E; Freudenberg, M


    Although some activities of LPS are shared by other bacterial components, for half a century LPS has been regarded as unique in displaying many pathophysiological activities. Here we report on a synthetic lipopeptide, MALP-2 from Mycoplasma fermentans, which expresses potent endotoxin-like activity and whose lethal toxicity is comparable to that of LPS. With the exception of the Limulus lysate gelation test, in which MALP-2 was approximately 1000-fold less active than LPS, the synthetic lipopeptide induced all activities tested for, and in most cases to an extent comparable to that of LPS. Unlike LPS, the biological activities of MALP-2 were expressed both in LPS-responder and in LPS-non-responder mice (BALB/c/l, C57BL10/ScCr), indicating that MALP-2 signaling, unlike that of LPS, is not transduced via the Toll-like receptor (Tlr) 4 protein.MALP-2 expressed no toxicity in normal or sensitized Tlr2 knockout (Tlr2(-/-)) mice indicating that its toxic activity is induced via Tlr2 signaling. The phenomenology of the lethal shock induced by MALP-2 in normal or sensitized mice, i.e. the kinetics of its development and symptoms of illness exhibited by the treated animals, was very reminiscent of the lethal shock induced by LPS.

  18. Interactions between lipid-free apolipoprotein-AI and a lipopeptide incorporating the RGDS cell adhesion motif (United States)

    Castelletto, V.; Hamley, I. W.; Reza, M.; Ruokolainen, J.


    The interaction of a designed bioactive lipopeptide C16-GGGRGDS, comprising a hexadecyl lipid chain attached to a functional heptapeptide, with the lipid-free apoliprotein, Apo-AI, is examined. This apolipoprotein is a major component of high density lipoprotein and it is involved in lipid metabolism and may serve as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimers' disease. We find via isothermal titration calorimetry that binding between the lipopeptide and Apo-AI occurs up to a saturation condition, just above equimolar for a 10.7 μM concentration of Apo-AI. A similar value is obtained from circular dichroism spectroscopy, which probes the reduction in α-helical secondary structure of Apo-AI upon addition of C16-GGGRGDS. Electron microscopy images show a persistence of fibrillar structures due to self-assembly of C16-GGGRGDS in mixtures with Apo-AI above the saturation binding condition. A small fraction of spheroidal or possibly ``nanodisc'' structures was observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data for Apo-AI can be fitted using a published crystal structure of the Apo-AI dimer. The SAXS data for the lipopeptide/Apo-AI mixtures above the saturation binding conditions can be fitted to the contribution from fibrillar structures coexisting with flat discs corresponding to Apo-AI/lipopeptide aggregates.

  19. Real Topological Cyclic Homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Amalie

    , where O(2) is the semi-direct product of T, the multiplicative group of complex number of modulus 1, by the group G=Gal(C/R). We refer to this O(2)-spectrum as the real topological Hochschild homology. This generalization leads to a G-equivariant version of topological cyclic homology, which we call...... real topological cyclic homology. The first part of the thesis computes the G-equivariant homotopy type of the real topological cyclic homology of spherical group rings at a prime p with anti-involution induced by taking inverses in the group. The second part of the thesis investigates the derived G...

  20. Gemini (dimeric) Surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carboxylate, sulphonate), or nonionic (polyether, sugar). (iv) gemini surfactants. Symmetrical and nonsymmetrical GS are known (see[2]), that is, these mayor may not have two identical polar groups and two identical chains. (v) GS with three or more polar groups or chains are also known. Some representative examples [2] ...

  1. Gemini (dimeric) Surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 3. Gemini (dimeric) Surfactants - The Two-Faced Molecules. B S Sekhon. General Article Volume 9 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 42-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  2. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis (United States)

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.


    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  3. Modifications of surfactant distributions and surface morphologies in latex films due to moisture exposure (United States)

    Guizhen H. Xu; Jinping Dong; Steven J. Severtson; Carl J. Houtman; Larry E. Gwin


    Migration of surfactants in water-based, pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) films exposed to static and cyclic relative humidity conditions was investigated using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Studied PSA films contain monomers n-butyl acrylate, vinyl acetate, and methacrylic acid and an equal mass mixture of anionic and nonionic...

  4. Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Noll, L.A.


    The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfactants and ethoxylated sulfonates (ES) as secondary surfactants. The ethoxylated surfactants increase the salinity tolerance of the primary surfactants and, in theory, allow tailoring of the surfactant system to match selected reservoir conditions. The experiments conducted included interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, phase behavior measurements, adsorption and/or chromatographic separation of mixed surfactant systems, measurements of solution properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant mixtures, and crude oil displacement experiments. The effects of temperature, surfactant concentration, salinity, presence of divalent ions, hydrocarbon type, and component proportions in the mixed surfactant combinations, and injection strategies on the performance potential of the targeted surfactant/hydrocarbon systems were studied. 40 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. Р.


    Full Text Available The review is devoted to surface-active glycolipids. The general characteristics, the physiological role of the rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and their traditional producers — the representatives of the genera Pseudozyma, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and Candida are given. The detailed analysis of the chemical structure, the stages of the biosynthesis and the regulation of some low molecular glycolipids are done. The own experimental data concerning the synthesis intensification, the physiological role and the practical use of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants, which are a complex of the glyco-, phospho-, amino- and neutral lipids (glycolipids of all strains are presented by trehalose mycolates are summarized. It was found that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants have protective, antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties. It was shown that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants preparation of cultural liquid intensified the degradation of oil in water due to the activation of the natural petroleum-oxidizing microflora.

  6. Surfactants at the Design Limit. (United States)

    Czajka, Adam; Hazell, Gavin; Eastoe, Julian


    This article analyzes how the individual structural elements of surfactant molecules affect surface properties, in particular, the point of reference defined by the limiting surface tension at the aqueous cmc, γcmc. Particular emphasis is given to how the chemical nature and structure of the hydrophobic tails influence γcmc. By comparing the three different classes of surfactants, fluorocarbon, silicone, and hydrocarbon, a generalized surface packing index is introduced which is independent of the chemical nature of the surfactants. This parameter ϕcmc represents the volume fraction of surfactant chain fragments in a surface film at the aqueous cmc. It is shown that ϕcmc is a useful index for understanding the limiting surface tension of surfactants and can be useful for designing new superefficient surfactants.

  7. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu


    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  8. Comprehensive study of tartrazine/cationic surfactant interaction. (United States)

    Shahir, Afshin Asadzadeh; Javadian, Soheila; Razavizadeh, Bi Bi Marzieh; Gharibi, Hussein


    Interaction of a food dye, tartrazine, with some cationic conventional and gemini surfactants, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), N,N'-ditetradecyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-butanediyl-diammonium dibromide (14,4,14), and N,N'-didodecyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-butanediyl-diammonium dibromide (12,4,12), were first investigated comprehensively employing conductometry, tensiometry, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Tartrazine was found to behave in the same manner as aromatic counterions. The formation of ion pairs reflected as a considerable increase of the surfactant efficiency in tensiometry plots and their stoichiometry were determined by Job's method of continuous variations. For the tartrazine/TTAB system, nonionic DS(3), ionic DS(2-), and/or DS(2)(-) ion pairs, their small premicelles, and tartrazine-rich micelles were constituted as well as dye-containing TTAB-rich micelles. Insoluble J-aggregates of DS(-) ion pairs and cylindrical surfactant-rich micelles were also formed in tartrazine/gemini surfactant systems and recognized by transmission electron microscopy. The zeta potential and the size of the aggregates were determined using dynamic light scattering and confirmed the suggested models for the processes happening in each system. Cyclic voltammetry was applied successfully to track all of these species using tartrazine's own reduction peak current for the first time.

  9. Biophysical activity of animal-derived exogenous surfactants mixed with rifampicin. (United States)

    Kolomaznik, M; Calkovska, A; Herting, E; Stichtenoth, G


    Exogenous pulmonary surfactant is a potential delivery system for topical medications via the conducting airways. Due to the sensitivity to inactivation of surfactant, mutual interaction with the shipped drug should be evaluated. Little is known about the interactions between surfactant and antimicrobial drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether biophysical properties of animal-derived surfactants are modified by the bactericidal antibiotic rifampicin. An intracellular activity and a broad antimicrobiotic spectrum toward Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria make rifampicin an interesting substance against pulmonary infections. Curosurf® (porcine surfactant from minced lungs) and Survanta® (bovine surfactant extract) were diluted to 2.5-5.0 mg/ml of phospholipids in 0.9 % NaCl and rifampicin (RIF) was added at 1, 5, and 10 % (w/w). Minimum (γ(min)) and maximum (γ(max)) surface tension of a cyclically compressed bubble in the mixture was assessed with a pulsating bubble surfactometer. After 5 min, γ(min) of Survanta at a concentration of 3 mg/ml was significantly increased after addition of 5 and 10 % RIF (both p surfactant is able to retain good surface activity when mixed with antibiotics.

  10. Antifungal efficiency of a lipopeptide biosurfactant derived from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 versus the phytopathogenic fungus, Fusarium solani. (United States)

    Mnif, Ines; Hammami, Ines; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Azabou, Manel Cheffi; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha


    Bacillus subtilis SPB1 lipopeptides were evaluated as a natural antifungal agent against Fusarium solani infestation. In vitro antifungal assay showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of about 3 mg/ml with a fungicidal mode of action. In fact, treatment of F. solani by SPB1 lipopeptides generated excessive lyses of the mycelium and caused polynucleation and destruction of the related spores together with a total inhibition of spore production. Furthermore, an inhibition of germination potency accompanied with a high spore blowing was observed. Moreover, in order to be applied in agricultural field, in vivo antifungal activity was proved against the dry rot potato tubers caused by F. solani. Preventive treatment appeared as the most promising as after 20 days of fungi inoculation, rot invasion was reduced by almost 78%, in comparison to that of non-treated one. When treating infected tomato plants, disease symptoms were reduced by almost 100% when applying the curative method. Results of this study are very promising as it enables the use of the crude lipopeptide preparation of B. subtilis SPB1 as a potent natural fungicide that could effectively control the infection of F. solani in tomato and potato tubers at a concentration similar to the commercial fungicide hymexazol and therefore prevent the damage of olive tree.


    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  12. Novel Approaches to Surfactant Administration


    Gupta, Samir; Donn, Steven M.


    Surfactant replacement therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome for more than twenty years. For the most part, surfactant is administered intratracheally, followed by mechanical ventilation. In recent years, the growing interest in noninvasive ventilation has led to novel approaches of administration. This paper will review these techniques and the associated clinical evidence.

  13. Immunomodulatory properties of surfactant preparations. (United States)

    Bersani, Iliana; Kunzmann, Steffen; Speer, Christian P


    Surfactant replacement significantly decreased acute pulmonary morbidity and mortality among preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. Besides improving lung function and oxygenation, surfactant is also a key modulator of pulmonary innate and acquired immunity regulating lung inflammatory processes. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory features of surfactant preparations. Various surfactant preparations decrease the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release, the oxidative burst activity, and the nitric oxide production in lung inflammatory cells such as alveolar neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages; they also affect lymphocyte proliferative response and immunoglobulin production, as well as natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell activity. In addition, surfactant preparations are involved in airway remodeling, as they decrease lung fibroblast proliferation capacity and the release of mediators involved in remodeling. Moreover, they increase cell transepithelial resistance and VEGF synthesis in lung epithelial cells. A number of different signaling pathways and molecules are involved in these processes. Because the inhibition of local immune response may decrease lung injury, surfactant therapeutic efficacy may be related not only to its biophysical characteristics but, at least in part, to its anti-inflammatory features and its effects on remodeling processes. However, further studies are required to identify which surfactant preparation ensures the highest anti-inflammatory activity, thereby potentially decreasing the inflammatory process underlying respiratory distress syndrome. In perspective, detailed characterization of these anti-inflammatory effects could help to improve the next generation of surfactant preparations.

  14. Innovation in surfactant therapy II: surfactant administration by aerosolization. (United States)

    Pillow, J Jane; Minocchieri, S


    Instilled bolus surfactant is the only approved surfactant treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, recent trends towards increased utilization of noninvasive respiratory support for preterm infants with surfactant deficiency have created a demand for a similarly noninvasive means of administering exogenous surfactant. Past approaches to surfactant nebulization met with varying success due to inefficient aerosol devices resulting in low intrapulmonary delivery doses of surfactant with variable clinical effectiveness. The recent development of vibrating membrane nebulizers, coupled with appropriate positioning of the interface device, indicates that efficient delivery of aerosolized surfactant is now a realistic goal in infants. Evidence of clinical effect despite low total administered dose in pilot studies, together with suggestions of enhanced homogeneity of pulmonary distribution indicate that this therapy may be applied in a cost-effective manner, with minimal patient handling and disruption. These studies need to be subjected to appropriately designed randomized controlled trials. Further work is also required to determine the optimum delivery route (mask, intranasal prong, nasopharyngeal or laryngeal), dosing amount and redosing interval. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The synthetic bacterial lipopeptide Pam3CSK4 modulates respiratory syncytial virus infection independent of TLR activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tien Nguyen

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is an important cause of acute respiratory disease in infants, immunocompromised subjects and the elderly. However, it is unclear why most primary RSV infections are associated with relatively mild symptoms, whereas some result in severe lower respiratory tract infections and bronchiolitis. Since RSV hospitalization has been associated with respiratory bacterial co-infections, we have tested if bacterial Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists influence RSV-A2-GFP infection in human primary cells or cell lines. The synthetic bacterial lipopeptide Pam3-Cys-Ser-Lys4 (Pam3CSK4, the prototype ligand for the heterodimeric TLR1/TLR2 complex, enhanced RSV infection in primary epithelial, myeloid and lymphoid cells. Surprisingly, enhancement was optimal when lipopeptides and virus were added simultaneously, whereas addition of Pam3CSK4 immediately after infection had no effect. We have identified two structurally related lipopeptides without TLR-signaling capacity that also modulate RSV infection, whereas Pam3CSK4-reminiscent TLR1/2 agonists did not, and conclude that modulation of infection is independent of TLR activation. A similar TLR-independent enhancement of infection could also be demonstrated for wild-type RSV strains, and for HIV-1, measles virus and human metapneumovirus. We show that the effect of Pam3CSK4 is primarily mediated by enhanced binding of RSV to its target cells. The N-palmitoylated cysteine and the cationic lysines were identified as pivotal for enhanced virus binding. Surprisingly, we observed inhibition of RSV infection in immortalized epithelial cell lines, which was shown to be related to interactions between Pam3CSK4 and negatively charged glycosaminoglycans on these cells, which are known targets for binding of laboratory-adapted but not wild-type RSV. These data suggest a potential role for bacterial lipopeptides in enhanced binding of RSV and other viruses to their target cells, thus affecting

  16. Enfuvirtide (T20)-Based Lipopeptide Is a Potent HIV-1 Cell Fusion Inhibitor: Implications for Viral Entry and Inhibition. (United States)

    Ding, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chong, Huihui; Zhu, Yuanmei; Wei, Huamian; Wu, Xiyuan; He, Jinsheng; Wang, Xinquan; He, Yuxian


    The peptide drug enfuvirtide (T20) is the only viral fusion inhibitor used in combination therapy for HIV-1 infection, but it has relatively low antiviral activity and easily induces drug resistance. Emerging studies demonstrate that lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitors, such as LP-11 and LP-19, which mainly target the gp41 pocket site, have greatly improved antiviral potency and in vivo stability. In this study, we focused on developing a T20-based lipopeptide inhibitor that lacks pocket-binding sequence and targets a different site. First, the C-terminal tryptophan-rich motif (TRM) of T20 was verified to be essential for its target binding and inhibition; then, a novel lipopeptide, termed LP-40, was created by replacing the TRM with a fatty acid group. LP-40 showed markedly enhanced binding affinity for the target site and dramatically increased inhibitory activity on HIV-1 membrane fusion, entry, and infection. Unlike LP-11 and LP-19, which required a flexible linker between the peptide sequence and the lipid moiety, addition of a linker to LP-40 sharply reduced its potency, implying different binding modes with the extended N-terminal helices of gp41. Also, interestingly, LP-40 showed more potent activity than LP-11 in inhibiting HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-cell fusion while it was less active than LP-11 in inhibiting pseudovirus entry, and the two inhibitors displayed synergistic antiviral effects. The crystal structure of LP-40 in complex with a target peptide revealed their key binding residues and motifs. Combined, our studies have not only provided a potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, but also revealed new insights into the mechanisms of viral inhibition. IMPORTANCE T20 is the only membrane fusion inhibitor available for treatment of viral infection; however, T20 requires high doses and has a low genetic barrier for resistance, and its inhibitory mechanism and structural basis remain unclear. Here, we report the design of LP-40, a T20-based lipopeptide inhibitor

  17. Characterization of Cichopeptins, New Phytotoxic Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 and Their Role in Bacterial Midrib Rot Disease of Lettuce. (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Jui; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Ongena, Marc; Debois, Delphine; Leclère, Valerie; Jacques, Philippe; Bleyaert, Peter; Höfte, Monica


    The lettuce midrib rot pathogen Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 produces seven bioactive compounds with biosurfactant properties. Two compounds exhibited necrosis-inducing activity on chicory leaves. The structure of the two phytotoxic compounds, named cichopeptin A and B, was tentatively characterized. They are related cyclic lipopeptides composed of an unsaturated C12-fatty acid chain linked to the N-terminus of a 22-amino acid peptide moiety. Cichopeptin B differs from cichopeptin A only in the last C-terminal amino acid residue, which is probably Val instead of Leu/Ile. Based on peptide sequence similarity, cichopeptins are new cyclic lipopeptides related to corpeptin, produced by the tomato pathogen Pseudomonas corrugata. Production of cichopeptin is stimulated by glycine betaine but not by choline, an upstream precursor of glycine betaine. Furthermore, a gene cluster encoding cichopeptin synthethases, cipABCDEF, is responsible for cichopeptin biosynthesis. A cipA-deletion mutant exhibited significantly less virulence and rotten midribs than the parental strain upon spray inoculation on lettuce. However, the parental and mutant strains multiplied in lettuce leaves at a similar rate. These results demonstrate that cichopeptins contribute to virulence of P. cichorii SF1-54 on lettuce.

  18. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif


    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  19. Cyclic quantum teleportation (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Xuan; Du, Jing; Liu, Si-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Hui


    We propose a scheme of cyclic quantum teleportation for three unknown qubits using six-qubit maximally entangled state as the quantum channel. Suppose there are three observers Alice, Bob and Charlie, each of them has been given a quantum system such as a photon or spin-1/2 particle, prepared in state unknown to them. We show how to implement the cyclic quantum teleportation where Alice can transfer her single-qubit state of qubit a to Bob, Bob can transfer his single-qubit state of qubit b to Charlie and Charlie can also transfer his single-qubit state of qubit c to Alice. We can also implement the cyclic quantum teleportation with N≥slant 3 observers by constructing a 2 N-qubit maximally entangled state as the quantum channel. By changing the quantum channel, we can change the direction of teleportation. Therefore, our scheme can realize teleportation in quantum information networks with N observers in different directions, and the security of our scheme is also investigated at the end of the paper.

  20. Clarification of the Antagonistic Effect of the Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BPD1 against Pyricularia oryzae via In Situ MALDI-TOF IMS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Liao


    Full Text Available This study tried to clarify the antagonistic effect of the lipopeptides secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BPD1 (Ba-BPD1 against Pyricularia oryzae Cavara (PO. To determine the major antifungal lipopeptides effective against PO, single and dual cultures were carried out in solid-state media. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS was used to identify the most effective lipopeptide in situ. Meanwhile, the morphology of pathogen fungi treated with lipopeptides was observed via the SEM. Of the three lipopeptide families, surfactin, iturin, and fengycin, the last was identified as the most effective for inhibiting mycelium growth and conidial germination of PO. The conidia and hyphae of fengycin-treated PO were shown to become deformed and tumorous under exposure. This study provides insights into the antagonistic effect of Ba-BPD1 against fungal phytopathogens. Such insights are helpful in the development of reagents for biological control applications.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis B1 Against Sapstain Fungus of Rubberwood Through MALDI-TOF-MS and RT-PCR. (United States)

    Sajitha, K L; Dev, Suma Arun; Maria Florence, E J


    Bacillus subtilis is a potent biocontrol agent producing a wide array of antifungal lipopeptides for the inhibition of fungal growth. B. subtilis B1 isolated from market-available compost provided an efficient control of rubberwood sapstain fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The current study is aimed to identify and characterize the lipopeptides responsible for the biocontrol of rubberwood sapstain fungus by Bacillus subtilis B1. The bacterial whole-cell surface extract from the dual culture of B. subtilis B1 and sapstain fungus (L. theobromae) was analysed using MALDI-TOF-MS. The protonated as well as sodium, potassium adducts of homologues of iturin C, surfactin, bacillomycin D and fengycin A and B were identified and expression of the lipopeptide biosynthetic genes could be confirmed through RT-PCR. This is the first report of mycobacillin and trimethylsilyl derivative of bacilysin during antagonism through MALDI-TOF-MS. MALDI-TOF-MS with RT-PCR offered easy platforms to characterize the antifungal lipopeptides. The identification of antifungal lipopeptides can lead to the formulation of prospective biocontrol by-products which have wide-scale utility.

  2. Modulation of the interfacial electrochemistry of surfactant-functionalised polypyrrole chemical sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iftikhar, Faiza J. [Sensorlab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Baker, Priscilla G.L., E-mail: [Sensorlab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Baleg, Abdul M.; Ndangili, Peter M.; Mailu, Stephen N.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I. [Sensorlab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)


    Highlights: > In this study, the effects of anionic and neutral surfactants on the redox properties of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole were investigated. > These surfactants were observed to contribute towards electrochemical kinetics of polypyrrole. > This observation was supported by calculating the rate constants and diffusion coefficients for the different systems under study. > The values for rate constants and diffusion coefficients obtained from cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were in good agreement. - Abstract: The redox properties of electro-polymerized polypyrrole (Ppy) doped with different surfactants were studied in acid medium. It was found out that the addition of different surfactants affect the redox properties as evidenced by diffusion coefficients and rate constants calculated from experimental data obtained from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three different surfactants were incorporated into polypyrrole matrix to form homogeneous composites i.e. anionic surfactant polyvinylsulphonic acid (PVSA) as well as non-ionic surfactants (polyethylene glycol p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenyl ether (Triton-X 100) and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20). CV and EIS experiments were carried in the presence of the redox probe K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. Diffusion coefficient was interpreted as a measure of electron movement within the composite polymer structure and rate constant was interpreted as a measure of the rate of oxidation and reduction of the redox probe. The highest value for diffusion coefficient and rate constant was obtained for Ppy/PVSA as 8.16 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and 1.05 x 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} respectively. The values obtained by CV and EIS were in good agreement.

  3. Biosurfactants and surfactants interacting with membranes and proteins: Same but different? (United States)

    Otzen, Daniel E


    Biosurfactants (BS) are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. For several decades they have attracted interest as promising alternatives to current petroleum-based surfactants. Aside from their green profile, they have remarkably low critical micelle concentrations, reduce the air/water surface tension to very low levels and are excellent emulsifiers, all of which make them comparable or superior to their synthetic counterparts. These remarkable physical properties derive from their more complex chemical structures in which hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are not as clearly separated as chemical surfactants but have a more mosaic distribution of polarity as well as branched or circular structures. This allows the lipopeptide surfactin to adopt spherical structures to facilitate dense packing at interfaces. They are also more complex. Glycolipid BS, e.g. rhamnolipids (RL) and sophorolipids, are produced biologically as mixtures which vary in the size and saturation of the hydrophobic region as well as modifications in the hydrophilic headgroup, such as the number of sugar groups and different levels of acetylation, leading to variable surface-active properties. Their amphiphilicity allows RL to insert easily into membranes at sub-cmc concentrations to modulate membrane structure and extract lipopolysaccharides, leading to extensive biofilm remodeling in vivo, sometimes in collaboration with hydrophobic RL precursors. Thanks to their mosaicity, even anionic BS like RL only bind weakly to proteins and show much lower denaturing potency, even supporting membrane protein refolding. Nevertheless, they can promote protein degradation by proteases e.g. by neutralizing positive charges, which together with their biofilm-combating properties makes them very promising detergent surfactants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  4. An NLRP7-containing inflammasome mediates recognition of microbial lipopeptides in human macrophages. (United States)

    Khare, Sonal; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Bryan, Nicole B; Yun, Chawon; Radian, Alexander D; de Almeida, Lucia; Rojanasakul, Yon; Stehlik, Christian


    Cytosolic pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns are sensed by pattern recognition receptors, including members of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing gene family (NLR), which cause inflammasome assembly and caspase-1 activation to promote maturation and release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and induction of pyroptosis. However, the contribution of most of the NLRs to innate immunity, host defense, and inflammasome activation and their specific agonists are still unknown. Here we describe identification and characterization of an NLRP7 inflammasome in human macrophages, which is induced in response to microbial acylated lipopeptides. Activation of NLRP7 promoted ASC-dependent caspase-1 activation, IL-1β and IL-18 maturation, and restriction of intracellular bacterial replication, but not caspase-1-independent secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Our study therefore increases our currently limited understanding of NLR activation, inflammasome assembly, and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18 in human macrophages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI


    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant

  6. Chemistry and technology of surfactants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farn, Richard J


    ... 2.3.1 Micelles and critical micelle concentration 2.3.2 Aggregate structures and shapes 2.4 Adsorption of surfactants at surfaces 2.4.1 Adsorption at liquid- gas and liquid- liquid interfaces 2.4....

  7. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia]. (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E


    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  8. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C. (United States)

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E


    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  9. Identification and Structural Characterization of Naturally-Occurring Broad-Spectrum Cyclic Antibiotics Isolated from Paenibacillus (United States)

    Knolhoff, Ann M.; Zheng, Jie; McFarland, Melinda A.; Luo, Yan; Callahan, John H.; Brown, Eric W.; Croley, Timothy R.


    The rise of antimicrobial resistance necessitates the discovery and/or production of novel antibiotics. Isolated strains of Paenibacillus alvei were previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a number of pathogens, such as E. coli, Salmonella, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The responsible antimicrobial compounds were isolated from these Paenibacillus strains and a combination of low and high resolution mass spectrometry with multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry was used for identification. A group of closely related cyclic lipopeptides was identified, differing primarily by fatty acid chain length and one of two possible amino acid substitutions. Variation in the fatty acid length resulted in mass differences of 14 Da and yielded groups of related MSn spectra. Despite the inherent complexity of MS/MS spectra of cyclic compounds, straightforward analysis of these spectra was accomplished by determining differences in complementary product ion series between compounds that differ in molecular weight by 14 Da. The primary peptide sequence assignment was confirmed through genome mining; the combination of these analytical tools represents a workflow that can be used for the identification of complex antibiotics. The compounds also share amino acid sequence similarity to a previously identified broad-spectrum antibiotic isolated from Paenibacillus. The presence of such a wide distribution of related compounds produced by the same organism represents a novel class of broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds.

  10. Bacillus spp. Isolated from Puba as a Source of Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Lipopeptides (United States)

    Perez, Karla J.; Viana, Jaime dos Santos; Lopes, Fernanda C.; Pereira, Jamile Q.; dos Santos, Daniel M.; Oliveira, Jamil S.; Velho, Renata V.; Crispim, Silvia M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Brandelli, Adriano; Nardi, Regina M. D.


    Several products of industrial interest are produced by Bacillus, including enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, insecticides, biosurfactants and bacteriocins. This study aimed to investigate the potential of two bacterial isolates (P5 and C3) from puba, a regional fermentation product from cassava, to produce multiple substances with antimicrobial and surface active properties. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relation of isolates P5 and C3 with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. Notably, Bacillus sp. P5 showed antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in addition to antifungal activity. The presence of genes encoding pre-subtilosin (sboA), malonyl CoA transacylase (ituD), and the putative transcriptional terminator of surfactin (sfp) were detected in Bacillus sp. P5, suggesting the production of the bacteriocin subtilosin A and the lipopeptides iturin A and surfactin by this strain. For Bacillus sp. C3 the presence of sboA and spas (subtilin) genes was observed by the first time in members of B. cereus cluster. Bacillus sp. P5 showed emulsifying capability on mineral oil, soybean biodiesel and toluene, while Bacillus sp. C3 showed emulsifying capability only on mineral oil. The reduction of the surface tension in culture medium was also observed for strain P5, confirming the production of surface-active compounds by this bacterium. Monoprotonated molecular species and adducts of sodium and potassium ions of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin were detected in the P5 culture medium. Comparative MS/MS spectra of the peak m/z 1030 (C14 surfactin A or C15 surfactin B [M+Na]+) and peak m/z 1079 (C15 iturin [M+Na]+) showed the same fragmentation profile of standards, confirming the molecular identification. In conclusion, Bacillus sp. P5 showed the best potential for the production of antifungal, antibacterial, and biosurfactant substances. PMID:28197131

  11. Pam2 lipopeptides systemically increase myeloid-derived suppressor cells through TLR2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Akira; Shime, Hiroaki, E-mail:; Takeda, Yohei; Azuma, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa, E-mail:


    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells that exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. They are increased in tumor-bearing hosts and contribute to tumor development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on MDSCs may modulate the tumor-supporting properties of MDSCs through pattern-recognition. Pam2 lipopeptides represented by Pam2CSK4 serve as a TLR2 agonist to exert anti-tumor function by dendritic cell (DC)-priming that leads to NK cell activation and cytotoxic T cell proliferation. On the other hand, TLR2 enhances tumor cell progression/invasion by activating tumor-infiltrating macrophages. How MDSCs respond to TLR2 agonists has not yet been determined. In this study, we found intravenous administration of Pam2CSK4 systemically up-regulated the frequency of MDSCs in EG7 tumor-bearing mice. The frequency of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs was accordingly increased in response to Pam2CSK4. MDSCs were not increased by Pam2CSK4 stimuli in TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Adoptive transfer experiments using CFSE-labeled MDSCs revealed that the TLR2-positive MDSCs survived long in tumor-bearing mice in response to Pam2CSK4 treatment. Since the increased MDSC population sustained immune-suppressive properties, our study suggests that Pam2CSK4-triggered TLR2 activation enhances the MDSC potential and suppress antitumor immune response in tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Pam2CSK4 administration induces systemic accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • TLR2 is essential for Pam2CSK4-induced accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • Pam2CSK4 supports survival of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs in vivo.

  12. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth


    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  13. Cyclic transfers in school timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Ahmadi, Samad; Geertsema, Frederik


    In this paper we propose a neighbourhood structure based on sequential/cyclic moves and a cyclic transfer algorithm for the high school timetabling problem. This method enables execution of complex moves for improving an existing solution, while dealing with the challenge of exploring the

  14. Cyclic transfers in school timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Ahmadi, Samad; Geertsema, Frederik

    In this paper we propose a neighbourhood structure based on sequential/cyclic moves and a Cyclic Transfer algorithm for the high school timetabling problem. This method enables execution of complex moves for improving an existing solution, while dealing with the challenge of exploring the

  15. Effects of cationic CTAB and anionic SDBS surfactants on the performance of Zn-MnO{sub 2} alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavami, Robab Khayat; Rafiei, Zahra; Tabatabaei, S. Mojtaba [R and D Center, Niru Battery MFG. Co., P.O. Box 19575-361, Tehran (Iran)


    Inhibiting properties of two kinds of surfactant, cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) with three different concentrations, in relation to zinc passivation have been explained in the primary Zn/MnO{sub 2} alkaline batteries. Discharge performance of alkaline cell affected by utilization of surfactant in anodic gel. Therefore, electrochemical properties of anodic zinc have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ac impedance techniques. The results show that alkaline cell with 0.01 g l{sup -1} of anionic SDBS surfactant decreased effectively the rate of zinc-passivation reaction. Also, it exhibited ZnO morphology with smaller grain size, causing longer service life gradually, step by step. By contrast, 0.01 g l{sup -1} of cationic CTAB surfactant remarkably increased the rate of charge transfer and mass transfer in the alkaline cell, on impedance data. Consequently, more volumetric energy density obtained in first discharge step due to more activated zinc surface area. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown non-homogenous morphology with coarse ZnO growth. This was confirmed by X-ray diffractograms showing the highest intensity of ZnO peak. When the concentration of these surfactants (CTAB and SDBS) increased, more inhibiting properties were observed. This property was stronger in the cells with anionic SDBS surfactant. Our study is mainly focused on the understanding the mechanism of zinc passivation in the presence of the surfactants. (author)

  16. Effects of cationic CTAB and anionic SDBS surfactants on the performance of Zn-MnO 2 alkaline batteries (United States)

    Ghavami, Robab Khayat; Rafiei, Zahra; Tabatabaei, S. Mojtaba

    Inhibiting properties of two kinds of surfactant, cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) with three different concentrations, in relation to zinc passivation have been explained in the primary Zn/MnO 2 alkaline batteries. Discharge performance of alkaline cell affected by utilization of surfactant in anodic gel. Therefore, electrochemical properties of anodic zinc have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ac impedance techniques. The results show that alkaline cell with 0.01 g l -1 of anionic SDBS surfactant decreased effectively the rate of zinc-passivation reaction. Also, it exhibited ZnO morphology with smaller grain size, causing longer service life gradually, step by step. By contrast, 0.01 g l -1 of cationic CTAB surfactant remarkably increased the rate of charge transfer and mass transfer in the alkaline cell, on impedance data. Consequently, more volumetric energy density obtained in first discharge step due to more activated zinc surface area. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown non-homogenous morphology with coarse ZnO growth. This was confirmed by X-ray diffractograms showing the highest intensity of ZnO peak. When the concentration of these surfactants (CTAB and SDBS) increased, more inhibiting properties were observed. This property was stronger in the cells with anionic SDBS surfactant. Our study is mainly focused on the understanding the mechanism of zinc passivation in the presence of the surfactants.

  17. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants (United States)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.


    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  18. Fungal growth on anion surfactant medium. (United States)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Abe, Niichiro


    Before the present study, no fungi using anion surfactant as a nutrient had been identified, although some fungi were known to use nonion surfactant. Washing water collected from 63 washing machines was inoculated onto 0.1% LAS (Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate) anion surfactant media to identify fungi that can feed on anion-surfactant. Small dark colonies of fungi were found on several of the Petri-dishes from 12 days after inoculation. These were identified as Cladophialophora boppii and Exophiala spinifera using morphological features and rDNA data. A number of the isolates of C. boppii specifically were recognized as using anion surfactant as a nutrient. The growth characteristics of the two fungal species were examined on surfactant media of three kinds. Apart from anion surfactant, the fungi were also able to grow on nonion surfactant and on soap. The application of these fungi for environmental cleansing after detergent pollution is also discussed.

  19. Dissolution of anionic surfactant mesophases. (United States)

    Poulos, Andreas S; Jones, Christopher S; Cabral, João T


    Linear and circular solvent penetration experiments are used to study the dissolution of anionic SLE3S surfactant mesophases in water. We show that a lamellar (Lα) phase in contact with water will transit through a series of cubic, hexagonal, and micellar phase bands with sharp interfaces identified from their optical textures. In both linear and circular geometries, the kinetics of front propagation and eventual dissolution are well described by diffusive penetration of water, and a simple model applies to both geometries, with a different effective diffusion coefficient for water Df as the only fitting parameter. Finally, we show a surprising variation of dissolution rates with initial surfactant concentration that can be well explained by assuming that the driving force for solvent penetration is the osmotic pressure difference between neat water and the aqueous fraction of the mesophase that is highly concentrated in surfactant counterions.

  20. Cationic surfactants as the hydrolytic micellar catalysts


    Janošcová, Petra


    Cationic surfactants as the hydrolytic micellar catalysts Petra Janošcová The effectiveness of hydrolytic cleavage of the pesticide fenitrothionin cationic surfactants micellar media has been tested. All used surfactants increased the rate of fenitrothionhydrolysis, which was the evidence of micellar catalysis. For some surfactants decreases has been evident at the highest rate of hydrolysis concentrations. It has been the result of a phenomenon called the effect of empty micelles. High hydro...

  1. Genome mining reveals high incidence of putative lipopeptide biosynthesis NRPS/PKS clusters containing fatty acyl-AMP ligase genes inbiofilm-forming cyanobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galica, Tomáš; Hrouzek, P.; Mareš, Jan


    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2017), s. 985-998 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09381S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cyanobacteria * fatty-acyl AMP ligase * genome mining * lipopeptides * microbial biofilm Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  2. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.


    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on


    A demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation was conducted during the spring of 1999 at Marine Corps Base, Camp LeJeune, NC. A PCE-DNAPL zone was identified and delineated by extensive soil sampling in 1997, and was further characteized by a partitioning interwell t...

  4. Aerosol delivery of synthetic lung surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Walther


    Full Text Available Background. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP is a widely accepted technique of non-invasive respiratory support in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome due to lack of lung surfactant. If this approach fails, the next step is often intubation, mechanical ventilation (MV and intratracheal instillation of clinical lung surfactant.Objective. To investigate whether aerosol delivery of advanced synthetic lung surfactant, consisting of peptide mimics of surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C and synthetic lipids, during nCPAP improves lung function in surfactant-deficient rabbits.Methods. Experimental synthetic lung surfactants were produced by formulating 3% Super Mini-B peptide (SMB surfactant, a highly surface active SP-B mimic, and a combination of 1.5% SMB and 1.5% of the SP-C mimic SP-Css ion-lock 1 (BC surfactant, with a synthetic lipid mixture. After testing aerosol generation using a vibrating membrane nebulizer and aerosol conditioning (particle size, surfactant composition and surface activity, we investigated the effects of aerosol delivery of synthetic SMB and BC surfactant preparations on oxygenation and lung compliance in saline-lavaged, surfactant-deficient rabbits, supported with either nCPAP or MV.Results. Particle size distribution of the surfactant aerosols was within the 1–3 µm distribution range and surfactant activity was not affected by aerosolization. At a dose equivalent to clinical surfactant therapy in premature infants (100 mg/kg, aerosol delivery of both synthetic surfactant preparations led to a quick and clinically relevant improvement in oxygenation and lung compliance in the rabbits. Lung function recovered to a greater extent in rabbits supported with MV than with nCPAP. BC surfactant outperformed SMB surfactant in improving lung function and was associated with higher phospholipid values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; these findings were irrespective of the type of ventilatory

  5. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis


    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  6. The late administration of surfactant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arterial/alveolar oxygen ratio following administration of surfactant. Hours After Dosing. The outcome of infants receiving delayed SRT was good. The mean duration of ventilation of surviving infants was. 7,9 ± 4,3 days. Oxygen therapy post ventilation was required for a mean of 5,7 ± 4,5 days and infants were hospitalised ...

