Novel Inhibitor Cystine Knot Peptides from Momordica charantia
Clark, Richard J.; Tang, Jun; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Franco, Octavio L.; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Craik, David J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Tan, Ning-Hua
2013-01-01
Two new peptides, MCh-1 and MCh-2, along with three known trypsin inhibitors (MCTI-I, MCTI-II and MCTI-III), were isolated from the seeds of the tropical vine Momordica charantia. The sequences of the peptides were determined using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Using a strategy involving partial reduction and stepwise alkylation of the peptides, followed by enzymatic digestion and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing, the disulfide connectivity of MCh-1 was elucidated to be CysI-CysIV, CysII-CysV and CysIII-CysVI. The three-dimensional structures of MCh-1 and MCh-2 were determined using NMR spectroscopy and found to contain the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif. The sequences of the novel peptides differ significantly from peptides previously isolated from this plant. Therefore, this study expands the known peptide diversity in M. charantia and the range of sequences that can be accommodated by the ICK motif. Furthermore, we show that a stable two-disulfide intermediate is involved in the oxidative folding of MCh-1. This disulfide intermediate is structurally homologous to the proposed ancestral fold of ICK peptides, and provides a possible pathway for the evolution of this structural motif, which is highly prevalent in nature. PMID:24116036
Novel inhibitor cystine knot peptides from Momordica charantia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Jun He
Full Text Available Two new peptides, MCh-1 and MCh-2, along with three known trypsin inhibitors (MCTI-I, MCTI-II and MCTI-III, were isolated from the seeds of the tropical vine Momordica charantia. The sequences of the peptides were determined using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Using a strategy involving partial reduction and stepwise alkylation of the peptides, followed by enzymatic digestion and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing, the disulfide connectivity of MCh-1 was elucidated to be CysI-CysIV, CysII-CysV and CysIII-CysVI. The three-dimensional structures of MCh-1 and MCh-2 were determined using NMR spectroscopy and found to contain the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK motif. The sequences of the novel peptides differ significantly from peptides previously isolated from this plant. Therefore, this study expands the known peptide diversity in M. charantia and the range of sequences that can be accommodated by the ICK motif. Furthermore, we show that a stable two-disulfide intermediate is involved in the oxidative folding of MCh-1. This disulfide intermediate is structurally homologous to the proposed ancestral fold of ICK peptides, and provides a possible pathway for the evolution of this structural motif, which is highly prevalent in nature.
Meitinger, T; Meindl, A; Bork, P; Rost, B; Sander, C; Haasemann, M; Murken, J
1993-12-01
The X-lined gene for Norrie disease, which is characterized by blindness, deafness and mental retardation has been cloned recently. This gene has been thought to code for a putative extracellular factor; its predicted amino acid sequence is homologous to the C-terminal domain of diverse extracellular proteins. Sequence pattern searches and three-dimensional modelling now suggest that the Norrie disease protein (NDP) has a tertiary structure similar to that of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta). Our model identifies NDP as a member of an emerging family of growth factors containing a cystine knot motif, with direct implications for the physiological role of NDP. The model also sheds light on sequence related domains such as the C-terminal domain of mucins and of von Willebrand factor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffmann, Anita; Neumann, Piotr [Institut für Biochemie und Biotechnologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Abteilung Physikalische Biotechnologie, Kurt-Mothes-Strasse 3, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schierhorn, Angelika [Max-Planck-Institut für Proteinfaltung, Abteilung Massenspektrometrie, Kurt-Mothes-Strasse 3, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Stubbs, Milton T., E-mail: stubbs@biochemtech.uni-halle.de [Institut für Biochemie und Biotechnologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Abteilung Physikalische Biotechnologie, Kurt-Mothes-Strasse 3, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Mitteldeutsches Zentrum für Struktur und Dynamik der Proteine (MZP), Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)
2008-08-01
Crystallization of the cystine-knot protein Spätzle occurred following serendipitous limited degradation of the pro-Spätzle propeptide during the crystallization experiment. The Spätzle protein is involved in both the definition of the dorsal–ventral axis during embryonic development and in the adult innate immune response. The disulfide-linked dimeric cystine-knot protein has been expressed as a proprotein in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli and refolded in vitro by rapid dilution. Initial orthorhombic crystals that diffracted to 7 Å resolution were obtained after three months by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Optimization of the crystallization conditions resulted in orthorhombic crystals (space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.0, b = 59.2, c = 62.5 Å) that diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution in-house. The small volume of the asymmetric unit indicated that it was not possible for the crystals to contain the complete pro-Spätzle dimer. Mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing and Western-blot analysis revealed that the crystals contained the C-terminal disulfide-linked cystine-knot dimer. Comparison of various crystallization experiments indicated that degradation of the N-terminal prodomain was dependent on the buffer conditions.
Tjernberg, Pernilla; Vos, Hans L.; Spaargaren-van Riel, Caroline C.; Luken, Brenda M.; Voorberg, Jan; Bertina, Rogier M.; Eikenboom, Jeroen C. J.
2006-01-01
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) contains a large number of cysteine residues, which all form disulfide bonds. Mutations of cysteines located in the cystine-knot (CK) domain of VWF have been identified in both qualitative type 2A (IID) and quantitative type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD). Our objective
Hymowitz, Sarah G.; Filvaroff, Ellen H.; Yin, JianPing; Lee, James; Cai, Liping; Risser, Philip; Maruoka, Miko; Mao, Weiguang; Foster, Jessica; Kelley, Robert F.; Pan, Guohua; Gurney, Austin L.; de Vos, Abraham M.; Starovasnik, Melissa A.
2001-01-01
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17) is the founding member of a family of secreted proteins that elicit potent cellular responses. We report a novel human IL-17 homolog, IL-17F, and show that it is expressed by activated T cells, can stimulate production of other cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and can regulate cartilage matrix turnover. Unexpectedly, the crystal structure of IL-17F reveals that IL-17 family members adopt a monomer fold typical of cystine knot growth factors, despite lacking the disulfide responsible for defining the canonical ‘knot’ structure. IL-17F dimerizes in a parallel manner like neurotrophins, and features an unusually large cavity on its surface. Remarkably, this cavity is located in precisely the same position where nerve growth factor binds its high affinity receptor, TrkA, suggesting further parallels between IL-17s and neurotrophins with respect to receptor recognition. PMID:11574464
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Gatte Picchi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Natural peptides are outstanding as the most promising macromolecules in the search for new drugs, especially those of cyclic nature. The higher plants revealed a very peculiar composition of their cyclic peptides, which distinguish themselves by a "head-to-tail" cyclization. It is possible to define two groups of cyclic peptides from plant biomass. Those called in this review as Eucyclopeptides formed by 2-12 amino acid, and Cyclotides considered as circular polypeptides, composed of 29-37 amino acid that retain three disulfides bridges in an arrangement known as cyclic cystine knot. Searching for plant peptides should form into a subject for scientific research in the forefront of great importance for bioprospecting natural products macromolecular.
Henrich, A.; MacNaughton, N.; Narayan, S.; Pechenik, O.; Silversmith, R.; Townsend, J.
2011-01-01
We introduce playing games on the shadows of knots and demonstrate two novel games, namely, "To Knot or Not to Knot" and "Much Ado about Knotting." We discuss winning strategies for these games on certain families of knot shadows and go on to suggest variations of these games for further study.