  7. Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.

  8. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.


    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  9. Cyclic Processing for Context Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun


    Many machine-learning techniques use feedback information. However, current context fusion systems do not support this because they constrain processing to be structured as acyclic processing. This paper proposes a generalization which enables the use of cyclic processing in context fusion systems....... A solution is proposed to the inherent problem of how to avoid uncontrollable looping during cyclic processing. The solution is based on finding cycles using graph-coloring and breaking cycles using time constraints....

  10. Isolation and identification of lipopeptide antibiotics from Paenibacillus elgii B69 with inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Wu, Xue-Chang; Qian, Chao-Dong; Teng, Yi; Li, Ou; Zhan, Zha-Jun; Zhao, Yu-Hua


    Two lipopeptide antibiotics, pelgipeptins C and D, were isolated from Paenibacillus elgii B69 strain. The molecular masses of the two compounds were both determined to be 1,086 Da. Mass-spectrometry, amino acid analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that pelgipeptin C was the same compound as BMY-28160, while pelgipeptin D was identified as a new antibiotic of the polypeptin family. These two peptides were active against all the tested microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time-kill assays demonstrated that pelgipeptin D exhibited rapid and effective bactericidal action against MRSA at 4×MIC. Based on acute toxicity test, the intraperitoneal LD50 value of pelgipeptin D was slightly higher than that of the structurally related antimicrobial agent polymyxin B. Pelgipeptins are highly potent antibacterial and antifungal agents, particularly against MRSA, and warrant further investigation as possible therapeutic agents for bacteria infections resistant to currently available antibiotics.

  11. Optimization and characterization of a new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 in solid state culture. (United States)

    Seghal Kiran, G; Anto Thomas, T; Selvin, Joseph; Sabarathnam, B; Lipton, A P


    The biosurfactant production of a marine actinobacterium Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 was optimized using industrial and agro-industrial solid waste residues as substrates in solid state culture (SSC). Based on the optimization experiments, the biosurfactant production by MSA13 was increased to threefold over the original isolate under SSC conditions with pre-treated molasses as substrate and olive oil, acrylamide, FeCl(3) and inoculums size as critical control factors. The strain B. aureum MSA13 produced a new lipopeptide biosurfactant with a hydrophobic moiety of octadecanoic acid methyl ester and a peptide part predicted as a short sequence of four amino acids including pro-leu-gly-gly. The biosurfactant produced by the marine actinobacterium MSA13 can be used for the microbially enhanced oil recovery processes in the marine environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations. (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H


    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  13. In vivo effects of a synthetic 2-kilodalton macrophage-activating lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans after pulmonary application. (United States)

    Lührmann, Anke; Deiters, Ursula; Skokowa, Julia; Hanke, Michaela; Gessner, Johannes E; Mühlradt, Peter F; Pabst, Reinhard; Tschernig, Thomas


    Mycoplasmas can cause interstitial pneumonias inducing critical illness in humans and animals. Mycoplasma infections are characterized by an influx of neutrophils, followed by an accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes. The present study deals with the question of which mycoplasmal components cause this host reaction. The mycoplasma-derived, macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2S-MALP-2 was used to mimic the sequelae of a mycoplasma infection. To this end, 2S-MALP-2 was intratracheally instilled into the lungs of Lewis rats, and the bronchoalveolar lavage cells were examined at different times after different doses of 2S-MALP-2. Application of 2.5 microg induced a pronounced leukocyte accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space. At 24 h after 2S-MALP-2 administration, the majority of leukocytes consisted of neutrophils, followed by macrophages, peaking on days 2 and 3. Lymphocyte numbers, although amounting to only a few percent of the total bronchoalveolar lavage cells, also increased significantly, with maximal lymphocyte accumulation occurring by 72 h after instillation. The leukocyte count of the lung interstitium was increased on day 3 after treatment. After 10 days all investigated cell populations returned to control levels. Transient chemotactic activity for neutrophils was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid early after 2S-MALP-2 application, followed by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 activity (MCP-1) in lung homogenates. MCP-1 was produced by bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon stimulation with 2S-MALP-2. Our data indicate that mycoplasmal lipoproteins and lipopeptides are probably the most relevant mycoplasmal components for the early host reaction. The primary target cells are likely to be the alveolar macrophages liberating chemokines, which attract further leukocytes.

  14. Anticipatory nausea in cyclical vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleisher David R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome (CVS is characterised by discrete, unexplained episodes of intense nausea and vomiting, and mainly affects children and adolescents. Comprehending Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome requires awareness of the severity of nausea experienced by patients. As a subjective symptom, nausea is easily overlooked, yet is the most distressing symptom for patients and causes many behavioural changes during attacks. Case presentation This first-hand account of one patient's experience of Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome shows how severe nausea contributed to the development of anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV, a conditioned response frequently observed in chemotherapy patients. This conditioning apparently worsened the course of the patient's disease. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting has not previously been recognised in Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome, however predictors of its occurrence in oncology patients indicate that it could complicate many cases. Conclusion We suggest a model whereby untreated severe and prolonged nausea provokes anxiety about further cyclical vomiting attacks. This anxiety facilitates conditioning, thus increasing the range of triggers in a self-perpetuating manner. Effective management of the nausea-anxiety feedback loop can reduce the likelihood of anticipatory nausea and vomiting developing in other patients.

  15. Surfactants in tribology, v.3

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma


    The manufacture and use of almost every consumer and industrial product rely on application of advanced knowledge in surface science and tribology. These two disciplines are of critical importance in major economic sectors, such as mining, agriculture, manufacturing (including metals, plastics, wood, computers, MEMS, NEMS, appliances), construction, transportation, and medical instruments, transplants, and diagnostic devices. An up-to-date reference with contributions by experts in surface science and tribology, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 3 discusses some of the underlying tribological a

  16. Surfactant transport on viscous bilayers (United States)

    Matar, Omar; Craster, Richard; Warner, Mark


    We model the external delivery of surfactant to pulmonary airways, an integral part of Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT), a method of treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in neonates. We examine the spreading dynamics of insoluble surfactant by Marangoni stresses along the mucus-perciliary liquid bilayers that line the inside of airways. The bilayer is modelled as a thin highly viscous mucus surface film (mucus) overlying a much less viscous perciliary liquid layer (PCL); this is appropriate for small airways. By exploiting this large viscosity constrast, a variant of standard lubrication theory is adopted wherein terms, which would have otherwise been neglected in the lubrication approximation, are promoted in order to model correctly the presence of the mucus. Inclusion of van der Waals forces in the model permit the study of the effect of this mucus 'skin' on the possibility of bilayer rupture, a potential cause of failure of SRT. We find that increasing the viscosity contrast and initial mucus layer thickness delays the onset of rupture, while increasing the relative significance of Marangoni stresses leads to more marked thinning and rapid bilayer rupture [1]. [1] O. K. Matar, R. V. Craster and M. R. Warner, submitted to J. Fluid Mech. (2001).

  17. Hydrodynamic size of DNA/cationic gemini surfactant complex as a function of surfactant structure. (United States)

    Devínsky, Ferdinand; Pisárcik, Martin; Lacko, Ivan


    The present study deals with the determination of hydrodynamic size of DNA/cationic gemini surfactant complex in sodium bromide solution using the dynamic light scattering method. Cationic gemini surfactants with polymethylene spacer of variable length were used for the interaction with DNA. The scattering experiments were performed at constant DNA and sodium bromide concentrations and variable surfactant concentration in the premicellar and micellar regions as a function of surfactant spacer length. It was found that the DNA conformation strongly depends on the polymethylene spacer length as well as on the surfactant concentration relative to the surfactant critical micelle concentration. Gemini surfactant molecules with 4 methylene groups in the spacer were found to be the least efficient DNA compacting agent in the region above the surfactant cmc. Gemini molecules with the shortest spacer length (2 methylene groups) and the longest spacer length (8 methylene groups) investigated showed the most efficient DNA compaction ability.

  18. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Eijking (Eric)


    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently,

  19. Acute Pathophysiological Effects of Intratracheal Instillation of Budesonide and Exogenous Surfactant in a Neonatal Surfactant-depleted Piglet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yang


    Conclusions: Intratracheal instillation of surfactant or surfactant plus budesonide can improve oxygenation and pulmonary histologic outcome in neonatal surfactant-depleted lungs. The additional use of budesonide does not disturb the function of the exogenous surfactant. Intratracheal administration of a corticosteroid combined with surfactant may be an effective method for alleviating local pulmonary inflammation in severe RDS.

  20. On Improvements of Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Howard Fan


    Full Text Available Many man-made signals encountered in communications exhibit cyclostationarity. By exploiting cyclostationarity, cyclic MUSIC has been shown to be able to separate signals with different cycle frequencies, thus, to be able to perform signal selective direction of-arrival (DOA estimation. However, as will be shown in this paper, the DOA estimation of cyclic MUSIC is actually biased. We show in this paper that by properly choosing the frequency for evaluating the steering vector, the bias of DOA estimation can be substantially reduced and the performance can be improved. Furthermore, we propose another algorithm exploiting cyclic conjugate correlation to further improve the performance of DOA estimation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of both of our methods.

  1. Nature of solar cyclicity. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, P.R.


    The report contains a critical survey of work devoted to the study of the nature of solar cyclicity. The inconsistency of the representation of cyclic curves using a frequency spectrum is indicated. The useful contribution of the ideas of Wolf, Newcomb, and Waldmeier to the solution of the problem is noted. Data are cited in favor of the theory of the tidal nature of solar cyclicity developed by the author, which also takes into account the ideas of the above-mentioned authors: the continuous paired and single tidal actions of the planets and the resonance character of this action, thanks to which the approximately 10-year period of action of Jupiter and Saturn is transformed into the 11-year activity cycle.

  2. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy


    Eijking, Eric


    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently, exogenous surfactant administration has been accepted as a valuable treatment for this syndrome. Nevertheless, many questions on exogenous surfactant treatment remain unanswered. It has been observed that...

  3. Influence of surfactant on gas bubble stability. (United States)

    Hanwright, Jennifer; Zhou, James; Evans, Geoffrey M; Galvin, Kevin P


    Gas-bubble stability is achieved either by a reduction in the Laplace pressure or by a reduction in the permeability of the gas-liquid interface. Although insoluble surfactants have been shown definitively in many studies to lower the permeability of the gas-liquid interface and hence increase the resistance to interfacial mass transfer, remarkably little work has been done on the effects of soluble surfactants. An experimental system was developed to measure the effect of the soluble surfactant dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide on the desorption and absorption of carbon dioxide gas through a quiescent planar interface. The desorption experiments conformed to the model of non-steady-state molecular diffusion. The absorption experiments, however, produced an unexpected mass transfer mechanism, with surface renewal, probably because of instability in the density gradient formed by the carbon dioxide. In general, the soluble surfactant produced no measurable reduction in the rate of interfacial mass transfer for desorption or absorption. This finding is consistent with the conclusion of Caskey and Barlage that soluble surfactants produce a significantly lower resistance to interfacial mass transfer than do insoluble surfactants. The dynamic adsorption and desorption of the surfactant molecules at the gas-liquid interface creates short-term vacancies, which presumably permit the unrestricted transfer of the gas molecules through the interface. This surfactant exchange does not occur for insoluble surfactants. Gas bubbles formed in the presence of a high concentration of soluble surfactant were observed to dissolve completely, while those formed in the presence of the insoluble surfactant stearic acid did not dissolve easily, and persisted for very long periods. The interfacial concentration of stearic acid rises during bubble dissolution, as it is insoluble, and must eventually achieve full monolayer coverage and a state of compression, lowering the permeability of the

  4. Surfactant Therapy of ALI and ARDS (United States)

    Raghavendran, K; Willson, D; Notter, RH


    This article examines exogenous lung surfactant replacement therapy and its utility in mitigating clinical acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Biophysical research has documented that lung surfactant dysfunction can be reversed or mitigated by increasing surfactant concentration, and multiple studies in animals with ALI/ARDS have shown that respiratory function and pulmonary mechanics in vivo can be improved by exogenous surfactant administration. Exogenous surfactant therapy is a routine intervention in neonatal intensive care, and is life-saving in preventing or treating the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) in premature infants. In applications relevant for lung injury-related respiratory failure and ALI/ARDS, surfactant therapy has been shown to be beneficial in term infants with pneumonia and meconium aspiration lung injury, and in children up to age 21 with direct pulmonary forms of ALI/ARDS. However, extension of exogenous surfactant therapy to adults with respiratory failure and clinical ALI/ARDS remains a challenge. Coverage here reviews clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients with ALI/ARDS, particularly focusing on its potential advantages in patients with direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes. Also discussed is the rationale for mechanism-based therapies utilizing exogenous surfactant in combination with agents targeting other aspects of the multifaceted pathophysiology of inflammatory lung injury. Additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactant therapy in ALI/ARDS are also described, including the difficulty of effectively delivering surfactants to injured lungs and the existence of activity differences between clinical surfactant drugs. PMID:21742216

  5. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D


    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonsurgical treatment of cyclic esotropia. (United States)

    Voide, Nathalie; Presset, Claudine; Klainguti, Georges; Kaeser, Pierre-François


    Cyclic esotropia is characterized by a 24-hour period of straight eye position followed by 24 hours of large-angle esotropia. Possible mechanisms include notably progressive loss of compensation of a latent strabismus. The classic treatment is surgical correction of the angle measured on the days with manifest deviation. We report the first case of cyclic esotropia successfully treated by prismatic correction of the latent strabismus present on "straight" days. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholesterol-mediated surfactant dysfunction is mitigated by surfactant protein A. (United States)

    Hiansen, Joshua Qua; Keating, Eleonora; Aspros, Alex; Yao, Li-Juan; Bosma, Karen J; Yamashita, Cory M; Lewis, James F; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W


    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce surface tension at the alveolar surface is impaired in various lung diseases. Recent animal studies indicate that elevated levels of cholesterol within surfactant may contribute to its inhibition. It was hypothesized that elevated cholesterol levels within surfactant inhibit human surfactant biophysical function and that these effects can be reversed by surfactant protein A (SP-A). The initial experiment examined the function of surfactant from mechanically ventilated trauma patients in the presence and absence of a cholesterol sequestering agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The results demonstrated improved surface activity when cholesterol was sequestered in vitro using a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). These results were explored further by reconstitution of surfactant with various concentrations of cholesterol with and without SP-A, and testing of the functionality of these samples in vitro with the CBS and in vivo using surfactant depleted rats. Overall, the results consistently demonstrated that surfactant function was inhibited by levels of cholesterol of 10% (w/w phospholipid) but this inhibition was mitigated by the presence of SP-A. It is concluded that cholesterol-induced surfactant inhibition can actively contribute to physiological impairment of the lungs in mechanically ventilated patients and that SP-A levels may be important to maintain surfactant function in the presence of high cholesterol within surfactant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform

  9. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha


    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  10. Importance of the Long-Chain Fatty Acid Beta-Hydroxylating Cytochrome P450 Enzyme YbdT for Lipopeptide Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis Strain OKB105

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McInerney


    Full Text Available Bacillus species produce extracellular, surface-active lipopeptides such as surfactin that have wide applications in industry and medicine. The steps involved in the synthesis of 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA substrates needed for surfactin biosynthesis are not understood. Cell-free extracts of Bacillus subtilis strain OKB105 synthesized lipopeptide biosurfactants in presence of L-amino acids, myristic acid, coenzyme A, ATP, and H2O2, which suggested that 3-hydroxylation occurs prior to CoA ligation of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs. We hypothesized that YbdT, a cytochrome P450 enzyme known to beta-hydroxylate LCFAs, functions to form 3-hydroxy fatty acids for lipopeptide biosynthesis. An in-frame mutation of ybdT was constructed and the resulting mutant strain (NHY1 produced predominantly non-hydroxylated lipopeptide with diminished biosurfactant and beta-hemolytic activities. Mass spectrometry showed that 95.6% of the fatty acids in the NHY1 biosurfactant were non-hydroxylated compared to only ~61% in the OKB105 biosurfactant. Cell-free extracts of the NHY1 synthesized surfactin containing 3-hydroxymyristic acid from 3-hydroxymyristoyl-CoA at a specific activity similar to that of the wild type (17 ± 2 versus 17.4 ± 6 ng biosurfactant min−1·ng·protein−1, respectively. These results showed that the mutation did not affect any function needed to synthesize surfactin once the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrate was formed and that YbdT functions to supply 3-hydroxy fatty acid for surfactin biosynthesis. The fact that YbdT is a peroxidase could explain why biosurfactant production is rarely observed in anaerobically grown Bacillus species. Manipulation of LCFA specificity of YbdT could provide a new route to produce biosurfactants with activities tailored to specific functions.

  11. Photoisomerization of merocyanine 540 in polymer–surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    surfactant aggregate. 1. Introduction. Many biological and technological processes involve polymer-surfactant interaction 1–17. ... model' (figure 1), structure of the polymer-surfactant aggregate is like a necklace with .... group projected into bulk water.

  12. Liposome destabilization induced by synthetic lipopeptides corresponding to envelope and non-structural domains of GBV-C/HGV virus. Conformational requirements for leakage. (United States)

    Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Rojo, Núria; Herrera, Elena; Gómara, María José; Haro, Isabel


    Liposomes have been used primarily as a model system for studying biological membranes. Numerous chemical, biochemical and biophysical methods have been used to elucidate the various aspects of the interaction between proteins or peptides and phospholipids. Having in mind the potential use of synthetic lipopeptides as antiviral therapies and aiming for a better understanding of the molecular interaction of the GBV-C/HGV with liposomes as model membranes, epitopes of GBV-C/HGV located at the E2 (99-118) and NS3(440-460) regions were selected. Peptides were modified at the N-terminus with acyl chains of different length (C(14) and C(16)) yielding the corresponding myristoil and palmytoil lipopeptides. The main aim of the present study was to get insight into the membrane-interacting properties of the above-described synthetic lipopeptides and to study their inhibition of the capacity of perturbing model membranes of fusion peptide of HIV-1 using fluorescence spectroscopy. In an attempt to establish a relationship between peptide membrane activity and structure, we use Circular Dichroism (CD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).

  13. Response of ELA-A1 horses immunized with lipopeptide containing an equine infectious anemia virus ELA-A1-restricted CTL epitope to virus challenge. (United States)

    Ridgely, Sherritta L; Zhang, Baoshan; McGuire, Travis C


    Lipopeptide containing an ELA-A1-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope from the envelope surface unit (SU) protein of the EIAV(WSU5) strain was used to immunize three horses having the ELA-A1 haplotype. Peptide-specific ELA-A1-restricted CTL were induced in all three horses, although these were present transiently in PBMC. These horses were further immunized with lipopeptide containing the corresponding CTL epitope from the EIAV(PV) strain. Then, the three immunized horses and three non-immunized horses were challenged by intravenous inoculation with 300 TCID(50) EIAV(PV). All horses developed cell free viremia, fever and thrombocytopenia. However, there was a statistically lower fever and thrombocytopenia severity score in the immunized group. Shorter duration of plasma viral load in two of the three immunized horses likely explains the less severe clinical disease in this group. Results indicate that lipopeptide immunization had a protective effect against development of clinical disease following virus challenge.

  14. Synthesis of cyclic tryptathionine peptides. (United States)

    Zanotti, G; Beijer, B; Wieland, T


    The helicity of the tryptathionine moiety of the phallotoxins has been recognized by comparison with cyclic tryptathionine tripeptides. In order to investigate the influence of the configuration of the component amino acids on the conformation of the cyclic peptides, six analogue thioether tripeptides containing L- and D-alanine and L- and D-cysteine, respectively, have been synthesized. The CD spectra of the peptides are very similar to each other, showing mirror images of the CD of phalloidin and, therefore, negative helicity. The spectra of the D-cysteine containing compounds differ from the L-cysteine containing compounds by their weakly positive ellipticity values around 270 nm. The cyclization reaction of Boc-Hpi-D-Ala-D-Cys(STrt)OCH3, along with the cyclic tripeptide, afforded a cyclic hexapeptide by dimerization. The CD spectrum of the dimer is very similar to that of phalloidin, thus pointing to a positive helicity of its two tryptathionine moieties. The dimeric thioether peptide forms a rather strong complex with Cu2+ ions.

  15. A Porism Concerning Cyclic Quadrilaterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kocik


    infinite number of cyclic quadrilaterals through four fixed collinear points once one exists. Also, a technique of proving such properties with the use of pseudounitary traceless matrices is presented. A similar property holds for general quadrics as well as for the circle.

  16. Cyclic Voltammograms from First Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill


    for the simple case of electroadsorption and desorption of H. In the following we derive the cyclic voltammogram for H adsorption and desorption on Pt(111) and Pt(100) based solely on density functional theory calculations and standard molecular tables. The method will also be extended to include the potential...

  17. Hemolysis by surfactants--A review. (United States)

    Manaargadoo-Catin, Magalie; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Pougnas, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Catherine


    An overview of the use of surfactants for erythrocyte lysis and their cell membrane action mechanisms is given. Erythrocyte membrane characteristics and its association with the cell cytoskeleton are presented in order to complete understanding of the erythrocyte membrane distortion. Cell homeostasis disturbances caused by surfactants might induce changes starting from shape modification to cell lysis. Two main mechanisms are hypothesized in literature which are osmotic lysis and lysis by solubilization even if the boundary between them is not clearly defined. Another specific mechanism based on the formation of membrane pores is suggested in the particular case of saponins. The lytic potency of a surfactant is related to its affinity for the membrane and the modification of the lipid membrane curvature. This is to be related to the surfactant shape defined by its hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties but also by experimental conditions. As a consequence, prediction of the hemolytic potency of a given surfactant is challenging. Several studies are focused on the relation between surfactant erythrolytic potency and their physico-chemical parameters such as the critical micellar concentration (CMC), the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), the surfactant membrane/water partition coefficient (K) or the packing parameter (P). The CMC is one of the most important factors considered even if a lytic activity cut-off effect points out that the only consideration of CMC not enough predictive. The relation K.CMC must be considered in addition to the CMC to predict the surfactant lytic capacity within the same family of non ionic surfactant. Those surfactant structure/lytic activity studies demonstrate the requirement to take into account a combination of physico-chemical parameters to understand and foresee surfactant lytic potency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Surfactants on Electrochemical Properties of Vanadium-Pentoxide Nanoparticles Synthesized via Hydrothermal Method. (United States)

    Nair, Devika P; Sakthivel, T; Nivea, R; Eshow, Jeena Susan; Gunasekaran, V


    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanoparticles were synthesized via an anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactant assisted hydrothermal method in which Ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was used as precursor. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using powder X-Ray Diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Crystalline nanoparticles were formed using different surfactants like Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB), Polyvenylpyrollidone (PVP) and Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS). The specific capacitance of V2O5 was calculated in 0.5 M KCl and 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte by using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrochemical impedance, and Chronocoulommetry studies revealed a good capacitive and charge-discharge behavior of the prepared V2O5, which is very promising for the application for next-generation high-performance electro-chemical supercapacitors.

  19. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A


    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  20. Surfactants and submicron sea spray generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellegri, K.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Yoon, Y.J.; Jennings, S.G.; Leeuw, G. de


    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to elucidate the role of surfactants on the primary marine aerosol production of submicron marine aerosols. A synthetic surfactant SDS was used in conjunction with artificially generated seawater, and the resultant bubble-mediated aerosol produced was

  1. Hyaluronan decreases surfactant inactivation in vitro. (United States)

    Lu, Karen W; Goerke, Jon; Clements, John A; Taeusch, H William


    Hyaluronan (HA) is an anionic polymer and a constituent of alveolar fluid that can bind proteins, phospholipids, and water. Previous studies have established that nonionic polymers improve the surface activity of pulmonary surfactants by decreasing inactivation of surfactant. In this work, we investigate whether HA can also have beneficial effects when added to surfactants. We used a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer to measure mixtures of several commercially available pulmonary surfactants or native calf surfactant with and without serum inactivation. Surface properties such as equilibrium surface tension, minimum and maximum surface tensions on compression and expansion of a surface film, and degree of surface area reduction required to reach a surface tension of 10 mN/m were measured. In the presence of serum, addition of HA dramatically improved the surface activities of all four surfactants and in some cases in the absence of serum as well. These results indicate that HA reduces inactivation of surfactants caused by serum and add evidence that endogenous HAs may interact with alveolar surfactant under normal and abnormal conditions.

  2. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab (United States)

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.


    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  3. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  4. Cyclic AMP relay and cyclic AMP-induced cyclic GMP accumulation during development of Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Schaap, Pauline


    Cyclic AMP-induced cAMP and cGMP responses during development of Dictyostelium discoideum were investigated. The cAMP-induced cGMP response is maximal when aggregation is in full progress, and then decreases to about 10% of the maximal level during further multicellular development. The cAMP

  5. Differential Posttranslational Processing Confers Intraspecies Variation of a Major Surface Lipoprotein and a Macrophage-Activating Lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J.; Kim, Mary F.; Karpas, Arthur B.; Mühlradt, Peter F.; Wise, Kim S.


    The malp gene of Mycoplasma fermentans is shown to occur in single copy but to encode two discrete translated forms of lipid-modified surface protein that can be differentially expressed on isolates within this species: MALP-2, a 14-amino-acid (2-kDa) lipopeptide with potent macrophage-stimulatory activity (P. F. Mühlradt, M. Kiess, H. Meyer, R. Süssmuth, and G. Jung, J. Exp. Med. 185:1951–1958, 1997), and MALP-404, an abundant, full-length (404-amino-acid) surface lipoprotein of 41 kDa, previously designated P41 (K. S. Wise, M. F. Kim, P. M. Theiss, and S.-C. Lo, Infect. Immun. 61:3327–3333, 1993). The sequences, transcripts, and translation products of malp were compared between clonal isolates of strains PG18 (known to express P41) and II-29/1 (known to express high levels of MALP-2). Despite conserved malp DNA sequences containing full-length open reading frames and expression of full-length monocistronic transcripts in both isolates, Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the N-terminal MALP-2 peptide revealed marked differences in the protein products expressed. Whereas PG18 expressed abundant MALP-404 with detectable MALP-2, II-29/1 revealed no MALP-404 even in samples containing a large comparative excess of MALP-2. Colony immunoblots with the MAb showed uniform surface expression of MALP-2 in II-29/1 populations. A second MAb to an epitope of MALP-404 outside the MALP-2 sequence predictably failed to stain II-29/1 colonies but uniformly stained PG18 populations. Collectively, these results provide evidence for novel posttranscriptional (probably posttranslational) processing pathways leading to differential intraspecies expression of a major lipoprotein, and a potent macrophage-activating lipopeptide, on the surface of M. fermentans. In the course of this study, a striking conserved motif (consensus, TD-G--DDKSFNQSAWE--), designated SLA, was identified in MALP-404; this motif is also distributed among selected lipoproteins and species

  6. A Lipopeptide HIV-1/2 Fusion Inhibitor with Highly Potent In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Antiviral Activity. (United States)

    Chong, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Xiong, Shengwen; Cong, Zhe; Ding, Xiaohui; Zhu, Yuanmei; Liu, Zixuan; Chen, Ting; Feng, Yifan; He, Lei; Guo, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Zhou, Yusen; Qin, Chuan; He, Yuxian


    Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusogenic protein gp41 are potent viral entry inhibitors, and currently, enfuvirtide (T-20) is the only one approved for clinical use; however, emerging drug resistance largely limits its efficacy. In this study, we generated a novel lipopeptide inhibitor, named LP-19, by integrating multiple design strategies, including an N-terminal M-T hook structure, an HIV-2 sequence, intrahelical salt bridges, and a membrane-anchoring lipid tail. LP-19 showed stable binding affinity and highly potent, broad, and long-lasting antiviral activity. In in vitro studies, LP-19 efficiently inhibited HIV-1-, HIV-2-, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-mediated cell fusion, viral entry, and infection, and it was highly active against diverse subtypes of primary HIV-1 isolates and inhibitor-resistant mutants. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that LP-19 exhibited dramatically increased anti-HIV activity and an extended half-life in rhesus macaques. In short-term monotherapy, LP-19 reduced viral loads to undetectable levels in acutely and chronically simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected monkeys. Therefore, this study offers an ideal HIV-1/2 fusion inhibitor for clinical development and emphasizes the importance of the viral fusion step as a drug target.IMPORTANCE The peptide drug T-20 is the only viral fusion inhibitor in the clinic, which is used for combination therapy of HIV-1 infection; however, it requires a high dosage and easily induces drug resistance, calling for a new drug with significantly improved pharmaceutical profiles. Here, we have developed a short-lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitor, termed LP-19, which mainly targets the conserved gp41 pocket site and shows highly potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1, HIV-2, and even SIV isolates. LP-19 exhibits dramatically increased antiviral activity and an extended half-life in rhesus macaques, and

  7. The cyclic universe through the origins


    Islam Atef Aly


    I report the result of the cyclic universe theory and connect it to the origin of science and God showing some discussions about the cyclic model and the string theory, the cyclic model and the cosmological constant. And discussing the equation of Albert Einstein of the relation between mass and energy.

  8. 40 CFR 721.2120 - Cyclic amide. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyclic amide. 721.2120 Section 721... Cyclic amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a cyclic amide (PMN P-92-131) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. The future of exogenous surfactant therapy. (United States)

    Willson, Douglas F; Notter, Robert H


    Since the identification of surfactant deficiency as the putative cause of the infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Avery and Mead in 1959, our understanding of the role of pulmonary surfactant in respiratory physiology and the pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) has advanced substantially. Surfactant replacement has become routine for the prevention and treatment of infant RDS and other causes of neonatal lung injury. The role of surfactant in lung injury beyond the neonatal period, however, has proven more complex. Relative surfactant deficiency, dysfunction, and inhibition all contribute to the disturbed physiology seen in ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Consequently, exogenous surfactant, while a plausible therapy, has proven to be less effective in ALI/ARDS than in RDS, where simple deficiency is causative. This failure may relate to a number of factors, among them inadequacy of pharmaceutical surfactants, insufficient dosing or drug delivery, poor drug distribution, or simply an inability of the drug to substantially impact the underlying pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Both animal and human studies suggest that direct types of ALI (eg, aspiration, pneumonia) may be more responsive to surfactant therapy than indirect lung injury (eg, sepsis, pancreatitis). Animal studies are needed, however, to further clarify aspects of drug composition, timing, delivery, and dosing before additional human trials are pursued, as the results of human trials to date have been inconsistent and largely disappointing. Further study and perhaps the development of more robust pharmaceutical surfactants offer promise that exogenous surfactant will find a place in our armamentarium of treatment of ALI/ARDS in the future. 2011 Daedalus Enterprises

  10. Lipopeptide biosurfactant from Bacillus thuringiensis pak2310: A potential antagonist against Fusarium oxysporum. (United States)

    Deepak, R; Jayapradha, R


    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of a biosurfactant obtained from a novel Bacillus thuringiensis on Fusarium oxysporum to determine the morphological changes in the structure of the fungi and its biofilm in the presence of the biosurfactant and to evaluate the toxicity of the biosurfactant on HEp-2 human epithelial cell lines. The strain was screened and isolated from petroleum contaminated soil based on the E24 emulsification index. The biosurfactant was produced on glycerol, extracted using chloroform:methanol system and purified using HPLC. The purified fraction showing both surface activity (emulsification and oil-spread activity) and anti-fusarial activity (agar well diffusion method) was studied using FT-IR and MALDI-TOF MS, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) were determined using dilution method. The effect of biosurfactant on the morphology of Fusarium oxysporum was monitored using light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (for biofilm). The purified surfactant showed the presence of functional groups like that of surfactin in the FT-IR spectra and MALDI-TOF MS estimated the molecular weight as 700Da. The MIC and BIC were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.5mg/mL, respectively. The molecule was also non-toxic to HEp-2 cell lines at 10× MIC. A non-toxic and effective anti-Fusarium biosurfactant, that is both safe for human use and to the environment, has been characterized. The growth and metabolite production using glycerol (major byproduct of biodiesel and soap industries) also adds up to the efficiency and ecofriendly nature of this biosurfactant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclic AMP in cervical mucus. (United States)

    Póvoa, H; Figueira, D R; Campos da Paz, A; Spichler, E R; Lopes, E R


    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate normally stimulates motility of spermatozoa. Its concentration in cervical mucus was studied by an isotopic competitive method in 15 normal women aged between 20 and 50 years. Values were very high, particularly in the periovulatory period, with a mean (+/-SD) value of 167.90 +/- 154.96 nmol/l. These are very high when compared with values in other biological fluids (blood serum and urine).

  12. Exogenous Pulmonary Surfactant as a Vehicle for Antimicrobials: Assessment of Surfactant-Antibacterial Interactions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Birkun


    Full Text Available Owing to its unique surface-active properties, an exogenous pulmonary surfactant may become a promising drug delivery agent, in particular, acting as a vehicle for antibiotics in topical treatment of pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess a mutual influence of natural surfactant preparation and three antibiotics (amikacin, cefepime, and colistimethate sodium in vitro and to identify appropriate combination(s for subsequent in vivo investigations of experimental surfactant/antibiotic mixtures. Influence of antibiotics on surface-active properties of exogenous surfactant was assessed using the modified Pattle method. Effects of exogenous surfactant on antibacterial activity of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated using conventional microbiologic procedures. Addition of amikacin or cefepime to surfactant had no significant influence on surface-active properties of the latter. Obvious reduction of surface-active properties was confirmed for surfactant/colistimethate composition. When suspended with antibiotics, surfactant either had no impact on their antimicrobial activity (amikacin or exerted mild to moderate influence (reduction of cefepime bactericidal activity and increase of colistimethate bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Considering favorable compatibility profile, the surfactant/amikacin combination is advisable for subsequent investigation of joint surfactant/antibacterial therapy in animals with bacterial pneumonia.

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of CB-183,315, a Novel Lipopeptide Antibiotic for Treatment of Clostridium difficile (United States)

    Mortin, Lawrence I.; Howland, Karen T.; Van Praagh, Andrew D. G.; Zhang, Shuxin; Arya, Anu; Chuong, Cun Lan; Kang, Chunfeng; Li, Tongchuan; Silverman, Jared A.


    CB-183,315 is a novel lipopeptide antibiotic structurally related to daptomycin currently in phase 3 clinical development for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). We report here the in vitro mechanism of action, spontaneous resistance incidence, resistance by serial passage, time-kill kinetics, postantibiotic effect, and efficacy of CB-183,315 in a hamster model of lethal infection. In vitro data showed that CB-183,315 dissipated the membrane potential of Staphylococcus aureus without inducing changes in membrane permeability to small molecules. The rate of spontaneous resistance to CB-183,315 at 8× the MIC was below the limit of detection in C. difficile. Under selective pressure by serial passage with CB-183,315 against C. difficile, the susceptibility of the bacteria changed no more than 2-fold during 15 days of serial passages. At 16× the MIC, CB-183,315 produced a ≥3-log reduction of C. difficile in the time-kill assay. The postantibiotic effect of CB-183,315 at 8× the MIC was 0.9 h. At 80× the MIC the postantibiotic effect was more than 6 h. In the hamster model of CDAD, CB-183,315 and vancomycin both demonstrated potent efficacy in resolving initial disease onset, even at very low doses. After the conclusion of dosing, CB-183,315 and vancomycin showed a similar dose- and time-dependent pattern with respect to rates of CDAD recurrence. PMID:22802252

  14. Solid state fermentation of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A by using a novel solid state fermentation reactor system. (United States)

    Ano, Takashi; Jin, Guang Yuan; Mizumoto, Shinji; Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur; Okuno, Kasumasa; Shoda, Makoto


    A new solid state fermentation reactor (SSFR) for solid substrate was used for the production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is the technique of cultivation of microorganisms on solid and moist substrates in the absence of free water. SSF has shown much promise in the development of several bioprocesses and products because of their several advantages like absence of free water that allows simplified downstream processing and low cost. SSFR allows agitation of the SSF culture with improved temperature control and air supply. Interestingly, when okara, the widely available waste product from the tofu industries, was used as the solid substrate for the SSFR, no iturin A production was observed. However, without agitation, production of iturin A was observed in the SSFR but the production level remained low. The low production of iturin A was found to be due to the heat generation and excess temperature rise inside the reactor system during the fermentation process. Maintaining the temperature within a range of 25-30°C, production of iturin A was significantly improved in the SSFR. This was comparable to the laboratory scale production, and signifies the potential application of the SSFR for SSF.