Filtration of the classical knot concordance group and Casson-Gordon invariants
Kim, Taehee
2002-01-01
It is known that if any prime power branched cyclic cover of a knot in the 3-sphere is a homology sphere, then the knot has vanishing Casson-Gordon invariants. We construct infinitely many examples of (topologically) non-slice knots in the 3-sphere whose prime power branched cyclic covers are homology spheres. We show that these knots generate an infinite rank subgroup of F_(1.0)/F_(1.5) for which Casson-Gordon invariants vanish in Cochran-Orr-Teichner's filtration of the classical knot conco...
Daquinag, A C; Sato, T; Koda, H; Takao, T; Fukuda, M; Shimonishi, Y; Tsukamoto, T
1999-02-16
Phenoloxidase inhibitor (POI), found in the hemolymph of housefly pupae, is a novel dopa-containing and cystine-rich peptide that competitively inhibits phenoloxidase with a Ki in the nanomolar range. [Tyr32]POI is a potential precursor molecule also found in the hemolymph that may be posttranslationally oxidized to the dopa-containing peptide after creation of a rigid structure. By employing both a solid-phase peptide synthesis system based on a 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl strategy and a specific air oxidation technique to ensure correct folding, we have been able to synthesize [Tyr32]POI. The synthetic [Tyr32]POI was confirmed to be identical to the native [Tyr32]POI by coelution high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and by enzymatic analysis using the phenoloxidase inhibition assay. To determine the disulfide pairings within the peptides, a series of enzyme hydrolyses and partial reduction/alkylation steps were performed. Three cystine pairs (Cys11-Cys25, Cys18-Cys29, and Cys24-Cys36) were determined by identification of the resulting peptides. The disulfide pairings of the two adjacent Cys residues (Cys11-Cys25 and Cys24-Cys36) were unambiguously assigned by comparing the derived fragments with the two possible isomers synthesized through a novel disulfide-linking technique. The arrangement of the disulfide bridges in POI was found to be topologically identical to those found for several peptides within the inhibitor cystine knot structural family. Although these peptides share a low primary sequence homology and display a diversity of biological functions, they nonetheless share similarities in their cystine motifs and tertiary structure. The tertiary structure model of POI, which was derived through molecular dynamics and energy minimization studies using restraints with determined disulfide connectivities, suggests that POI is a new class member of the inhibitor cystine-knot structural family.
Menasco, William
2005-01-01
This book is a survey of current topics in the mathematical theory of knots. For a mathematician, a knot is a closed loop in 3-dimensional space: imagine knotting an extension cord and then closing it up by inserting its plug into its outlet. Knot theory is of central importance in pure and applied mathematics, as it stands at a crossroads of topology, combinatorics, algebra, mathematical physics and biochemistry.* Survey of mathematical knot theory* Articles by leading world authorities* Clear exposition, not over-technical* Accessible to readers with undergraduate background in mathematics
Clark, Bradd Evans
1983-01-01
If we consider the set of manifolds that can be obtained by surgery on a fixed knot K, then we have an associated set of numbers corresponding to the Heegaard genus of these manifolds. It is known that there is an upper bound to this set of numbers. A knot K is said to have Property R+ if longitudinal surgery yields a manifold of highest possible Heegaard genus among those obtainable by surgery on K. In this paper we show that torus knots, 2-bridge knots, and knots which are the connected ...
Rolfsen, Dale
2003-01-01
Rolfsen's beautiful book on knots and links can be read by anyone, from beginner to expert, who wants to learn about knot theory. Beginners with a basic background find an inviting introduction to the elements of topology, emphasizing the tools needed for understanding knots, the fundamental group and van Kampen's theorem, for example, which are then applied to concrete problems, such as computing knot groups. For experts, Rolfsen explains advanced topics, such as the connections between knot theory and surgery and how they are useful to understanding three-manifolds. Besides providing a guide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radmila Sazdanović
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We analyze applications of knots and links in the Ancient art, beginning from Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Byzantine and Celtic art. Construction methods used in art are analyzed on the examples of Celtic art and ethnical art of Tchokwe people from Angola or Tamil art, where knots are constructed as mirror-curves. We propose different methods for generating knots and links based on geometric polyhedra, suitable for applications in architecture and sculpture.
Jablan, Slavik; Radović, Ljiljana; Sazdanović, Radmila; Zeković, Ana
2012-01-01
We analyze applications of knots and links in the Ancient art, beginning from Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Byzantine and Celtic art. Construction methods used in art are analyzed on the examples of Celtic art and ethnical art of Tchokwe people from Angola or Tamil art, where knots are constructed as mirror-curves. We propose different methods for generating knots and links based on geometric polyhedra, suitable for applications in architecture and sculpture.
Turner, J C
1996-01-01
This book brings together twenty essays on diverse topics in the history and science of knots. It is divided into five parts, which deal respectively with knots in prehistory and antiquity, non-European traditions, working knots, the developing science of knots, and decorative and other aspects of knots.Its authors include archaeologists who write on knots found in digs of ancient sites (one describes the knots used by the recently discovered Ice Man); practical knotters who have studied the history and uses of knots at sea, for fishing and for various life support activities; a historian of l
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Bölinger
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Protein knots, mostly regarded as intriguing oddities, are gradually being recognized as significant structural motifs. Seven distinctly knotted folds have already been identified. It is by and large unclear how these exceptional structures actually fold, and only recently, experiments and simulations have begun to shed some light on this issue. In checking the new protein structures submitted to the Protein Data Bank, we encountered the most complex and the smallest knots to date: A recently uncovered alpha-haloacid dehalogenase structure contains a knot with six crossings, a so-called Stevedore knot, in a projection onto a plane. The smallest protein knot is present in an as yet unclassified protein fragment that consists of only 92 amino acids. The topological complexity of the Stevedore knot presents a puzzle as to how it could possibly fold. To unravel this enigma, we performed folding simulations with a structure-based coarse-grained model and uncovered a possible mechanism by which the knot forms in a single loop flip.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Knots and topological entanglements play an important role in the statistical mechanics of polymers. While topological entanglement is a global property, it is possible to study the size of a knotted region both numerically and analytically. It can be shown that long-range repulsive interactions, as well as entropy ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, L.P.; Zhang, P.M.; Pak, D.G.
2013-01-01
We consider topological structure of classical vacuum solutions in quantum chromodynamics. Topologically non-equivalent vacuum configurations are classified by non-trivial second and third homotopy groups for coset of the color group SU(N) (N=2,3) under the action of maximal Abelian stability group. Starting with explicit vacuum knot configurations we study possible exact classical solutions. Exact analytic non-static knot solution in a simple CP 1 model in Euclidean space–time has been obtained. We construct an ansatz based on knot and monopole topological vacuum structure for searching new solutions in SU(2) and SU(3) QCD. We show that singular knot-like solutions in QCD in Minkowski space–time can be naturally obtained from knot solitons in integrable CP 1 models. A family of Skyrme type low energy effective theories of QCD admitting exact analytic solutions with non-vanishing Hopf charge is proposed
Colouring and knot polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welsh, D.J.A.