  15. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants. (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A


    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of surfactant-assisted waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamehorn, J F; Harwell, J H


    In surfactant-assisted waterflooding, a surfactant slug is injected into a reservoir, followed by a brine spacer, followed by second surfactant slug. The charge on the surfactant in the first slug has opposite sign to that in the second slug. When the two slugs mix in the reservoir, a precipitate or coacervate is formed which plugs the permeable region of the reservoir. Subsequently injected water or brine is forced through the low permeability region of the reservoir, increasing sweep efficiency of the waterflood, compared to a waterflood not using surfactants. In this part of the work, two major tasks are performed. First, core floods are performed with oil present to demonstrate the improvement in incremental oil production, as well as permeability modification. Second, a reservoir simulation model will be proposed to further delineate the optimum strategy for implementation of the surfactant-assisted waterflooding, as well as indicate the reservoir types for which it would be most effective. Surfactants utilized were sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl pyridinium chloride. 44 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids. (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa


    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. © 2013.

  18. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by cationic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, I.B.; Samoylenko, I.I.


    The mechanism of bacteriocidal action of the cationic surfactant dimethylbenzylammonium chloride was studied on exposure of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli to different concentrations of the agent and determinations of survival plots. The data showed that the surfactant was bacteriocidal for all the bacteria tested at a concentration of 0.0001%, but more efficient in the case of the gram positives. Electron microscopy showed considerable damage and dissarrangement of the cytoplasmic membrane, indicating that the killing mechanism involved this organelle. It appears that cationic surfactants may constitute effective disinfectant preparations. 9 references, 2 figures.

  19. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  20. Aggregation of sulfosuccinate surfactants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magid, L.J.; Daus, K.A.; Butler, P.D.; Quincy, R.B.


    The aggregation of sodium di-n-alkyl sulfosuccinates in water (H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O at 45/sup 0/C) has been investigated. A self-consistent picture of the dependence of sodium ion binding on surfactant concentration is obtained from emf measurements, conductimetry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The concentration dependence of the micellar agregation number for the sulfosuccinates and related double-tailed surfactants depends markedly on surfactant solubility. A sphere-to-disk transition in micellar shape, which might have been expected as a precursor to formation of a lamellar mesophase, was not observed as the surfactant concentration was increased. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    behavior inside the reservoir can be manipulated by the injection of surfactants and co-surfactants, creating advantageous conditions in order to mobilize trapped oil. Correctly designed surfactant systems together with the crude oil can create microemulsions at the interface between crude oil and water...... at constant salinity (6.56 %), constant surfactant-alcohol ratio (SAR) but with varying water-oil ratios (WOR). At all temperatures it was very clear that the effect of pressure was significant. The system changed from the two phase region, Winsor II, to the three phase region, Winsor III, as pressure...... characterization of the two crude oils using gas chromatography and SARA analysis confirmed that the heavier components in the crude oils, (in the case of the Latin American crude oil), are correlated to the observed decrease of viscosity, where the viscosity decrease may be explained from change of the shape...

  2. The cyclical component factor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Hansen, Henrik; Smidt, John

    Forecasting using factor models based on large data sets have received ample attention due to the models' ability to increase forecast accuracy with respect to a range of key macroeconomic variables in the US and the UK. However, forecasts based on such factor models do not uniformly outperform...... the simple autoregressive model when using data from other countries. In this paper we propose to estimate the factors based on the pure cyclical components of the series entering the large data set. Monte Carlo evidence and an empirical illustration using Danish data shows that this procedure can indeed...

  3. Evaluation of Surfactant Effects on Newborns


    N. Khalessi; K. Kamerani


    Introduction & Objective: One of the standard therapies in neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is surfactant administration in early course of therapy that cause reduction in mortality, pneumothorax and need to mechanical ventilation. In this study that was carried out in Aliasghar Hospital NICU in 1994-1995 & 2001-2002, the goal was to compare two groups of neonates with severe RDS that had been ventilated in the first 24 hours but one group had received surfactant and ...

  4. Evaluation of Surfactant Effects on Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khalessi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the standard therapies in neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS is surfactant administration in early course of therapy that cause reduction in mortality, pneumothorax and need to mechanical ventilation. In this study that was carried out in Aliasghar Hospital NICU in 1994-1995 & 2001-2002, the goal was to compare two groups of neonates with severe RDS that had been ventilated in the first 24 hours but one group had received surfactant and the other group (7 years ago was deprived of this substance. Materials & Methods: In our study, 36 neonates that received surfactant and 52 neonates with only mechanical ventilation therapy were compared. Data collected and analyzed using SPSS.Results: We found that mortality in patients with surfactant administration was significantly lower compared to the second group who did not receive surfactant. There were not any significant differences in incidences of HIV, pneumothorax, sepsis, and PDA and also course of hospitalization and need to ventilation between two groups. Conclusion: As a result, all of these findings reflect obligatory surfactant administration in sever RDS in NICU under observation of an educated expert.

  5. [Deficiency of surfactant protein: Case report]. (United States)

    Milet, María Beatriz; Mena N, Patricia; Pérez, Héctor I; Espinoza, Tatiana

    Congenital surfactant deficiency is a condition infrequently diagnosed in newborns. A clinical case is presented of surfactant protein B deficiency. A review is performed on the study, treatment and differential diagnosis of surfactant protein deficiencies and infant chronic interstitial lung disease. The case is presented of a term newborn that developed respiratory distress, recurrent pulmonary opacification, and a transient response to the administration of surfactant. Immunohistochemical and genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of surfactant protein B deficiency. Pulmonary congenital anomalies require a high index of suspicion. Surfactant protein B deficiency is clinically progressive and fatal in the majority of the cases, similar to that of ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 3 (ABCA3) deficiency. Protein C deficiency is insidious and may present with a radiological pulmonary interstitial pattern. Due to the similarity in the histological pattern, genetic studies help to achieve greater certainty in the prognosis and the possibility of providing adequate genetic counselling. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclic statistics in rolling bearing diagnosis (United States)

    Li, Li; Qu, Liangsheng


    Mechanical signals with amplitude modulated are characterized by periodic time-varying ensemble statistics and can be considered as cyclostationary. In this paper, the second order cyclic statistics, i.e. cyclic autocorrelation and cyclic spectrum, are introduced. A method of demodulation based on cyclic autocorrelation is derived from a signal model. The modulators and carrier are exhibited, respectively, in low- and high-frequency band of cyclic frequency domain. The three-dimensional spectral correlation figure, which represents cyclic frequency, frequency and spectral correlation strength simultaneously, is developed to express the demodulation results clearly. The method is tested by simulation signal and applied to diagnose rolling bearing faults. It obtained more information than other conventional methods, such as the frequency domain and the envelop detection. Furthermore, its effect is demonstrated by comparing with the wavelet envelope demodulation.

  7. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS — is a fairly common disease of unknown etiology that affects children of all age groups and sometimes adult population and refers to the functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of Rehydron Optim for oral rehydration therapy in children. Materials and methods. The treatment of 40 children aged 3 to 11 years with CVS (15 persons and primary acetonemic syndrome (25 persons in the period of acetonemic crisis, including 15 boys and 25 girls, was analyzed. All children were observed in the outpatient department of the Regional children’s hospital of Chernivtsi. Diagnosis was established based on anamnesis, clinical and laboratory data. Patients underwent required clinico-biological tests and instrumental examinations. The dynamics of the following syndromes was investigated: pain, vomiting, dehydration and intoxication. Rehydration therapy in all cases was oral with the usage of Rehydron Optim. Results of the study and their discussion. A cyclical vomiting was observed in children with primary acetonemic syndrome with satisfactory condition in attack-free period. Migraine-like headaches prevailed in 36 patients (80 %, and the age of these patients was older than 7 years. Same children had episodes of paroxysmal autonomic failure. Almost all surveyed children had in their family history the risk factors for CVS development. All children had positive dynamics of the main basic clinical manifestations on the background of oral rehydration therapy using Rehydron Optim. Within the 1st day of oral rehydration therapy with Rehydron Optim in children, we have noted a significant decrease in the incidence of lethargy, vomiting, spastic abdominal pain, smell of acetone in the exhaled air (p < 0.05. In children with the I degree of dehydration, clinical signs of dehydration were not seen before the treatment, and children with the II degree had an

  8. Iron selenide films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition from single source organometallic precursor in the presence of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Raja Azadar [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Younis, Adnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Khan, Malik Dilshad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhtar, Javeed [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    This article presents the synthesis and characterization (multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, carbon–hydrogen–nitrogen–sulfur analyzer, atomic absorption spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis) of a single source organometallic precursor namely 1-acetyl-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl)selenourea for the fabrication of iron selenide (FeSe) films on glass substrates using aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The changes in the morphologies of the films have been monitored by the use of two different surfactants i.e. triton X-100 and tetraoctylphosphonium bromide during AACVD. The role of surfactant has been evaluated by examining the interaction of the surfactants with the precursor by using UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The fabricated FeSe films have been characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Ferrocene incorporated selenourea (FIS) has been synthesized and characterized. • FeSe thin films have been fabricated from FIS. • Mechanism of film growth was studied with cyclic voltammetry and UV–vis spectroscopy.

  9. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.


    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  10. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...

  11. Surfactant nebulization versus instillation during high frequency ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Surfactant nebulization improves lung function at low alveolar doses of surfactant. However, efficiency of nebulization is low, and lung deposition seems to depend on lung aeration. High frequency ventilation (HFV) has been shown to improve lung aeration. We hypothesize that the combination of HFV

  12. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  13. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants (United States)

    Hu, Jiwei; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhengwu


    This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension (γ) of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies on cloud point (for nonionic surfactants), biodegradation potential and some other properties of surfactants are evaluated. PMID:20479997

  14. Investigating cyclic nucleotide and cyclic dinucleotide binding to HCN channels by surface plasmon resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Hayoz

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN channels control cardiac and neuronal rhythmicity. HCN channels contain cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD in their C-terminal region linked to the pore-forming transmembrane segment with a C-linker. The C-linker couples the conformational changes caused by the direct binding of cyclic nucleotides to the HCN pore opening. Recently, cyclic dinucleotides were shown to antagonize the effect of cyclic nucleotides in HCN4 but not in HCN2 channels. Based on the structural analysis and mutational studies it has been proposed that cyclic dinucleotides affect HCN4 channels by binding to the C-linker pocket (CLP. Here, we first show that surface plasmon resonance (SPR can be used to accurately measure cyclic nucleotide binding affinity to the C-linker/CNBD of HCN2 and HCN4 channels. We then used SPR to investigate cyclic dinucleotide binding in HCN channels. To our surprise, we detected no binding of cyclic dinucleotides to the isolated monomeric C-linker/CNBDs of HCN4 channels with SPR. The binding of cyclic dinucleotides was further examined with isothermal calorimetry (ITC, which indicated no binding of cyclic dinucleotides to both monomeric and tetrameric C-linker/CNBDs of HCN4 channels. Taken together, our results suggest that interaction of the C-linker/CNBD with other parts of the channel is necessary for cyclic-dinucleotide binding in HCN4 channels.

  15. Targeting the genital tract mucosa with a lipopeptide/recombinant adenovirus prime/boost vaccine induces potent and long-lasting CD8+ T cell immunity against herpes: importance of MyD88. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; Benmohamed, Lbachir


    Targeting of the mucosal immune system of the genital tract with subunit vaccines has failed to induce potent and durable local CD8(+) T cell immunity, which is crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral pathogens, including HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide vaccine and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8(+) T cell epitope (gB(498-505)), and both were delivered intravaginally in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared with mice immunized with the homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo) vaccine, the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice 1) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected in both the genital tract draining nodes and in the vaginal mucosa; 2) had significantly lower virus titers; 3) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and 4) did not succumb to lethal infection (p herpes infection and disease.

  16. Targeting the Genital Tract Mucosa with a Lipopeptide/Recombinant Adenovirus Prime/Boost Vaccine Induces Potent and Long-Lasting CD8+ T Cell Immunity Against Herpes: Importance of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 881 (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; BenMohamed, Lbachir


    Targeting the mucosal immune system of the genital tract (GT) with subunit vaccines failed to induce potent and durable local CD8+ T cell immunity, crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral (STV) pathogens, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8+ T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8+ T cell epitope (gB498-505) and both were delivered intravaginally (IVAG) in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared to its homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo); the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice: (i) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8+ T cells, detected in both the GT draining nodes (GT-DLN) and in the vaginal mucosa (VM); (ii) had significantly lower virus titers; (iii) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and (iv) did not succumb to lethal infection (p herpes infection and disease. PMID:23018456

  17. Fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R


    The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the

  18. Labor Productivity: Structural Change and Cyclical Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baily, M.N.; Bartelsman, E.J.; Haltiwanger, J.


    A longstanding issue in empirical economics is the behavior of average labor productivity over the business cycle. This paper provides new insights into the cyclicality of aggregate labor productivity by examining the cyclical behavior of productivity at the plant level as well as the role of

  19. On doubly-cyclic convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Schmale, W

    Cyclicity of a convolutional code ( CC) is relying on a nontrivial automorphism of the algebra F[x]/(x(n) - 1), where F is a finite field. A particular choice of the data leads to the class of doubly-cyclic CC's. Within this large class Reed-Solomon and BCH convolutional codes can be defined. After

  20. Synthesis of cyclic alpha-MSH peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaper, W.M.M.; Adan, R.A.H.; Posthuma, T.A.; Oosterom, J.; Gispen, W.H.; Meloen, R.H.


    Cyclic lactam analogs of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) have been shown to be potent agonists in the frog skin bioassay [Al-Obeidi, F. et al., J. Med. Chem., 32 (1989) 2555], demonstrating melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor activity. We synthesized cyclic α-MSH(1-13) and α-MSH(4-10) lactam

  1. Synthesis of cyclic α-MSH peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Schaaper, W.M.M..; Adan, R.A.H.; Posthuma, T.A.; Oosterom, J.; Meloen, R.H.


    Cyclic lactam analogs of -melanocyte stimulating hormone (-MSH) have been shown to be potent agonists in the frog skin bioassay [Al-Obeidi, F. et al., J. Med. Chem., 32 (1989) 2555], demonstrating melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor activity. We synthesized cyclic -MSH(1-13) and -MSH(4-10) lactam analogs.

  2. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried


    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  3. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.


    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  4. Surfactant effects on SF6 hydrate formation. (United States)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Man Sig; Kim, Young Seok; Englezos, Peter; Kim, Myung Hyun; Kim, Yang Do


    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) has been widely used in a variety of industrial processes, but it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. For this reason, it is necessary to separate or collect it from waste gas streams. One separation method is through hydrate crystal formation. In this study, SF(6) hydrate was formed in aqueous surfactant solutions of 0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.20 wt% to investigate the effects of surfactants on the hydrate formation rates. Three surfactants, Tween 20 (Tween), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABS), were tested in a semi-batch stirred vessel at the constant temperature and pressures of 276.2 K and 0.78 MPa, respectively. All surfactants showed kinetic promoter behavior for SF(6) hydrate formation. It was also found that SF(6) hydrate formation proceeded in two stages with the second stage being the most rapid. In situ Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the increased gas consumption rate with the addition of surfactant was possibly due to the increased gas filling rate in the hydrate cavity.

  5. How nanobubbles lose stability: Effects of surfactants (United States)

    Xiao, Qianxiang; Liu, Yawei; Guo, Zhenjiang; Liu, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianren


    In contrast to stability theories of nanobubbles, the molecular mechanism of how nanobubbles lose stability is far from being understood. In this work, we try to interpret recent experimental observations that the addition of surfactants destabilizes nanobubbles with an unclear mechanism. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we identify two surfactant-induced molecular mechanisms for nanobubbles losing stability, either through depinning of a contact line or reducing vapor-liquid surface tension. One corresponds to the case with significant adsorption of surfactants on the substrates, which causes depinning of the nanobubble contact line and thus leads to nanobubble instability. The other stresses surfactant adsorption on the vapor-liquid interface of nanobubbles, especially for insoluble surfactants, which reduces the surface tension of the interface and leads to an irreversible liquid-to-vapor phase transition. Our finding can help improve our understanding in nanobubble stability, and the insight presented here has implications for surface nanobubbles involving with other amphiphilic molecules, such as proteins and contaminations.

  6. Cyclic vomiting: the pattern and syndrome paradigm. (United States)

    Li, B U


    Although it remains a mysterious disorder since its description over a century ago, cyclic vomiting syndrome appears to be more prevalent than previously thought. With the goal of improving detection of affected children, two quantitative historical criteria-peak intensity > or = 4 emeses/h) and a episode frequency migraine, chronic sinusitis, intracranial neoplasm, anomalies of and mucosal injury to the gastrointestinal tract, urologic abnormalities, and metabolic and endocrine disorders. Because many organic disorders can mimic cyclic vomiting syndrome, a systematic diagnostic evaluation of potential underlying disorders is recommended. The following terminology is proposed: a cyclic pattern is differentiated from a chronic pattern of vomiting on the basis of a higher peak intensity of emesis and lower frequency of episodes; and of those with a cyclic vomiting pattern, an idiopathic subgroup who is not found to have an underlying disorder on diagnostic testing can be labeled as having cyclic vomiting syndrome.

  7. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi


    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  8. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  9. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, D


    Oppositely charged surfactant and polyelectrolyte are present in hair shampoos and conditioners, together with particles (e.g. anti-dandruff agents for scalp) and droplets (e.g. silicone oil for the hair). These are normally formulated at high surfactant concentrations, beyond the flocculation region for the polyelectrolyte concentration used. However, on dilution with water, during application, flocs are formed which carry the particles and droplets to the scalp and hair. The addition of an anionic surfactant to an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte, at a given concentration, can lead to the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant 'particles', in which the surfactant 'binds' to the polyelectrolyte. This occurs from the critical association concentration (CAC), up to the surfactant concentration corresponding to maximum binding. Within this range of surfactant concentrations, the surfactant bound to the polyelectrolyte is thought to associate to form what might be termed 'internal micelles'. Each po...

  10. Recent food applications of microbial surfactants. (United States)

    Nitschke, Marcia; Silva, Sumária Sousa E


    Owing to their natural origin and environmental compatibility, interest in microbial surfactants or biosurfactants has gained attention during last few years. These characteristics fulfill the demand of regulatory agencies and society to use more sustained and green chemicals. Microbial-derived surfactants can replace synthetic surfactants in a great variety of industrial applications as detergents, foaming, emulsifiers, solubilizers, and wetting agents. Change in the trend of consumers toward natural from synthetic additives and the increasing health and environmental concerns have created demand for new "green" additives in foods. Apart from their inherent surface-active properties, biosurfactants have shown antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against food pathogens; therefore, biosurfactants can be versatile additives or ingredients of food processing. These interesting applications will be discussed in this review.

  11. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids. (United States)

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M


    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant.

  12. Microstructure, morphology and lifetime of armored bubbles exposed to surfactants


    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Mejean, Cecile; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.


    We report the behavior of particle-stabilized bubbles (armored bubbles) when exposed to various classes and concentrations of surfactants. The bubbles are non-spherical due to the jamming of the particles on the interface and are stable to dissolution prior to the addition of surfactant. We find that the dissolving bubbles exhibit distinct morphological, microstructural, and lifetime changes, which correlate with the concentration of surfactant employed. For low concentrations of surfactant a...

  13. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök


    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  14. The Inhibiting or Accelerating Effect of Different Surfactants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The course of differential capacity curves of the electric double layer at the mercury electrode/surfactant solution interface was described for three different surfactants from different groups. Using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) it was found that the surfactants had a varying effect on the kinetics of electroreduction of Zn2+ ...

  15. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism in preterm infants studied with stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.H. Bunt (Jan Erik)


    textabstractAIM OF THE STUDIES 1. To develop and use a novel method to study surfactant metabolism in preterm and older infants. (chapters 3 and 4). 2. To study endogenous surfactant synthesis in relation to prenatal glucocorticosteroids. (chapters 5 and 6). 3. To study the influence of surfactant


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRACKMAN, JC; ENGBERTS, JBFN; Herb, CA; Prudhomme, RK


    The influence of the chemical structure and charge of the surfactant on polymer-micelle interaction has been studied using various ionic and non-ionic surfactants, and surfactants of which the charge can be varied by (de)protonation. Octylthioglucoside, dodecyldimethylamine-oxide, alkylphosphates,

  17. Cyclic Control Optimization for a Smart Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Henriksen, Lars Christian


    bending moment within a rotor revolution. The method is applied to a rotor equipped with trailing edge flaps, and capable of individual blade pitching. Results show that the optimized cyclic control significantly alleviates the load variations from periodic disturbances; the combination of both cyclic......The paper presents a method to determine cyclic control trajectories for a smart rotor undergoing periodic-deterministic load variations. The control trajectories result from a constrained optimization problem, where the cost function to minimize is given by the variation of the blade root flapwise...... flap and pitch allows to reduce the action (and hence the wear) on the pitch actuators, and still to achieve considerable load alleviation....

  18. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens


    Driving force based design is adopted from conventional continuous distillation to cyclic distillation. This leads to a definition of the operating line representation for the cyclic distillation process. A possible realization of the driving force design is presented, which implies operation...... with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  19. Biophysical properties of protein-free, totally synthetic pulmonary surfactants, ALEC and Exosurf, in comparison with surfactant TA. (United States)

    Takahashi, A; Nemoto, T; Fujiwara, T


    An artificial pulmonary surfactant prepared from chloroform-methanol extract of bovine pulmonary surfactant (surfactant TA) has been shown to be effective in both the prevention and the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies. Recently, two types of protein-free totally synthetic surfactants, artificial lung expanding compound (ALEC) and Exosurf, have been evaluated in clinical trials of surfactant therapy. Artificial lung expanding compound was used initially as a dry powder, but is now prepared as a crystalline suspension in saline at 4 degrees C. In this study we compared the biophysical properties of three different forms of ALEC (dry powder, crystalline suspension at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C), Exosurf and surfactant TA (Surfacten) using a modified Wilhelmy surface balance and a pulsating bubble surfactometer. Surface activity of a crystalline suspension of ALEC in cold saline was no better than the dry powder of ALEC. Surfactant activity of ALEC was improved by addition of hydrophobic surfactant protein B and C (SP-B, SP-C) which are important constituents of surfactant TA. Surface properties of ALEC in any form and Exosurf were not superior to those of surfactant TA. These results suggest that a surfactant which contains SP-B and SP-C does not necessarily have to be dry or crystalline for an effective exogenous surfactant.

  20. Efficient Interfacially Driven Vehiculization of Corticosteroids by Pulmonary Surfactant. (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Salomone, Fabrizio; Fresno, Nieves; Orellana, Guillermo; Cruz, Antonio; Perez-Gil, Jesus


    Pulmonary surfactant is a crucial system to stabilize the respiratory air-liquid interface. Furthermore, pulmonary surfactant has been proposed as an effective method for targeting drugs to the lungs. However, few studies have examined in detail the mechanisms of incorporation of drugs into surfactant, the impact of the presence of drugs on pulmonary surfactant performance at the interface under physiologically meaningful conditions, or the ability of pulmonary surfactant to use the air-liquid interface to vehiculise drugs to long distances. This study focuses on the ability of pulmonary surfactant to interfacially vehiculize corticosteroids such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) or Budesonide (BUD) as model drugs. The main objectives have been to (a) characterize the incorporation of corticosteroids into natural and synthetic surfactants, (b) evaluate whether the presence of corticosteroids affects surfactant functionality, and (c) determine whether surfactant preparations enable the efficient spreading and distribution of BDP and BUD along the air-liquid interface. We have compared the performance of a purified surfactant from porcine lungs and two clinical surfactants: Poractant alfa, a natural surfactant of animal origin extensively used to treat premature babies, and CHF5633, a new synthetic surfactant preparation currently under clinical trials. Both, natural and clinical surfactants spontaneously incorporated corticosteroids up to at least 10% by mass with respect to phospholipid content. The presence of the drugs did not interfere with their ability to efficiently adsorb into air-liquid interfaces and form surface active films able to reach and sustain very low surface tensions (<2 mN/m) under compression-expansion cycling mimicking breathing dynamics. Furthermore, the combination of clinical surfactant with corticosteroids efficiently promoted the active diffusion of the drug to long distances along the air-liquid interface. This effect could not be

  1. Pulmonary surfactant proteins and polymer combinations reduce surfactant inhibition by serum. (United States)

    Lu, Karen W; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H William


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition that can be associated with capillary leak of serum into alveoli causing inactivation of surfactant. Resistance to inactivation is affected by types and concentrations of surfactant proteins, lipids, and polymers. Our aim was to investigate the effects of different combinations of these three components. A simple lipid mixture (DPPC/POPG) or a more complex lipid mixture (DPPC/POPC/POPG/cholesterol) was used. Native surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C obtained from pig lung lavage were added either singly or combined at two concentrations. Also, non-ionic polymers polyethylene glycol and dextran and the anionic polymer hyaluronan were added either singly or in pairs with hyaluronan included. Non-ionic polymers work by different mechanisms than anionic polymers, thus the purpose of placing them together in the same surfactant mixture was to evaluate if the combination would show enhanced beneficial effects. The resulting surfactant mixtures were studied in the presence or absence of serum. A modified bubble surfactometer was used to evaluate surface activities. Mixtures that included both SP-B and SP-C plus hyaluronan and either dextran or polyethylene glycol were found to be the most resistant to inhibition by serum. These mixtures, as well as some with either SP-B or SP-C with combined polymers were as or more resistant to inactivation than native surfactant. These results suggest that improved formulations of lung surfactants are possible and may be useful in reducing some types of surfactant inactivation in treating lung injuries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pulmonary surfactant proteins and polymer combinations reduce surfactant inhibition by serum


    Lu, Karen W.; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H. William


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition that can be associated with capillary leak of serum into alveoli causing inactivation of surfactant. Resistance to inactivation is affected by types and concentrations of surfactant proteins, lipids, and polymers. Our aim was to investigate the effects of different combinations of these three components. A simple lipid mixture (DPPC/POPG) or a more complex lipid mixture (DPPC/POPC/POPG/cholesterol) was used. Native surfac...

  3. Surfactant-anti-surfactant immune complexes in infants with respiratory distress syndrome.


    Strayer, D. S.; Merritt, T A; Lwebuga-Mukasa, J.; Hallman, M


    The authors sought to determine whether treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with human surfactant resulted in the formation of detectable circulating immune complexes. Preterm infants with severe RDS were divided into two groups: one group received human surfactant by intratracheal instillation and the other group did not. Both groups received ventilatory management involving intermittent mandatory ventilation. Plasma samples were drawn from these babies prior to treatment and at...

  4. Palm oil based surfactant products for petroleum industry (United States)

    Permadi, P.; Fitria, R.; Hambali, E.


    In petroleum production process, many problems causing reduced production are found. These include limited oil recovery, wax deposit, asphaltene deposit, sludge deposit, and emulsion problem. Petroleum-based surfactant has been used to overcome these problems. Therefore, innovation to solve these problems using surfactant containing natural materials deserves to be developed. Palm oil-based surfactant is one of the potential alternatives for this. Various types of derivative products of palm oil-based surfactant have been developed by SBRC IPB to be used in handling problems including surfactant flooding, well stimulation, asphaltene dissolver, well cleaning, and wax removal found in oil and gas industry.

  5. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar


    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  6. Thermally stable surfactants and compositions and methods of use thereof (United States)

    Chaiko, David J [Woodridge, IL


    There are provided novel thermally stable surfactants for use with fillers in the preparation of polymer composites and nanocomposites. Typically, surfactants of the invention are urethanes, ureas or esters of thiocarbamic acid having a hydrocarbyl group of from 10 to 50 carbons and optionally including an ionizable or charged group (e.g., carboxyl group or quaternary amine). Thus, there are provided surfactants having Formula I: ##STR00001## wherein the variables are as defined herein. Further provided are methods of making thermally stable surfactants and compositions, including composites and nanocomposites, using fillers coated with the surfactants.

  7. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)


    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  8. enhanced ultrafiltration at low surfactant concentrations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 24, 2006 ... Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) of zinc ions (Zn2+) from aqueous solutions using single anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at low critical micelle concentrations (cmc) (0.2×cmc – 3×cmc) was investigated. When the initial. SDS concentration was below the cmc, unexpectedly high ...

  9. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  11. Surfactant for pulmonary haemorrhage in neonates. (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul; Ohlsson, Arne


    In the 1960s and 1970s, pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) occurred mainly in full-term infants with pre-existing illness with an incidence of 1.3 per 1000 live births. Risk factors for PH included severity of illness, intrauterine growth restriction, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), coagulopathy and the need for assisted ventilation. Presently, PH occurs in 3% to 5% of preterm ventilated infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who often have a PDA and have received surfactant. The cause of PH is thought to be due to rapid lowering of intrapulmonary pressure, which facilitates left to right shunting across a PDA and an increase in pulmonary blood flow. Retrospective case reports and one prospective uncontrolled study have shown promising results for surfactant in treating PH. To evaluate the effect of surfactant treatment compared to placebo or no intervention on mortality and morbidities in neonates with PH. For this update The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2012; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL;;; proceedings (2000 to 2011) of the Annual Meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies (Abstracts2View) and Web of Science were searched on 8 February 2012. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effect of surfactant in the treatment of PH in intubated term or preterm (neonates with PH. Infants were included up to 44 weeks' postmenstrual age. The interventions studied were intratracheal instillation of surfactant (natural or synthetic, regardless of dose) versus placebo or no intervention. If studies were identified by the literature search, the planned analyses included risk ratio, risk difference, number needed to treat to benefit or to harm for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference for continuous outcomes, with their 95% confidence intervals. A fixed-effect model would be used for meta-analyses. The risk of bias for included trials would be assessed. Heterogeneity tests, including the I(2) statistic

  12. Genetics Home Reference: cyclic vomiting syndrome (United States)

    ... without the disorder to experience depression, anxiety, and panic disorder. It is unclear whether these health conditions are directly related to nausea and vomiting. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is often considered to be a variant of ...

  13. Determination of persistent cyclic organochlorine residues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMLLE) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer, was developed for the analysis of cyclic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ...

  14. Synthesis and properties evaluation of sulfobetaine surfactant with double hydroxyl (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Ze; Li, Sisi; Wang, Chengwen


    A series of sulfobetaine surfactants {N-[(3-alkoxy-2-hydroxyl)propoxy] ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl)propyl sulfonate} ammonium chloride were synthesized with raw materials containing linear saturated alcohol, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxyl propane sulfonic acid and epichlorohydrin. The molecule structures of sulfobetaine surfactants were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. Surface tension measurements can provide us information about the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), pC20, Γmax and Amin. The pC20 values of sulfobetaine surfactants increase with the hydrophobic chain length increasing. Amin values of the surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 14. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension (γCMC) values of the sulfobetaine surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 16. The lipophilicity of surfactant was enhanced with the increase of the carbon chain, however, the ability of anti-hard water was weakened. The minimum oil/water interfacial tension of four kinds of sulfobetaine surfactants is 10-2-10-3 mN/m magnitude, which indicates that the synthesized bis-hydroxy sulfobetaine surfactants have a great ability to reduce interfacial tension in the surfactant flooding system. The surface tension (γCMC) values of synthesized surfactants were lower compared with conventional anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfonate.

  15. Comparative study of clinical pulmonary surfactants using atomic force microscopy (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Fan, Qihui; Wang, Yi E.; Neal, Charles R.; Zuo, Yi Y.


    Clinical pulmonary surfactant is routinely used to treat premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, and has shown great potential in alleviating a number of neonatal and adult respiratory diseases. Despite extensive study of chemical composition, surface activity, and clinical performance of various surfactant preparations, a direct comparison of surfactant films is still lacking. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy to characterize and compare four animal-derived clinical surfactants currently used throughout the world, i.e., Survanta, Curosurf, Infasurf and BLES. These modified-natural surfactants are further compared to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a synthetic model surfactant of DPPC:palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) (7:3), and endogenous bovine natural surfactant. Atomic force microscopy reveals significant differences in the lateral structure and molecular organization of these surfactant preparations. These differences are discussed in terms of DPPC and cholesterol contents. We conclude that all animal-derived clinical surfactants assume a similar structure of multilayers of fluid phospholipids closely attached to an interfacial monolayer enriched in DPPC, at physiologically relevant surface pressures. This study provides the first comprehensive survey of the lateral structure of clinical surfactants at various surface pressures. It may have clinical implications on future application and development of surfactant preparations. PMID:21439262

  16. Cyclic universe due to phantom and quintessence


    Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen


    We explore a cyclic universe due to phantom and quintessence fields. We find that, in every cycle of the evolution of the universe, the phantom dominates the cosmic early history and quintessence dominates the cosmic far future. In this model of universe, there are infinite cycles of expansion and contraction. Different from the inflationary universe, the corresponding cosmic space-time is geodesically complete and quantum stable. But similar to the Cyclic Model, the flatness problem, the hor...

  17. Cyclic Period in the CBE Model

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H


    In a cyclic entropy model in which the extroverse is jettisoned at turnaround with a Come Back Empty (CBE) assumption, we address matching of the contaction scale factor $\\hat{a}(t)=f(t_T){a}(t)$ to the expansion scale factor $a(t)$, where $f(t_T)$ is the ratio at turnaround of the introverse to extroverse radii. Such matching is necessary for infinite cyclicity and fixes the CBE period at $\\sim 2.6Ty$.

  18. Twisted Cyclic Cohomology and Modular Fredholm Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rennie


    Full Text Available Connes and Cuntz showed in [Comm. Math. Phys. 114 (1988, 515-526] that suitable cyclic cocycles can be represented as Chern characters of finitely summable semifinite Fredholm modules. We show an analogous result in twisted cyclic cohomology using Chern characters of modular Fredholm modules. We present examples of modular Fredholm modules arising from Podleś spheres and from SU_q(2.

  19. Modeling Cyclic Variation of Intracranial Pressure (United States)


    demonstrates a cyclic low-frequency variation in the baseline corresponding to the ventilation . As a result, the ICP recording is not similar to the...dilation must be determined. The cyclic variation of intrathoracic pressure during positive pressure ventilation is considered a major causal... mechanism (s) that controls the dynamic characteristics of the ICP recording over the ventilation cycle are up-stream from the pial veins at vascular

  20. Severe congenital cyclic neutropenia: A case report


    Patil, Vidyavathi H.; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Balikai, Girish; Patil, Sudha


    Congenital cyclic neutropenia syndrome is a constitutional genetic disorder which is characterized by very low number of neutrophils (neutropenia). Patients suffering from this disorder clinically present with neutropenia at early age, history of recurrent fever, ulcerations in the oral cavity, gingivitis, and other recurrent infections. This paper describes a case report of a child with recurrent mouth ulcers, fever, and later diagnosed with severe congenital cyclic neutropenia. This also em...

  1. Quantum Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Codes


    Hagiwara, Manabu; Imai, Hideki


    In this paper, a construction of a pair of "regular" quasi-cyclic LDPC codes as ingredient codes for a quantum error-correcting code is proposed. That is, we find quantum regular LDPC codes with various weight distributions. Furthermore our proposed codes have lots of variations for length, code rate. These codes are obtained by a descrete mathematical characterization for model matrices of quasi-cyclic LDPC codes. Our proposed codes achieve a bounded distance decoding (BDD) bound, or known a...

  2. Surfactant Replacement Therapy Beyond Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Neonates. (United States)

    Jasani, Bonny; Kabra, Nandkishor; Nanavati, Ruchi


    Surfactant replacement therapy is an established modality of treatment in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, there are various neonatal respiratory disorders which are characterized by surfactant deficiency in which surfactant therapy can be a feasible and safe option. To collate the literature on the use of surfactant replacement therapy in neonates beyond respiratory distress syndrome and examine the evidence and newer developments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, and EMBASE up to June 2015; and previous reviews, including cross-references, abstracts, and conference proceedings. Evidence supports surfactant administration via bolus route in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome, but additional robust evidence is required before its adoption in clinical practice. There is limited evidence to support surfactant therapy in neonates with pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Large multicenter randomized trials are needed to cement or refute the role of surfactant therapy in these disorders.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  4. Consecutive exotropia following surgically corrected cyclic esotropia. (United States)

    Post, Joel; Eidsness, Ryan B; Romanchuk, Kenneth G


    Cyclic esotropia is a rare form of strabismus consisting of regular intervals of esotropia alternating with periods of orthophoria in a rhythmic/cyclic manner. In the vast majority of cases, surgery appears to permanently correct the esotropia, with no sequelae after years of follow-up. We report a case of consecutive exotropia in a patient five years after bilateral medial rectus recessions for cyclic esotropia. A case report involving review of a clinical chart. A two-year-old male presented with right esotropia and mild amblyopia. He was treated with patching and following resolution of the amblyopia he developed a cyclic esotropia. Surgical correction was performed for the full amount measured on a "manifest" day. Following the surgery, he was orthophoric and demonstrated binocular vision. He remained stable for five years, and then returned with occasional diplopia and an intermittent exotropia. Cyclic esotropia is a rare disorder of ocular motility that spontaneously appears and disappears at regular intervals. After surgical correction, the deviation disappears and recurrence of esotropia is very infrequent. We present the first reported case of consecutive exotropia following surgical correction of a cyclic esotropia.

  5. The evolution of Momordica cyclic peptides. (United States)

    Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Mylne, Joshua S; Poth, Aaron G; Swedberg, Joakim E; Kaas, Quentin; Schaefer, Hanno; Craik, David J


    Cyclic proteins have evolved for millions of years across all kingdoms of life to confer structural stability over their acyclic counterparts while maintaining intrinsic functional properties. Here, we show that cyclic miniproteins (or peptides) from Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) seeds evolved in species that diverged from an African ancestor around 19 Ma. The ability to achieve head-to-tail cyclization of Momordica cyclic peptides appears to have been acquired through a series of mutations in their acyclic precursor coding sequences following recent and independent gene expansion event(s). Evolutionary analysis of Momordica cyclic peptides reveals sites that are under selection, highlighting residues that are presumably constrained for maintaining their function as potent trypsin inhibitors. Molecular dynamics of Momordica cyclic peptides in complex with trypsin reveals site-specific residues involved in target binding. In a broader context, this study provides a basis for selecting Momordica species to further investigate the biosynthesis of the cyclic peptides and for constructing libraries that may be screened against evolutionarily related serine proteases implicated in human diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Evolution of pulmonary surfactants for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and paediatric lung diseases. (United States)

    Mazela, Jan; Merritt, T Allen; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Sinha, Sunil


    This review documents the evolution of surfactant therapy, beginning with observations of surfactant deficiency in respiratory distress syndrome, the basis of exogenous surfactant treatment and the development of surfactant-containing novel peptides patterned after SP-B. We critically analyse the molecular interactions of surfactant proteins and phospholipids contributing to surfactant function. Peptide-containing surfactant provides clinical efficacy in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and offers promise for treating other lung diseases in infancy.

  7. A Relation Between Quasi-Cyclic Codes and 2-D Cyclic Codes


    Güneri, Cem; Özbudak, Ferruh


    International audience; We consider a q-ary quasi-cyclic code C of length m' and index ', where both m and ' are relatively prime to q. If the constituents of C are cyclic codes, we show that C can also be viewed as a 2-D cyclic code of size m *l ' over Fq. If we further assume that m and ' are also coprime to each other, then we easily observe that the code C must be equivalent to a cyclic code. The last fact was proved earlier by Lim using a diff erent approach.

  8. A novel lipopeptide from skin commensal activates TLR2/CD36-p38 MAPK signaling to increase antibacterial defense against bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Li

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis (S.epidermidis plays important protective roles by directly producing or by stimulating hosts to produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs against pathogenic infections. Although several AMPs from S.epidermidis have been identified, molecules that stimulate hosts to produce AMPs remain largly unknown. Here we demonstrate that a new lipopeptide (named LP01 purified from S.epidermidis culture media has a unique structure with heneicosanoic acid (21 carbons binding to lysine(11 of a peptide chain. In vitro LP01 increased the expression of β-defensin 2(hBD2 and hBD3 in neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes(NHEK, leading to increased capacity of cell lysates to inhibit the growth of S.aureus. In vivo LP01 induced the expression of mouse β-defensin 4(mBD4 to decrease the survival of local S.aureus in skin and systemic S.aureus survival in liver. The induction of beta-defensins by LP01 was dependent on TLR2 as Tlr2-deficient mice had decreased mBD4. Furthermore, knockdown of CD36 decreased the expression of hBD2 and hBD3, and p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly inhibited the expression of hBDs induced by LP01.Taken together, these findings demonstrate that lipopeptide LP01 from normal commensal S.epidermidis increases antimicrobial peptide hBD2 and hBD3 expression via the activation of TLR2/CD36-p38 MAPK, thus enhancing antimicrobial defense against pathogenic infections.

  9. Photo-Fenton degradation of non-ionic surfactant and its mixture with cationic or anionic surfactant. (United States)

    Ono, Erina; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori


    The oxidative degradation of non-ionic surfactants by the photo-Fenton process has been examined. The photo-Fenton degradation kinetics of mixtures of non-ionic surfactant and other type surfactants has been also investigated since mixtures of non-ionic and ionic surfactants are commonly used to utilize their synergistic effects in many practices. Effects of operating parameters such as dosages of Fenton reagents (iron and hydrogen peroxide) and UV light intensity on the degradation of commercial non-ionic surfactant Sannonic SS-90 (polyoxyethylene alkyl ether) were studied. Although the dosages of the Fenton reagents increased the degradation rate up to the optimum dosages, further addition of the reagents could not enhance the degradation rate. Excess dosages of Fe and H(2)O(2) caused excess OH radicals which could be a scavenger of OH radicals and as a result could not enhance the degradation of the surfactant. The increase in UV light intensity resulting in the faster photo-Fenton process or the enhancement of OH radical formation rate led to the increase in degradation rate of non-ionic surfactant. Although the existence of the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate) would inhibit the degradation of the non-ionic surfactant due to the formation of complex with Fe ion, the existence of cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) affected insignificantly the photo-Fenton degradation process of the non-ionic surfactant.

  10. An Overview of Pulmonary Surfactant in the Neonate: Genetics, Metabolism, and the Role of Surfactant in Health and Disease (United States)

    Nkadi, Paul O.; Merritt, T. Allen; Pillers, De-Ann M.


    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids (PL) and proteins (SP) that reduce surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the alveolus. It is made up of about 70% to 80% PL, mainly dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 10% SP-A, B, C and D, and 10% neutral lipids, mainly cholesterol. Surfactant is synthesized, assembled, transported and secreted into the alveolus where it is degraded and then recycled. Metabolism of surfactant is slower in newborns, especially preterm, than in adults. Defective pulmonary surfactant metabolism results in respiratory distress with attendant morbidity and mortality. This occurs due to accelerated breakdown by oxidation, proteolytic degradation, inhibition or inherited defects of surfactant metabolism. Prenatal corticosteroids, surfactant replacement, whole lung lavage and lung transplantation have yielded results in managing some of these defects. Gene therapy could prove valuable in treating inherited defects of surfactant metabolism. PMID:19299177

  11. Surfactant for pulmonary hemorrhage in neonates. (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul; Ohlsson, Arne


    In the late 1960's and 1970's, pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) occurred mainly in full term infants with severe pre-existing illness. The incidence of PH was quoted as 1.3 per 1,000 live births. In the older medical literature, the risk factors associated with PH included the severity of the associated illness, intrauterine growth restriction, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), coagulopathy, and the need for assisted ventilation. Presently, PH occurs mainly in preterm ventilated infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who often have a PDA and have received surfactant. Currently, PH complicates the hospital course of 3-5% of preterm infants with RDS. Although not clear, the cause of PH is thought to be due to a rapid lowering of intrapulmonary pressure, which facilitates left to right shunting across a patent ductus arteriosus and an increase in pulmonary blood flow. Retrospective case reports and one prospective uncontrolled study that used surfactant for PH in neonates have shown promising results in treating PH. To evaluate the effect of surfactant treatment compared to placebo or no intervention on mortality in neonates with pulmonary hemorrhage. In addition, the review will evaluate the effect of surfactant treatment on neonatal morbidities associated with PH compared to placebo or no intervention. The following databases were searched in January 2008: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2007) and MEDLINE from 1966 and EMBASE from 1980 to the time of the full review using the OVID interface. The proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies and the European Society of Pediatric Research published in Pediatric Research or electronically on their web sites were searched from 1994 to the time of the full review. Science citation index (Web of Science) was searched for authors quoting key references of observational studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that

  12. Cytotoxic Lipopeptide Muscotoxin A, Isolated from Soil Cyanobacterium Desmonostoc muscorum, Permeabilizes Phospholipid Membranes by Reducing Their Fluidity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomek, P.; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kuzma, Marek; Sýkora, Jan; Fišer, R.; Černý, J.; Novák, Petr; Bártová, Simona; Šimek, Petr; Hof, Martin; Kavan, Daniel; Kopecký, Jiří


    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 216-224 ISSN 0893-228X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/12/P614; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11129; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : BLUE-GREEN-ALGA * CYCLIC-PEPTIDES * LYNGBYA SP Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (UFCH-W); EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2015

  13. Application of peptide gemini surfactants as novel solubilization surfactants for photosystems I and II of cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Koeda, Shuhei; Umezaki, Katsunari; Noji, Tomoyasu; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kondo, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Shen, Jian-Ren; Taga, Keijiro; Dewa, Takehisa; Ito, Shigeru; Nango, Mamoru; Tanaka, Toshiki; Mizuno, Toshihisa


    We designed novel peptide gemini surfactants (PG-surfactants), DKDKC12K and DKDKC12D, which can solubilize Photosystem I (PSI) of Thermosynecoccus elongatus and Photosystem II (PSII) of Thermosynecoccus vulcanus in an aqueous buffer solution. To assess the detailed effects of PG-surfactants on the original supramolecular membrane protein complexes and functions of PSI and PSII, we applied the surfactant exchange method to the isolated PSI and PSII. Spectroscopic properties, light-induced electron transfer activity, and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that PSI and PSII could be solubilized not only with retention of the original supramolecular protein complexes and functions but also without forming aggregates. Furthermore, measurement of the lifetime of light-induced charge-separation state in PSI revealed that both surfactants, especially DKDKC12D, displayed slight improvement against thermal denaturation below 60 °C compared with that using β-DDM. This degree of improvement in thermal resistance still seems low, implying that the peptide moieties did not interact directly with membrane protein surfaces. By conjugating an electron mediator such as methyl viologen (MV(2+)) to DKDKC12K (denoted MV-DKDKC12K), we obtained derivatives that can trap the generated reductive electrons from the light-irradiated PSI. After immobilization onto an indium tin oxide electrode, a cathodic photocurrent from the electrode to the PSI/MV-DKDKC12K conjugate was observed in response to the interval of light irradiation. These findings indicate that the PG-surfactants DKDKC12K and DKDKC12D provide not only a new class of solubilization surfactants but also insights into designing other derivatives that confer new functions on PSI and PSII.

  14. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  15. Mechanical behavior of cyclically loaded PZT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.S.; Hill, M.D.; Freiman, S.W. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hwang, C.S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)


    Uses of intelligent materials which involve the application of force or the generation of displacements will require the incorporation of some form of actuator material into the overall structure. Typically, these types of applications will result in the generation of cyclic loads on the actuator; depending upon the specific application, the frequency of the loading could be low, e.g., for positioning components, or relatively high, e.g., for damping out vibrations in machining tools. Nevertheless, the cyclic nature of the loading raises the specter of damage and, ultimately, failure arising from cyclic loading processes which would not be predicted by traditional mechanical properties test methods. It has been found that PZT loaded cyclically sometimes fails at loads below its nominal strength, as measured by traditional, monotonically increasing load tests. Damage mechanisms which come into play as a result of the cyclic loading conditions have been postulated as the reasons for this behavior. Recent work investigating the cyclic loading of a PZT-8 material at resonance frequency determined that microcracks were generated in the high stress region of the material. Recent results demonstrate that macrocrack extension appears to be accompanied by domain reorientation whereas microcracks can propagate around PZT grains without affecting the domains, (2) morphology and distribution of microcracks generated under different loading conditions can change dramatically that the qualitative mechanical response of PZT-8 to cyclic loading appears to be insensitive to grain morphology. The results presented imply that stresses generated at the tips of macrocracks are much larger than those at microcracks, that temperature strongly affects the rate of microcrack generation, and that wide distributions in grain size and the presence of large voids do not necessarily result in increased microcrack generation over that seen in 2 {micro}m grain size, small pore material.

  16. Pulmonary surfactant adsorption is increased by hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol. (United States)

    Taeusch, H William; Dybbro, Eric; Lu, Karen W


    In acute lung injuries, inactivating agents may interfere with transfer (adsorption) of pulmonary surfactants to the interface between air and the aqueous layer that coats the interior of alveoli. Some ionic and nonionic polymers reduce surfactant inactivation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested directly whether an ionic polymer, hyaluronan, or a nonionic polymer, polyethylene glycol, enhanced adsorption of a surfactant used clinically. We used three different methods of measuring adsorption in vitro: a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer; a King/Clements device; and a spreading trough. In addition we measured the effects of both polymers on surfactant turbidity, using this assay as a nonspecific index of aggregation. We found that both hyaluronan and polyethylene glycol significantly increased the rate and degree of surfactant material adsorbed to the surface in all three assays. Hyaluronan was effective in lower concentrations (20-fold) than polyethylene glycol and, unlike polyethylene glycol, hyaluronan did not increase apparent aggregation of surfactant. Surfactant adsorption in the presence of serum was also enhanced by both polymers regardless of whether hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol was included with serum in the subphase or added to the surfactant applied to the surface. Therefore, endogenous polymers in the alveolar subphase, or exogenous polymers added to surfactant used as therapy, may both be important for reducing inactivation of surfactant that occurs with various lung injuries.


    Pirog, T P; Beregova, K A; Savenko, I V; Shevchuk, T A; Iutynska, G O


    To study the effect of Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants on some bacteria (including pathogens of genera Proteus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter), yeast of Candida species and fungi (Aspergillus niger R-3, Fusarium culmorum T-7). The antimi- crobial properties of surfactant were determined in suspension culture by Koch method and also by index of the minimum inhibitory concentration. Surfactants were extracted from supernatant of cultural liquid by mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1). It is shown that the antimicrobial properties of N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactant depended on the degree of purification (supernatant, solution of surfactant), concentration and exposure. Survival of Escherichia coli IEM-1 and Bacillus subtilis BT-2 (both vegetative cells and spores) after treatment for 1-2 hours with surfactants solution and the supernatant (the surfactant concentration 21 µg/ml) was 3-28%. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants on studied bacteria, yeast and micromycetes were 11.5-85.0; 11.5-22.5 and 165.0-325.0 µ/ml respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants are comparable to those of the known microbial surfactants. The possibility of using the supernatant of culture liquid as an effective antimicrobial agent noticeably simplifies and reduces the cost of the technology of its obtaining.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  19. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau


    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  20. Surfactant protein B inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 hydrolysis of surfactant phospholipids (United States)

    Grier, Bonnie L.; Waite, B. Moseley; Veldhuizen, Ruud A.; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Seeds, Michael C.


    Hydrolysis of surfactant phospholipids (PL) by secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) contributes to surfactant damage in inflammatory airway diseases such as acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. We and others have reported that each sPLA2 exhibits specificity in hydrolyzing different PLs in pulmonary surfactant and that the presence of hydrophilic surfactant protein A (SP-A) alters sPLA2-mediated hydrolysis. This report tests the hypothesis that hydrophobic SP-B also inhibits sPLA2-mediated surfactant hydrolysis. Three surfactant preparations were used containing varied amounts of SP-B and radiolabeled tracers of phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylglycerol (PG): 1) washed ovine surfactant (OS) (pre- and postorganic extraction) compared with Survanta (protein poor), 2) Survanta supplemented with purified bovine SP-B (1–5%, wt/wt), and 3) a mixture of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) (DPPC:POPC:POPG, 40:40:20) prepared as vesicles and monomolecular films in the presence or absence of SP-B. Hydrolysis of PG and PC by Group IB sPLA2 (PLA2G1A) was significantly lower in the extracted OS, which contains SP-B, compared with Survanta (P = 0.005), which is SP-B poor. Hydrolysis of PG and PC in nonextracted OS, which contains all SPs, was lower than both Survanta and extracted OS. When Survanta was supplemented with 1% SP-B, PG and PC hydrolysis by PLA2G1B was significantly lower (P hydrolysis by both PLA2G1B and Group IIA sPLA2 (PLA2G2A). In films, PLA2G1B hydrolyzed surfactant PL monolayers at surface pressures ≤30 mN/m (P hydrolysis can occur. These results suggest the hydrophobic SP, SP-B, protects alveolar surfactant PL from hydrolysis mediated by multiple sPLA2 in both vesicles (alveolar subphase) and monomolecular films (air-liquid interface). PMID:22037357

  1. Microemulsion-based lycopene extraction: Effect of surfactants, co-surfactants and pretreatments. (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman


    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has received extensive attention recently. Due to the challenges encountered with current methods of lycopene extraction using hazardous solvents, industry calls for a greener, safer and more efficient process. The main purpose of present study was application of microemulsion technique to extract lycopene from tomato pomace. In this respect, the effect of eight different surfactants, four different co-surfactants, and ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments on lycopene extraction efficiency was examined. Experimental results revealed that application of combined ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments, saponin as a natural surfactant, and glycerol as a co-surfactant, in the bicontinuous region of microemulsion was the optimal experimental conditions resulting in a microemulsion containing 409.68±0.68 μg/glycopene. The high lycopene concentration achieved, indicates that microemulsion technique, using a low-cost natural surfactant could be promising for a simple and safe separation of lycopene from tomato pomace and possibly from tomato industrial wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogels of sodium alginate in cationic surfactants: Surfactant dependent modulation of encapsulation/release toward Ibuprofen. (United States)

    Jabeen, Suraya; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Maswal, Masrat; Ashraf, Uzma; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad


    The interaction of cetyltrimethylammoium bromide (CTAB) and its gemini homologue (butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylcetylammonium bromide), 16-4-16 with biocompatible polymer sodium alginate (SA) has been investigated in aqueous medium. Addition of K2CO3 influences viscoelastic properties of surfactant impregnated SA via competition between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Viscosity of these polymer-surfactant systems increases with increase in concentration of K2CO3, and a cryogel is formed at about 0.5M K2CO3 concentration. The thermal stability of gel (5% SA+0.5M K2CO3) decreases with increase in surfactant concentration, a minimum is observed with increase in 16-4-16 concentration. The impact of surfactant addition on the alginate structure vis-à-vis its drug loading capability and release thereof was studied using Ibuprofen (IBU) as the model drug. The hydrogel with 16-4-16 exhibits higher IBU encapsulation and faster release in comparison to the one containing CTAB. This higher encapsulation-cum-faster release capability has been related to micelle mediated solubilization and greater porosity of the hydrogel with gemini surfactant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of postadded ethylene glycol surfactants on DNA-cationic surfactant/water mesophases. (United States)

    Leal, Cecilia; Bilalov, Azat; Lindman, Björn


    The addition of amphiphiles grafted with polyethylene glycol units to constructs of DNA-amphiphiles is of most relevance for applications demanding colloidal stability. In this work, we study the self-assembly behavior of a true ternary mixture comprising (i) an electroneutral complex of DNA and a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium, DTA), (ii) water, and (iii) nonionic surfactant (dodecyl tetraethylene glycol, C12EO4; and dodecyl octaethylene glycol, C12EO8). The phase diagrams of the two systems: DNA-DTA/C12EO4/water and DNA-DTA/C12EO8/water were carried out using 2H NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). In both mixtures, the DNA-DTA complex incorporates the postadded nonionic surfactant and large liquid crystalline regions were found. The supramolecular assemblies evolve from a 2D hexagonal structure of the normal type to a lamellar phase as the content of nonionic surfactant is increased. The effect of ethylene glycol unit size in the phase behavior is discussed. We suggest that when longer ethylene glycol units (C12EO8 vs C12EO4) are used, the DNA-DTA aggregate gets saturated with the nonionic surfactant and there exists a coexistence of a fully swollen mesophase phase of C12EO8 alone presumably of the normal hexagonal type with the lamellar and hexagonal phases of DNA-DTA/C12EO8/water.

  4. Topological transformation of a surfactant bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.


    Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigate......>(b), in the transformation from onion to plane to multiply connected bilayer structure as a function of temperature. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigated...

  5. Surfactant protein D in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Juvonen, Pekka Olavi; Holmskov, Uffe


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The role of SP-D in the metabolism of surfactant is as yet quite unclear. The aims of this study were to establish normal values of SP-D in the umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of mature...... was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood was 392.1 ng/mL and was found to be influenced by maternal smoking and labor. The median concentration of SP-D in capillary blood was 777.5 ng/mL and was found to be influenced by the mode of delivery...

  6. On the equivalence of cyclic and quasi-cyclic codes over finite fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Guenda


    Full Text Available This paper studies the equivalence problem for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ and quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$. In particular, we generalize the results of Huffman, Job, and Pless (J. Combin. Theory. A, 62, 183--215, 1993, who considered the special case $p^2$. This is achieved by explicitly giving the permutations by which two cyclic codes of prime power length are equivalent. This allows us to obtain an algorithm which solves the problem of equivalency for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ in polynomial time. Further, we characterize the set by which two quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$ can be equivalent, and prove that the affine group is one of its subsets.

  7. Molecular dynamics of surfactant protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Eunice; Santana, Alberto; Cruz, Anthony


    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a membrane-associated protein essential for normal respiration. It has been found that the alpha-helix form of SP-C can undergo, under certain conditions, a transformation from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand conformation that closely resembles amyloid fibrils, which...... occurs at the amino terminal, and despite this unfolding, no transition from alpha-helix to beta-strand was observed....

  8. Probing Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions (United States)

    Cao, Fangyu; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jiajun; He, Yadong; Hammouda, B.; Qiao, Rui; Yang, Bao


    Surfactant solutions typically feature tunable nanoscale, internal structures. Although rarely utilized, they can be a powerful platform for probing thermal transport in nanoscale domains and across interfaces with nanometer-size radius. Here, we examine the structure and thermal transport in solution of AOT (Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) in n-octane liquids using small-angle neutron scattering, thermal conductivity measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. We report the first experimental observation of a minimum thermal conductivity occurring at the critical micelle concentration (CMC): the thermal conductivity of the surfactant solution decreases as AOT is added till the onset of micellization but increases as more AOT is added. The decrease of thermal conductivity with AOT loading in solutions in which AOT molecules are dispersed as monomers suggests that even the interfaces between individual oleophobic headgroup of AOT molecules and their surrounding non-polar octane molecules can hinder heat transfer. The increase of thermal conductivity with AOT loading after the onset of micellization indicates that the thermal transport in the core of AOT micelles and across the surfactant-oil interfaces, both of which span only a few nanometers, are efficient.

  9. Electrodeposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles on fibrous carbon substrates in the presence of nonionic surfactant: Application for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Elod L.; Oloman, Colin W. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    Liquid crystalline and micellar aqueous solutions of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 were used to direct the electrodeposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles onto graphite felts, which were investigated as novel anodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. The effects of surfactant concentration, current density and deposition time in the preparation of these three-dimensional electrodes were studied in a factorial experiment and the electrodes were characterized by SEM and ICP-AES. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry were carried out to assess the activity of the catalyzed felts for methanol oxidation. The presence of Triton X-100 (40-60wt.%) coupled with an acidic plating solution were essential for the efficient co-electrodeposition of Ru in the presence of Pt to yield approximately a 1:1 Pt:Ru atomic ratio in the deposit. The highest mass specific activity, 24Ag{sup -1} at 298K (determined by chronoamperometry after 180s at 0V versus Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4std}), was obtained for the Pt-Ru electrodeposited in the presence of 40wt.% Triton X-100 at 60Am{sup -2}, 298K for 90min. Surfactant mediated electrodeposition is a promising method for meso-scale (ca. 10-60nm diameter) catalyst particle preparation on three-dimensional electrodes. (author)

  10. Influence of metacide - surfactant complexes on agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynkul Esimova


    Full Text Available The complexes based on surfactants and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacide are important for agriculture. This paper considers compositions of known bactericidal metacide with different surfactants: anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate (DDSNa and nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (monooleate of oxyethylenated anhydrosorbitols. The effect of individual components and associates of metacide and surfactants on productivity and infection of cereals was studied. According to the study, the highest productivity and infection rate were shown by the associate of metacide and Tween-80. At concentration of Tween-80 in aqueous solution equal to 0.001% in combination with metacide, efficiency was 98% at 0% infection. The surface tension and the wetting of metacide, DDSNa, Tween-80, and associates of metacide with surfactants were studied. In comparison with individual components, metacide-DDSNa and metacide-Tween-80 associates have higher surface activity.

  11. Gemini imidazolium surfactants: synthesis and their biophysiochemical study. (United States)

    Kamboj, Raman; Singh, Sukhprit; Bhadani, Avinash; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan


    New gemini imidazolium surfactants 9-13 have been synthesized by a regioselective epoxy ring-opening reaction under solvent-free conditions. The surface properties of these new gemini surfactants were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These surfactants have been found to have low critical micelle concentration (cmc) values as compared to other categories of gemini cationic surfactants and also showed the tendency to form premicellar aggregates in solution at sufficiently low concentration below their cmc values. The thermal degradation of these surfactants was determined by thermograviometry analysis (TGA). These new cationic surfactants have a good DNA binding capability as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. They have also been found to have low cytotoxicity by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the C6 glioma cell line.

  12. Restoring pulmonary surfactant membranes and films at the respiratory surface. (United States)

    Echaide, Mercedes; Autilio, Chiara; Arroyo, Raquel; Perez-Gil, Jesus


    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of lipids and proteins assembled and secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the thin layer of fluid coating the respiratory surface of lungs. There, surfactant forms interfacial films at the air-water interface, reducing dramatically surface tension and thus stabilizing the air-exposed interface to prevent alveolar collapse along respiratory mechanics. The absence or deficiency of surfactant produces severe lung pathologies. This review describes some of the most important surfactant-related pathologies, which are a cause of high morbidity and mortality in neonates and adults. The review also updates current therapeutic approaches pursuing restoration of surfactant operative films in diseased lungs, mainly through supplementation with exogenous clinical surfactant preparations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Pulmonary surfactant homeostasis associated genetic abnormalities and lung diseases]. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaojing; Sun, Xiuzhu; Du, Weihua; Hao, Haisheng; Zhao, Xueming; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huabin; Liu, Yan


    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is synthesized and secreted by alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells, which is a complex compound formed by proteins and lipids. Surfactant participates in a range of physiological processes such as reducing the surface tension, keeping the balance of alveolar fluid, maintaining normal alveolar morphology and conducting host defense. Genetic disorders of the surfactant homeostasis genes may result in lack of surfactant or cytotoxicity, and lead to multiple lung diseases in neonates, children and adults, including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper has provided a review for the functions and processes of pulmonary surfactant metabolism, as well as the connection between disorders of surfactant homeostasis genes and lung diseases.

  14. Cyclic cellular automata in 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Clifford A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States)


    Highlights: > We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. > Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. > Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. > Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.

  15. The nature of solar cyclicity. I (United States)

    Romanchuk, P. R.


    The report contains a critical survey of work devoted to the study of the nature of solar cyclicity. The inconsistency of the representation of cyclic curves using a frequency spectrum is indicated. The useful contribution of the ideas of Wolf, Newcomb, and Waldmeier to the solution of the problem is noted. Data are cited in favor of the theory of the tidal nature of solar cyclicity developed by the author, which also takes into account the ideas of the above-mentioned authors: the continuous paired and single tidal actions of the planets and the resonance character of this action, thanks to which the approximately 10-year period of action of Jupiter and Saturn is transformed into the 11-year activity cycle.

  16. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns...... and reactive distillation were studied and reported in literature. All these techniques employ the conventional continuous counter-current contact of vapor andliquid phases. Cyclic distillation technology is based on an alternative operating mode usingseparate phase movement which leads to key practical...... advantages in both chemical andbiochemical processes. This article provides a mini-review of cyclic distillation technology.The topics covered include the working principle, design and control methods, main benefitsand limitations as well as current industrial applications. Cyclic distillation can...

  17. A disorder of surfactant metabolism without identified genetic mutations


    Montella, Silvia; Vece, Timothy J.; Langston, Claire; Carrera, Paola; Nogee, Lawrence M.; Hamvas, Aaron; Manna, Angelo; Cervasio, Mara; Santamaria, Francesca


    Background Surfactant metabolism disorders may result in diffuse lung disease in children. Case presentation We report a 3-years-old boy with dry cough, progressive hypoxemia, dyspnea and bilateral ground glass opacities at chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) who had no variants in genes encoding surfactant proteins or transcription factors. Lung histology strongly suggested an abnormality of surfactant protein. A 7-month course of pulse intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone p...

  18. Surfactant development for enhanced oil recover. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The general objective of the project is to develop novel surfactants for tertiary recovery of light oil at elevated temperatures and high brine concentrations. Specific objectives are: to design, synthesize and characterize new surfactants capable of forming microemulsions of high stability at high temperatures and high salinity; to select microemulsions that will yield optimum efficiency and effectiveness in oil solubilization; to characterize the physico-chemical properties of selected microemulsion; to correlate surfactant efficacy with physico-chemical variables of selected reservoirs.

  19. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  20. Cyclic microplasticity factors of some metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puskar, A. (University of Transport and Telecommunications, Zilina (Czechoslovakia))


    The measurement of the internal friction and the elasticity modulus defect together with a new approximation for evaluating the plastic deformation amplitude from the total deformation amplitude enable the cyclic deformation curves, the changes in hysteresis loop area on increasing the deformation amplitude and many other important characteristics of cyclic microplasticity to be determined during a push-pull type of loading at a frequency of 23kHz on dumb-bell shaped specimens of titanium, molybdenum, niobium and low carbon unalloyed steel.

  1. Towards Optimization of Cyclic Production Systems


    Chauvet, Fabrice; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.; Proth, Jean-Marie


    In this paper, the expression "production systems" refers to flow-shops, job-shops, assembly systems, Kanban systems and, in general, to any Discrete Event System (DES) which transforms raw material and/or components into products and/or components. Such a system is said to be cyclic if it provides indefinitely the same sequence of products. A schedule of a cyclic production system is defined as soon as the starting time of each operation on the related resource is known. It has been showed t...

  2. SICLOPPS cyclic peptide libraries in drug discovery. (United States)

    Tavassoli, Ali


    Cyclic peptide libraries have demonstrated significant potential when employed against challenging targets such as protein-protein interactions. While a variety of methods for library generation exist, genetically encoded libraries hold several advantages over their chemically synthesized counterparts; they are more readily accessible and allow straightforward hit deconvolution. One method for the intracellular generation of such libraries is split-intein circular ligation of peptides and proteins (SICLOPPS). Here we detail and discuss the deployment of SICLOPPS libraries for the identification of cyclic peptide inhibitors of a variety of targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Severe congenital cyclic neutropenia: A case report. (United States)

    Patil, Vidyavathi H; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Balikai, Girish; Patil, Sudha


    Congenital cyclic neutropenia syndrome is a constitutional genetic disorder which is characterized by very low number of neutrophils (neutropenia). Patients suffering from this disorder clinically present with neutropenia at early age, history of recurrent fever, ulcerations in the oral cavity, gingivitis, and other recurrent infections. This paper describes a case report of a child with recurrent mouth ulcers, fever, and later diagnosed with severe congenital cyclic neutropenia. This also emphasizes the importance of identification of rare causes of immunosuppressive conditions in children presenting with recurrent oral ulcers and poor dental hygiene, to prevent long-term complications of oral cavity and also morbidity and mortality secondary to neutropenic sepsis.

  4. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel


    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  5. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Elliott


    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung

  6. Infrared investigation of organo-montmorillonites prepared from different surfactants (United States)

    Ma, Yuehong; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping; Yuan, Peng; Shen, Wei; Liu, Dong


    In this paper, a series of organoclays were prepared from montmorillonites with different CEC and surfactants with different alkyl chain numbers and chain length. Then, FTIR spectroscopy using ATR, DRIFT and KBr pressed disk techniques was used to characterize the local environments of surfactant and host clays in various surfactants modified montmorillonites under wet and dry states. The present study demonstrates that the alkyl chain length and chain number have significant influences on the local environment of the intercalated surfactants. Also, this study indicates that the surface property of the resulting organoclays is affected by the loading and configuration of the intercalated surfactants. In wet state, more gauche conformers are introduced into the alkyl chains in the organoclays with low surfactant loading, evidenced by the shift of CH 2 vibration to higher frequency. Meanwhile, in the case of the organo-montmorillonites with high surfactant loading, the interaction between the surfactant and silicate surface results in a re-arrangement of SiO 4 tetrahedral sheets and a splitting of Si-O stretching vibration. The KBr pressed disk technique is suitable to probe the conformational ordering of the confined amine chains and the reflectance spectroscopy with ATR and/or DRIFT technique is more suitable to probe the water in organoclays. These findings are of high importance to the preparation of organoclays with proper surfactants and investigation of the microstructure of the resulting organoclays using suitable techniques.

  7. Pulmonary surfactant surface tension influences alveolar capillary shape and oxygenation. (United States)

    Ikegami, Machiko; Weaver, Timothy E; Grant, Shawn N; Whitsett, Jeffrey A


    Alveolar capillaries are located in close proximity to the alveolar epithelium and beneath the surfactant film. We hypothesized that the shape of alveolar capillaries and accompanying oxygenation are influenced by surfactant surface tension in the alveolus. To prove our hypothesis, surfactant surface tension was regulated by conditional expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B in Sftpb(-/-) mice, thereby inhibiting surface tension-lowering properties of surfactant in vivo within 24 hours after depletion of Sftpb. Minimum surface tension of isolated surfactant was increased and oxygen saturation was significantly reduced after 2 days of SP-B deficiency in association with deformation of alveolar capillaries. Intravascularly injected 3.2-mum-diameter microbeads through jugular vein were retained within narrowed pulmonary capillaries after reduction of SP-B. Ultrastructure studies demonstrated that the capillary protrusion typical of the normal alveolar-capillary unit was reduced in size, consistent with altered pulmonary blood flow. Pulmonary hypertension and intrapulmonary shunting are commonly associated with surfactant deficiency and dysfunction in neonates and adults with respiratory distress syndromes. Increased surfactant surface tension caused by reduction in SP-B induced narrowing of alveolar capillaries and oxygen desaturation, demonstrating an important role of surface tension-lowering properties of surfactant in the regulation of pulmonary vascular perfusion.

  8. Surfactant-induced core/shell phase equilibrium in hydrogels. (United States)

    Gernandt, J; Hansson, P


    The formation of core/shell structures in hydrogels upon interaction with surfactants is a well-known phenomenon, but whether they are equilibrium states or not is still under debate. This paper presents an equilibrium theory of phase coexistence in hydrogels meant to answer the question of the stability of core/shell separation. The theory suggests that core/shell separation caused by surfactants can indeed be thermodynamically stable if the amount of added surfactant is not too large, but that the exact phase behaviour is governed by both the volume and concentration of the added surfactant solution.

  9. Surfactants have multi-fold effects on skin barrier function. (United States)

    Lemery, Emmanuelle; Briançon, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Yves; Oddos, Thierry; Gohier, Annie; Boyron, Olivier; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine


    The stratum corneum (SC) is responsible for the barrier properties of the skin and the role of intercorneocyte skin lipids, particularly their structural organization, in controlling SC permeability is acknowledged. Upon contacting the skin, surfactants interact with the SC components leading to barrier damage. To improve knowledge of the effect of several classes of surfactant on skin barrier function at three different levels. The influence of treatments of human skin explants with six non-ionic and four ionic surfactant solutions on the physicochemical properties of skin was investigated. Skin surface wettability and polarity were assessed through contact angle measurements. Infrared spectroscopy allowed monitoring the SC lipid organization. The lipid extraction potency of surfactants was evaluated thanks to HPLC-ELSD assays. One anionic and one cationic surfactant increased the skin polarity by removing the sebaceous and epidermal lipids and by disturbing the organization of the lipid matrix. Another cationic surfactant displayed a detergency effect without disturbing the skin barrier. Several non-ionic surfactants disturbed the lipid matrix organization and modified the skin wettability without any extraction of the skin lipids. Finally two non-ionic surfactants did not show any effect on the investigated parameters or on the skin barrier. The polarity, the organization of the lipid matrix and the lipid composition of the skin allowed describing finely how surfactants can interact with the skin and disturb the skin barrier function.

  10. Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Nonionic Surfactants (United States)

    Asculai, Samuel S.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rancourt, Martha W.; Kupferberg, A. B.


    Nonionic surface-active agents possessing ether or amide linkages between the hydrophillic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule rapidly inactivated the infectivity of herpes simplex viruses. The activity stemmed from the ability of nonionic surfactants to dissolve lipid-containing membranes. This was confirmed by observing surfactant destruction of mammalian cell plasma membranes and herpes simplex virus envelopes. Proprietary vaginal contraceptive formulations containing nonionic surfactants also inactivated herpes simplex virus infectivity. This observation suggests that nonionic surfactants in appropriate formulation could effectively prevent herpes simplex virus transmission. Images PMID:208460

  11. Pulmonary Surfactant Function in Alveoli and Conducting Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Enhorning


    Full Text Available Surface tension plays a very important role in aeration of the neonate's lungs. Pulmonary surfactant, which is inadequate in the premature infant, modifies surface tension during the act of breathing and is necessary for maintenance of alveolar stability. These facts led to the development of the concept that it might be possible to treat the premature infant by supplementing the infant's inadequate surfactant supply. In addition to maintaining alveolar stability, pulmonary surfactant might also be of vital importance for maintenance of small airway patency. Various conditions, most importantly asthma, might be the reason for a surfactant dysfunction to develop. This in turn might cause airway resistance to increase.

  12. Surfactant alteration and replacement in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmrath Dieter


    Full Text Available Abstract The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a frequent, life-threatening disease in which a marked increase in alveolar surface tension has been repeatedly observed. It is caused by factors including a lack of surface-active compounds, changes in the phospholipid, fatty acid, neutral lipid, and surfactant apoprotein composition, imbalance of the extracellular surfactant subtype distribution, inhibition of surfactant function by plasma protein leakage, incorporation of surfactant phospholipids and apoproteins into polymerizing fibrin, and damage/inhibition of surfactant compounds by inflammatory mediators. There is now good evidence that these surfactant abnormalities promote alveolar instability and collapse and, consequently, loss of compliance and the profound gas exchange abnormalities seen in ARDS. An acute improvement of gas exchange properties together with a far-reaching restoration of surfactant properties was encountered in recently performed pilot studies. Here we summarize what is known about the kind and severity of surfactant changes occuring in ARDS, the contribution of these changes to lung failure, and the role of surfactant administration for therapy of ARDS.