1991-01-01
These lectures will attempt to explain a connection between the recent advances in knot theory using the Jones and related knot polynomials with classical problems in combinatorics and statistical mechanics. The difficulty of some of these problems will be analysed in the context of their computational complexity. In particular we shall discuss colourings and groups valued flows in graphs, knots and the Jones and Kauffman polynomials, the Ising, Potts and percolation problems of statistical physics, computational complexity of the above problems. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs
Banagl, Markus
2011-01-01
The present volume grew out of the Heidelberg Knot Theory Semester, organized by the editors in winter 2008/09 at Heidelberg University. The contributed papers bring the reader up to date on the currently most actively pursued areas of mathematical knot theory and its applications in mathematical physics and cell biology. Both original research and survey articles are presented; numerous illustrations support the text. The book will be of great interest to researchers in topology, geometry, and mathematical physics, graduate students specializing in knot theory, and cell biologists interested
Conrad, Marcus; Sato, Hideyo
2012-01-01
The oxidative stress-inducible cystine/glutamate exchange system, system x (c) (-) , transports one molecule of cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells and thereby releases one molecule of glutamate into the extracellular space. It consists of two protein components, the 4F2 heavy chain, necessary for membrane location of the heterodimer, and the xCT protein, responsible for transport activity. Previously, system x (c) (-) has been regarded to be a mere supplier of cysteine to cells for the synthesis of proteins and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). In that sense, oxygen, electrophilic agents, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide trigger xCT expression to accommodate with increased oxidative stress by stimulating GSH biosynthesis. However, emerging evidence established that system x (c) (-) may act on its own as a GSH-independent redox system by sustaining a redox cycle over the plasma membrane. Hallmarks of this cycle are cystine uptake, intracellular reduction to cysteine and secretion of the surplus of cysteine into the extracellular space. Consequently, increased levels of extracellular cysteine provide a reducing microenvironment required for proper cell signaling and communication, e.g. as already shown for the mechanism of T cell activation. By contrast, the enhanced release of glutamate in exchange with cystine may trigger neurodegeneration due to glutamate-induced cytotoxic processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive picture from the early days of system x (c) (-) research up to now.
Aneziris, Charilaos N
1999-01-01
One of the most significant unsolved problems in mathematics is the complete classification of knots. The main purpose of this book is to introduce the reader to the use of computer programming to obtain the table of knots. The author presents this problem as clearly and methodically as possible, starting from the very basics. Mathematical ideas and concepts are extensively discussed, and no advanced background is required.
Synthesis of DL-cystine {sup 35}S; Synthese de la DL-cystine {sup 35}S
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herbert, M; Emiliozzi, R; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1959-07-01
Description of DL cystine 35 S-synthesis, starting from hydrogen sulphide {sup 35}S, in four stages with an overall yield of 63 per cent. (author) [French] Description d'une synthese de DL cystine {sup 35}S au depart d'hydrogene sulfure {sup 35}S en quatre etapes avec un rendement global de 63 pour cent. (auteur)
Knotting in stretched polygons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rensburg, E J Janse van; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G
2008-01-01
The knotting in a lattice polygon model of ring polymers is examined when a stretching force is applied to the polygon. By examining the incidence of cut-planes in the polygon, we prove a pattern theorem in the stretching regime for large applied forces. This theorem can be used to examine the incidence of entanglements such as knotting and writhing. In particular, we prove that for arbitrarily large positive, but finite, values of the stretching force, the probability that a stretched polygon is knotted approaches 1 as the length of the polygon increases. In the case of writhing, we prove that for stretched polygons of length n, and for every function f(n)=o(√n), the probability that the absolute value of the mean writhe is less than f(n) approaches 0 as n → ∞, for sufficiently large values of the applied stretching force
Filtration of the classical knot concordance group and Casson-Gordon invariants
Kim, Taehee
2004-09-01
It is known that if every prime power branched cyclic cover of a knot in S(3) is a homology sphere, then the knot has vanishing Casson-Gordon invariants. We construct infinitely many examples of (topologically) non-slice knots in S(3) whose prime power branched cyclic covers are homology spheres. We show that these knots generate an infinite rank subgroup of scrf_{(1.0)}/scrf_{(1.5)} for which Casson-Gordon invariants vanish in Cochran-Orr-Teichner's filtration of the classical knot concordance group. As a corollary, it follows that Casson-Gordon invariants are not a complete set of obstructions to a second layer of Whitney disks.
Back, J.W.; Frisch, C.; Van Pee, K.; Boschert, V.; van Vught, R.; Puijk, W.; Mueller, T. D.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.
2012-01-01
Antibodies directed against specific regions of a protein have traditionally been raised against full proteins, protein domains or simple unstructured peptides, containing contiguous stretches of primary sequence. We have used a new approach of selecting antibodies against restrained peptides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eliasen, Rasmus; Andresen, Thomas L.; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian W.
2012-01-01
random oxidation strategy. We compared two oxidation procedures to form the three disulfide bridges. In the first, based on random oxidation, reduced gurmarin was synthesized using trityl for cysteine protection, and oxidized for 48h in a Tris–HCl buffer containing cystamine and reduced glutathione...... to facilitate disulfide scrambling. The second was based on step-wise deprotection followed by oxidation in which the cysteine pairs are orthogonally protected with tert-Butylthio, trityl and acetamidomethyl. To verify that the native gurmarin oxidation product was obtained, thermolysin cleavage was used...... UPLC. It was found that the random oxidation procedure leads to native gurmarin in high yield. Thus, the synthetic route was simple and significantly more efficient than previously reported syntheses of gurmarin and other cysteine rich peptides. Importantly, native gurmarin was obtained by random...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in a fashion similar to sound waves, whose medium is air. Ether was believed ..... [3] Colin C Adams, The Knot Book, W H Freeman and Company, New. York. ... [5] Kelly S Chichak, Stuart j CantriU, Antony R Pease, Sheng-Hsien. Chiu, Gareth ...
Knot theory in modern chemistry.
Horner, Kate E; Miller, Mark A; Steed, Jonathan W; Sutcliffe, Paul M
2016-11-21
Knot theory is a branch of pure mathematics, but it is increasingly being applied in a variety of sciences. Knots appear in chemistry, not only in synthetic molecular design, but also in an array of materials and media, including some not traditionally associated with knots. Mathematics and chemistry can now be used synergistically to identify, characterise and create knots, as well as to understand and predict their physical properties. This tutorial review provides a brief introduction to the mathematics of knots and related topological concepts in the context of the chemical sciences. We then survey the broad range of applications of the theory to contemporary research in the field.
Proteins analysed as virtual knots
Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.
2017-02-01
Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important.
Knotted vs. unknotted proteins: evidence of knot-promoting loops.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raffaello Potestio
Full Text Available Knotted proteins, because of their ability to fold reversibly in the same topologically entangled conformation, are the object of an increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies. The aim of the present investigation is to assess, on the basis of presently available structural data, the extent to which knotted proteins are isolated instances in sequence or structure space, and to use comparative schemes to understand whether specific protein segments can be associated to the occurrence of a knot in the native state. A significant sequence homology is found among a sizeable group of knotted and unknotted proteins. In this family, knotted members occupy a primary sub-branch of the phylogenetic tree and differ from unknotted ones only by additional loop segments. These "knot-promoting" loops, whose virtual bridging eliminates the knot, are found in various types of knotted proteins. Valuable insight into how knots form, or are encoded, in proteins could be obtained by targeting these regions in future computational studies or excision experiments.
Braiding knots with topological strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, Jie
2015-08-01
For an arbitrary knot in a three-sphere, the Ooguri-Vafa conjecture associates to it a unique stack of branes in type A topological string on the resolved conifold, and relates the colored HOMFLY invariants of the knot to the free energies on the branes. For torus knots, we use a modified version of the topological recursion developed by Eynard and Orantin to compute the free energies on the branes from the Aganagic-Vafa spectral curves of the branes, and find they are consistent with the known colored HOMFLY knot invariants a la the Ooguri-Vafa conjecture. In addition our modified topological recursion can reproduce the correct closed string free energies, which encode the information of the background geometry. We conjecture the modified topological recursion is applicable for branes associated to hyperbolic knots as well, encouraged by the observation that the modified topological recursion yields the correct planar closed string free energy from the Aganagic-Vafa spectral curves of hyperbolic knots. This has implications for the knot theory concerning distinguishing mutant knots with colored HOMFLY invariants. Furthermore, for hyperbolic knots, we present methods to compute colored HOMFLY invariants in nonsymmetric representations of U(N). The key step in this computation is computing quantum 6j-symbols in the quantum group U q (sl N ).