  13. Recent clinical trials of surfactant treatment for neonates. (United States)

    Halliday, Henry L


    To search for recent clinical trials of neonatal surfactant treatment and report their findings. Recent was defined as published between 2000 and 2005. An online search on PubMed was made on 30th December 2005 using the following terms: surfactant treatment, clinical trials and neonate, with limits of years 2000 to 2005 and age - newborn from birth to 1 month. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs were prioritised and studies in children and animals were excluded from further analysis. 175 papers were found in this search. Only about half of these papers were directly related to some aspect of surfactant treatment and of these just over one-half were either RCTs or systematic reviews of RCTs. Of the 34 RCTs of surfactant treatment, 3 were excluded as they involved children or animals rather than neonates. Twenty-nine trials studied preterm babies with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 2 were for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in term infants. The median sample sizes of these studies were RDS (92, range 19-1,361) and MAS (42, range 22-61). Eighteen of the RDS trials compared two or more surfactant preparations, the most frequently studied being Curosurf and Survanta but altogether 11 different surfactants were compared. These new RCTs need to be analysed by meta-analyses in systematic reviews. Twelve systematic reviews were found and these demonstrated the superiority of prophylactic over selective use of surfactant in babies surfactant and the absence of an increase in long-term developmental sequelae. Surfactant for MAS may reduce the severity of respiratory illness and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Of the non-randomised trials' novel delivery methods, failure to use evidence-based guidelines and the benefit of surfactant for babies Surfactant remains one of the most effective and safest interventions in neonatology. Prophylactic natural surfactant seems to be the most evidence-based treatment for babies


    The relative environmental toxicities of synthetic and biogenic surfactants used in oil spill remediation efforts are not well understood. Acute and chronic toxicities of three synthetic surfactants and three microbially produced surfactants were determined and compared in this s...

  15. C-reactive protein increases membrane fluidity and distorts lipid lateral organization of pulmonary surfactant. Protective role of surfactant protein A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saenz, Alejandra; Lopez-Sanchez, Almudena; Mojica-Lazaro, Jonas


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how surfactant membranes can be perturbed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and whether surfactant protein A (SP-A) might overcome CRP-induced surfactant membrane alterations. The effect of CRP on surfactant surface adsorption was evaluated in vivo after int...

  16. Optimization of cyclic operation by recycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Barbosa-Póvoa, A.; Matos, H


    The production rate of a batch, fed-batch or cyclic process can be increased, meanwhile providing a high product quality along with an excellent feed exhaustion, by partitioning of the process into two phases: a production and an exhaustion phase. The useful part of the exhaustion phase product is

  17. Cosmology and Cosmogony in a Cyclic Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper we discuss the properties of the quasi-steady state cosmological model (QSSC) developed in 1993 in its role as a cyclic model of the universe driven by a negative energy scalar field. We discuss the origin of such a scalar field in the primary creation process first described by F. Hoyle & J. V. ...

  18. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.


    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose

  19. Cyclic electron flow: facts and hypotheses. (United States)

    Finazzi, Giovanni; Johnson, Giles N


    Over the last 15 years, research into the process of cyclic electron flow in photosynthesis has seen a huge resurgence. Having been considered by some in the early 1990s as a physiologically unimportant artefact, it is now recognised as essential to normal plant growth. Here, we provide an overview of the major developments covered in this special issue of photosynthesis research.

  20. Monopod Bucket Foundations Under Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a cost-reducing substructure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the energy converter operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper, a 1-g testing rig...

  1. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowledge...

  2. Cyclic Cushing's syndrome : a clinical challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, J. R.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder, characterized by repeated episodes of cortisol excess interspersed by periods of normal cortisol secretion. The so-called cycles of hypercortisolism can occur regularly or irregularly with intercyclic phases ranging from days to years. To formally

  3. Cyclic viscoelastoplasticity of polypropylene/nanoclay composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, A.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville


    Observations are reported on isotactic polypropylene/organically modified nanoclay hybrids with concentrations of filler ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% in cyclic tensile tests with a stress–controlled program (oscillations between various maximum stresses and the zero minimum stress). A pronounced effe...

  4. Pseudocontinuation and cyclicity for random power series


    Abakumov, Evgeny; Poltoratski, Alexei


    We prove that a random function in the Hardy space $H^2$ is a non-cyclic vector for the backward shift operator almost surely. The question of existence of a local pseudocontinuation for a random analytic function is also studied.

  5. Steady state oxygen reduction and cyclic voltammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas


    The catalytic activity of Pt and Pt3Ni for the oxygen reduction reaction is investigated by applying a Sabatier model based on density functional calculations. We investigate the role of adsorbed OH on the activity, by comparing cyclic voltammetry obtained from theory with previously published ex...

  6. Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in aqueous surfactant solutions (United States)

    Wasekar, Vivek Mahadeorao

    Saturated, nucleate pool boiling in aqueous surfactant solutions is investigated experimentally. Also, the role of Marangoni convection, driven both by temperature and surfactant concentration gradients at the vapor-liquid interface of a nucleating bubble is computationally explored. Experimental measurements of dynamic and equilibrium sigma using the maximum bubble pressure method indicate dynamic sigma to be higher than the corresponding equilibrium value, both at room and elevated temperatures. Also, nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Triton X-305) show larger sigma depression than anionic surfactants (SDS, SLES), and a normalized representation of their dynamic adsorption isotherms is shown to be helpful in generalizing the surfactant effectiveness to reduce surface tension. The dynamic sigma has a primary role in the modification of bubble dynamics and associated heat transfer, and is dictated by the adsorption kinetics of the surfactant molecules at boiling temperatures. In general, an enhancement in heat transfer is observed, which is characterized by an early incipience and an optimum boiling performance at or around the critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. The optimum performances, typically in the fully developed boiling regime ( q''w > 100 kW/m2), show a reverse trend with respect to surfactant molecular weights M, i.e., higher molecular weight additives promote lower enhancement. Normalized boiling performance using the respective solution's dynamic sigma correlates heat transfer coefficient by M-0.5 for anionics and M 0 for nonionics. This has been shown to be brought about by the surfactant concentration and its interfacial activity in a concentration sublayer around the growing vapor bubble, which governs the bubble growth behavior through the mechanism of dynamic sigma. The ionic nature of the surfactant influences the thickness and molecular makeup of the enveloping sublayer, thereby affecting the bubble dynamics and boiling heat

  7. Antagonistic Properties of Some Halophilic Thermoactinomycetes Isolated from Superficial Sediment of a Solar Saltern and Production of Cyclic Antimicrobial Peptides by the Novel Isolate Paludifilum halophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donyez Frikha Dammak


    Full Text Available This study has focused on the isolation of twenty-three halophilic actinomycetes from two ponds of different salinity and the evaluation of their ability to exert an antimicrobial activity against both their competitors and several other pathogens. From the 23 isolates, 18 strains showed antagonistic activity, while 19 showed activities against one or more of the seven pathogen strains tested. Six strains exhibited consistent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens characterized at the physiological and molecular levels. These strains shared only 94-95% 16S rRNA sequence identity with the closely related species of the Thermoactinomycetaceae family. Among them, the potent strain SMBg3 was further characterized and assigned to a new genus in the family for which the name Paludifilum halophilum (DSM 102817T is proposed. Sequential extraction of the antimicrobial compounds with ethyl acetate revealed that the crude extract from SMBg3 strain had inhibitory effect on the growth of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the HRESI-MS spectral data, the cyclic lipopeptide Gramicidin S and four cyclic dipeptides (CDPs named cyclo(L-4-OH-Pro-L-Leu, cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Pro, cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro, and cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro were detected in the fermentation broth of Paludifilum halophilum. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae family.

  8. Enantioselectivity of vesicle-forming chiral surfactants in capillary electrophoresis. Role of the surfactant headgroup structure. (United States)

    Mohanty, Ashok; Dey, Joykrishna


    Two vesicle-forming single-tailed amino acid derivatized surfactants sodium N-[4-n-dodecyloxybenzoyl]-L-leucinate (SDLL) and sodium N-[4-n-dodecyloxybenzoyl]-L-isoleucinate (SDLIL) have been synthesized and used as pseudo-stationary phase in micellar electrokinetic chromatography to evaluate the role of steric factor of amino acid headgroup and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions for enantiomeric separations. The aggregation behavior of the surfactants has been studied in aqueous buffered solution using surface tension and fluorescence probe techniques. Results of these studies have suggested formation of vesicles in aqueous solutions. Microenvironment of the vesicle, which determines the depth of penetration of the analytes into vesicle was determined by fluorescence probe technique using pyrene, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN), and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) as probe molecules. Atropisomeric compounds (+/-)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BOH), (+/-)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine (BDA), (+/-)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diylhydrogen phosphate (BNP) and Tröger's base (TB) and chiral compound benzoin (BZN) has been enantioseparated. The separations were optimized with respect to surfactant concentration, pH, and borate buffer concentration. SDLL was found to provide better resolution for BOH, BNP, and BZN. On the other hand, SDLIL offers better resolution for BDA. The chromatographic results have been discussed in the light of the aggregation behavior of the surfactants and the interaction of the solutes with the vesicles.

  9. Surfactant enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, tulane virus with organic acids and surfactant (United States)

    Human infection with foodborne viruses can occur following consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person body contact, or release of aerosols. Combinatorial treatments of surfactants and organic acids may have synergistic or additive mechanisms to inactivate foodborne viruses and prevent outbr...

  10. Surfactant-enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, Tulane virus, with organic acids and surfactant (United States)

    Combination treatments of surfactants and phenolic or short-chained organic acids (SCOA) may act synergistically or additively as sanitizers to inactive foodborne viruses and prevent outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid (GA), tannic acid (TA), p-coumaric ...

  11. Intratracheal budesonide supplementation in addition to surfactant improves pulmonary outcome in surfactant-depleted newborn piglets. (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Feng; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Chiou, Shr-Yun; Yang, Yi-Chiang; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Soong, Wen-Jue; Jeng, Mei-Jy


    Severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. The combined use of intratracheal corticosteroid and surfactant in severe RDS, which bypasses the systemic circulation, may not only help recruit the lungs but also alleviates pulmonary inflammation without an increase in systemic adverse effects. Twelve newborn piglets received repeated pulmonary saline lavage to create surfactant-depleted lungs that mimic neonatal RDS, and then were randomly grouped into a control group (standard intratracheal instillation of surfactant-Survanta 100 mg/kg); and a budesonide (Bude) group (intratracheal instillation with the mixed suspension of Budesonide 0.25 mg/kg and Survanta 100 mg/kg). Blood samples were examined, and the observation period was 24 hr. The results showed that oxygenation was significantly better in Bude group compared to the control group over time (P = 0.016). The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 β showed a reduced trend in the Bude group, but was not significantly different from the control group (P > 0.05). Comparing the histological lung injury scores, the Bude group had a significantly lower score than the control group at both dependent and non-dependent sites (P surfactant seems to results in a sustained improvement in pulmonary outcome over 24 hr. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Optimization of Variable Ventilation for Physiology, Immune Response and Surfactant Enhancement in Preterm Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki


    Full Text Available Preterm infants often require mechanical ventilation due to lung immaturity including reduced or abnormal surfactant. Since cyclic stretch with cycle-by-cycle variability is known to augment surfactant release by epithelial cells, we hypothesized that such in vivo mechanotransduction improves surfactant maturation and hence lung physiology in preterm subjects. We thus tested whether breath-by-breath variability in tidal volume (VT in variable ventilation (VV can be tuned for optimal performance in a preterm lamb model. Preterm lambs were ventilated for 3 h with conventional ventilation (CV or two variants of VV that used a maximum VT of 1.5 (VV1 or 2.25 (VV2 times the mean VT. VT was adjusted during ventilation to a permissive pCO2 target range. Respiratory mechanics were monitored continuously using the forced oscillation technique, followed by postmortem bronchoalveolar lavage and tissue collection. Both VVs outperformed CV in blood gas parameters (pH, SaO2, cerebral O2 saturation. However, only VV2 lowered PaCO2 and had a higher specific respiratory compliance than CV. VV2 also increased surfactant protein (SP-B release compared to VV1 and stimulated its production compared to CV. The production and release of proSP-C however, was increased with CV compared to both VVs. There was more SP-A in both VVs than CV in the lung, but VV2 downregulated SP-A in the lavage, whereas SP-D significantly increased in CV in both the lavage and lung. Compared to CV, the cytokines IL-1β, and TNFα decreased with both VVs with less inflammation during VV2. Additionally, VV2 lungs showed the most homogeneous alveolar structure and least inflammatory cell infiltration assessed by histology. CV lungs exhibited over-distension mixed with collapsed and interstitial edematous regions with occasional hemorrhage. Following VV1, some lambs had normal alveolar structure while others were similar to CV. The IgG serum proteins in the lavage, a marker of leakage, were the

  13. Enhanced oil recovery with modified nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelle, A.; Littmann, W.


    Practically all work on chemical flooding, both in the laboratory and in the field, has been focused on petroleum sulphonates. However, as soon as the concentration of electrolyes, especially of divalent ions, exceeds a critical value, the use of this class of anionic surfactants becomes troublesome. Some of the difficulties may be overcome by the use of additives, preferably ether sulphates or ether sulphonates. Hence, the favourable properties of nonionic substances, such as excellent stability to electrolytes, have been combined with those of anionics, and thus the so-called modified nonionics are available for chemical flooding. These products offer the possibility of chemical adaption to the reservoir conditions, are very stable toward electrolytes, and their solubility does not depend on the temperature. The latter is a drawback of nonionic products (cloud point). The modified nonionics are essentially anionics based on ethene oxide derivatives of alcohols or alkylphenols, with subsequent incorporation of sulphate, sulphonate, carboxyl or phosphate groups. On the basis of the reservoir conditions, crude oil properties, and reservoir water, various processes have been screened for enhanced oil recovery in the Velebit reservoir. It was decided to simultaneously inject modified nonionic surfactants and polymers. In part of the reservoir, this process will be tested in two stages in a line drive with several injection wells and production wells. The total area is about 20,000 m/sup 3/. The first stage involves water flooding of about half the area, in order to collect additional data on the reservoir. During the second stage, simultaneous injection of surfactants and polymers will take place. The reservoir is described, and possible EOR processes, the flooding concept and selection of chemicals are discussed.

  14. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho


    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  15. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete


    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  16. The Krafft temperature of surfactant solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Jelena Ž.


    Full Text Available Our main motivation to revisit the solution properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is related to the clear requirement for better control of the adsorption parameters to form uniform self-assembled monolayers on muscovite mica substrates. To readily monitor the temporal evolution of structural details in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, we realized a rather simple conductivity experiment. Conductivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature, to look closer into the Krafft temperature behavior of this surfactant. We measured the electrical conductivity of different concentrations of aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, below and above the critical micells concentration.

  17. Size separation of analytes using monomeric surfactants (United States)

    Yeung, Edward S.; Wei, Wei


    A sieving medium for use in the separation of analytes in a sample containing at least one such analyte comprises a monomeric non-ionic surfactant of the of the general formula, B-A, wherein A is a hydrophilic moiety and B is a hydrophobic moiety, present in a solvent at a concentration forming a self-assembled micelle configuration under selected conditions and having an aggregation number providing an equivalent weight capable of effecting the size separation of the sample solution so as to resolve a target analyte(s) in a solution containing the same, the size separation taking place in a chromatography or electrophoresis separation system.

  18. Augmentation Quotients for Real Representation Rings of Cyclic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Augmentation Quotients for Real Representation Rings of Cyclic Groups. Article Type: Reseach Article. Keywords: cyclic group; real representation; augmentation ideal; augmentation quotient. Corresponding Author: Hang Liu, Ph.D. Shaanxi Normal University. Xi'an, Shaanxi CHINA. Corresponding Author Secondary.

  19. New Correlations Between Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Metallic Materials (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Giovanni


    Knowledge of the cyclic properties of metallic materials is often critical to correctly design structural components. However, cyclic data are not easily available in the literature, while tensile test data are easier to find in specialized sites or vendor catalogs. In this study, the cyclic strength coefficient and the cyclic strain hardening exponent of the Ramberg-Osgood law were evaluated using exclusively data obtained through monotonic tensile tests. The analyses were carried out on a large set of materials. The database used is composed of 338 alloys, mainly iron alloys, but also titanium and aluminum alloys. New subdivisions of the materials were introduced. Several original relations were suggested to correlate static and cyclic strength parameters. The evaluated values of both cyclic strength coefficient and cyclic strain hardening exponent were compared with experimental values coming from cyclic test, obtaining a satisfactory agreement and a higher accuracy if compared with similar relations found in the literature.

  20. A liquid CO2-compatible hydrocarbon surfactant: experiment and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    Surfactants soluble in liquid CO2 are rare and knowledge on interfacial and self-assembly behaviour is fragmented. We found that polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether is interfacially active at the water–liquid CO2 interface. Water–liquid CO2 interfacial tension was measured at various surfactant

  1. The Effect of Surfactants on Gas-Liquid Pipe Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, A.T.


    Liquid loading is a major problem in the natural gas industry, in which gas production is limited by the accumulation of liquids in the well tubing. Liquid loading can be prevented by the injection of surfactants at the bottom of the well. The surfactants cause the liquid in the well to foam,

  2. Surfactants attenuate gas embolism-induced thrombin production. (United States)

    Eckmann, David M; Diamond, Scott L


    There are no pharmacologic strategies to prevent embolism bubble-induced blood clot formation. The authors conducted experiments to measure thrombin production in sheared whole blood in the presence and absence of bubbles and three surface-active compounds. Blood samples were obtained from six volunteers seven times. The thrombin-specific substrate Boc-VPR-MCA was added to citrated blood diluted with HEPES-buffered saline. Experimental groups were as follows: sparging (air microbubble embolization) with surfactant present; sparging alone; surfactant alone; and neither surfactant nor sparging. The surfactants were Dow Corning Antifoam 1510US, Perftoran, and Pluronic F-127. Blood was sheared by a cone-plate viscometer at 100 and 500 s-1 for 5, 10, and 20 min at 37 degrees C, pipetted into excess stop buffer, and evaluated fluorimetrically. Mean values of fluorescence intensity +/- SDs for each group were compared using ANOVA. Differences were considered significant at P Surfactant addition without sparging did not change thrombin production (P > 0.05). Surfactants attenuated thrombin production in sparged samples 31.8-70.9% (P Surfactants added before sparging attenuate thrombin production. Surfactants may have a clinical application to attenuate gas embolism-induced clotting.

  3. Binding of alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants to sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.


    Binding of cationic surfactants to anionic polymers is well studied. However, the surfactant binding characteristics at very low concentration near the start of binding and at high concentration, where charge compensation may Occur. are less well known. Therefore, the binding characteristics of

  4. Effects of surfactants on size and structure of amylose nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work investigated the influence of surfactants on size and structure of amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through precipitation. ANPs were fabricated using absolute ethanol containing surfactants (Tween80, Span80 and mixtures of Tween80 and Span80 with ratios of 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25, respectively) ...

  5. New Y-shaped surfactants from renewable resources. (United States)

    Ali, Tammar Hussein; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali; Heidelberg, Thorsten


    A series of sugar-based surfactants, involving a single hydrophobic chain (C12) and two side-by-side arranged head groups, was prepared form simple glucose precursors. All surfactants were highly water soluble and exhibited exclusively micellar assemblies. This behavior makes them interesting candidates for oil in water emulsifiers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid (United States)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Santer, Svetlana


    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes' properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate - for the first time - complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  7. Adsorption and intercalation of anionic surfactants onto layered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Layered double hydroxides (LDH) with brucite like structure was modified with various anionic surfactants containing sulfonate, carboxyl, phosphonate and sulfate end group through ion-exchange method. XRD reports indicated that the sulfonate group containing surfactants led to an adsorption process whereas.

  8. Effects of surfactants on size and structure of amylose nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present work investigated the influence of surfactants on size and structure of amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through precipitation. ANPs were fabricated using absolute ethanol containing surfactants (Tween80, Span80 and mixtures of Tween80 and Span80 with ratios of 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25, ...

  9. Effect of exogenous surfactant on total respiratory system compliance.


    Milner, A D; Vyas, H; Hopkin, I E


    We measured total respiratory system compliance (Crs) before and after instilling 25 mg artificial surfactant in 1 ml saline down the endotracheal tube of preterm babies requiring resuscitation at birth, and compared results with data from 6 similar babies receiving saline only. Surfactant did not produce a significant improvement in Crs.

  10. The Inhibiting or Accelerating Effect of Different Surfactants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    surfactants had a varying effect on the kinetics of electroreduction of Zn2+ ions. Simple relationships were presented ... drastic influence on the rate of an electrode reaction, either in a decelerating or an accelerating sense. ... surfactant concentrations were lower than their critical micellar point (CMC). 2. Experimental. 2.1.

  11. Phase Behavior of Laundry Surfactants in Polar Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, Marc C.A.; Pas, John C. van de; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    Laundry surfactants are usually mixtures of ionic and nonionic detergents that exhibit a complex phase behavior. Here the ternary phase behavior of an isotropic and a liquid crystalline (LC) surfactant mixture has been examined in water/solvent systems. The size of the LC area in the ternary phase

  12. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of nonionic surfactant: Effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concentration of sugar. The structure of micelles is almost independent of the different types of sugars used. Keywords. Small-angle neutron scattering; nonionic surfactant; micellar aggregation number. PACS Nos 61.12.Ex; 82.70.Uv. 1. Introduction. Surfactant molecules self assemble into aggregates in aqueous solution to ...

  13. Adsorption and intercalation of anionic surfactants onto layered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) with brucite like structure was modified with various anionic surfactants containing sulfonate, carboxyl, phosphonate and sulfate end group through ion-exchange method. XRD reports indicated that the sulfonate group containing surfactants led to an adsorption process whereas the sulfate ...

  14. Defluorination of drinking water using surfactant modified zeolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defluorination of drinking water using surfactant modified zeolites. ... Owingto the arid nature of these localities, the inhabitants (who are mainly peasant farmers), relymore on groundwater sources for their drinking water. With the strenuous ... Keywords: characterization, defluoridation, groundwater, surfactant, zeolites ...

  15. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  16. Use of natural surfactant in an infant with aspiration syndrome. (United States)

    Bisceglia, M; Verre, M; Tancioni, F; Piccirillo, M; Corapi, U P; Barozzi, E; Vulcano, S


    The remarkable effectiveness of surfactant in neonatology suggested its use also in adults as well as in children on the basis of the pulmonary pathophysiology. We describe a case of an 18 month-old child affected by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to asphyxy by gastric juice inhalation, successfully treated with porcine surfactant (Curosurf) associated with ventilatory therapy.

  17. Competitive adsorption: a physical model for lung surfactant inactivation. (United States)

    Fernsler, Jonathan G; Zasadzinski, Joseph A


    Charged, surface-active serum proteins can severely reduce or eliminate the adsorption of lung surfactant from the subphase to the alveolar air-liquid interface via a kinetically controlled competitive adsorption process. The decreased surfactant concentration at the interface leads to higher surface tensions during the compression of the interface during breathing. The correspondence between the factors governing colloid stability and competitive adsorption is validated via a new method of measuring surfactant and serum protein adsorption rates to the air-water interface, using quantitative Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). Competitive adsorption from a 10 mg/mL albumin subphase prevents the adsorption of lung surfactant from even high subphase concentrations due to the fast diffusion of the water-soluble proteins to the interface. The formation of an albumin film causes an electrostatic and steric barrier to subsequent surfactant adsorption, which can destroy the necessary properties of functional lung surfactant: low surface tension during compression and rapid respreading after film collapse. Surfactant inactivation is at least partially due to decreased surfactant adsorption; such decreased adsorption due to the presence of serum proteins may play a role in the development and severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  18. Animal derived surfactant extract versus protein free synthetic surfactant for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Ardell, Stephanie; Pfister, Robert H; Soll, Roger


    A wide variety of surfactant preparations have been developed and tested including synthetic surfactants and surfactants derived from animal sources. Although clinical trials have demonstrated that both synthetic surfactant and animal derived surfactant preparations are effective, comparison in animal models has suggested that there may be greater efficacy of animal derived surfactant products, perhaps due to the protein content of animal derived surfactant. To compare the effect of animal derived surfactant to protein free synthetic surfactant preparations in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Searches were updated of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2014), PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE (1975 through November 2014). All languages were included. Randomized controlled trials comparing administration of protein free synthetic surfactants to administration of animal derived surfactant extracts in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome were considered for this review. Data collection and analysis were conducted according to the standards of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Fifteen trials met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed that the use of animal derived surfactant rather than protein free synthetic surfactant resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of pneumothorax [typical relative risk (RR) 0.65, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.77; typical risk difference (RD) -0.04, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.02; number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) 25; 11 studies, 5356 infants] and a marginal reduction in the risk of mortality (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.99; typical RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.04 to -0.00; NNTB 50; 13 studies, 5413 infants).Animal derived surfactant was associated with an increase in the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis [typical RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.76; typical RD 0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04; number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) 50; 8

  19. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg


    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  20. Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy and Noninvasive Respiratory Support. (United States)

    Kribs, Angela


    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by surfactant deficiency is major cause for neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity of preterm infants. Continuous positive airway pressure and other modes of noninvasive respiratory support and intubation and positive pressure ventilation with surfactant therapy are efficient therapies for RDS. Because continuous positive airway pressure can fail in severe surfactant deficiency, and because traditional surfactant therapy requires intubation and positive pressure ventilation, this entails a risk of lung injury. Several strategies to combine noninvasive respiratory therapy with minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. Available data suggest that those strategies may improve outcome of premature infants with RDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Antibiosis Action and Rice-Induced Resistance, Mediated by a Lipopeptide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B014, in Controlling Rice Disease Caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. (United States)

    Li, Shu Bin; Xu, Shi Ru; Zhang, Rui Ning; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Ren Chao


    In the present study, a lipopeptide (named AXLP14) antagonistic to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) was obtained from the culture supernatant of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B014. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that AXLP14 consisted of surfactin homologs. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of AXLP14 against Xoo were determined to be 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ml, respectively. At a concentration of 0.613 mg/ml, AXLP14 strongly inhibited the formation of Xoo biofilm. AXLP14 also inhibited the motility of Xoo in a concentration-dependent manner. Applying AXLP14 to rice seedlings significantly reduced the incidence and severity of disease caused by Xoo. In Xoo-infected rice seedlings, AXLP14 strongly and continuously up-regulated the expression of both OsNPR1 and OsWRKY45. In addition, AXLP14 effectively inhibited the Xoo-induced up-regulation of the expression of the abscisic acid biosynthesis gene OsNECD3 and the abscisic acid signalingresponsive gene OsLip9, indicating that AXLP14 may protect rice against Xoo-induced disease by enhancing salicylic acid defense and interfering with the abscisic acid response to virulence.

  2. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş


    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  3. Animal-derived surfactant treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature neonates: a review. (United States)

    Fujii, Alan M; Carillo, Marie


    Exogenous surfactant treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been the standard of care for the past two decades. There are many studies comparing various surfactant preparations. Data are clear that the synthetic surfactants without surfactant proteins are inferior to animal-derived surfactant preparations. Less compelling are the data regarding the relative efficacy of the various animal-derived surfactants available, but a pattern has evolved favoring surfactant preparations with higher concentrations of phospholipids and surfactant proteins. A higher initial dose of phospholipids may also be important, especially for preterm infants less than 32 weeks of gestation. Development has begun of new synthetic surfactants with surfactant protein analogs or recombinant surfactant proteins, which are not yet available in the United States. Synthetic surfactants hold the possibility of surfactant treatments without potential animal-born infectious agents or animal proteins that could induce an immune response in fragile premature infants with multiple medical problems. The goal of this review is to assess the comparison of available animal-derived surfactants and what is known of their comparison. with the newer synthetic surfactants. In addition, the possible direct and indirect effects of surfactant administration on regional blood flow are discussed, with their potential relationship to the volume of surfactant administered.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of surfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis R14 against multidrug-resistant bacteria Atividade antimicrobiana de surfactantes produzidos por Bacillus subtilis R14 frente a bacterias multidroga-resistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André Vicente Fernandes


    Full Text Available Lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. The genus Bacillus is a producer of these active compounds, and among them B. subtilis produces surfactin, the most potent biosurfactant known. These compounds can act as antibiotics, antivirals, antitumorals, immunomodulators and enzyme inhibitors. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of biosurfactants obtained by cultivation of B. subtilis R14 was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacteria. During cultivation in defined medium, the surface tension of the medium was reduced from 54 mN/m in the beginning of the microbial growth to 30 mN/m after 20 hours. A crude surfactant concentration of 2.0 g/L was obtained after 40 hours of cultivation. A preliminary characterization suggested that two surfactants were produced. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds was carried out against 29 bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis (11 strains, Staphylococcus aureus (6 strains and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7 strains and Escherichia coli CI 18 (1 strain displayed a profile of well defined drug resistance. All strains were sensitive to the surfactants, in particular Enterococcus faecalis. The results demonstrated that lipopeptides have a broad spectrum of action, including antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles.Os lipopeptídeos representam uma classe de surfactantes microbiológicos com crescente interesse científico, terapêutico e biotecnológico. O gênero Bacillus é um dos maiores produtores destes compostos ativos. Dentre as espécies produtoras de biossurfactante, B. subtilis produz surfactina um dos mais conhecidos. Estes compostos atuam como antibióticos, antivirais, agente antitumorais, imunomoduladores e inibidores enzimáticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de biossurfactantes, obtidos pelo cultivo de B. subtilis R

  5. Tidal volume delivery during surfactant administration in the delivery room. (United States)

    Schmölzer, Georg M; Kamlin, C Omar F; Dawson, Jennifer A; Morley, Colin J; Davis, Peter G


    Reduced mortality for infants born at less than 30 weeks’ gestation after prophylactic surfactant administration has led many to advocate routine intubation and administration of surfactant in all infants at risk of respiratory distress syndrome. However, surfactant administration is associated with adverse events including bradycardia, changes in cerebral blood flow and endotracheal tube obstruction. The aim of this study was to analyse respiratory function immediately before and after surfactant administration in the delivery room. We reviewed video recordings of the initial resuscitation in the delivery room of infants born at less than 32 weeks’ gestation between February 2007 and March 2010. Positive pressure ventilation was delivered with either a Neopuff T-piece or self-inflating bag. Respiratory parameters were recorded with a respiratory function monitor (RFM). Each RFM recording was analysed for 30 s before and 2 min after surfactant administration. Of 230 infants recorded during the study period 16 infants received surfactant in the delivery room. Their mean (standard deviation, SD) gestation and birth weight were 25 (1) weeks and 757 (249) g, respectively. Complete airway obstruction was seen in 4/16 (25%) infants. The median (interquartile range, IQR) duration of this obstruction was 16 (8–27) s. The median (IQR) expired tidal volume before surfactant delivery was 8.0 (5.2–11.2) mL/kg compared to 4.6 (4.1–7.3) mL/kg (p = 0.03) after surfactant administration. Substantial tidal volume changes occur before, during and after surfactant administration in the delivery room. Complete airway obstruction is common. Monitoring respiratory function during this procedure may help to assess the delivered tidal volume and airway pressures after surfactant treatment.

  6. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)


    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  7. Reversal of multidrug resistance by surfactants. (United States)

    Woodcock, D. M.; Linsenmeyer, M. E.; Chojnowski, G.; Kriegler, A. B.; Nink, V.; Webster, L. K.; Sawyer, W. H.


    Cremophor EL, a pharmacologically inactive solubilising agent, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Using flow cytometric evaluation of equilibrium intracellular levels of daunorubicin (DNR), we found that eight other surface active agents will also reverse MDR. All the active detergents contain polyethoxylated moieties but have no similarities in their hydrophobic components. The properties of three polyethoxylated surfactants that showed the lowest toxicities, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Solutol HS15, were examined in more detail. The concentrations of Tween 80 and Solutol required to reverse DNR exclusion were 10-fold lower than for Cremophor. However while concentrations greater than or equal to 1:10(2) of the former two surfactants resulted in breakdown of cells, even 1:10 of Cremophor did not lyse cells. Studies of the effects of Cremophor on the uptake and efflux of DNR in normal and MDR cell types showed that Cremophor increases intracellular DNR primarily by locking the rapid efflux from the cells. This blockage of drug efflux may be mediated by a substantial alteration in the fluidity of cell membranes induced by Cremophor, as shown by decreased fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane probe. Consistent with these data, coinjection of adriamycin plus Cremophor into mice carrying a multidrug resistant P388 transplantable tumour significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared with adriamycin treatment alone. PMID:1637678

  8. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))


    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with (3H)choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day.

  9. Identification of phases of various oil, surfactant/ co-surfactants and water system by ternary phase diagram. (United States)

    Syed, Haroon K; Peh, Kok K


    The objective of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants and oil to study the ternary phase diagram behavior and identify various phases obtained from the oil and surfactant/surfactant mixture combinations of different HLB. The phases include conventional emulsion, gel/viscous and transparent/translucent microemulsion. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of water, oil and S/Smix of various HLB values range of 9.65-15 were constructed by using water titration method at room temperature. Visual analysis, conductivity and dye dilution test (methylene blue) were performed after each addition and mixing of water, to identify phases as microemulsion, o/w or w/o emulsion (turbid/milky) and transparent gel/turbid viscous. High gel or viscous area was obtained with Tween 80 and surfactant mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 with all oils. The results indicated that non-ionic surfactants and PG of different HLB values exhibited different pseudoternary phase diagram characteristics but no microemulsions originated from mineral and olive oils. The w/o emulsion occupied a large area in the ternary phase triangle when HLB value of the surfactant/Smix decreased. The o/w emulsion area was large with increasing HLB value of surfactant/Smix.

  10. Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Leonardo


    In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

  11. Generalized Toeplitz operators and cyclic vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gassier, G; Zerouali, E H


    We give in this paper some asymptotic Von Neumann inequalities for power bounded operators in the class C subrho intersection C sub 1. and some spacial von Neumann inequalities associated with non zero elements of the point spectrum, when it is non void, of generalized Toeplitz operators. Introducing perturbed kernel, we consider classes C sub R which extend the classical classes C subrho. We give results about absolute continuity with respect to the Haar measure for operators in class C sub R intersection C sub 1. This allows us to give new results on cyclic vectors for such operators and provides invariant subspaces for their powers. Relationships between cyclic vectors for T and T* involving generalized Toeplitz operators are given and the commutativity of left brace T right brace', the commutant of T is discussed.

  12. Differential diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome. (United States)

    Forbes, D


    Vomiting is a nonspecific symptom and cyclic vomiting is a symptom complex that may result from a disorder of any major organ system. Children with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) need careful review and investigation at their earliest presentations to exclude potentially lethal abnormalities such as intestinal volvulus, metabolic disorders, and neurologic space-occupying lesions. The range of abnormalities that may present with features consistent with CVS includes gastrointestinal obstructive, inflammatory and motility abnormalities, pancreatic disease, metabolic disease (particularly the amino acid-opathies, organic acidurias, fatty acid oxidation defects, and acute intermittent porphyria), renal disease, epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric disorders. Careful history taking will usually provide clues to these uncommon problems, but all children should undergo baseline assessment of gastrointestinal morphology and screening tests for renal and metabolic disease.

  13. Standard practice for conducting cyclic humidity exposures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers procedures for conducting cyclic humidity tests with a corrosive dip. It sets forth the conditions required in cyclic humidity testing. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of test specimen or exposure periods nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Belief Logic Programming with Cyclic Dependencies (United States)

    Wan, Hui

    Our previous work [26] introduced Belief Logic Programming (BLP), a novel form of quantitative logic programming with correlation of evidence. Unlike other quantitative approaches to logic programming, this new theory is able to provide accurate conclusions in the presence of uncertainty when the sources of information are not independent. However, the semantics defined in [26] is not sufficiently general—it does not allow cyclic dependencies among beliefs, which is a serious limitation of expressive power. This paper extends the semantics of BLP to allow cyclic dependencies. We show that the new semantics is backward compatible with the semantics for acyclic BLP and has the expected properties. The results are illustrated with examples of inference in a simple diagnostic expert system.

  15. Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling in Kidney Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schinner


    Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis is an important factor for the progression of kidney diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus induced kidney failure, glomerulosclerosis and nephritis resulting in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP were implicated to suppress several of the above mentioned renal diseases. In this review article, identified effects and mechanisms of cGMP and cAMP regarding renal fibrosis are summarized. These mechanisms include several signalling pathways of nitric oxide/ANP/guanylyl cyclases/cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP/Epac/adenylyl cyclases/cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Furthermore, diverse possible drugs activating these pathways are discussed. From these diverse mechanisms it is expected that new pharmacological treatments will evolve for the therapy or even prevention of kidney failure.

  16. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg


    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker......: the union wage premium fluctuates counter-cyclically, and employment is more cyclical but less persistent when wages are collectively bargained....

  17. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...... with lubricated, smooth boundary piston heads in a Danish triaxial apparatus. Samples were successfully subjected to loading histories of high complexity. Loading include high strains and stresses, post liquefaction response, transitioning through multiple densities and restoring initial soil properties after...

  18. Optimum Cyclic Redundancy Codes for Noisy Channels (United States)

    Posner, E. C.; Merkey, P.


    Capabilities and limitations of cyclic redundancy codes (CRC's) for detecting transmission errors in data sent over relatively noisy channels (e.g., voice-grade telephone lines or very-high-density storage media) discussed in 16-page report. Due to prevalent use of bytes in multiples of 8 bits data transmission, report primarily concerned with cases in which both block length and number of redundant bits (check bits for use in error detection) included in each block are multiples of 8 bits.

  19. Sequential Annulation Domino Reaction of Sulfur Ylides and α,β-Unsaturated Cyclic Ketimines: Synthesis of Cyclic 2-Alkenyl Aziridines. (United States)

    Jia, Penghao; Huang, You


    A sequential annulation domino reaction of sulfur ylides and α,β-unsaturated cyclic ketimines for the construction of cyclic 2-alkenyl aziridines has been developed. Readily accessible starting materials, a one-pot procedure, excellent functional group compatibility, and mild conditions make this transformation a powerful tool for the synthesis of cyclic 2-alkenyl aziridines.

  20. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M. [Departamento de Física - CCE,Universidade Federal de Espirito Santo, 29075-900, Vitoria ES (Brazil)


    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  1. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies (United States)

    Camara da Silva, U.; Alves Lima, A. L.; Sotkov, G. M.