Do Urinary Cystine Parameters Predict Clinical Stone Activity?
Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Canvasser, Noah E; Morgan, Monica S C; Mollengarden, Daniel; Best, Sara; Pearle, Margaret S
2018-02-01
An accurate urinary predictor of stone recurrence would be clinically advantageous for patients with cystinuria. A proprietary assay (Litholink, Chicago, Illinois) measures cystine capacity as a potentially more reliable estimate of stone forming propensity. The recommended capacity level to prevent stone formation, which is greater than 150 mg/l, has not been directly correlated with clinical stone activity. We investigated the relationship between urinary cystine parameters and clinical stone activity. We prospectively followed 48 patients with cystinuria using 24-hour urine collections and serial imaging, and recorded stone activity. We compared cystine urinary parameters at times of stone activity with those obtained during periods of stone quiescence. We then performed correlation and ROC analysis to evaluate the performance of cystine parameters to predict stone activity. During a median followup of 70.6 months (range 2.2 to 274.6) 85 stone events occurred which could be linked to a recent urine collection. Cystine capacity was significantly greater for quiescent urine than for stone event urine (mean ± SD 48 ± 107 vs -38 ± 163 mg/l, p stone activity (r = -0.29, p r = -0.88, p r = -0.87, p stone quiescence. Decreasing the cutoff to 90 mg/l or greater improved sensitivity to 25.2% while maintaining specificity at 90.9%. Our results suggest that the target for capacity should be lower than previously advised. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jessica A. Simpkins
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Cystine and cysteine are important molecules for pathways such as redox signaling and regulation, and thus identifying cellular deficits upon deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cystine transporter Ers1p allows for a further understanding of cystine homeostasis. Previous complementation studies using the human ortholog suggest yeast Ers1p is a cystine transporter. Human CTNS encodes the protein Cystinosin, a cystine transporter that is embedded in the lysosomal membrane and facilitates the export of cystine from the lysosome. When CTNS is mutated, cystine transport is disrupted, leading to cystine accumulation, the diagnostic hallmark of the lysosomal storage disorder cystinosis. Here, we provide biochemical evidence for Ers1p-dependent cystine transport. However, the accumulation of intracellular cystine is not observed when the ERS1 gene is deleted from ers1-Δ yeast, supporting the existence of modifier genes that provide a mechanism in ers1-Δ yeast that prevents or corrects cystine accumulation. Upon comparison of the transcriptomes of isogenic ERS1+ and ers1-Δ strains of S. cerevisiae by DNA microarray followed by targeted qPCR, sixteen genes were identified as being differentially expressed between the two genotypes. Genes that encode proteins functioning in sulfur regulation, cellular respiration, and general transport were enriched in our screen, demonstrating pleiotropic effects of ers1-Δ. These results give insight into yeast cystine regulation and the multiple, seemingly distal, pathways that involve proper cystine recycling.
Zhao, Xin
2013-05-01
Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.
Cystine addiction of triple-negative breast cancer associated with EMT augmented death signaling.
Tang, X; Ding, C-K; Wu, J; Sjol, J; Wardell, S; Spasojevic, I; George, D; McDonnell, D P; Hsu, D S; Chang, J T; Chi, J-T
2017-07-27
Despite the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, breast cancers still cause significant mortality. For some patients, especially those with triple-negative breast cancer, current treatments continue to be limited and ineffective. Therefore, there remains an unmet need for a novel therapeutic approach. One potential strategy is to target the altered metabolic state that is rewired by oncogenic transformation. Specifically, this rewiring may render certain outside nutrients indispensable. To identify such a nutrient, we performed a nutrigenetic screen by removing individual amino acids to identify possible addictions across a panel of breast cancer cells. This screen revealed that cystine deprivation triggered rapid programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in the basal-type breast cancer cells mostly seen in TNBC tumors. In contrast, luminal-type breast cancer cells are cystine-independent and exhibit little death during cystine deprivation. The cystine addiction phenotype is associated with a higher level of cystine-deprivation signatures noted in the basal type breast cancer cells and tumors. We found that the cystine-addicted breast cancer cells and tumors have strong activation of TNFα and MEKK4-p38-Noxa pathways that render them susceptible to cystine deprivation-induced necrosis. Consistent with this model, silencing of TNFα and MEKK4 dramatically reduces cystine-deprived death. In addition, the cystine addiction phenotype can be abrogated in the cystine-addictive cells by miR-200c, which converts the mesenchymal-like cells to adopt epithelial features. Conversely, the introduction of inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cystine-independent breast cancer cells conferred the cystine-addiction phenotype by modulating the signaling components of cystine addiction. Together, our data reveal that cystine-addiction is associated with EMT in breast cancer during tumor progression. These findings provide the genetic and
Energy of knots and conformal geometry
O'Hara, Jun
2003-01-01
Energy of knots is a theory that was introduced to create a "canonical configuration" of a knot - a beautiful knot which represents its knot type. This book introduces several kinds of energies, and studies the problem of whether or not there is a "canonical configuration" of a knot in each knot type. It also considers this problems in the context of conformal geometry. The energies presented in the book are defined geometrically. They measure the complexity of embeddings and have applications to physical knotting and unknotting through numerical experiments. Contents: In Search of the "Optima
Torus knots and mirror symmetry
Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos
2012-01-01
We propose a spectral curve describing torus knots and links in the B-model. In particular, the application of the topological recursion to this curve generates all their colored HOMFLY invariants. The curve is obtained by exploiting the full Sl(2, Z) symmetry of the spectral curve of the resolved conifold, and should be regarded as the mirror of the topological D-brane associated to torus knots in the large N Gopakumar-Vafa duality. Moreover, we derive the curve as the large N limit of the matrix model computing torus knot invariants.
Activated human CD4 T cells express transporters for both cysteine and cystine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levring, Trine Bøegh; Hansen, Ann Kathrine; Nielsen, Bodil Lisbeth
2012-01-01
Because naïve T cells are unable to import cystine due to the absence of cystine transporters, it has been suggested that T cell activation is dependent on cysteine generated by antigen presenting cells. The aim of this study was to determine at which phases during T cell activation exogenous...... cystine/cysteine is required and how T cells meet this requirement. We found that early activation of T cells is independent of exogenous cystine/cysteine, whereas T cell proliferation is strictly dependent of uptake of exogenous cystine/cysteine. Naïve T cells express no or very low levels of both...... cystine and cysteine transporters. However, we found that these transporters become strongly up-regulated during T cell activation and provide activated T cells with the required amount of cystine/cysteine needed for T cell proliferation. Thus, T cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow T cell...
Intricate knots in proteins: Function and evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Virnau
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Our investigation of knotted structures in the Protein Data Bank reveals the most complicated knot discovered to date. We suggest that the occurrence of this knot in a human ubiquitin hydrolase might be related to the role of the enzyme in protein degradation. While knots are usually preserved among homologues, we also identify an exception in a transcarbamylase. This allows us to exemplify the function of knots in proteins and to suggest how they may have been created.