    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  2. Visualization of cyclic nucleotide dynamics in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill eGorshkov


    Full Text Available The second messengers cAMP and cGMP transduce many neuromodulatory signals from hormones and neurotransmitters into specific functional outputs. Their production, degradation and signaling are spatiotemporally regulated to achieve high specificity in signal transduction. The development of genetically encodable fluorescent biosensors has provided researchers with useful tools to study these versatile second messengers and their downstream effectors with unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution in cultured cells and living animals. In this review, we introduce the general design of these fluorescent biosensors and describe several of them in more detail. Then we discuss a few examples of using cyclic nucleotide fluorescent biosensors to study regulation of neuronal function and finish with a discussion of advances in the field. Although there has been significant progress made in understanding how the specific signaling of cyclic nucleotide second messengers is achieved, the mechanistic details in complex cell types like neurons are only just beginning to surface. Current and future fluorescent protein reporters will be essential to elucidate the role of cyclic nucleotide signaling dynamics in the functions of individual neurons and their networks.

  3. Cyclic biamperometry at micro-interdigitated electrodes. (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Mikkelsen, Susan R


    Cyclic biamperometry was studied as an analytical method for use with commercially available, comb-type, coplanar microinterdigitated electrodes (μIDEs), using the ferri-/ferrocyanide redox couple as a model analyte. The μIDEs studied in this work were made of gold that had been deposited onto a Ti/W adhesion layer on borosilicate glass chips and had 5 and 10 μm bands with equal gap sizes. Close proximity of the two working electrodes, and their interdigitation, resulted in signal amplification by redox cycling. Results were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry, where one of the two IDE electrodes was used as the working electrode and external reference and auxiliary electrodes were used. Amplification factors of almost 20 were achieved due to redox cycling. Attempts to apply cyclic voltammetry to the μIDEs, with one of the combs as the working and the other as the auxiliary electrode, were unsuccessful due to corrosion of the auxiliary electrode comb. Results of this study, and the electrochemically unique feature of biamperometry to probe but not change the net contents of the medium under examination, suggest the applicability of scanning biamperometry at μIDEs to the very small volumes and electrochemical cell dimensions that are now of great interest.

  4. A Noninvasive Surfactant Adsorption Test Predicting the Need for Surfactant Therapy in Preterm Infants Treated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. (United States)

    Autilio, Chiara; Echaide, Mercedes; Benachi, Alexandra; Marfaing-Koka, Anne; Capoluongo, Ettore D; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; De Luca, Daniele


    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the surfactant adsorption test (SAT) as a predictor for the need for surfactant replacement therapy in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Amniotic fluid samples were collected from 41 preterm neonates with RDS treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and 15 healthy control term neonates. Purified porcine surfactant served as a further control. Lamellar bodies and lung ultrasound score were also measured in a subset of the neonates treated with CPAP. Surfactant was administered according to the European guidelines, and clinical data were collected prospectively. Surfactant activity was measured as adsorption at the air/liquid interface and given in relative fluorescent units (RFU). Surfactant activity differed among native porcine surfactant (median, 4863 RFU; IQR, 4405-5081 RFU), healthy term neonates (median, 2680 RFU; IQR, 2069-3050 RFU), and preterm neonates with RDS (median, 442 RFU; IQR, 92-920 RFU; P neonates who failed CPAP had lower surfactant activity compared with those who did not fail CPAP (median, 92 RFU; IQR, 0-315 RFU vs 749 RFU; IQR, 360-974 RFU; P = .0002). Differences between groups were more evident beyond 20-30 minutes of fluorescence; the 30-minute time point showed the highest area under the curve (0.84; P Surfactant activity at 30 minutes was significantly correlated with lamellar bodies (r = 0.51, P = .006) and lung ultrasound score (r = -0.39, P = .013). This technique has the potential to be developed into a fast, simple-to-interpret clinical test. The SAT can reliably identify preterm infants with subsequent CPAP failure and shows promise as a screening test for surfactant replacement in preterm neonates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perfluorinated surfactants in surface and drinking waters. (United States)

    Skutlarek, Dirk; Exner, Martin; Färber, Harald


    In this paper recent results are provided of an investigation on the discovery of 12 perfluorinated surfactants (PS) in different surface and drinking waters (Skutlarek et al. 2006 a, Skutlarek et al. 2006 b). In the last years, many studies have reported ubiquitous distribution of this group of perfluorinated chemicals, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment, particularly in wildlife animal and human samples (Giesy and Kannan 2001, Houde et al. 2006, Prevedouros et al. 2006). Perfluorinated surfactants (e.g. PFOS and PFOA) have shown different potentials for reproductory interference and carcinogenity in animal experiments as well as partly long half-lives in humans (Guruge et al. 2006, FSA UK 2006a, FSA UK 2006b, 3M 2005, OECD 2002, Yao and Zhong 2005). They possess compound-dependent extreme recalcitrance against microbiological and chemical degradation and, in addition, they show variable potentials for bioaccumulation in animals and humans (Houde et al. 2006). Surface and drinking water samples were collected from different sampling sites: Surface waters: samples taken from the rivers Rhine, Ruhr, Moehne and some of their tributaries. Further samples were taken from the Rhine-Herne-Canal and the Wesel-Datteln-Canal. Drinking waters: samples taken in public buildings of the Rhine-Ruhr area. After sample clean-up and concentration by solid-phase extraction, the perfluorinated surfactants were determined using HPLC-MS/MS. All measured concentrations (sum of seven mainly detected components) in the Rhine river and its main tributaries (mouths) were determined below 100 ng/L. The Ruhr river (tributary of the Rhine) showed the highest concentration (94 ng/L), but with a completely different pattern of components (PFOA as major component), as compared with the other tributaries and the Rhine river. Further investigations along the Ruhr river showed remarkably high concentrations of PS in the upper reaches of

  6. The effect of co-surfactant-modified micelles on chiral separations in EKC. (United States)

    Kojtari, Adeline B; Guetschow, Erik D; Foley, Joe P


    The use of chiral pseudostationary phases in EKC provides high efficiencies and excellent resolution for enantiomeric separations. The chiral pseudostationary phases of interest in this study are alcohol-modified ("swollen") micelles, in which a co-surfactant (medium chain-length alcohol) is added with the surfactant. In this study, the chiral surfactant, dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV), along with the co-surfactant, 2-hexanol, has been prepared as swollen micelle in order to investigate the chiral separation of enantiomeric pairs. Three sets of experiments were investigated in which swollen micelle systems contained: chiral surfactant and racemic co-surfactant; chiral surfactant and chiral co-surfactant; and phase ratio increases, in which both chiral surfactant and chiral co-surfactant were employed. In the first two sets of experiments, co-surfactant concentration was held constant and the surfactant concentration was increased. In the third set of experiments, both surfactant and chiral surfactant concentrations were increased proportionally. The chromatographic figures of merit for each enantiomeric pair were investigated and compared with various chiral aggregate systems. In swollen micelle compositions using constant racemic 2-hexanol concentration, when DDCV concentration increased, enantioselectivity and resolution increased; whereas, efficiency remained constant for most of the test compounds. Compositions using constant S-2-hexanol concentration reached a maximum in all chromatographic figures of merit when DDCV concentration was increased from 2 to 3%. An increase in both surfactant and co-surfactant concentrations led to noisy baselines and chiral aggregates that were generally unstable in solution.

  7. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, MJ; Kesecioglu, J

    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  8. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Marcus J.; Kesecioglu, Jozef


    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  9. Surfactant-promoted Prussian Blue-modified carbon electrodes: enhancement of electro-deposition step, stabilization, electrochemical properties and application to lactate microbiosensors for the neurosciences. (United States)

    Salazar, P; Martín, M; O'Neill, R D; Roche, R; González-Mora, J L


    We report here for the first time a comparison of the beneficial effects of different cationic surfactants - cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) - for the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian Blue (PB) films, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Their electrochemical properties were investigated, paying special attention to parameters such as the amount of PB deposited, film thickness, charge transfer rate, permeability, reversibility, stability and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide detection. All surfactant-enhanced PB-modified SPCEs displayed a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties compared with PB-modified SPCEs formed in the absence of surfactants. Surfactant-modified electrodes displayed a consistently higher PB surface concentration value of 2.1±0.4×10(-8) mol cm(-2) (mean±SD, n=3) indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved 2-3 fold. K(+) and Na(+) permeability properties of the films were also studied, as were kinetic parameters, such as the surface electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) and the transfer coefficient (α). The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of surfactant-modified PB films generated by 10 electro-deposition CV cycles gave values of 0.63 A M(-1) cm(-2), which is higher than those reported previously for SPCEs by other authors. Finally, the first lactate microbiosensor described in the literature based on BZT-modified PB-coated carbon fiber electrodes is presented. Its very small cross-section (~10 μm diameter) makes it particularly suitable for neuroscience studies in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of sulphonamide nonionic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.


    Full Text Available Alkyl (octyl, decyl and dodecyl; C8,C10 and C12 benzene sulphonyl chloride was used in the preparation of a novel series of nonionic surfactants (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c. The preparations were completed by reacting each alkyl (C8,C10 and C12 benzene sulphonyl chloride with ethanolamine to give (I-III respectively. The resulting products were reacted separately with ethylene oxide in the presence of different (base KOH, Lewis acid SnCl4 and k10 clay catalysts to produce different moles of nonionic surfactants (5, 7 and 9 in sequence corresponding to (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c respectively. The chemical structures of prepared nonionic surfactants were elucidated by IR and 1HNMR spectra. The surface activity, biodegradability and biological activities of the prepared compounds were investigated. The obtained data show that these compounds have good surface and biological activities as well as reasonable biodegradability properties.Cloruros de sulfonilbenceno alquilados (octil, decil, dodecil; C8, C10 y C12 fueron usados en la preparación de una nueva serie de surfactantes no iónicos (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c. Las preparaciones fueron completadas por reacción de cada cloruro de sulfonilbenceno alquilado (C8, C10 y C12 con etanolamina para dar los compuestos (IIII, respectivamente. Los anteriores productos reaccionaron separadamente con óxido de etileno en presencia de diferentes catalizadores (la base KOH, el ácido de Lewis SnCl4 y la arcilla k10 para producir secuencialmente diferentes surfactantes no iónicos con distintos moles de óxido de etileno (5, 7 y 9: (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IXa-c and (X-XIIa-c, respectivamente. La estructura química de los surfactantes no iónicos preparados fueron elucidadas mediante sus espectros de IR y 1H RMN. Las propiedades tensoactivas, biodegradabilidad y actividad biológica de los compuestos preparados fueron investigados. Los datos obtenidos muestran que estos compuestos tienen

  11. Surfactant reduction in embolism bubble adhesion and endothelial damage. (United States)

    Suzuki, Akira; Armstead, Stephen C; Eckmann, David M


    Surfactants may reduce the adhesion force holding bubbles to the vessel wall in gas embolism. The authors measured bubble adhesion force using excised microvessels. They assessed endothelial damage by measuring vessel reactivity and with microscopy. Microbubbles injected into arterioles resided for 5, 10, or 30 min, with intact or damaged endothelium. Perfusion was with rat serum alone (control) or with 1% Perftoran (OJSC SPC Perftoran, Moscow, Russia) or 1% Pluronic F-127 (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) added. Pressure across the bubble, bubble length, and bubble diameter were measured, and adhesion force per unit surface area, K = deltaPD/4 l, was calculated. Vessel reactivity was assessed using topical application of phenylephrine and acetylcholine. With the endothelium intact, K was higher in controls than with Perftoran at 10 and 30 min or Pluronic F-127 at 10 min (P surfactant added after air perfusion to damage the endothelium, K was lower (P surfactant in the perfusate before air perfusion, K was lower at 10 and 30 min for Perftoran and at 10 min for Pluronic F-127 than for controls (P surfactant exposure than in either surfactant group (P Surfactants reduced bubble adhesion force and preserved basic endothelial structure and vasodilatory function despite attempts to damage the endothelium. Surfactants seem to protect the endothelium from mechanically induced injury in addition to decreasing bubble adhesion forces.

  12. Optimization of metalworking fluid microemulsion surfactant concentrations for microfiltration recycling. (United States)

    Zhao, Fu; Clarens, Andres; Skerlos, Steven J


    Microfiltration can be used as a recycling technology to increase metalworking fluid (MWF) life span, decrease procurement and disposal costs, and reduce occupational health risks and environmental impacts. The cost-effectiveness of the process can be increased by minimizing fouling interactions between MWFs and membranes. This paper reports on the development of a microfiltration model that establishes governing relationships between MWF surfactant system characteristics and microfiltration recycling performance. The model, which is based on surfactant adsorption/desorption kinetics, queueing theory, and coalescence kinetics of emulsion droplets, is verified experimentally. An analysis of the model and supporting experimental evidence indicates that the selection of surfactant systems minimally adsorb to membranes and lead to a high activation energy of coalescence results in a higher MWF flux through microfiltration membranes. The model also yields mathematical equations that express the optimal concentrations of anionic and nonionic surfactants with which microfiltration flux is maximized for a given combination of oil type, oil concentration, and surfactant types. Optimal MWF formulations are demonstrated for a petroleum oil MWF using a disulfonate/ ethoxylated alcohol surfactant package and for several vegetable oil MWFs using a disulfonate/ethoxylated glyceryl ester surfactant package. The optimization leads to flux increases ranging from 300 to 800% without impact on manufacturing performance. It is further shown that MWF reformulation efforts directed toward increasing microfiltration flux can have the beneficial effect of increasing MWF robustness to deterioration and flux decline in the presence of elevated concentrations of hardwater ions.

  13. Surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology: Part 2. Application aspects. (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Ward, Owen P


    Surfactants are amphiphilic compounds which can reduce surface and interfacial tensions by accumulating at the interface of immiscible fluids and increase the solubility, mobility, bioavailability and subsequent biodegradation of hydrophobic or insoluble organic compounds. Chemically synthesized surfactants are commonly used in the petroleum, food and pharmaceutical industries as emulsifiers and wetting agents. Biosurfactants produced by some microorganisms are becoming important biotechnology products for industrial and medical applications due to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, relative ease of preparation and widespread applicability. They can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Addition of a surfactant of chemical or biological origin accelerates or sometimes inhibits the bioremediation of pollutants. Surfactants also play an important role in enhanced oil recovery by increasing the apparent solubility of petroleum components and effectively reducing the interfacial tensions of oil and water in situ. However, the effects of surfactants on bioremediation cannot be predicted in the absence of empirical evidence because surfactants sometimes stimulate bioremediation and sometimes inhibit it. For medical applications, biosurfactants are useful as antimicrobial agents and immunomodulatory molecules. Beneficial applications of chemical surfactants and biosurfactants in various industries are discussed in this review.

  14. Photosensitive microgels containing azobenzene surfactants of different charges. (United States)

    Schimka, Selina; Lomadze, Nino; Rabe, Maren; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lehmann, Maren; von Klitzing, Regine; Rumyantsev, Artem M; Kramarenko, Elena Yu; Santer, Svetlana


    We report on light sensitive microgel particles that can change their volume reversibly in response to illumination with light of different wavelengths. To make the anionic microgels photosensitive we add surfactants with a positively charged polyamine head group and an azobenzene containing tail. Upon illumination, azobenzene undergoes a reversible photo-isomerization reaction from a trans- to a cis-state accompanied by a change in the hydrophobicity of the surfactant. Depending on the isomerization state, the surfactant molecules are either accommodated within the microgel (trans-state) resulting in its shrinkage or desorbed back into water (cis-isomer) letting the microgel swell. We have studied three surfactants differing in the number of amino groups, so that the number of charges of the surfactant head varies between 1 and 3. We have found experimentally and theoretically that the surfactant concentration needed for microgel compaction increases with decreasing number of charges of the head group. Utilization of polyamine azobenzene containing surfactants for the light triggered remote control of the microgel size opens up a possibility for applications of light responsive microgels as drug carriers in biology and medicine.

  15. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development


    Scott, J Elliott


    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the...

  16. Novel fluorinated gemini surfactants with γ-butyrolactone segments. (United States)

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Okada, Kazuyuki; Oida, Tatsuo


    In this work, novel γ-butyrolactone-type monomeric and dimeric (gemini) surfactants with a semifluoroalkyl group [Rf- (CH2)3-; Rf = C4F9, C6F13, C8F17] as the hydrophobic group were successfully synthesized. Dimethyl malonate was dimerized or connected using Br(CH2)sBr (s = 0, 1, 2, 3) to give tetraesters, and they were bis-allylated. Radical addition of fluoroalkyl using Rf-I and an initiator, i.e., 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile for C4F9 or di-t-butyl peroxide for C6F13 and C8F17, was perform at high temperature, with prolonged heating, to obtain bis(semifluoroalkyl)-dilactone diesters. These dilactone diesters were hydrolyzed using KOH/EtOH followed by decarboxylation in AcOH to afford γ-butyrolactonetype gemini surfactants. Common 1 + 1 semifluoroalkyl lactone surfactants were synthesized using the same method. Their surfactant properties [critical micelle concentration (CMC), γCMC, pC20, ΓCMC, and AG] were investigated by measuring the surface tension of the γ-hydroxybutyrate form prepared in aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution. As expected, the CMC values of the gemini surfactants were more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of the corresponding 1 + 1 surfactants. Other properties also showed the excellent ability of the gemini structure to reduce the surface tension. These surfactants were easily and quantitatively recovered by acidification. The monomeric surfactant was recovered in the γ-hydroxybutyric acid form, and the gemini surfactant as a mixture of γ-butyrolactone and γ-hydroxybutyric acid forms.

  17. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity. (United States)

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław


    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  18. Surfactant selection for a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. (United States)

    Janoska, Agnes; Vázquez, María; Janssen, Marcel; Wijffels, René H; Cuaresma, María; Vílchez, Carlos


    A novel liquid foam-bed photobioreactor has been shown to hold potential as an innovative technology for microalgae production. In this study, a foam stabilizing agent has been selected which fits the requirements of use in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. Four criteria were used for an optimal surfactant: the surfactant should have good foaming properties, should not be rapidly biodegradable, should drag up microalgae in the foam formed, and it should not be toxic for microalgae. Ten different surfactants (nonionic, cationic, and anionic) and two microalgae genera (Chlorella and Scenedesmus) were compared on the above-mentioned criteria. The comparison showed the following facts. Firstly, poloxameric surfactants (Pluronic F68 and Pluronic P84) have acceptable foaming properties described by intermediate foam stability and liquid holdup and small bubble size. Secondly, the natural surfactants (BSA and Saponin) and Tween 20 were easily biodegraded by bacteria within 3 days. Thirdly, for all surfactants tested the microalgae concentration is reduced in the foam phase compared to the liquid phase with exception of the cationic surfactant CTAB. Lastly, only BSA, Saponin, Tween 20, and the two Pluronics were not toxic at concentrations of 10 CMC or higher. The findings of this study indicate that the Pluronics (F68 and P84) are the best surfactants regarding the above-mentioned criteria. Since Pluronic F68 performed slightly better, this surfactant is recommended for application in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Surfactant replacement therapy for preterm and term neonates with respiratory distress. (United States)

    Polin, Richard A; Carlo, Waldemar A


    Respiratory failure secondary to surfactant deficiency is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Surfactant therapy substantially reduces mortality and respiratory morbidity for this population. Secondary surfactant deficiency also contributes to acute respiratory morbidity in late-preterm and term neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, and perhaps pulmonary hemorrhage; surfactant replacement may be beneficial for these infants. This statement summarizes the evidence regarding indications, administration, formulations, and outcomes for surfactant-replacement therapy. The clinical strategy of intubation, surfactant administration, and extubation to continuous positive airway pressure and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure on outcomes and surfactant use in preterm infants are also reviewed.

  20. Analysis of the structure and surfactant activity of novel formulations containing exogenous pulmonary surfactant and glucocorticoids. (United States)

    Cimato, Alejandra; Hoyos Obando, Andres; Facorro, Graciela; Martínez Sarrasague, María


    Exogenous pulmonary surfactant (EPS) could be used as carrier of glucocorticoids (GCs) in therapy for respiratory diseases. We formulated novel combination drug products containing bovine EPS and one GC (10wt%): beclomethasone (Be), budesonide (Bu) or fluticasone (Flu), and studied the GCs action on the surface activity and biophysical properties of EPS. Subtype ratio was evaluated by phospholipid determination; surface tension (ST) with a pulsating bubble surfactometer and conformational changes by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). GCs were incorporated into EPS in more than 80%. None of them generated disaggregation of surfactant, only Bu was found in the light subtype. Bu and Be caused minimal changes in fluidity on polar region of bilayers, but these changes were not enough to inactivate the surfactant. Flu did not significantly alter any biophysical properties or surface activity. These novel combination EPS-GC products might be a promising strategy in the therapy of pulmonary diseases as the incorporation of the GCs tested did not cause detrimental effects on EPS functionality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of colloidal gas aphron suspensions generated from plant-based natural surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kommalapati, R.R.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Constant, W.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others


    Colloidal gas aphron (CGA) suspensions generated using commercial surfactants are found to have great potential in the remediation of contaminated soils and waste streams. A plant-based natural surfactant solution prepared from the fruit pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi was used in this study to generate CGA suspensions. The CGA suspensions generated from this surfactant solution have size distributions similar to those of commercial surfactants. The stability of the CGA suspensions generated with natural surfactant solutions was observed to be higher than those generated using synthetic surfactants. However, the quality or the gas fraction of the suspensions is lower for a natural surfactant solution than that for commercial surfactants. The crude solution of natural surfactant prepared using simple water extraction contains saponins, the essential surface-active agent, and many other extraneous natural organic compounds. Yet, the CGA suspensions prepared from the crude solution seem to be comparable to those generated using synthetic surfactants in size distribution and stability.

  2. Surfactant mobility in nanoporous glass films. (United States)

    Kim, Taek-Soo; Mackie, Katherine; Zhong, Qiping; Peterson, Maria; Konno, Tomohisa; Dauskardt, Reinhold H


    Polymer molecules when physically confined at nanometer length scales diffuse nonclassically and very differently depending on their molecular weight and the nature of the confinement. Long polymers that exhibit "snakelike" reptation based mobility in melts may diffuse faster in confined nanometer sized cylinders with pore diameter d approximately 15 nm, and short polymers subject to Rouse dynamics have shown signatures of reptation and slower diffusion when confined in nanoporous glass with d approximately 4 nm. However, the mobility of short polymers with radii of gyration similar to a smaller pore diameter (d reptation based diffusion in the nanoscopic pore confinements. Such reptation mobility in agreement with theoretical predictions is not even observed in reptating polymer melts due to fluctuations of the entanglement pathway. The fixed pathways in the interconnected nanoporous films provide ideal nanoscale environments to explore mobility of confined molecules, and the results have implications for a number of technologies where nanoporous materials are in contact with surfactant molecules.

  3. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd......-/-) mice. Atherogenesis involves both inflammation and lipid deposition, and we investigated the role of SP-D in the development of atherosclerosis. SP-D synthesis was localized to vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were 5.6-fold smaller in the aortic roots in Spd-/- mice compared...... with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  4. Functionally polymerized surfactant vesicles: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tundo, P.; Kippenberger, D.J.; Klahn, P.L.; Prieto, N.E.; Fendler, J.H.


    Bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony bromide, bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony (2-hydroxyethyl)methylammonium bromide, bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony acid, bis(2-(10-undecenoyloxycarbony allylbis(2-dodecanoyloxycarbon bromide, and dimethyl-n-hexadecyl (10-(p-vin decyl)ammonium bromide have been synthesized. The predominantly single compartment bilayer vesicles formed from these surfactants could be polymerized either by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation or by the use of azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The presence of vesicles (unpolymerized and polymeric) has been demonstrated by electron micrography, H/sup 1/ NMR, gel filtration, phase transition, turbidity changes, substrate entrapment, and permeability. Polymerized vesicles are considerably more stable and less permeable and have reduced rates of turbidity changes compared to their unpolymerized counterparts. 19 references.

  5. Effect of surfactant on the evolution of bubble motion


    Antonnikova Aleksandra; Usanina Anna


    Results of an experimental study of the process of ascent of a single bubble of air in the presence of a surfactant are presented. An empirical dependence for drag coefficient of the bubble that emerges in a liquid containing a surfactant in the region of small Reynolds numbers has been obtained. Theoretical studies of the effect of surfactants on the velocity of motion of a bubble in a nonstationary regime have been carried out. A theoretical analysis of the effect of nonstationary forces on...

  6. Effect of surfactant on the evolution of bubble motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonnikova Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Results of an experimental study of the process of ascent of a single bubble of air in the presence of a surfactant are presented. An empirical dependence for drag coefficient of the bubble that emerges in a liquid containing a surfactant in the region of small Reynolds numbers has been obtained. Theoretical studies of the effect of surfactants on the velocity of motion of a bubble in a nonstationary regime have been carried out. A theoretical analysis of the effect of nonstationary forces on the dynamics of bubble rising in the nonstationary regime has been conducted.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of anionic surfactant using zinc oxide nanoparticles (United States)

    Giahi, M.; Habibi, S.; Toutounchi, S.; Khavei, M.


    In this paper the photocatalytic degradation of anionic surfactant LABS was studied by a batch process using ZnO nanoparticles with diameter size of 20 nm catalyst on irradiation with UV light and their behavior comparatively examined with respect to ZnO commercial powder. The effect of parameters such as initial surfactant concentration, initial solution pH has been studied. Also degradation at LABS in the presence of an electron acceptor like potassium peroxydisulfate and effect of anion presence on surfactant degradation has been systematically investigated. The obtained result demonstrated a high photocatalytic activity of nanosize semiconducting particles.

  8. Amino acid–based surfactants: New antimicrobial agents. (United States)

    Pinazo, A; Manresa, M A; Marques, A M; Bustelo, M; Espuny, M J; Pérez, L


    The rapid increase of drug resistant bacteria makes necessary the development of new antimicrobial agents. Synthetic amino acid-based surfactants constitute a promising alternative to conventional antimicrobial compounds given that they can be prepared from renewable raw materials. In this review, we discuss the structural features that promote antimicrobial activity of amino acid-based surfactants. Monocatenary, dicatenary and gemini surfactants that contain different amino acids on the polar head and show activity against bacteria are revised. The synthesis and basic physico-chemical properties have also been included.

  9. Key interactions of surfactants in therapeutic protein formulations: A review. (United States)

    Khan, Tarik A; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Kishore, Ravuri S K


    Proteins as amphiphilic, surface-active macromolecules, demonstrate substantial interfacial activity, which causes considerable impact on their multifarious applications. A commonly adapted measure to prevent interfacial damage to proteins is the use of nonionic surfactants. Particularly in biotherapeutic formulations, the use of nonionic surfactants is ubiquitous in order to prevent the impact of interfacial stress on drug product stability. The scope of this review is to convey the current understanding of interactions of nonionic surfactants with proteins both at the interface and in solution, with specific focus to their effects on biotherapeutic formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of Branch Fluorinated Cationic Surfactant and Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongke Wu


    Full Text Available A novel fluorinated quaternary ammonium salt cationic surfactant N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[[4-[[3,4,4,4-tetrafluoro-2-[1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro-1-(trifluoromethylethyl]-1,3-bis(tri-fluoromethyl-1-buten-1-yl]oxy]-benzoyl]amino]-iodide (FQAS was synthesized successfully, and its structure was characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 19F-NMR, and MS. The surface activities of FQAS and the effect of temperature, electrolyte, and combination with hydrocarbon surfactant were investigated. The results showed that FQAS exhibited excellent surface activity and combination with hydrocarbon surfactant.

  11. Statistical damage constitutive model for rocks subjected to cyclic stress and cyclic temperature (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu


    A constitutive model of rocks subjected to cyclic stress-temperature was proposed. Based on statistical damage theory, the damage constitutive model with Weibull distribution was extended. Influence of model parameters on the stress-strain curve for rock reloading after stress-temperature cycling was then discussed. The proposed model was initially validated by rock tests for cyclic stress-temperature and only cyclic stress. Finally, the total damage evolution induced by stress-temperature cycling and reloading after cycling was explored and discussed. The proposed constitutive model is reasonable and applicable, describing well the stress-strain relationship during stress-temperature cycles and providing a good fit to the test results. Elastic modulus in the reference state and the damage induced by cycling affect the shape of reloading stress-strain curve. Total damage induced by cycling and reloading after cycling exhibits three stages: initial slow increase, mid-term accelerated increase, and final slow increase.

  12. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends. (United States)

    Crombie, R L


    Pearlizing agents have been used for many years in cosmetic formulations to add a pearlescent effect. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends are mixtures of glycol stearates and surfactants which can be blended in the cold into a wide range of personal-care formulations to create a pearlescent lustre effect. Under controlled manufacturing conditions constant viscosities and crystalline characteristics can be obtained. The development of these blends has been driven by efforts to improve the economics of adding solid pearlizing agents directly into a hot mix formulation. This paper summarizes the history of pearlizers, describes their advantages and physical chemistry of the manufacturing process. Finally some suggestions for applications are given. Les agents nacrants sont utilises depuis de nombreuses annees dans les formulations cosmetiques pour ajouter un effet nacre. Les melanges a froid a base de tensioactif nacre sont des melanges de stearates de glycol et de tensioactifs qui peuvent etre melanges a froid dans une large gamme de formulations d'hygiene personnelle pour creer un effet de lustre nacre. On peut obtenir des viscosites et des proprietes cristallines constantes avec des conditions de fabrication maitrisees. Le developpement de ces melanges a ete porte par les efforts pour ameliorer les couts de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee a chaud. Cet article resume l'histoire des agents nacrants, decrit leurs avantages et al physico-chimie du procede de fabrication. On emet a la fin cetaines suggestions d'applications.

  13. Cyclic AMP receptor protein-aequorin molecular switch for cyclic AMP. (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Ensor, C Mark; Anderson, Kimberly W; Daunert, Sylvia


    Molecular switches are designer molecules that combine the functionality of two individual proteins into one, capable of manifesting an "on/off" signal in response to a stimulus. These switches have unique properties and functionalities and thus, can be employed as nanosensors in a variety of applications. To that end, we have developed a bioluminescent molecular switch for cyclic AMP. Bioluminescence offers many advantages over fluorescence and other detection methods including the fact that there is essentially zero background signal in physiological fluids, allowing for more sensitive detection and monitoring. The switch was created by combining the properties of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), a transcriptional regulatory protein from E. Coli that binds selectively to cAMP with those of aequorin, a bioluminescent photoprotein native of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria . Genetic manipulation to split the genetic coding sequence of aequorin in two and genetically attach the fragments to the N and C termini of CRP resulted in a hybrid protein molecular switch. The conformational change experienced by CRP upon the binding of cyclic AMP is suspected to result in the observed loss of the bioluminescent signal from aequorin. The "on/off" bioluminescence can be modulated by cyclic AMP over a range of several orders of magnitude in a linear fashion in addition to the capacity to detect changes in cellular cyclic AMP of intact cells exposed to different external stimuli without the need to lyse the cells. We envision that the molecular switch could find applications in vitro as well as In Vivo cyclic AMP detection and/or imaging.

  14. Surfactant-induced flow compromises determination of air-water interfacial areas by surfactant miscible-displacement. (United States)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Henry, Eric J


    Surfactant miscible-displacement (SMD) column experiments are used to measure air-water interfacial area (AI) in unsaturated porous media, a property that influences solute transport and phase-partitioning. The conventional SMD experiment results in surface tension gradients that can cause water redistribution and/or net drainage of water from the system ("surfactant-induced flow"), violating theoretical foundations of the method. Nevertheless, the SMD technique is still used, and some suggest that experimental observations of surfactant-induced flow represent an artifact of improper control of boundary conditions. In this work, we used numerical modeling, for which boundary conditions can be perfectly controlled, to evaluate this suggestion. We also examined the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow and its impact on AI measurement during multiple SMD flow scenarios. Simulations of the conventional SMD experiment showed substantial surfactant-induced flow and consequent drainage of water from the column (e.g., from 75% to 55% SW) and increases in actual AI of up to 43%. Neither horizontal column orientation nor alternative boundary conditions resolved surfactant-induced flow issues. Even for simulated flow scenarios that avoided surfactant-induced drainage of the column, substantial surfactant-induced internal water redistribution occurred and was sufficient to alter surfactant transport, resulting in up to 23% overestimation of AI. Depending on the specific simulated flow scenario and data analysis assumptions used, estimated AI varied by nearly 40% and deviated up to 36% from the system's initial AI. We recommend methods for AI determination that avoid generation of surface-tension gradients and urge caution when relying on absolute AI values measured via SMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of process parameters in production of lipopeptide iturin A using aerated packed bed bioreactors in solid-state fermentation. (United States)

    Piedrahíta-Aguirre, C A; Bastos, R G; Carvalho, A L; Monte Alegre, R


    The strain Bacillus iso 1 co-produces the lipopeptide iturin A and biopolymer poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) in solid-state fermentation of substrate consisting of soybean meal, wheat bran with rice husks as an inert support. The effects of pressure drop, oxygen consumption, medium permeability and temperature profile were studied in an aerated packed bed bioreactor to produce iturin A, diameter of which was 50 mm and bed height 300 mm. The highest concentrations of iturin A and γ-PGA were 5.58 and 3.58 g/kg-dry substrate, respectively, at 0.4 L/min after 96 h of fermentation. The low oxygen uptake rates, being 23.34 and 22.56 mg O2/kg-dry solid substrate for each air flow rate tested generated 5.75 W/kg-dry substrate that increased the fermentation temperature at 3.7 °C. The highest pressure drop was 561 Pa/m at 0.8 L/min in 24 h. This is the highest concentration of iturin A produced to date in an aerated packed bed bioreactor in solid-state fermentation. The results can be useful to design strategies to scale-up process of iturin A in aerated packed bed bioreactors. Low concentration of γ-PGA affected seriously pressure drop, decreasing the viability of the process due to generation of huge pressure gradients with volumetric air flow rates. Also, the low oxygenation favored the iturin A production due to the reduction of free void by γ-PGA production, and finally, the low oxygen consumption generated low metabolic heat. The results show that it must control the pressure gradients to scale-up the process of iturin A production.

  16. Loss of GltB Inhibits Biofilm Formation and Biocontrol Efficiency of Bacillus subtilis Bs916 by Altering the Production of γ-Polyglutamate and Three Lipopeptides. (United States)

    Zhou, Huafei; Luo, Chuping; Fang, Xianwen; Xiang, Yaping; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Rongsheng; Chen, Zhiyi


    This study examined the contribution of GltB on biofilm formation and biocontrol efficiency of B. subtilis Bs916. The gltB gene was identified through a biofilm phenotype screen and a bioinformatics analysis of serious biofilm formation defects, and then a gltB single knockout mutant was constructed using homologous recombination. This mutant demonstrated severe deficits in biofilm formation and colonisation along with significantly altered production ofγ-polyglutamate (γ-PGA) and three lipopeptide antibiotics (LPs) as measured by a transcriptional analysis of both the wild type B. subtilis Bs916 and the gltB mutant. Consequently, the mutant strain retained almost no antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and exhibited decreased biocontrol efficiency against rice sheath blight. Very few gltB mutant cells colonised the rice stem, and they exhibited no significant nutrient chemotaxis compared to the wild type B. subtilis Bs916. The mechanism underlying these deficits in the gltB mutant appears to be decreased significantly in production of γ-PGA and a reduction in the production of both bacillomycin L and fengycin. Biofilm restoration of gltB mutant by additionγ-PGA in the EM medium demonstrated that biofilm formation was able to restore significantly at 20 g/L. GltB regulates biofilm formation by altering the production ofγ-PGA, the LPs bacillomycin L and fengcin and influences bacterial colonisation on the rice stem, which consequently leads to poor biocontrol efficiency against rice sheath blight. This is the first report of a key regulatory protein (GltB) that is involved in biofilm regulation and its regulation mechanism and biocontrol efficiency by B. subtilis.

  17. Prevention and mitigation of acute radiation syndrome in mice by synthetic lipopeptide agonists of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N Shakhov

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP induce innate immune responses in mammals by activating heterodimeric receptor complexes containing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. TLR2 signaling results in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB-dependent upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidants and cytokines, all of which have been implicated in radiation protection. Here we demonstrate that synthetic lipopeptides (sLP that mimic the structure of naturally occurring mycoplasmal BLP significantly increase mouse survival following lethal total body irradiation (TBI when administered between 48 hours before and 24 hours after irradiation. The TBI dose ranges against which sLP are effective indicate that sLP primarily impact the hematopoietic (HP component of acute radiation syndrome. Indeed, sLP treatment accelerated recovery of bone marrow (BM and spleen cellularity and ameliorated thrombocytopenia of irradiated mice. sLP did not improve survival of irradiated TLR2-knockout mice, confirming that sLP-mediated radioprotection requires TLR2. However, sLP was radioprotective in chimeric mice containing TLR2-null BM on a wild type background, indicating that radioprotection of the HP system by sLP is, at least in part, indirect and initiated in non-BM cells. sLP injection resulted in strong transient induction of multiple cytokines with known roles in hematopoiesis, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC and interleukin-6 (IL-6. sLP-induced cytokines, particularly G-CSF, are likely mediators of the radioprotective/mitigative activity of sLP. This study illustrates the strong potential of LP-based TLR2 agonists for anti-radiation prophylaxis and therapy in defense and medical scenarios.