Handbook of knotting and splicing
Hasluck, Paul N
2005-01-01
Clearly written and amply illustrated with 208 figures, this classic guide ranges from simple and useful knots to complex varieties. Additional topics include rope splicing, working cordage, hammock making, more.
Recognition algorithms in knot theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynnikov, I A
2003-01-01
In this paper the problem of constructing algorithms for comparing knots and links is discussed. A survey of existing approaches and basic results in this area is given. In particular, diverse combinatorial methods for representing links are discussed, the Haken algorithm for recognizing a trivial knot (the unknot) and a scheme for constructing a general algorithm (using Haken's ideas) for comparing links are presented, an approach based on representing links by closed braids is described, the known algorithms for solving the word problem and the conjugacy problem for braid groups are described, and the complexity of the algorithms under consideration is discussed. A new method of combinatorial description of knots is given together with a new algorithm (based on this description) for recognizing the unknot by using a procedure for monotone simplification. In the conclusion of the paper several problems are formulated whose solution could help to advance towards the 'algorithmization' of knot theory
Weaving Knotted Vector Fields with Tunable Helicity.
Kedia, Hridesh; Foster, David; Dennis, Mark R; Irvine, William T M
2016-12-30
We present a general construction of divergence-free knotted vector fields from complex scalar fields, whose closed field lines encode many kinds of knots and links, including torus knots, their cables, the figure-8 knot, and its generalizations. As finite-energy physical fields, they represent initial states for fields such as the magnetic field in a plasma, or the vorticity field in a fluid. We give a systematic procedure for calculating the vector potential, starting from complex scalar functions with knotted zero filaments, thus enabling an explicit computation of the helicity of these knotted fields. The construction can be used to generate isolated knotted flux tubes, filled by knots encoded in the lines of the vector field. Lastly, we give examples of manifestly knotted vector fields with vanishing helicity. Our results provide building blocks for analytical models and simulations alike.
Biomechanical evaluation of the Nice knot
Hill, Shannon W.; Chapman, Christopher R.; Adeeb, Samer; Duke, Kajsa; Beaupre, Lauren; Bouliane, Martin J.
2016-01-01
Background: The Nice knot is a bulky double-stranded knot. Biomechanical data supporting its use as well as the number of half hitches required to ensure knot security is lacking. Materials and Methods: Nice knots with, one, two, or three half-hitches were compared with the surgeon′s and Tennessee slider knots with three half hitches. Each knot was tied 10 times around a fixed diameter using four different sutures: FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL), Ultrabraid (Smith and Nephew, Andover, MA...
Knot invariants derived from quandles and racks
Kamada, Seiichi
2002-01-01
The homology and cohomology of quandles and racks are used in knot theory: given a finite quandle and a cocycle, we can construct a knot invariant. This is a quick introductory survey to the invariants of knots derived from quandles and racks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloy Caballo-Ponce
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The study of the molecular basis of tree diseases is lately receiving a renewed attention, especially with the emerging perception that pathogens require specific pathogenicity and virulence factors to successfully colonize woody hosts. Pathosystems involving woody plants are notoriously difficult to study, although the use of model bacterial strains together with genetically homogeneous micropropagated plant material is providing a significant impetus to our understanding of the molecular determinants leading to disease. The gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi belongs to the intensively studied Pseudomonas syringae complex, and includes three pathogenic lineages causing tumorous overgrowths (knots in diverse economically relevant trees and shrubs. As it occurs with many other bacteria, pathogenicity of P. savastanoi is dependent on a type III secretion system, which is accompanied by a core set of at least 20 effector genes shared among strains isolated from olive, oleander, and ash. The induction of knots of wild-type size requires that the pathogen maintains adequate levels of diverse metabolites, including the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinins, as well as cyclic-di-GMP, some of which can also regulate the expression of other pathogenicity and virulence genes and participate in bacterial competitiveness. In a remarkable example of social networking, quorum sensing molecules allow for the communication among P. savastanoi and other members of the knot microbiome, while at the same time are essential for tumor formation. Additionally, a distinguishing feature of bacteria from the P. syringae complex isolated from woody organs is the possession of a 15 kb genomic island (WHOP carrying four operons and three other genes involved in degradation of phenolic compounds. Two of these operons mediate the catabolism of anthranilate and catechol and, together with another operon, are required for the induction of full-size tumors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas; Røgen, Peter
1997-01-01
is an invariant of ambient isotopy measuring the topological twist of the closed strip. We classify closed strips in euclidean 3-space by their knots and their twisting number. We prove that this classification exactly divides closed strips into isotopy classes. Using this classification we point out how some...
Mutual attraction of magnetic knots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, E.N.
1978-01-01
It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the Sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability.The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side
[Cystinosis : Diagnosis, cystine-depleting therapy, and transition].
Kaufeld, Jessica; Weber, Lutz T; Kurschat, Christine; Canaan-Kuehl, Sima; Brand, Eva; Oh, Jun; Pape, Lars
2018-04-18
This article presents a case of cystinosis in a young man. Diagnosis of the disease and the problem of transition to adult care are described. Cystinosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with first manifestation in early childhood presenting as renal Fanconi syndrome. Without treatment, the disease leads to severe health impairment. Due to the rarity of the disease, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. Without treatment, cystinosis often leads to end-stage renal failure, blindness, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and rickets. Cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine significantly improves mortality and quality of life.
Disulphide linkage: To get cleaved or not? Bulk and nano copper based SERS of cystine
P. J., Arathi; Seemesh, Bhaskar; Rajendra Kumar Reddy, G.; Suresh Kumar, P.; Ramanathan, V.
2018-05-01
Different nano-structures of noble metals have been the conventional substrates for carrying out Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). In this paper we examine electrodeposited copper (Cu) nano-structures on pencil graphite as novel substrate to carry out SERS measurements by considering L-cystine (Cys-Cys) (dimer of the amino acid cysteine) as the probe. The formation of monolayer of the probe molecule on the substrates was confirmed using cyclic voltammetric measurements. Mode of adsorption of Cys-Cys was observed to be different on bulk Cu (taken in the wire form) and nano-structured Cu on pencil graphite. Whereas in the former the disulphide bond of Cys-Cys remained intact, it got cleaved when Cys-Cys was adsorbed on electrodeposited copper indicating the activated nature of the nano-structure compared to bulk copper. Csbnd S stretching mode of vibration underwent blue shift in Cys-Cys adsorbed on Cu on pencil graphite vis-à-vis Cys-Cys adsorbed on Cu wire. Further evidence on the cleavage of the Csbnd S bond on an activated substrate was obtained by considering a bimetallic substrate comprising of silver on copper which was electrodeposited on pencil graphite. Our studies have demonstrated that nano-copper surface is an excellent substrate for SERS giving 200 μM as lower detection limit for Cys-Cys.
Expression and biological activity of the cystine knot bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vanessa Eyraud
Full Text Available The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a. We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick "cut/paste" of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed.
DNA Knots: Theory and Experiments
Sumners, D. W.
Cellular DNA is a long, thread-like molecule with remarkably complex topology. Enzymes that manipulate the geometry and topology of cellular DNA perform many vital cellular processes (including segregation of daughter chromosomes, gene regulation, DNA repair, and generation of antibody diversity). Some enzymes pass DNA through itself via enzyme-bridged transient breaks in the DNA; other enzymes break the DNA apart and reconnect it to different ends. In the topological approach to enzymology, circular DNA is incubated with an enzyme, producing an enzyme signature in the form of DNA knots and links. By observing the changes in DNA geometry (supercoiling) and topology (knotting and linking) due to enzyme action, the enzyme binding and mechanism can often be characterized. This paper will discuss some personal research history, and the tangle model for the analysis of site-specific recombination experiments on circular DNA.
Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2015-01-01
We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)
The mathematics and physics of knots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauffman, Louis H [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7045 (United States)
2005-12-01
This paper is an introduction to relationships between knot theory and theoretical physics. We give an exposition of the theory of polynomial invariants of knots and links, the Witten functional integral formulation of knot and link invariants, and the beginnings of topological quantum field theory, and show how the theory of knots is related to a number of key issues in mathematical physics, including loop quantum gravity and quantum information theory. Along with the references cited in the text below, we also recommend the following as sources of background information.
Statics and dynamics of DNA knotting
Orlandini, Enzo
2018-02-01
Knots and entanglement in polymers and biopolymers such as DNA and proteins constitute a timely topic that spans various scientific disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry, biology and mathematics. Although in the past many advancements have been made in understanding the equilibrium knotting probability and knot complexity of long polymer chains in solutions, many questions have been addressed in recent years by both experimental and theoretical means—for instance, how the knotting probability depends on the quality of the solvent, the elastic properties of the molecule and its degree of confinement. How knots form, evolve and eventually disappear in a fluctuating chain. Are the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of knotted molecules affected by the knot swelling/shrinking dynamics? Moreover, thanks to the great advance in nanotechnology and micromanipulation techniques, nowadays knots can be ‘manually’ tied in a single DNA molecule, followed during their motion along the chains, forced to pass through nanopores, or stretched by external forces or elongational flows. All these experimental approaches allow access to new information on the interplay of topology and polymer physics, and this has opened new perspectives in the field. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of this topic, stressing the main results obtained, including the recent developments in experimental and computational approaches. Since almost all experiments on knotting involve DNA, the review will be mainly focused on the topological properties of this fascinating and biologically relevant molecule.
The entropic cost to tie a knot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baiesi, M; Orlandini, E; Stella, A L
2010-01-01
We estimate by Monte Carlo simulations the configurational entropy of N-step polygons in the cubic lattice with fixed knot type. By collecting rich statistics of configurations with very large values of N we are able to analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the partition function of the problem for different knot types. Our results confirm that, in the large N limit, each prime knot is localized in a small region of the polygon, regardless of the possible presence of other knots. Each prime knot component may slide along the unknotted region contributing to the overall configurational entropy with a term proportional to lnN. Furthermore, we discover that the mere existence of a knot requires a well defined entropic cost that scales exponentially with its minimal length. In the case of polygons with composite knots it turns out that the partition function can be simply factorized in terms that depend only on prime components, with an additional combinatorial factor that takes into account the statistical property that by interchanging two identical prime knot components in the polygon the corresponding set of overall configurations remains unaltered. Finally, the above results allow one to conjecture a sequence of inequalities for the connective constants of polygons whose topology varies within a given family of composite knot types
Integral Suture-Handling Techniques for Arthroscopic Sliding Knots
Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon; Dorjiee, Gem; Suppauksorn, Sunikom; Pornvoranunt, Umpire; Karchana, Pongsakorn
2016-01-01
In arthroscopic tissue repair, the final step is achieving adequate tissue approximation with a secure knot. The sliding knot is widely preferred over the nonsliding knot, with numerous publications describing knot configurations. However, in the literature there are few published descriptions of suture-handling techniques, even though they are fundamental to arthroscopic knot tying. We describe integral suture-handling techniques for arthroscopic sliding knots to improve the surgeon's perfor...
Differential and symplectic topology of knots and curves
Tabachnikov, S
1999-01-01
This book presents a collection of papers on two related topics: topology of knots and knot-like objects (such as curves on surfaces) and topology of Legendrian knots and links in 3-dimensional contact manifolds. Featured is the work of international experts in knot theory (""quantum"" knot invariants, knot invariants of finite type), in symplectic and contact topology, and in singularity theory. The interplay of diverse methods from these fields makes this volume unique in the study of Legendrian knots and knot-like objects such as wave fronts. A particularly enticing feature of the volume is
Ileosigmoid knot: A case report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baheti, Akshay D; Patel, Darshana; Hira, Priya; Babu, Donald
2011-01-01
The ileosigmoid knot is an uncommon but life-threatening cause of closed loop intestinal obstruction. Its treatment is different from a simple volvulus in that it has to be operated upon immediately. Preoperative CT scan diagnosis and prompt treatment can lead to a good outcome. Findings of simultaneous ileal and sigmoid ischemia with non-ischemic colon interposed in between should, in an appropriate clinical setting, indicate this condition. The presence of the whirl sign, medially deviated distal descending colon and cecum, and mesenteric vascular structures from the superior mesenteric vessels that converge toward the sigmoid colon on CT scan help clinch the diagnosis
On two-generator satellite knots
Bleiler, Steven A.; Jones, Amelia C.
1997-01-01
Techniques are introduced which determine the geometric structure of non-simple two-generator $3$-manifolds from purely algebraic data. As an application, the satellite knots in the $3$-sphere with a two-generator presentation in which at least one generator is represented by a meridian for the knot are classified.
Digestible methionine + cystine requirement for Nile tilapia from 550 to 700 g
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana Michelato
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This trial was conducted to determine the dietary digestible methionine + cystine requirement of Nile tilapia (550 to 700 g based on the ideal protein concept. Six hundred fish were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates, with 30 fish per experimental unit. The fish were fed diets containing approximately 262 g of digestible protein/kg, 3,040 kcal of digestible energy/kg and 7.90, 9.40, 10.90, 12.40 or 13.90 g of methionine + cystine/kg. The fish were hand-fed three times a day until apparent satiation for 30 days. No effects of dietary methionine + cystine on feed conversion ratio, daily protein deposition, whole body moisture, fillet moisture, crude protein, ether extract and ash, plasmatic HDL and LDL cholesterol were observed. Dietary methionine resulted in a linear increase in whole body protein and linear reduction in lipid deposition rate, hepatosomatic index, whole body ether extract and ash, plasmatic total cholesterol, plasmatic total lipids and plasmatic triglycerides. According to the Linear Response Plateau, the daily weight gain and fillet yield increased up to a level of 9.00 and 9.90 g methionine + cystine/kg of diet, respectively. The digestible methionine + cystine requirement of Nile tilapia is 9.00 g/kg for weight gain and 9.90 g/kg for fillet yield, corresponding to methionine + cystine:lysine ratios of 0.60 and 0.66, respectively.
UV Photofragmentation Dynamics of Protonated Cystine: Disulfide Bond Rupture.
Soorkia, Satchin; Dehon, Christophe; Kumar, S Sunil; Pedrazzani, Mélanie; Frantzen, Emilie; Lucas, Bruno; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline A; Jouvet, Christophe
2014-04-03
Disulfide bonds (S-S) play a central role in stabilizing the native structure of proteins against denaturation. Experimentally, identification of these linkages in peptide and protein structure characterization remains challenging. UV photodissociation (UVPD) can be a valuable tool in identifying disulfide linkages. Here, the S-S bond acts as a UV chromophore and absorption of one UV photon corresponds to a σ-σ* transition. We have investigated the photodissociation dynamics of protonated cystine, which is a dimer of two cysteines linked by a disulfide bridge, at 263 nm (4.7 eV) using a multicoincidence technique in which fragments coming from the same fragmentation event are detected. Two types of bond cleavages are observed corresponding to the disulfide (S-S) and adjacent C-S bond ruptures. We show that the S-S cleavage leads to three different fragment ions via three different fragmentation mechanisms. The UVPD results are compared to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-induced dissociation (EID) studies.