  18. Prevention and Mitigation of Acute Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Synthetic Lipopeptide Agonists of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) (United States)

    Shakhov, Alexander N.; Singh, Vijay K.; Bone, Frederick; Cheney, Alec; Kononov, Yevgeniy; Krasnov, Peter; Bratanova-Toshkova, Troitza K.; Shakhova, Vera V.; Young, Jason; Weil, Michael M.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Orschell, Christie M.; Baker, Patricia S.; Gudkov, Andrei; Feinstein, Elena


    Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) induce innate immune responses in mammals by activating heterodimeric receptor complexes containing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 signaling results in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-dependent upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidants and cytokines, all of which have been implicated in radiation protection. Here we demonstrate that synthetic lipopeptides (sLP) that mimic the structure of naturally occurring mycoplasmal BLP significantly increase mouse survival following lethal total body irradiation (TBI) when administered between 48 hours before and 24 hours after irradiation. The TBI dose ranges against which sLP are effective indicate that sLP primarily impact the hematopoietic (HP) component of acute radiation syndrome. Indeed, sLP treatment accelerated recovery of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cellularity and ameliorated thrombocytopenia of irradiated mice. sLP did not improve survival of irradiated TLR2-knockout mice, confirming that sLP-mediated radioprotection requires TLR2. However, sLP was radioprotective in chimeric mice containing TLR2-null BM on a wild type background, indicating that radioprotection of the HP system by sLP is, at least in part, indirect and initiated in non-BM cells. sLP injection resulted in strong transient induction of multiple cytokines with known roles in hematopoiesis, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). sLP-induced cytokines, particularly G-CSF, are likely mediators of the radioprotective/mitigative activity of sLP. This study illustrates the strong potential of LP-based TLR2 agonists for anti-radiation prophylaxis and therapy in defense and medical scenarios. PMID:22479357

  19. Surfactant nebulisation prevents the adverse effects of surfactant therapy on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in rabbits with severe respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Objective: Surfactant replacement therapy for the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome has shown beneficial effects on lung function and survival. Recently, rapid fluctuations of haemodynamics and cerebral perfusion following surfactant instillation have beer, described and an association with the

  20. Numerical Simulation of Cyclic Thermodynamic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård


    This thesis is on numerical simulation of cyclic thermodynamic processes. A modelling approach and a method for finding periodic steady state solutions are described. Examples of applications are given in the form of four research papers. Stirling machines and pulse tube coolers are introduced......, compressible flow in one space dimension is presented. The implementation produces models where all the equations, which are on a form that should be understandable to someone with a background in engineering thermodynamics, can be accessed and modified individually. The implementation was designed to make...

  1. Cyclic Glucans Enhance Solubility of Bioavailable Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeon Park


    Full Text Available Diverse flavonoids are abundant in dietary food constituents and possess useful biological activities. However, some flavonoids have limited bioavailability due to their low solubility in water. As an important approach to enhance aqueous solubility, inclusion of hydrophobic guest molecules in hydrophilic hosts such as cyclic glucans has been used. This review summarizes applications of β-cyclodextrin, synthetic β-cyclodextrin derivatives, and newly synthesized derivatives of cyclosophoraoses as complexing agents to enhance the bioavailability of flavonoids such as baicalein, kaempferol, and naphthoflavones.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy of organoclays synthesized with the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (United States)

    Xi, Yunfei; Ding, Zhe; He, Hongping; Frost, Ray L.


    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy using a smart endurance single bounce diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) cell has been used to study the changes in the spectra of the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) bromide upon intercalation into a sodium montmorillonite. The wavenumbers of bands attributed to CH-stretching and CH-bending vibrations, in general, decrease as the concentration of the surfactant measured in terms of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) up to 1.0 CEC. After this point, the bands increase approaching a value the same as that of the surfactant. Significant changes occur in the HCH deformation modes of the methyl groups of the surfactant. These changes are attributed to the methyl groups locking into the siloxane (SiO) surface of the montmorillonite. Such a concept is supported by changes in the SiO-stretching bands of the montmorillonite siloxane surface.

  3. Surfactant-assisted sacrificial template-mediated synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The precursor and products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopyand photoluminescence studies. Influence of surfactant and solvents on morphology and ...

  4. Effect of surfactant addition on removal of microbubbles using ultrasound. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hayashida, Yoshiyuki; Sano, Kazuki; Terasaka, Koichi


    It is difficult to control the bubble in a liquid by the external operation, because the behavior of the bubble is controlled in buoyancy and flow of liquid. On the other hand, microbubbles, whose diameter is several decades μm, stably disperse in static liquid because of their small buoyancy and electrical repulsion. When an ultrasound, whose frequency was 2.4 MHz, was irradiated, the milky white microbubbles suspended solution became rapidly clear. In this study, the effects of surfactant addition on the removal of microbubbles from a liquid in an ultrasonic field were investigated. The efficiency of removal of microbubbles decreased with surfactant addition. Surfactant type influenced the size of agglomerated microbubbles, and the efficiency of removal of microbubbles changed. The surface of microbubble was modified by surfactant adsorption, and the steric inhibition influenced the removal of microbubbles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The adsorption of surfactant at the amorphous polymer solution interface

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, V A


    Adsorption of surfactants onto amorphous polymers at the solid-solution interface is of direct relevance to many industrial sectors ranging from food, pharmaceuticals, paints, paper and photographic colour films. Although it is widely accepted that surfactants play the underpinning role in these applications, little is currently understood about the interactions between surfactants and polymeric materials at the molecular level. This lack of progress is mainly due to the inability of most existing techniques in probing this type of structural information at the wet interface. Specular neutron reflection (SNR) is a recently developed technique capable of detecting structural information with resolution down to a few angstroms (A). When combined with deuterium labeling, it is possible to distinguish the surfactant from the polymeric species at the interface. The aim of this work is to explore the appropriate experimental approach that utilizes the potential of neutron reflection to unravel molecular information...

  6. Effect of ionic surfactants on bauxite residues suspensions viscosity. (United States)

    Clifton, M; Nguyen, T; Frost, Ray


    Measurement of the rheological property of bauxite residue sample received from an Australian alumina refinery, treated with a number of cationic and anionic surfactant in laboratory has been carried out using a Brookfield viscometer for the assessment of the effect of surfactants on the residue viscosity. Sodium laurate, prepared with an excess of sodium hydroxide, was found to be effective while direct addition of anionic surfactants (lauric acid and sodium laureth sulphate) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) produce only moderate effect on the red mud suspension apparent viscosity at 65 degrees C. The experimental data appear to confirm the crucial role of the cation sodium in the process of adsorption of anionic surfactants on the flocculated red mud particles.

  7. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy of surfactants at liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Paulo B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Surfactants are widely used to modify physical and chemical properties of interfaces. They play an important role in many technological problems. Surfactant monolayer are also of great scientific interest because they are two-dimensional systems that may exhibit a very rich phase transition behavior and can also be considered as a model system for biological interfaces. In this Thesis, we use a second-order nonlinear optical technique (Sum-Frequency Generation - SFG) to obtain vibrational spectra of surfactant monolayer at Iiquidhapor and solid/liquid interfaces. The technique has several advantages: it is intrinsically surface-specific, can be applied to buried interfaces, has submonolayer sensitivity and is remarkably sensitive to the confirmational order of surfactant monolayers.

  8. Tunable Oleo-Furan Surfactants by Acylation of Renewable Furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Sung; Joseph, Kristeen E.; Koehle, Maura; Krumm, Christoph; Ren, Limin; Damen, Jonathan N.; Shete, Meera H.; Lee, Han Seung; Zuo, Xiaobing; Lee, Byeongdu; Fan, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Lobo, Raul F.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Dauenhauer, Paul J.


    An important advance in fluid surface control was the amphiphilic surfactant comprised of coupled molecular structures (i.e. hydrophilic and hydrophobic) to reduce surface tension between two distinct fluid phases. However, implementation of simple surfactants has been hindered by the broad range of applications in water containing alkaline earth metals (i.e. hard water), which disrupt surfactant function and require extensive use of undesirable and expensive chelating additives. Here we show that sugar-derived furans can be linked with triglyceride-derived fatty acid chains via Friedel-Crafts acylation within single layer (SPP) zeolite catalysts. These alkylfuran surfactants independently suppress the effects of hard water while simultaneously permitting broad tunability of size, structure, and function, which can be optimized for superior capability for forming micelles and solubilizing in water.

  9. Surfactants and the attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2-phenylidole (DAPI) staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectrophotometry for their efficacy in preventing adhesion and removing Ps. Aeruginosa attached to 3CR12 stainless steel coupons and glass. All the surfactants tested ...

  10. Experimental study on thermophoresis of colloids in aqueous surfactant solutions (United States)

    Dong, Ruo-Yu; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Chun; Cao, Bing-Yang


    Thermophoresis refers to the motion of particles under a temperature gradient and it is one of the particle manipulation techniques. Regarding the thermophoresis of particles in liquid media, however, many open questions still remain, especially the role of the interfacial effect. This work reports on a systematic experimental investigation of surfactant effects, especially the induced interfacial effect, on the thermophoresis of colloids in aqueous solutions via a microfluidic approach. Two kinds of commonly used surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), are selected and the results show that from relatively large concentrations, the two surfactants can greatly enhance the thermophilic mobilities. Specifically, it is found that the colloid-water interfaces modified with more polar end groups can potentially lead to a stronger thermophilic tendency. Due to the complex effects of surfactants, further theoretical model development is needed to quantitatively describe the dependence of thermophoresis on the interface characteristics.

  11. (NLC-Effect of Surfactant Concentration on the Formulation Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pezeshki


    Conclusion: This study suggests that surfactant significantly influences the final product properties. Our findings may pave the way of researchers to focus on fortifying the beverages with various lipophilic nutraceuticals.

  12. Controlled release of estradiol solubilized in carbopol/surfactant aggregates. (United States)

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Rafael; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel


    The potential of carbopol/surfactant dispersions as solubilizing and controlled release systems of estradiol (a poorly water-soluble drug) was evaluated. The solubilization of estradiol in the dispersions of Carbopol 934 (0.25%) and Pluronic F-127, Tween 80, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), or benzalkonium chloride (BkCl) was assessed, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of films obtained by desiccation, as a decrease in estradiol melting temperature and enthalpy. The amounts of estradiol solubilized in carbopol/SDS and carbopol/Tween 80 aqueous dispersions were considerably greater (solubilization capacity: 1.3 and 9 times greater) than in the surfactant alone solutions and up to 100 times greater than in water. High aggregates/water equilibrium partition coefficients of estradiol in carbopol/SDS (1768 M(-1)) and carbopol/Tween 80 (14114 M(-1)) dispersions were found. Carbopol/(1%) SDS/(25 mg/dl) estradiol and carbopol/(0.1%) Tween 80/(5 mg/dl) estradiol dispersions had a pH of around 4, were easy flowing, and showed sustained release for at least 1 week. Estradiol diffusion coefficients were greater when the receptor medium was 0.3-1.0% SDS solution than when it was iso-osmotic NaCl solution or pH 7.5 phosphate buffer. At this pH, a viscoelastic gel is formed on the donor side of the membrane and the drug diffusion slowed down. When the receptor medium contains a surfactant, estradiol release seems to happen as a direct exchange between the carbopol/surfactant aggregates and the receptor surfactant micelles. If no surfactant is in the receptor fluid, estradiol/surfactant complexes migrate towards the receptor. Despite the low viscosity of these dispersions, estradiol diffusion coefficients were in the same order of magnitude as those obtained with a commercially available neutralized ethanol/water carbopol gel of estradiol (60 mg/dl). When the receptor medium had no surfactant, the low affinity of estradiol for water prevented drug diffusion from the

  13. Novel Surfactants and Their Applications, Including Mustard Decontamination (United States)


    34, Td forc(cHr)ttf (vnzl"", l;" The synthesis of surfactant 22 was included in the Progress Report for August 1,2004 to July 31, 2005, but its...reaction with pyrophosphoric acid. Then 66 gave shamrock surfactant 60 upon reaction with two equivalents of sodium hydroxide. 48/" HBr H"C) HO(CH2

  14. Surfactant properties differentially influence intravascular gas embolism mechanics. (United States)

    Swaminathan, T N; Ayyaswamy, P S; Eckmann, D M


    Gas bubble motion in a blood vessel causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. These may result in injury to the cell. The presence of a soluble surfactant in the bulk medium reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system and is an important therapeutic aid. This is particularly true for a very small vessel. In this study, we analyze various physical and chemical properties of any given soluble surfactant to ascertain the relative significance of the property of the surfactant on the reduction in the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface in such a vessel. While adsorption, desorption, and maximum possible monolayer interface surfactant concentration significantly impact the shear stress levels, physical properties such as the bulk or surface diffusivity do not appear to have large effects. At a given diameter, surfactants with k(a)/(k(d)d>O(10)⁻⁵ and Γ(∞)/C(0)d>9.5 x 10⁻⁴ are noted to be preferable from the point of view of an increased gap size between the bubble and vessel wall, and a corresponding reduction in the shear stress level imparted to an endothelial cell. The shear stress characteristics of nearly occluding bubbles, in contrast with smaller sized bubbles under identical conditions, are most affected by the introduction of a surfactant in regard to shear stress levels. These observations could form a basis for choosing surfactants in treating gas embolism related illnesses.

  15. Micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term


    Nishijima, Koji; SHUKUNAMI, Ken-ichi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; ORISAKA, Makoto; Miura, Junichiro; KOTSUJI, Fumikazu


    Studies using in vitro analysis have shown that the interaction between pulmonary surfactant and vemix caseosa could explain the appearance of amniotic fluid turbidity. That phenomenon is interpreted based on the "roll-up" hypothesis. We tested the roll-up hypothesis by examining the presence of micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term. Amniotic fluid samples were collected from each of six healthy pregnant women at term and at 16 wk of gestation. These samples were st...

  16. Nanoparticle decoration with surfactants: Molecular interactions, assembly, and applications (United States)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Pramanik, Chandrani; Heinz, Ozge; Ding, Yifu; Mishra, Ratan K.; Marchon, Delphine; Flatt, Robert J.; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Llop, Jordi; Moya, Sergio; Ziolo, Ronald F.


    Nanostructures of diverse chemical nature are used as biomarkers, therapeutics, catalysts, and structural reinforcements. The decoration with surfactants has a long history and is essential to introduce specific functions. The definition of surfactants in this review is very broad, following its lexical meaning ;surface active agents;, and therefore includes traditional alkyl modifiers, biological ligands, polymers, and other surface active molecules. The review systematically covers covalent and non-covalent interactions of such surfactants with various types of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides, layered materials, and polymers as well as their applications. The major themes are (i) molecular recognition and noncovalent assembly mechanisms of surfactants on the nanoparticle and nanocrystal surfaces, (ii) covalent grafting techniques and multi-step surface modification, (iii) dispersion properties and surface reactions, (iv) the use of surfactants to influence crystal growth, as well as (v) the incorporation of biorecognition and other material-targeting functionality. For the diverse materials classes, similarities and differences in surfactant assembly, function, as well as materials performance in specific applications are described in a comparative way. Major factors that lead to differentiation are the surface energy, surface chemistry and pH sensitivity, as well as the degree of surface regularity and defects in the nanoparticle cores and in the surfactant shell. The review covers a broad range of surface modifications and applications in biological recognition and therapeutics, sensors, nanomaterials for catalysis, energy conversion and storage, the dispersion properties of nanoparticles in structural composites and cement, as well as purification systems and classical detergents. Design principles for surfactants to optimize the performance of specific nanostructures are discussed. The review concludes with challenges and opportunities.

  17. Structural studies of lamellar surfactant systems under shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.


    Recent experimental studies on concentrated surfactant systems are reviewed. Particular attention is focused on the transformation from planar lamellar sheets to multilamellar vesicles. It is discussed whether both of these states are thermodynamic stable, or if the MLV is an artifact of shear...... induced factors. Recent studies includes the dependence on shear, and dependence on salt and cosurfactants, and thereby related lamellar defects. The review include moreover the demonstration that polymeric amphiphiles dramatically enhance the quality of classical surfactants. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science...

  18. Use of surfactants to control island size and density (United States)

    Merrell, Jason; Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald B.


    Methods of controlling island size and density on an OMVPE growth film may comprise adding a surfactant at a critical concentration level, allowing a growth phase for a first period of time, and ending the growth phase when desired island size and density are achieved. For example, the island size and density of an OMVPE grown InGaN thin film may be controlled by adding an antimony surfactant at a critical concentration level.

  19. European perspective on less invasive surfactant administration-a survey. (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Porcaro, Ugo; Fleck, Thilo; Fuchs, Hans


    Less invasive surfactant administration or minimally invasive surfactant therapy (LISA/MIST) has been proposed for the administration of surfactant in preterm infants without intubation. The aim of our survey was to assess the rate of utilization, premedication as well as technique and equipment used for LISA/MIST. Furthermore, attitudes and experiences in regard to indications, side effects, and efficacy should be assessed. An online-based survey was sent to 324 neonatologists from different centers within 37 European countries between December 2015 and March 2016. Of those 165 who responded (response rate 51%), 86 (52%) were using LISA/MIST. It is regarded the standard procedure for surfactant administration by 41%, with a wide variation in personal views on patient selection in terms of indication, appropriate gestational and postnatal age. Policies concerning premedication, devices, and technique of LISA/MIST differed widely. Side effects like surfactant reflux, bradycardia, and hypoxia were observed by 77% of neonatologists. Of neonatologists inexperienced in LISA/MIST, 89% would consider utilizing it in the future. Perceived efficacy of LISA/MIST was high (52%) to medium (33%). The use of LISA/MIST within Europe is widespread. There is a wide variation concerning all aspects of LISA in daily clinical routine and different views on when and how LISA should be performed. What is Known: • Noninvasive surfactant administration has been the subject of randomized controlled trials and has found its way into clinical routine. What is New: • Noninvasive surfactant administration techniques are widely applied in European neonatal units. • There is a wide variety of equipment used and techniques applied for less invasive surfactant delivery as well as different views on the indications and perceived efficacy of this intervention.

  20. Effects of Surfactants on the Rate of Chemical Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samiey


    Full Text Available Surfactants are self-assembled compounds that depend on their structure and electric charge can interact as monomer or micelle with other compounds (substrates. These interactions which may catalyze or inhibit the reaction rates are studied with pseudophase, cooperativity, and stoichiometric (classical models. In this review, we discuss applying these models to study surfactant-substrate interactions and their effects on Diels-Alder, redox, photochemical, decomposition, enzymatic, isomerization, ligand exchange, radical, and nucleophilic reactions.

  1. Competitive Adsorption: A Physical Model for Lung Surfactant Inactivation


    Fernsler, Jonathan G.; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.


    Charged, surface-active serum proteins can severely reduce or eliminate the adsorption of lung surfactant from the subphase to the alveolar air-liquid interface via a kinetically controlled competitive adsorption process. The decreased surfactant concentration at the interface leads to higher surface tensions during the compression of the interface during breathing. The correspondence between the factors governing colloid stability and competitive adsorption is validated via a new method of m...

  2. Cyclic GMP from the surrounding somatic cells regulates cyclic AMP and meiosis in the mouse oocyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rachael P. Norris; William J. Ratzan; Marina Freudzon; Lisa M. Mehlmann; Judith Krall; Matthew A. Movsesian; Huanchen Wang; Hengming Ke; Viacheslav O. Nikolaev; Laurinda A. Jaffe


    .... Using FRET-based cyclic nucleotide sensors in follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes, we find that cGMP passes through gap junctions into the oocyte, where it inhibits the hydrolysis of cAMP by the phosphodiesterase PDE3A...

  3. Anomalous behavior during leveling of thin coating layers with surfactant (United States)

    Schwartz, L. W.; Cairncross, R. A.; Weidner, D. E.


    Our recently-published linear analysis [Schwartz et al., Langmuir 11, 3690 (1995)] demonstrated that an initially rippled thin layer of Newtonian liquid with uniformly distributed surfactant may level in unexpected ways. While the presence of surfactant will, in general, slow the rate of leveling compared to that of a perfectly clean system, there was shown to exist a realistic parameter range where increasing, rather than reducing, the amount of surfactant present will hasten leveling. Here, for the two-dimensional problem, we investigate the importance of nonlinearity though numerical solution of (i) the unsteady lubrication form of the evolution equations with surfactant, and (ii) finite-element solution of the exact governing equations for slow viscous flow. Confirmation of the linear results is demonstrated and quantitative discrepancy only appears for large-amplitude and short-wavelength ripples. Surface tension gradient driven flow explains the anomalies; for moderate surfactants, the surface quickly `hardens,' leading to a decay rate of one-quarter of the clean-surface rate, while for weak surfactants, leveling proceeds to a plateau level which decays much slower than the hard-surface result.

  4. Micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term. (United States)

    Nishijima, Koji; Shukunami, Ken-Ichi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Orisaka, Makoto; Miura, Jun'Ichiro; Kotsuji, Fumikazu


    Studies using in vitro analysis have shown that the interaction between pulmonary surfactant and vernix caseosa could explain the appearance of amniotic fluid turbidity. That phenomenon is interpreted based on the "roll-up" hypothesis. We tested the roll-up hypothesis by examining the presence of micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term. Amniotic fluid samples were collected from each of six healthy pregnant women at term and at 16 wk of gestation. These samples were stained negatively and analyzed using an electron microscope. Ultrastructures present in amniotic fluid were compared with the structure of micelles derived from suspended surfactant TA isolated from bovine lung. Surfactant TA formed spheroidal and rod-shaped micelles 10-70 nm in diameter above the critical micelle concentration. Identical micelle particles were described in human amniotic fluid at term. In addition, surfactant protein B was identified in the micelle fraction of amniotic fluid. However, no micelles were found in human amniotic fluid taken at 16 wk of gestation. Our results support the view that pulmonary surfactant could induce the detachment of vernix caseosa and increase the turbidity of the amniotic fluid.

  5. Influence of residual surfactants on DNAPL characterization using partitioning tracers (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D.; Rao, P. Suresh C.


    The partitioning tracer technique is among the DNAPL source-zone characterization methods being evaluated, while surfactant in-situ flushing is receiving attention as an innovative technology for enhanced source-zone cleanup. Here, we examine in batch and column experiments the magnitude of artifacts introduced in estimating DNAPL content when residual surfactants are present. The batch equilibrium tests, using residual surfactants ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 wt.%, showed that as the surfactant concentrations increased, the tracer partition coefficients decreased linearly for sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (DowFax 8390), increased linearly for polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether (Brij 97), and decreased slightly or exhibited no observable trend for sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (AMA 80). Results from column tests using clean sand with residual DowFax 8390 and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were consistent with those of batch tests. In the presence of DowFax 8390 (less than 0.5 wt.%), the PCE saturations were underestimated by up to 20%. Adsorbed surfactants on a loamy sand with positively charged oxides showed false indications of PCE saturation based on partitioning tracers in the absence of PCE. Using no surfactant (background soil) gave a false PCE saturation of 0.0004, while soil contacted by AMA 80, Brij 97, and DowFax 8390 gave false PCE saturations of 0.0024, 0.043, and 0.23, respectively.

  6. Splash Dynamics of Falling Surfactant-Laden Droplets (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nur; Buitrago, Lewis; Pereyra, Eduardo


    Splashing dynamics is a common issue in oil and gas separation technology. In this study, droplet impact of various surfactant concentrations onto solid and liquid surfaces is studied experimentally using a high-speed imaging analysis. Although this area has been widely studied in the past, there is still not a good understanding of the role of surfactant over droplet impact and characterization of resulting splash dynamics. The experiments are conducted using tap water laden with anionic surfactant. The effects of system parameters on a single droplet impingement such as surfactant concentration (no surfactant, below, at and above critical micelle concentration), parent drop diameter (2-5mm), impact velocity and type of impact surface (thin and deep pool) are investigated. Image analysis technique is shown to be an effective technique for identification of coalescence to splashing transition. In addition, daughter droplets size distributions are analyzed qualitatively in the events of splashing. As expected, it is observed that the formation of secondary droplets is affected by the surfactant concentration. A summary of findings will be discussed.

  7. Investigation of Cyclic Deformation and Fatigue of Polycrystalline Cu under Pure Compression Cyclic Loading Conditions (United States)

    Hsu, Tzu-Yin Jean

    It is commonly accepted that fatigue crack is initiated under tensile fatigue stresses. However, practical examples demonstrate that cracks may also initiate under pure compressive fluctuating loads such as the failures observed in aircraft landing gear frames. However, the mechanism of such failures is rarely investigated. Furthermore, knowledge on cyclic deformation response under pure compressive fatigue condition is also very limited or non-existent. Our recent work already verified that fatigue cracks may nucleate from stress concentration sites under pure compression fatigue, but whether or not a form of stress concentration is always needed to initiate a crack under pure compression fatigue remains uncertain. In this study, compression fatigue tests under different peak stresses were carried out on smooth bars of fully annealed OFHC Copper. The purpose of these tests is to investigate not only the cyclic deformation response but also the possibility of crack nucleation without the stress concentrator. Results showed that overall the cyclic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution of OFHC Copper under pure compression fatigue exhibits rather dissimilar behaviour compared to those under symmetrical fatigue. The specimens hardened rapidly within 10 cycles under pure compression fatigue unlike the gradual cyclic hardening behaviour in symmetrical fatigue with the same peak stress amplitude. Compressive cyclic creep behaviour was also observed under the same testing conditions. Moreover, unlike conventional tension-compression fatigue, only moderate slip activity was detectable on the surface instead of typical PSB features detected from TEM observations. The surface observations has revealed that surface slip bands did not increase in number nor did they become more pronounced in height with increasing number of cycles. In addition, surface roughening by grain boundary extrusion was detected to become more severe as the cycling progressed. Therefore

  8. Natural and surfactant modified zeolites: A review of their applications for water remediation with a focus on surfactant desorption and toxicity towards microorganisms. (United States)

    Reeve, Peter J; Fallowfield, Howard J


    The objective of this review is to highlight the need for further investigation of microbial toxicity caused by desorption of surfactant from Surfactant Modified Zeolite (SMZ). SMZ is a low cost, versatile permeable reactive media which has the potential to treat multiple classes of contaminants. With this combination of characteristics, SMZ has significant potential to enhance water and wastewater treatment processes. Surfactant desorption has been identified as a potential issue for the ongoing usability of SMZ. Few studies have investigated the toxicity of surfactants used in zeolite modification towards microorganisms and fewer have drawn linkages between surfactant desorption and surfactant toxicity. This review provides an overview of natural zeolite chemistry, characteristics and practical applications. The chemistry of commonly used surfactants is outlined, along with the kinetics that drive their adsorption to the zeolite surface. Methodologies to characterise this surfactant loading are also described. Applications of SMZ in water remediation are highlighted, giving focus to applications which deal with biological pollutants and where microorganisms play a role in the remediation process. Studies that have identified surfactant desorption from SMZ are outlined. Finally, the toxicity of a commonly used cationic surfactant towards microorganisms is discussed. This review highlights the potential for surfactant to desorb from the zeolite surface and the need for further research into the toxicity of this desorbed surfactant towards microorganisms, including pathogens and environmental microbes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanism of the immobilization of surfactants on polymeric surfaces by means of an argon plasma treatment: influence of the chemical structure of surfactant substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Lens, J.P.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan


    In this article, a study on the mechanism of the immobilization of surfactants on polymeric surfaces by means of an argon plasma treatment is described. The unsaturated surfactant sodium 10-undecenoate [C11(:)] and the saturated surfactant sodium dodecanoate (C12) were immobilized on poly(ethylene)

  10. Rf cavity primer for cyclic proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.E.


    The purpose of this note is to describe the electrical and mechanical properites of particle accelerator rf cavities in a manner which will be useful to physics and engineering graduates entering the accelerator field. The discussion will be limited to proton (or antiproton) synchrotron accelerators or storage rings operating roughly in the range of 20 to 200 MHz. The very high gradient, fixed frequency UHF or microwave devices appropriate for electron machines and the somewhat lower frequency and broader bandwidth devices required for heavy ion accelerators are discussed extensively in other papers in this series. While it is common pratice to employ field calculation programs such as SUPERFISH, URMEL, or MAFIA as design aids in the development of rf cavities, we attempt here to elucidate various of the design parameters commonly dealt with in proton machines through the use of simple standing wave coaxial resonator expressions. In so doing, we treat only standing wave structures. Although low-impedance, moderately broad pass-band travelling wave accelerating systems are used in the CERN SPS, such systems are more commonly found in linacs, and they have not been used widely in large cyclic accelerators. Two appendices providing useful supporting material regarding relativistic particle dynamics and synchrotron motion in cyclic accelerators are added to supplement the text.

  11. Effect of registration on cyclical kinematic data. (United States)

    Crane, Elizabeth A; Cassidy, Ruth B; Rothman, Edward D; Gerstner, Geoffrey E


    Given growing interest in functional data analysis (FDA) as a useful method for analyzing human movement data, it is critical to understand the effects of standard FDA procedures, including registration, on biomechanical analyses. Registration is used to reduce phase variability between curves while preserving the individual curve's shape and amplitude. The application of three methods available to assess registration could benefit those in the biomechanics community using FDA techniques: comparison of mean curves, comparison of average RMS values, and assessment of time-warping functions. Therefore, the present study has two purposes. First, the necessity of registration applied to cyclical data after time normalization is assessed. Second, we illustrate the three methods for evaluating registration effects. Masticatory jaw movements of 22 healthy adults (2 males, 21 females) were tracked while subjects chewed a gum-based pellet for 20s. Motion data were captured at 60 Hz with two gen-locked video cameras. Individual chewing cycles were time normalized and then transformed into functional observations. Registration did not affect mean curves and warping functions were linear. Although registration decreased the RMS, indicating a decrease in inter-subject variability, the difference was not statistically significant. Together these results indicate that registration may not always be necessary for cyclical chewing data. An important contribution of this paper is the illustration of three methods for evaluating registration that are easy to apply and useful for judging whether the extra data manipulation is necessary. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying


    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  13. Influence of water concentrations on the phase transformation of a model surfactant/co-surfactant/water system (United States)

    Lunkad, Raju; Srivastava, Arpita; Debnath, Ananya


    The influence of water concentrations on phase transformations of a surfactant/co-surfactant/water system is investigated by using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. At higher water concentrations, where surfactant (behenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, BTMAC) to co-surfactant (stearyl alcohol, SA) ratio is fixed, BTMAC and SA self-assemble into spherical micelles, which transform into strongly interdigitated one dimensional rippled lamellar phases upon decreasing water concentrations. Fragmentation or fusions of spherical micelles of different sizes are evident from the radial distribution functions at different temperatures. However, at lower water concentrations rippled lamellar phase transforms into an LβI phase upon heating. Our simulations reveal that the concentrations of water can influence available space around the head groups which couple with critical thickness to accommodate the packing fraction required for respective phases. This directs towards obtaining a controlling factor to design desired phases important for industrial and medical applications in the future.

  14. On cyclic codes of composite length and the minimal distance


    Xiong, Maosheng


    In an interesting paper Professor Cunsheng Ding provided three constructions of cyclic codes of length being a product of two primes. Numerical data shows that many codes from these constructions are best cyclic codes of the same length and dimension over the same finite field. However, not much is known about these codes. In this paper we explain some of the mysteries of the numerical data by developing a general method on cyclic codes of composite length and on estimating the minimal distan...

  15. Compare severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome treated with surfactant to without surfactant. (United States)

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Ratchatanorravut, Sombat; Kanjanapattanakul, Wiboon


    The utilization of surfactant replacement therapy had been limited in treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to the high cost especially in developing countries. Nowadays, the National Health Insurance Policy has covered the cost of surfactant for the patients. Therefore, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) may be found increasing due to increased survival in patients with severe RDS. To compare immediate treatment outcome of severity of BPD and outcome after hospital discharge in neonates with RDS who were treated with or without surfactant. Retrospective cohort study. The data of 54 infants who developed BPD after RDS at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between January 1st, 2003 and December 31th, 2005 were kept in database format. The database was analyzed for difference between groups and the outcome of immediate treatment, severity of BPD and outcome after hospital discharge were compared. The study group was BPD cases from RDS treated with surfactant compared to control (BPD cases from RDS treated without surfactant) groups. Forty-three (80%) from fifty-four cases had completed data and were included into the present study. There was no statistically significant difference in maternal conditions and neonatal conditions between groups. Antenatal steroid was prescribed more often in RDS without surfactant group than surfactant group. The mean birth weight and gestational age in surfactant and without surfactant groups were 1,179.1 +/- 274.3 gm vs. 1,114.4 +/- 338.3 gm and 29 +/- 1.6 weeks vs. 29.2 +/- 2.7 weeks respectively, but no significant differences were observed between groups. To compare the severity of RDS, only 17.6% of moderate to severe RDS in the control group was found, whereas 100% was found in the study group. Moderate to severe BPD cases were found more often in the control group (70.6%) than in the study group (61.6%), but no statistically significant difference was shown. The immediate complications, e

  16. Effect of double-tailed surfactant architecture on the conformation, self-assembly, and processing in polypeptide-surfactant complexes. (United States)

    Junnila, Susanna; Hanski, Sirkku; Oakley, Richard J; Nummelin, Sami; Ruokolainen, Janne; Faul, Charl F J; Ikkala, Olli


    This work describes the solid-state conformational and structural properties of self-assembled polypeptide-surfactant complexes with double-tailed surfactants. Poly(L-lysine) was complexed with three dialkyl esters of phosphoric acid (i.e., phosphodiester surfactants), where the surfactant tail branching and length was varied to tune the supramolecular architecture in a facile way. After complexation with the branched surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in an aqueous solution, the polypeptide chains adopted an alpha-helical conformation. These rod-like helices self-assembled into cylindrical phases with the amorphous alkyl tails pointing outward. In complexes with dioctyl phosphate and didodecyl phosphate, which have two linear n-octyl or n-dodecyl tails, respectively, the polypeptide formed antiparallel beta-sheets separated by alkyl layers, resulting in well-ordered lamellar self-assemblies. By heating, it was possible to trigger a partial opening of the beta-sheets and disruption of the lamellar phase. After repeated heating/cooling, all of these complexes also showed a glass transition between 37 and 50 degrees C. Organic solvent treatment and plasticization by overstoichiometric amount of surfactant led to structure modification in poly(L-lysine)-dioctyl phosphate complexes, PLL(diC8)(x) (x = 1.0-3.0). Here, the alpha-helical PLL is surrounded by the surfactants and these bottle-brush-like chains self-assemble in a hexagonal cylindrical morphology. As x is increased, the materials are clearly plasticized and the degree of ordering is improved: The stiff alpha-helical backbones in a softened surfactant matrix give rise to thermotropic liquid-crystalline phases. The complexes were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, and circular dichroism.

  17. Effects of Exogenous Surfactants on the Parameters of Blood Gas Composition in Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa


    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effects of the surfactants Surfactant-BL and Curosurf on pulmonary oxygenizing properties in preterm neonatal infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The studies were performed in 81 preterm neonates with severe RDS. For the therapy of RDS, the exogenous surfactants Surfactant-BL and Curosurf were used in 52 and 29 children with RDS, respectively. The similarity of infants from both groups was statistically confirmed. Blood gas composition and artificial ventilation parameters were examined. Results. The administration of the exogenous surfactants Surfactant-BL and Curosurf normalized blood gas composition, enhanced alveolar ventilation, and improved pulmonary ventilation-perfusion relationships. The exogenous surfactants permit the performance of artificial ventilation when the values are close to the physiological ones. There were no significant differences in the effects on the surfactants on gas exchange parameters. Key words: respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant, artificial ventilation, mean airway pressure, blood gas composition.

  18. Impact of model perfumes on surfactant and mixed surfactant self-assembly. (United States)

    Penfold, J; Tucker, I; Green, A; Grainger, D; Jones, C; Ford, G; Roberts, C; Hubbard, J; Petkov, J; Thomas, R K; Grillo, I


    The impact of some model perfumes on surfactant self-assembly has been investigated, using small-angle neutron scattering. A range of different model perfumes, with differing degrees of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, have been explored, and in order of increasing hydrophobicity include phenyl ethanol (PE), rose oxide (RO), limonene (LM), linalool (LL), and dihydrogen mercenol (DHM). The effect of their solubilization on the nonionic surfactant micelles of dodecaethylene monododecyl ether (C12EO12) and on the mixed surfactant aggregates of C12EO12 and the cationic dialkyl chain surfactant dihexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DHDAB) has been quantified. For PE and LL the effect of their solubilization on the micelle, mixed micelle/lamellar and lamellar regimes of the C12EO12/DHDAB mixtures, has also been determined. For the C12EO12 and mixed DHDAB/C12EO12 micelles PE is solubilized predominantly at the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface, whereas the more hydrophobic perfumes, from RO to DHM, are solubilized predominantly in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. For the C12EO12 micelles, with increasing perfume concentration, the more hydrophobic perfumes (RO to DHM) promote micellar growth. Relatively modest growth is observed for RO and LM, whereas substantial growth is observed for LL and DHM. In contrast, for the addition of PE the C12EO12 micelles remain as relatively small globular micelles, with no significant growth. For the C12EO12/DHDAB mixed micelles, the pattern of behavior with the addition of perfume is broadly similar, except that the micellar growth with increasing perfume concentration for the more hydrophobic perfumes is less pronounced. In the Lbeta (Lv) region of the DHDAB-rich C12EO12/DHDAB phase diagram, the addition of PE results in a less structured (less rigid) lamellar phase, and ultimately a shift toward a structure more consistent with a sponge or bicontinuous phase. In the mixed L1/Lbeta region of the phase diagram PE induces a slight

  19. Capillary electrophoresis investigation on equilibrium between polymer-related and surfactant-related species in aqueous polymer-surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Wu, Yefan; Chen, Miaomiao; Fang, Yun; Zhu, Meng


    It was inferred from aqueous solution behavior of nonionic polymers and anionic surfactants that the formation of charged polymer-bound surfactant micelle above critical aggregation concentration (cac) and the formation of free surfactant micelle beyond polymer saturation point (psp), but there was still a lack of direct experimental evidence for the considered equilibrium chemical species. Three modes of capillary electrophoresis are applied in this paper to study the complexation between nonionic polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) by successfully distinguishing the imaginary charged polymer-bound SDBS micelle from nonionic polymer and SDBS molecule. Perhaps even more important, it is the action of SDBS as both a main surfactant and a UV probe that makes the free surfactant micelle emerged in electropherogram beyond psp, and thus makes it possible for the first time to provide the equilibrium relationship of the polymer-related and the surfactant-related species in the concentration regions divided into by cac and psp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of surfactants for the remediation of contaminated soils: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xuhui, E-mail: [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jiang, Rui; Xiao, Wei [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    Highlights: • The recent advances in use of surfactant for soil remediation are reviewed. • The mechanisms of surfactant-based soil remediation are discussed. • A review on the application of different types of surfactants is made. • The future research direction of surfactant-based technologies is suggested. - Abstract: Due to the great harm caused by soil contamination, there is an increasing interest to apply surfactants to the remediation of a variety of contaminated soils worldwide. This review article summarizes the findings of recent literatures regarding remediation of contaminated soils/sites using surfactants as an enhancing agent. For the surfactant-based remedial technologies, the adsorption behaviors of surfactants onto soil, the solubilizing capability of surfactants, and the toxicity and biocompatibility of surfactants are important considerations. Surfactants can enhance desorption of pollutants from soil, and promote bioremediation of organics by increasing bioavailability of pollutants. The removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from soils involves the mechanisms of dissolution, surfactant-associated complexation, and ionic exchange. In addition to the conventional ionic and nonionic surfactants, gemini surfactants and biosurfactants are also applied to soil remediation due to their benign features like lower critical micelle concentration (CMC) values and better biocompatibility. Mixed surfactant systems and combined use of surfactants with other additives are often adopted to improve the overall performance of soil washing solution for decontamination. Worldwide the field studies and full-scale remediation using surfactant-based technologies are yet limited, however, the already known cases reveal the good prospect of applying surfactant-based technologies to soil remediation.