Asymptotic laws for random knot diagrams
Chapman, Harrison
2017-06-01
We study random knotting by considering knot and link diagrams as decorated, (rooted) topological maps on spheres and pulling them uniformly from among sets of a given number of vertices n, as first established in recent work with Cantarella and Mastin. The knot diagram model is an exciting new model which captures both the random geometry of space curve models of knotting as well as the ease of computing invariants from diagrams. We prove that unknot diagrams are asymptotically exponentially rare, an analogue of Sumners and Whittington’s landmark result for self-avoiding polygons. Our proof uses the same key idea: we first show that knot diagrams obey a pattern theorem, which describes their fractal structure. We examine how quickly this behavior occurs in practice. As a consequence, almost all diagrams are asymmetric, simplifying sampling from this model. We conclude with experimental data on knotting in this model. This model of random knotting is similar to those studied by Diao et al, and Dunfield et al.
Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Xiao-Hui; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping; Zhang Lin-Xi
2011-01-01
The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond (S 2 )/(Nb 2 ) and the shape factor (δ*) depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type. With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity C v , and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas—liquid—solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)
Legendrian and transverse cables of positive torus knots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
B. Etnyre, John; la Fountain, Douglas James; Tosun, Bulent
In this paper we classify Legendrian and transverse knots in the knot types obtained from positive torus knots by cabling. This classification allows us to demonstrate several new phenomena. Specifically, we show there are knot types that have non-destabilizable Legendrian representatives whose T...
Open knot-tying skills: residents skills assessed
van Empel, P.J.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Scheele, F.
2013-01-01
Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills
Are There Knots in Chromosomes?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan T. Siebert
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Recent developments have for the first time allowed the determination of three-dimensional structures of individual chromosomes and genomes in nuclei of single haploid mouse embryonic stem (ES cells based on Hi–C chromosome conformation contact data. Although these first structures have a relatively low resolution, they provide the first experimental data that can be used to study chromosome and intact genome folding. Here we further analyze these structures and provide the first evidence that G1 phase chromosomes are knotted, consistent with the fact that plots of contact probability vs sequence separation show a power law dependence that is intermediate between that of a fractal globule and an equilibrium structure.
Grid homology for knots and links
Ozsváth, Peter S; Szabó, Zoltán
2015-01-01
Knot theory is a classical area of low-dimensional topology, directly connected with the theory of three-manifolds and smooth four-manifold topology. In recent years, the subject has undergone transformative changes thanks to its connections with a number of other mathematical disciplines, including gauge theory; representation theory and categorification; contact geometry; and the theory of pseudo-holomorphic curves. Starting from the combinatorial point of view on knots using their grid diagrams, this book serves as an introduction to knot theory, specifically as it relates to some of the ab
Molecular knots in biology and chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Nicole C H; Jackson, Sophie E
2015-01-01
Knots and entanglements are ubiquitous. Beyond their aesthetic appeal, these fascinating topological entities can be either useful or cumbersome. In recent decades, the importance and prevalence of molecular knots have been increasingly recognised by scientists from different disciplines. In this review, we provide an overview on the various molecular knots found in naturally occurring biological systems (DNA, RNA and proteins), and those created by synthetic chemists. We discuss the current knowledge in these fields, including recent developments in experimental and, in some cases, computational studies which are beginning to shed light into the complex interplay between the structure, formation and properties of these topologically intricate molecules. (paper)
In Search of Functional Advantages of Knots in Proteins.
Dabrowski-Tumanski, Pawel; Stasiak, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Joanna I
2016-01-01
We analysed the structure of deeply knotted proteins representing three unrelated families of knotted proteins. We looked at the correlation between positions of knotted cores in these proteins and such local structural characteristics as the number of intra-chain contacts, structural stability and solvent accessibility. We observed that the knotted cores and especially their borders showed strong enrichment in the number of contacts. These regions showed also increased thermal stability, whereas their solvent accessibility was decreased. Interestingly, the active sites within these knotted proteins preferentially located in the regions with increased number of contacts that also have increased thermal stability and decreased solvent accessibility. Our results suggest that knotting of polypeptide chains provides a favourable environment for the active sites observed in knotted proteins. Some knotted proteins have homologues without a knot. Interestingly, these unknotted homologues form local entanglements that retain structural characteristics of the knotted cores.
The challenge of cystine and struvite stone formers: clinical, metabolic and surgical assessment
Yamaçake, Kleiton G. R.; Marchini, Giovanni S.; Reis, Sabrina; Danilovic, Alexandre; Vicentini, Fábio C.; Torricelli, Fábio C. M.; Srougi, Miguel; Mazzucchi, Eduardo
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the clinical, metabolic, and calculi characteristics of cystine and struvite stone patients after percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Material and Methods: Between January/2006-July/2013, 11 cystine stone patients were treated in our clinic. Of those, 3 were excluded due to incomplete follow-up. Eight cystine stone patients (2 with bilateral disease; 10 renal units-RU) were considered for further analysis. A cohort of 8 struvite stone formers (10RU) was matched having the same age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and Guys stone score. Analyzed parameters comprised demographic data, serum/urinary metabolic evaluation and surgical outcomes. Results: Both groups had 6 female patients. Groups were similar in regards to age, gender, BMI, stone burden, and serum creatinine (p=NS). All patients had PCNL as the first surgical treatment modality. Stone free rate (SFR) after the first PCNL tended to be lower (0%) in the cystine compared to the struvite group (40%)(p=0.08). Final SFR after secondary procedures increased to 70% in cystine and 80% in struvite patients (p=1.0); mean number of procedures to achieve stone free status was higher in the first group (3.57 vs. 2.0;p=0.028). Hypocitraturia was found in all patients, but struvite cases presented with lower mean urinary citrate levels (p=0.016). Other common abnormalities were elevated urinary pH (cystine 75% and struvite 62.5%;p=1.0) and low urinary volume (62.5%,37.5%;p=0.63). Conclusion: Multiple interventions and suboptimal stone free rates are trait of the significant stone burden of struvite and cystine patients. Underlying metabolic abnormalities characterized by increased urinary pH, hypocitraturia and low urinary volume are often encountered in both populations. PMID:27622279
Studying uniform thickness II: Transversely nonsimple iterated torus knots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
LaFountain, Douglas
2011-01-01
We prove that an iterated torus knot type in the standard contact 3-sphere fails the uniform thickness property (UTP) if and only if it is formed from repeated positive cablings, which is precisely when an iterated torus knot supports the standard contact structure. This is the first complete UTP...... classification for a large class of knots. We also show that all iterated torus knots that fail the UTP support cabling knot types that are transversely non-simple....