  1. Glyphosate: Surfactant herbicide poisoning - Is it mild?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venugopal


    Full Text Available Glyphosate Surfactant is a nonselective widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, lawn, garden and aquatic environments. They have favorable toxicity with occupational and accidental exposures. The toxicity in humans is mucosal and gastrointestinal irritation, hypotension, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary insufficiency, and oliguria. Patient may appear asymptomatic for many hours before slowly lapse into a hypotensive, apparently nonhypovolaemic shock that can often ends fatally. We hereby report a case of a 25-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following suicidal consumption of around 250-300 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate (glypho; . Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation. He also developed acute renal failure, and renal function reverted to normal after four sittings of hemodialysis. Patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as the sole method of treatment since this poison has no specific antidote.

  2. Surfactant protein C in canine pulmonary fibrosis. (United States)

    Eriksson, M; von Euler, H; Ekman, E; Nordling, K; Häggström, J; Johansson, J


    Canine pulmonary fibrosis (CPF) occurs most commonly in West Highland White Terriers. The differing incidences of CPF among dog breeds suggest that genetic factors contribute to its pathophysiology. Pulmonary fibrosis in humans is associated with mutations in the gene coding for lung surfactant protein C (SP-C) (SFTPC). To investigate the histopathologic changes and SP-C composition and genetic structure in dogs with CPF. Five dogs with PF, 2 dogs with other lung diseases, and 3 healthy dogs. Lung tissue from dogs with clinically suspected CPF and 5 control cases was analyzed histopathologically. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected postmortem from 3 terriers with histopathologically confirmed pulmonary fibrosis and the 5 controls were analyzed by Western blots, and the exons of SFTPC were sequenced for 2 dogs with PF and 1 dog with other lung disease. SP-C could not be detected in BALF of 1 dog with PF, although SP-B was present. A mutation was detected in SFTPC exon 5 of this dog. From 2 dogs with PF and in all 5 control dogs SP-B and SP-C were detected in BALF. Taken together, the results indicate that canine and human lung fibrosis share histopathologic features and that analysis of SP-C and its gene in a larger set of dogs with PF is warranted.

  3. Self-Assembly of Nanoparticle Surfactants (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael T.

    Self-assembly utilizes non-covalent forces to organize smaller building blocks into larger, organized structures. Nanoparticles are one type of building block and have gained interest recently due to their unique optical and electrical properties which have proved useful in fields such as energy, catalysis, and advanced materials. There are several techniques currently used to self-assemble nanoparticles, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks. Here, we address the limited number of techniques in non-polar solvents by introducing a method utilizing amphiphilic gold nanoparticles. Grafted polymer chains provide steric stabilization while small hydrophilic molecules induce assembly through short range attractive forces. The properties of these self-assembled structures are found to be dependent on the polymer and small molecules surface concentrations and chemistries. These particles act as nanoparticle surfactants and can effectively stabilize oil-water interfaces, such as in an emulsion. In addition to the work in organic solvent, similar amphiphilic particles in aqueous media are shown to effectively stabilize oil-in-water emulsions that show promise as photoacoustic/ultrasound theranostic agents.

  4. Estrous Cyclicity in Mice During Simulated Weightlessness (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Scott, R. T.; Tash, J. S.; Christenson, L. K.; Alwood, J. S.; Ronca, A. E.


    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a rodent model system used to simulate weightlessness experienced in space. However, some effects of this approach on rodent physiology are under-studied, specifically the effects on ovarian estrogen production which drives the estrous cycle. To resolve this deficiency, we conducted a ground-based validation study using the HU model, while monitoring estrous cycles in 16-weeks-old female C57BL6 mice. Animals were exposed to HU for 12 days following a 3 day HU cage acclimation period, and estrous cycling was analyzed in HU animals (n=22), normally loaded HU Cage Pair-Fed controls (CPF; n=22), and Vivarium controls fed ad libitum (VIV; n=10). Pair feeding was used to control for potential nutritional deficits on ovarian function. Vaginal cells were sampled daily in all mice via saline lavage. Cells were dried and stained with crystal violet, and the smears evaluated using established vaginal cytology techniques by two individuals blinded to the animal treatment group. Estrous cyclicity was disrupted in nearly all HU and CPF mice, while those maintained in VIV had an average normal cycle length of 4.8+/- 0.5 days, with all stages in the cycle visibly observed. CPF and HU animals arrested in the diestrous phase, which precedes the pre-ovulatory estrogen surge. Additionally, infection-like symptoms characterized by vaginal discharge and swelling arose in several HU animals, which we suspect was due to an inability of these mice to properly groom themselves, and/or due to the change in the gravity vector relative to the vaginal opening, which prevented drainage of the lavage solution. Pair-feeding resulted in similar weight gains of HU and CPF (1.5% vs 3.0%, respectively). The current results indicate that pair-feeding controlled weight gain and that the HU cage alone influenced estrous cyclicity. Thus, longer acclimation needs to be tested to determine if and when normal estrous cycling resumes in non-loaded mice in HU cages prior to HU

  5. Estrous Cyclicity of Mice During Simulated Weightlessness (United States)

    Moyer, Eric; Talyansky, Yuli; Scott, Ryan; Tash, Joseph; Christenson, Lane; Alwood, Joshua; Ronca, April


    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a rodent model system used to simulate weightlessness experienced in space. However, some effects of this approach on rodent physiology are under-studied, specifically the effects on ovarian estrogen production which drives the estrous cycle. To resolve this deficiency, we conducted a ground-based validation study using the HU model, while monitoring estrous cycles in 16-weeks-old female C57BL6 mice. Animals were exposed to HU for 12 days following a 3 day HU cage acclimation period, and estrous cycling was analyzed in HU animals (n22), normally loaded HU Cage Pair-Fed controls (CPF; n22), and Vivarium controls fed ad libitum (VIV; n10). Pair feeding was used to control for potential nutritional deficits on ovarian function. Vaginal cells were sampled daily in all mice via saline lavage. Cells were dried and stained with crystal violet, and the smears evaluated using established vaginal cytology techniques by two individuals blinded to the animal treatment group. Estrous cyclicity was disrupted in nearly all HU and CPF mice, while those maintained in VIV had an average normal cycle length of 4.8 0.5 days, with all stages in the cycle visibly observed. CPF and HU animals arrested in the diestrous phase, which precedes the pre-ovulatory estrogen surge. Additionally, infection-like symptoms characterized by vaginal discharge and swelling arose in several HU animals, which we suspect was due to an inability of these mice to properly groom themselves, andor due to the change in the gravity vector relative to the vaginal opening, which prevented drainage of the lavage solution. Pair-feeding resulted in similar weight gains of HU and CPF (1.5 vs 3.0, respectively). The current results indicate that pair-feeding controlled weight gain and that the HU cage alone influenced estrous cyclicity. Thus, longer acclimation needs to be tested to determine if and when normal estrous cycling resumes in non-loaded mice in HU cages prior to HU testing. Future

  6. Alkyl-imidazolium glycosides: non-ionic-cationic hybrid surfactants from renewable resources. (United States)

    Salman, Abbas Abdulameer; Tabandeh, Mojtaba; Heidelberg, Thorsten; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali; Ali, Hapipah Mohd


    A series of surfactants combining carbohydrate and imidazolium head groups were prepared and investigated on their assembly behavior. The presence of the imidazolium group dominated the interactions of the surfactants, leading to high CMCs and large molecular surface areas, reflected in curved rather than lamellar surfactant assemblies. The carbohydrate, on the other hand, stabilized molecular assemblies slightly and reduced the surface tension of surfactant solutions considerably. A comparative emulsion study discourages the use of pure alkyl imidazolium glycosides owing to reduced assembly stabilities compared with APGs. However, the surfactants are believed to have potential as component in carbohydrate based surfactant mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surfactant and temperature effects on paraben transport through silicone membranes. (United States)

    Waters, Laura J; Dennis, Laura; Bibi, Aisha; Mitchell, John C


    This study investigates the effects of two surfactants (one anionic and one non-ionic) and controlled modifications in temperature (298-323K) on the permeation of two structurally similar compounds through a silicone membrane using a Franz diffusion cell system. In all cases the presence of an anionic surfactant, namely sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), reduced the permeation of both compounds (methylparaben and ethylparaben) over a period of 24h. The degree of permeation reduction was proportional to the concentration of surfactant with a maximum effect observed, with an average reduction of approximately 50%, at the highest surfactant concentration of 20mM. Differences were seen around the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS implying the effect was partially connected with the favoured formation of micelles. In contrast, the presence of non-ionic surfactant (Brij 35) had no effect on the permeation of methylparaben or ethylparaben at any of the concentrations investigated, both above and below the CMC of the surfactant. From these findings the authors conclude that the specific effects of SDS are a consequence of ionic surfactant-silicone interactions retarding the movement of paraben through the membrane through indirect modifications to the surface of the membrane. As expected, an increase in experimental temperature appeared to enhance the permeation of both model compounds, a finding that is in agreement with previously reported data. Interestingly, in the majority of cases this effect was optimum at the second highest temperature studied (45°C) which suggests that permeation is a temperature-dependent phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment. (United States)

    Seifart, Carola; Clostermann, Ursula; Seifart, Ulf; Müller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; von Wichert, Peter; Fehrenbach, Heinz


    Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not exactly clear. Because surfactant homeostasis is regulated by surfactant-specific proteins (SP), we analyzed protein amount and mRNA expression in whole lung tissue, isolated type II pneumocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ambroxol i.p. (75 mg/kg body weight, twice a day [every 12 h]). The methods used included competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated type II pneumocytes of ambroxol-treated animals, SP-C protein and mRNA content were increased, whereas SP-A, -B and -D protein, mRNA, and immunoreactivity remained unaffected. However, ambroxol treatment resulted in a significant increase of SP-B and in a decrease of SP-D in whole lung tissue with enhanced immunostaining for SP-B in Clara Cells. SP-A and SP-D were significantly decreased in BAL fluid of ambroxol-treated animals. The data suggest that surfactant protein expression is modulated in a cell-specific manner by ambroxol, as type II pneumocytes exhibited an increase in SP-C, whereas Clara cells exhibited an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP-B accounting for the increased SP-B content of whole lung tissue. The results indicate that ambroxol may exert its positive effects, observed in the treatment of diseases related to surfactant deficiency, via modulation of surfactant protein expression.

  9. Microplastic deformation of polycrystals during cyclic loading (United States)

    Dudarev, E. F.; Pochivalova, G. P.; Nikitina, N. V.


    A model of microplastic deformation of polycrystals during zero-start cyclic loading with tensions lower than the yield strength is proposed according to which during cycling, thermally activated movement of dislocations occurs under conditions of stress relaxation. Based on this model and the statistical theory of polycrystalline microdeformation, the accumulation of microplastic deformation is theoretically described as a function of the number of loading cycles and the stress amplitudes. It is theoretically proved that in the cycling process the microplastic deformation that accumulates over one cycle decreases as the number of cycles increases; up to the macroscopic elastic limit it is independent of the stress amplitude, and then sharply increases. Agreement of the theory with experimental data for spring alloys is observed in the density of mobile dislocations, which decreases during cycling.

  10. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions. (United States)

    Moda, Fabio


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP Sc is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP C conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Cyclical Nurse Schedule Using Goal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzzakiah Jenal


    Full Text Available Scheduling is a very tedious task in organizations where duty is around the clock. Constructing timetable for nurses in hospital is one of the challenging jobs for the head nurse or nurse manager. It requires a lot of time to spend for generating a good and fair timetable. Thus, in this study, we propose a cyclical nurse scheduling model using a 0-1 goal programming that would help the head nurse or nurse manager to have less effort on building new schedules periodically. The proposed model satisfies the stated hospital’s policies and the nurses’ preferences. The result obtained from this model gives an optimal solution where all goals are achieved. The model also provides an unbiased way of scheduling the nurses and thus leads to an overall higher satisfaction and fairness to the nurses and the hospital management.

  12. Simulating pH titration of a single surfactant in ionic and nonionic surfactant micelles. (United States)

    Morrow, Brian H; Wang, Yuhang; Wallace, Jason A; Koenig, Peter H; Shen, Jana K


    Calculation of surfactant pK(a)'s in micelles is a challenging task using traditional electrostatic methods due to the lack of structural data and information regarding the effective dielectric constant. Here we test the implicit- and hybrid-solvent-based continuous constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods for predicting the pK(a) shift of a lauric acid solubilized in three micelles: dodecyl sulfate (DS), dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTA), and dodecyltriethylene glycol ether (DE3). Both types of simulations are able to reproduce the observed positive pK(a) shifts for the anionic DS and nonionic DE3 micelles. However, for the cationic DTA micelle, the implicit-solvent simulation fails to predict the direction of the pK(a) shift, while the hybrid-solvent simulation, where conformational sampling is conducted in explicit solvent, is consistent with experiment, although the specific-ion effects remain to be accurately determined. Comparison between the implicit- and hybrid-solvent data shows that the latter gives a more realistic description of the conformational environment of the titrating probe. Surprisingly, in the DTA micelle, surfactants are only slightly attracted to the laurate ion, which diminishes the magnitude of the electrostatic stabilization, resulting in a positive pK(a) shift that cannot be explained by chemical intuition or other theoretical models. Our data underscores the importance of microscopic models and ionization-coupled conformational dynamics in quantitative prediction of the pK(a) shifts in micelles.

  13. Effect of surfactant counterion and organic modifier on the properties of surfactant vesicles in electrokinetic chromatography. (United States)

    Schuster, Stephanie A; Foley, Joe P


    Counterion and organic modifier are two parameters in EKC that can be varied in order to obtain improved solubility, selectivity, and efficiency. The effect of changing surfactant counterion and/or organic modifier on the chromatographic and electrophoretic properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/sodium octyl sulfate (SOS) vesicles is examined in EKC. The vesicles are prepared in a 1:3.66 cationic/ anionic mole ratio for a total surfactant concentration of 69 mM. The cationic CTAB is replaced by cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and the first use of CTAC/SOS vesicles is reported. The mean diameter of the CTAC/SOS vesicles is 96 nm while that of the CTAB/SOS vesicles is 85 nm. A class I modifier (2-amino-1-butanol) and a class II modifier (acetonitrile) have similar effects on the EOF, elution range, methylene selectivity, and the efficiency of the CTAB/SOS vesicles and the CTAC/SOS vesicles. Upon addition of 10% ACN, there is roughly a 10-fold increase in the efficiency of heptanophenone, a model hydrophobic compound, compared to the efficiency using unmodified vesicles. Linear free energy relationship (LFER) analysis using the Abraham solvation model is employed to characterize solute-vesicle interactions. The results suggest that organic modifier-vesicle interactions depend somewhat on the counterion.

  14. Pyroelectric Harvesters for Generating Cyclic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao


    Full Text Available Pyroelectric energy conversion is a novel energy process which directly transforms waste heat energy from cyclic heating into electricity via the pyroelectric effect. Application of a periodic temperature profile to pyroelectric cells is necessary to achieve temperature variation rates for generating an electrical output. The critical consideration in the periodic temperature profile is the frequency or work cycle which is related to the properties and dimensions of the air layer; radiation power and material properties, as well as the dimensions and structure of the pyroelectric cells. This article aims to optimize pyroelectric harvesters by matching all these requirements. The optimal induced charge per period increases about 157% and the efficient period band decreases about 77%, when the thickness of the PZT cell decreases from 200 μm to 50 μm, about a 75% reduction. Moreover, when using the thinner PZT cell for harvesting the pyroelectric energy it is not easy to focus on a narrow band with the efficient period. However, the optimal output voltage and stored energy per period decrease about 50% and 74%, respectively, because the electrical capacitance of the 50 μm thick pyroelectric cell is about four times greater than that of the 200 μm thick pyroelectric cell. In addition, an experiment is used to verify that the work cycle to be able to critically affect the efficiency of PZT pyroelectric harvesters. Periods in the range between 3.6 s and 12.2 s are useful for harvesting thermal cyclic energy by pyroelectricity. The optimal frequency or work cycle can be applied in the design of a rotating shutter in order to control the heated and unheated periods of the pyroelectric cells to further enhance the amount of stored energy.

  15. Biophysical and physiological properties of porcine surfactant enriched with polymyxin B. (United States)

    Calkovska, A; Some, M; Linderholm, B; Johansson, J; Curstedt, T; Robertson, B


    We examined whether the biophysical and physiological properties of Curosurf were improved by the cyclic amphipathic decapeptide polymyxin B (PxB). Curosurf was diluted to 1-5 mg/ml with PxB added at 1, 2 or 3% (w/w). Albumin was added at 40 mg/ml. Minimum surface tension (gammamin) during surface compression was determined for each mixture with pulsating bubble. Immature newborn rabbits were treated with 2.5 ml/kg of Curosurf 80 mg/ml, or Curosurf 32 mg/ml with or without 2% PxB and ventilated for up to 5 h. At surfactant concentration 2 mg/ml, gammamin was high (17 +/- 8.9 mN/m) but remained low (2.7 +/- 0.8 mN/m) when PxB was added. Albumin inactivated Curosurf at both 2 and 3.5 mg/ml; this inactivation was prevented by 2% PxB. Treatment of newborn rabbits with Curosurf 80 mg/kg + 2% PxB significantly decreased incidence of pneumothorax in comparison with controls but had no significant effect on lung-thorax compliance or alveolar expansion. Addition of 2% PxB improves surface activity of Curosurf at low concentration, increases its resistance to inactivation by albumin, and reduces the incidence of pneumothorax in immature newborn rabbits undergoing prolonged ventilation. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Performance of Zn rechargeable cells having Polypyrrole cathodes doped with surfactant anion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.D.S. S Weerasinghe


    Full Text Available Currently there exists a very high demand for electrochemical energy storage devices such as rechargeable cells and super capacitors due to massive increase in the use of portable electronics. At the moment this demand is mainly supplied by Li based cells. However due to high cost, rapid reactivity and issues in disposal of Li attention has diverted on non Li based cells. Zn has been identified as a good candidate to replace Li. Even though several Zn based rechargeable cells were reported, less work has been carried out on cells with conducting polymer cathode based Zn cells. In this study, performance of Zn rechargeable cells fabricated with conducting polymer Polypyrrole(PPy doped with a surfactant anion is reported. PPy films were galvanostatically electro polymerized on to stainless steel disc and cells were assembled with a Polyvinylidenefluoride based gel polymer electrolyte having Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate as the salt. Cells having different cathode thickness were fabricated and they were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and continuous charge-discharge tests. Cells exhibit open circuit voltages between 0.9 -1.0 V. Cycling testes showed that cycleable capacity almost follow the thickness variation. Continuous charge-discharge tests revealed that the capacity decrement with the cycle number is higher in thinner films.

  17. Effect of surfactant on the electrochemical performance of graphene/iron oxide electrode for supercapacitor (United States)

    Ghasemi, Shahram; Ahmadi, Fatemeh


    In this study, reduced graphene oxide- Fe3O4 (RGO-Fe3O4) nanocomposite is fabricated using simple electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method followed by an electrochemical reduction process. It is characterized using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 20-50 nm in diameter are uniformly formed on RGO. Electrochemical properties of nanocomposite are characterized by cyclic voltammetery, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. According to the galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis, RGO-Fe3O4/SS presents specific capacitance (Cs) of 154 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1, which is higher than that of RGO/SS (81 F g-1) in Na2SO4 electrolyte. Also, the electrochemical behaviors show that addition of three kind of surfactant, i.e. sodium dodecyl sulphate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, t-octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100) to Na2SO4 aqueous solution can improve the Cs of RGO-Fe3O4/SS electrodes. RGO-Fe3O4/SS in Na2SO4 electrolyte containing Triton X-100 shows maximum Cs of 236 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 which retains 97% of initial capacitance after 500 cycles.

  18. Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules have been investigated at different levels of theory. Although there exist minima lower in energy than these spiro-cyclic clusters, calculations at the Hartree–Fock level, density functional theory using B3LYP parametrization ...

  19. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Schavemaker, C.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.


    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The

  20. Supplementary Material for: The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara


    Abstract Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  1. A Sensitive Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Assay for Transient Enzyme Kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van


    A new assay for cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase has been developed by using reverse-phase column chromatography for the separation of product and substrate of the enzymatic reaction. The polar 5'-nucleotides are not retarded by the column, while the more lipophilic cyclic nucleotides bind to the

  2. Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Köhl, Ralf; Petrosyan, Nansen


    We show that every discrete subgroup of GL(n, ℝ) admits a finite-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to SL(3, ℤ), we obtain a four-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic K-theory of its...

  3. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White


    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  4. The antimycin A-sensitive pathway of cyclic electron flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labs, Mathias; Rühle, Thilo; Leister, Dario Michael


    Cyclic electron flow has puzzled and divided the field of photosynthesis researchers for decades. This mainly concerns the proportion of its overall contribution to photosynthesis, as well as its components and molecular mechanism. Yet, it is irrefutable that the absence of cyclic electron flow has...

  5. Cyclic imines evaluation in European commercial shellfish samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambla, Maria; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Miles, Christopher O.

    Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have n...

  6. Evolution of surfactant therapy for respiratory distress syndrome: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Sardesai, Smeeta; Biniwale, Manoj; Wertheimer, Fiona; Garingo, Arlene; Ramanathan, Rangasamy


    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to surfactant deficiency is the most common cause of respiratory failure in preterm infants. Tremendous progress has been made since the original description that surfactant deficiency is the major cause of RDS. Surfactant therapy has been extensively studied in preterm infants and has been shown to significantly decrease air leaks and neonatal and infant mortality. Synthetic and animal-derived surfactants from bovine as well as porcine origin have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. Animal-derived surfactants generally result in faster weaning of respiratory support, shorter duration of invasive ventilation, and decreased mortality when compared to first- or second-generation of synthetic surfactants, but some of the second-generation synthetic surfactants are at least not inferior to the animal-derived surfactants. Using a higher initial dose of porcine derived surfactant may provide better outcomes when compared with using lower doses of bovine surfactants, likely, due to compositional difference and/or the dose. Third-generation synthetic surfactant containing peptide analogs of surfactant protein B and C are currently being studied. Less invasive intra-tracheal surfactant administration techniques in spontaneously breathing neonate receiving noninvasive ventilator support are also being evaluated. In the present era, prophylactic surfactant is not recommended as it may increase the risk of lung injury or death. In the future, surfactants may be used as vector to deliver steroids, or used in combination with molecules, such as, recombinant Club Cell Protein-10 (rhCC-10) to improve pulmonary outcomes. Also, noninvasive surfactant administration techniques, such as aerosolization or atomization of surfactant may play a greater role in the future.

  7. Surfactant uptake dynamics in mammalian cells elucidated with quantitative coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Okuno

    Full Text Available The mechanism of surfactant-induced cell lysis has been studied with quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microspectroscopy. The dynamics of surfactant molecules as well as intracellular biomolecules in living Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL cells has been examined for a low surfactant concentration (0.01 w%. By using an isotope labeled surfactant having CD bonds, surfactant uptake dynamics in living cells has been traced in detail. The simultaneous CARS imaging of the cell itself and the internalized surfactant has shown that the surfactant molecules is first accumulated inside a CHL cell followed by a sudden leak of cytosolic components such as proteins to the outside of the cell. This finding indicates that surfactant uptake occurs prior to the cell lysis, contrary to what has been believed: surface adsorption of surfactant molecules has been thought to occur first with subsequent disruption of cell membranes. Quantitative CARS microspectroscopy enables us to determine the molecular concentration of the surfactant molecules accumulated in a cell. We have also investigated the effect of a drug, nocodazole, on the surfactant uptake dynamics. As a result of the inhibition of tubulin polymerization by nocodazole, the surfactant uptake rate is significantly lowered. This fact suggests that intracellular membrane trafficking contributes to the surfactant uptake mechanism.

  8. Phenomenon of low-alloy steel parametrization transformation at cyclic loading in low-cyclic area (United States)

    Shipachev, A. M.; Nazarova, M. N.


    Following the results of measurements of hardness, magnetizing force and the rate of ultrasonic longitudinal waves of 09G2S steel samples at various cyclic operating time values, there is a phenomenon of transformation from the normal law of speed distribution of these parameters in power-mode distribution. It shows the submission of the behavior of metal as a complex system to the theory of the self-organized criticality.

  9. Cyclic response and early damage evolution in multiaxial cyclic loading of 316L austenitic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánová, Veronika; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav


    Roč. 100, JUL (2017), s. 466-476 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 316L steel * Crack initiation * Cyclic plasticity * Damage mechanism * Multiaxial straining Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  10. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar


    Full Text Available The remained oil in the reservoir after conventional water-flooding processes, forms a dispersed phase in the form of oil drops which is trapped by capillary forces and is almost about 70% of the original oil in the place (OOIP. To reduce oil residual saturation in laboratory experiments and field projects, surfactant flooding is effective via decreasing the interfacial tension mobility ratio between oil and water phases. Estimation of the role of design variables, like chemical concentrations, partition coefficient and injection rate in different performance quantities, considering a heterogeneous and multiphase oil reservoir is a critical stage for optimal design. Increasing demand for oil production from water-flooded reservoirs has caused an increasing interest in surfactant-polymer (SP and alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP. Modeling minimizes the risk of high cost of chemicals by improving our insight of process. In the present paper, a surfactant compositional flood model for a three-component (water, petroleum and surfactant, two phase (aqueous and oleic system is studied. A homogeneous, two-dimensional, isothermal reservoir with no free gas or alkali is assumed. The governing equations are in three categories: the continuity equations for the transport of each component, Darcy's equation for the transport of each phase and other auxiliary equations. The equations are solved by finite-differences using a procedure implicit in pressure and explicit in saturation. The validation of the model is achieved through comparing the modeling results with CMG simulators and Buckley–Leverett theory. The results of modeling showed good agreement with CMG results, and the comparison with Buckley–Leverett theory is explained according to different assumptions. After validation of the model, in order to investigate sensitivity analysis, the effects of system variables (partition coefficient, surface tension, oil viscosity and surface injection

  11. Ecotoxicological characterization of polyoxyethylene glycerol ester non-ionic surfactants and their mixtures with anionic and non-ionic surfactants. (United States)

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Lechuga, Manuela; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes


    This paper reports on a study that investigated the aquatic toxicity of new non-ionic surfactants derived from renewable raw materials, polyoxyethylene glycerol ester (PGE), and their binary mixtures with anionic and non-ionic surfactants. Toxicity of pure PGEs was determined using representative organisms from different trophic levels: luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna). Relationships between toxicity and the structural parameters such as unit of ethylene oxide (EO) and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) were evaluated. Critical micellar concentration (CMC) in the conditions of the toxicity test was also determined. It was found that the toxicity of the aqueous solutions of PGE decreased when the number of EO units in the molecule, HLB, and CMC increased. PGEs showed lower CMC in marine medium, and the toxicity to V. ficheri is lower when the CMC was higher. Given their non-polar nature, narcosis was expected to be the primary mode of toxic action of PGEs. For the mixture of surfactants, we observed that the mixtures with PGE that had the higher numbers of EO units were more toxic than the aqueous solutions of pure surfactants. Moreover, we found that concentration addition was the type of action more likely to occur for mixtures of PGE with lower numbers of EO units with non-ionic surfactants (alkylpolyglucoside and fatty alcohol ethoxylate), whereas for the mixture of PGE with lower EO units and anionic surfactant (ether carboxylic derivative), the most common response type was response addition. In case of mixtures involving amphoteric surfactants and PGEs with the higher numbers of EO units, no clear pattern with regard to the mixture toxicity response type could be observed.

  12. The unusual symmetric reopening effect induced by pulmonary surfactant. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Giannetti, Matthew J; Van Houten, Matthew J; Forouzan, Omid; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Gaver, Donald P


    This study investigates the stability of a finger of air as it propagates into a liquid-filled model of a liquid-filled model of a pulmonary bifurcation. We seek to elucidate the stability characteristics of the reopening of daughter airways, an event that may be important to the treatment of acute lung disease. To do so, we investigated the symmetry of reopening under conditions of nearly constant surface tension with 1) purified H2O or 2) an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate). Dynamic surface tension was investigated using pulmonary surfactant (Infasurf) with and without the presence of albumin. Flow visualization was accomplished using a microparticle image velocimetry (μ-PIV)/shadowgraph system through which we measured 1) the propagation velocity of the finger of air that reopens each daughter branch, and 2) the instantaneous and averaged velocity field of liquid phase surrounding the tip of the propagating bubble. Only pulmonary surfactant demonstrated the ability of maintaining a nearly symmetric propagation in the daughter channels, which is likely to lead to homogeneous airway reopening. In contrast, when pulmonary surfactant was inactivated by albumin or when the system was held at a nearly constant surface tension, reopening occurred asymmetrically. Our analysis suggests that Infasurf's dynamic surface tension qualities are important to stabilize the removal of liquid obstructions. This demonstrates a new important function of pulmonary surfactant for airway reopening of a multibranched network.

  13. Modification of shape oscillations of an attached bubble by surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihon J.


    Full Text Available Surface-active agents (surfactants, e.g. washing agents strongly modifies properties of gas-liquid interface. We have carried out extensive experiments, in which we study effect of surfactants on the shape oscillations of a bubble, which is attached at a tip of a capillary. In the experiments, shape oscillations of a bubble are invoked by a motion of a capillary, to which the bubble is injected. Decaying oscillations are recorded and their frequency and damping are evaluated. By changing the excitation frequency, three lowest oscillation modes are studied. Experiments were repeated in aqueous solution of several surfactants (terpineol, SDS, CTAB, Triton X-100, Triton X-45 at various concentrations. Generally, these features are observed: Initially a surfactant addition leads to an increase of the oscillation frequency (though surface tension is decreasing; this effect can be attributed to the increasing interfacial elasticity. The decay time of oscillation is strongly decreasing, as a consequence of energy dissipation linked with Marangoni stresses. At a certain critical concentration, frequency decreases abruptly and the decay time passes by a minimum. With further addition of surfactant, frequency decreases, and the decay time slightly lengthens. Above critical micelle concentration, all these parameters stabilize. Interestingly, the critical concentration, at which frequency drop occurs, depends on mode order. This clearly shows that the frequency drop and minimum decay time are not a consequence of some abrupt change of interfacial properties, but are a consequence of some phenomena, which still need to be explained.

  14. Early Use of Surfactant-BL after Lung Transplantation

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    M. Sh. Khubutia


    Full Text Available Goal. To evaluate the clinical effect of early administration of surfactant-BL on pulmonary oxygenizing function and biomechanics in patients early after lung transplantation (LT. Materials and methods. Seven patients early after transplantation were administered with a surfactant-BL («Biosurf», St.-Petersburg, RF to prevent or treat primary lung transplant disfunction. Results and conclusions. Multiple endobronchial administration of surfactant-BL (0, 24, and 48 hours resulted in a progressive increase in the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure by an average of 94 mm Hg (p<0.05 to oxygen fraction in a respiratory mixture ( РаО2^Ю2 at 48 hours after the surgery and by an average 1.2-fold increase in dynamic thoracopulmonary compliance accompanied by a reduction in the magnitude of PLGD. Employed protocol of surfactant-BL administration was favorable for optimizing the biomechanical properties and oxygenizing function of the lung. The findings clearly demonstrate that the early administration of surfactant-BL after LT should benefit the comprehensive prevention and treatment of PLGD that complicates the early postoperative period after LT.

  15. Dynamics of Surfactant Liquid Plugs at Bifurcating Lung Airway Models (United States)

    Tavana, Hossein


    A surfactant liquid plug forms in the trachea during surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) of premature babies. Under air pressure, the plug propagates downstream and continuously divides into smaller daughter plugs at continuously branching lung airways. Propagating plugs deposit a thin film on airway walls to reduce surface tension and facilitate breathing. The effectiveness of SRT greatly depends on the final distribution of instilled surfactant within airways. To understand this process, we investigate dynamics of splitting of surfactant plugs in engineered bifurcating airway models. A liquid plug is instilled in the parent tube to propagate and split at the bifurcation. A split ratio, R, is defined as the ratio of daughter plug lengths in the top and bottom daughter airway tubes and studied as a function of the 3D orientation of airways and different flow conditions. For a given Capillary number (Ca), orienting airways farther away from a horizontal position reduced R due to the flow of a larger volume into the gravitationally favored daughter airway. At each orientation, R increased with 0.0005 < Ca < 0.05. This effect diminished by decrease in airways diameter. This approach will help elucidate surfactant distribution in airways and develop effective SRT strategies.

  16. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India E-mail: (India)


    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  17. Spatiotemporal measurement of surfactant distribution on gravity-capillary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Stephen L; Daniels, Karen E


    Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid -- for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants -- will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. Here, we report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moir\\'e-imaging, and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine, a lipid. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling menis...

  18. Polydiacetylene sensor interaction with food sanitizers and surfactants. (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyuan; Northcutt, Julie; Hanks, Tim; Miller, Ian; Pennington, Bill; Jelinek, Raz; Han, Inyee; Dawson, Paul


    Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles are of interest as biosensors, particularly for pathogenic bacteria. As part of a food monitoring system, interaction with food sanitizers/surfactants was investigated. PDA vesicles were prepared by inkjet-printing, photopolymerized and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The optical response of PDA vesicles at various concentrations verses a fixed sanitizer/surfactant concentration was determined using a two variable factorial design. Sanitizer/surfactant response at various concentrations over time was also measured. Results indicated that only Vigilquat and TritonX-100 interacted with PDA vesicles giving visible colour change out of 8 sanitizers/surfactants tested. PDA vesicle concentration, sanitizer/surfactant concentration, and time all had a significant (P<0.0001) effect on colour change. As they are highly sensitive to the presence of Vigilquat and TritonX-100, PDA sensors could be used to detect chemical residues as well as for detection of various contaminants in the food industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of some amide ether carboxylate surfactants

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    M.M.A. El-Sukkary


    Full Text Available A homologous series of new mild surfactants, namely: Alkyl amide ether carboxylates surfactants (AEC RCO–NHCH2CH2O (CH2CH2O6CH2COONa, were synthesized by esterification, amidation, ethoxylation and carboxymethylation reaction steps of fatty acids (Lauric, Myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic or linoleic. The chemical structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed using different spectroscopic techniques, FTIR spectroscopy, mass spectra and HNMR. The surface properties including surface and interfacial tensions, foaming height, emulsification power, calcium ion stability, stability to hydrolysis and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined. The study of their surface properties showed their stability in hard water and in acidic and alkaline media. These compounds have high calcium ion stability. The low foaming power could have an application in the dyeing auxiliary industry. The lower values of the interfacial tension values indicate the ability of using these surfactants in several applications as corrosion inhibitors and biocides. The data revealed various advantages and potentials as a main surfactant as well as co- surfactants.

  20. Surfactant selection for the remediation of solvent-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrin, J. [Radian Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Schrab, G.; Dulaney, W. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Kirchner, K. [Air Force, Hill AFB, UT (United States)


    Soil surfactant flushing is being considered for the remediation of contaminated soil at a Superfund Site at Hill Air Force Base (Hill AFB), Utah. Contamination at the site includes two pools of dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) near the location of previous disposal trenches. The DNAPL consists primarily of trichloroethene (TCE), with lesser amounts of other chlorinated solvents and oil and grease. The highly contaminated soils currently saturated with DNAPL are the most appropriate medium for the soil flushing technique. After extraction of the existing, mobile DNAPL, surfactants can be used to enhance the removal of residual contamination from the soils. A treatability study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of several types and concentrations of surfactants in enhancing the removal of TCE and other DNAPL contaminants from soil samples collected at the site, The laboratory studies included screening the selected surfactants for their effectiveness in solubilizing DNAPL. Batch tests were then conducted with the most effective surfactants to evaluate their ability to remove (through solubilization and mobilization) DNAPL constituents from the contaminated soils.