Effectiveness of L-cystine in prevention of leukocytopenia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakurai, T; Nishio, M; Sako, T; Saito, A; Haruyama, M [National Hospital of Sapporo (Japan)
1978-01-01
The subject was 33 patients with malignant neoplasma who were treated only with irradiation or with both irradiation and anticancer drugs. Radiotherapy was performed by using betatron electron or 6MV Linac x-ray. A dose of 200-250 rad was given four times a week up to a total of 4000-6000 rad. At the some time as the start of radiotherapy, one capsule (60mg) of L-Cystine per a day (three times after each meal) was given until the finishment of radiation therapy or until 2 weeks after the finishment of radiotherapy. The number of leukocytes, fraction of leukocytes, the number of blood platelets, the number of erythrocytes, liver function, and findings in urine examination during the period from the start of irradiation to the finishment were examined. The evaluation of the effect was as follows: 1. marked effectiveness (reduction of the number of leukocytes, after irradiation was within 20% in comparison with that before irradiation), 2. effectiveness (the number of leukocytes was over 3000/mm/sup 3/ and radiotherapy could be performed according to schedule), and 3. ineffectiveness (the number of leukocytes was less than 3000/mm/sup 3/ or radiation therapy was obliged to stop). The result showed that marked effectiveness was recognized in 8 of 33 cases (24.2%), effectiveness, in 16 cases (48.5%), and ineffectiveness, in 9 cases (27.3%). 17 of 22 cases which were treated with both radiation and anticancer drugs showed response above effectiveness (77.3%). In the group with large irradiation field of over 15 x 15, effectiveness was recognized only in 1 of 5 cases regardless of treatment with anticancer drugs. In the group with irradiation field of medium or small size in which one side irradiation field was less than 15 x 15, 23 of 28 cases showed response of above effectiveness regardless of treatment with anticancer drugs (82.1%).
Lattices gauge theories in terms of knots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vecernyes, P.
1989-01-01
Cluster expansion is developed in lattice gauge theories with finite gauge groups in d≥3 dimensions where the clusters are connected (d - 2)-dimensional surfaces which can branch along (d - 3)-cells. The interaction between them has a knot theoretical interpretation. It can be many body linking or knotting self-interaction. For small enough gauge coupling g the authors prove analyticity of the correlation functions in the variable exp(-1/g 2
On the universality of knot probability ratios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 1984 Mathematics Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)
2011-04-22
Let p{sub n} denote the number of self-avoiding polygons of length n on a regular three-dimensional lattice, and let p{sub n}(K) be the number which have knot type K. The probability that a random polygon of length n has knot type K is p{sub n}(K)/p{sub n} and is known to decay exponentially with length (Sumners and Whittington 1988 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1689-94, Pippenger 1989 Discrete Appl. Math. 25 273-8). Little is known rigorously about the asymptotics of p{sub n}(K), but there is substantial numerical evidence. It is believed that the entropic exponent, {alpha}, is universal, while the exponential growth rate is independent of the knot type but varies with the lattice. The amplitude, C{sub K}, depends on both the lattice and the knot type. The above asymptotic form implies that the relative probability of a random polygon of length n having prime knot type K over prime knot type L. In the thermodynamic limit this probability ratio becomes an amplitude ratio; it should be universal and depend only on the knot types K and L. In this communication we examine the universality of these probability ratios for polygons in the simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic lattices. Our results support the hypothesis that these are universal quantities. For example, we estimate that a long random polygon is approximately 28 times more likely to be a trefoil than be a figure-eight, independent of the underlying lattice, giving an estimate of the intrinsic entropy associated with knot types in closed curves. (fast track communication)
Surface damage in cystine, an amino acid dimer, induced by keV ions.
Salles, R C M; Coutinho, L H; da Veiga, A G; Sant'Anna, M M; de Souza, G G B
2018-01-28
We have studied the interaction of an ion beam (17.6 keV F - ) with cystine, a dimer formed by the binding of two cysteine residues. Cystine can be considered as an ideal prototype for the study of the relevance of the disulfide (-S-S-) chemical bond in biomolecules. For the sake of comparison, the amino acid cysteine has also been subjected to the same experimental conditions. Characterization of the samples by XPS and NEXAFS shows that both pristine cystine and pristine cysteine are found as a dipolar ion (zwitterion). Following irradiation, the dimer and the amino acid show a tendency to change from the dipole ion form to the normal uncharged form. The largest spectral modification was observed in the high resolution XPS spectra obtained at around the N 1s core level for the two biomolecules. The 2p sulfur edge spectra of cysteine and cystine were much less sensitive to radiation effects. We suggest that the disulfide bond (-S-S-) remains stable before and after irradiation, contributing to the larger radiation stability of cystine as compared to the amino acid cysteine.
Cystine uptake by cultured cells originating from dog proximal tubule segments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
States, B.; Reynolds, R.; Lee, J.; Segal, S.
1990-01-01
Large numbers of kidney epithelial cells were cultured successfully from isolated dog proximal tubule segments. Cells in primary culture and in first passage retained the cystine-dibasic amino acid co-transporter system which is found in vivo and in freshly isolated proximal tubule segments. In contrast to other cultured cells, the cystine-glutamate anti-porter was absent in primary cultures. However, this anti-porter system seemed to be developing in cells in first passage. The intracellular ratio of cysteine:reduced glutathione (CSH:GSH) was maintained at 1:36 in both primary cultures and in low passage cells. Incubation of cells in primary culture for 5 min at 37 degrees C with 0.025 mM [ 35 S]L-cystine resulted in incorporation of approximately 36 and 8.5% of the label into intracellular CSH and GSH, respectively. These cultured cells, therefore, seem to be an excellent model system for the eventual elucidation of (a) the inticacies of cystine metabolism and (b) regulation of (1) the cystine-dibasic amino acid co-transporter system and (2) the development of the cysteine-glutamate anti-porter system
Studies on Manganese (II), Cobalt (II) and Cadmium (II) complexes with L-Cystine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossain, M. Alamgir; Ahmed, A.H. Moinuddin; Iqbal, M. Monocheher
1995-01-01
A study has been carried out to prepare the manganese, cobalt and cadmium complexes of L-cystine using the metal salts and lithium cystinate. The crystalline 1:1 stoichiometric complexes with the empirical formulae of [Mn(SCH 2 CHNH 2 COO) 2 ], [Co(SCH 2 CHNH 2 COO) 2 ] and [Cd(SCH 2 CHNH 2 COO) 2 ] are obtained from the reaction of equimolar amount of the corresponding metal ions and ligand in aqueous solution. The complexes have been characterized by chemical analyses, infrared and ultraviolet spectra, magnetic measurements, optical and thermal decomposition methods. Studies show that L-cystine behaves as tetradentate ligand forming chelates with metal ions where the bonding sites of the ligand are the carboxylate O and the amino N atoms. 15 refs., 2 tables, 3 figs (author)
Legendrian and transverse cables of positive torus knots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Etnyre, John; LaFountain, Douglas; Tosun, Bülent
2012-01-01
Thurston-Bennequin invariant is arbitrarily far from maximal. We also exhibit Legendrian knots requiring arbitrarily many stabilizations before they become Legendrian isotopic. Similar new phenomena are observed for transverse knots. To achieve these results we define and study "partially thickenable" tori......In this paper we classify Legendrian and transverse knots in the knot types obtained from positive torus knots by cabling. This classification allows us to demonstrate several new phenomena. Specifically, we show there are knot types that have non-destabilizable Legendrian representatives whose...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik
2000-01-01
Microscopic structures for molecular monolayers of L-cysteine and L-cystine assembled on Au(111) have been disclosed by employing electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). HighresolutionSTMimages show that the adlayers of both cyteine and cystine exhibit highly......-ordered networklike clusters with (3x3 6)R30° structure. By combining the surface coverage estimated from voltammetric data, each cluster is demonstrated to include six individual cysteine molecules or three cystine molecules. As a comparison, no cluster structure is observed for the 1-butanethiol adlayer prepared...... and examined under the same conditions as those for cysteine and cystine. This suggests that intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds among adsorbed cysteine or cystine molecules could be responsible for the origin of the cluster-network structures for the adlayers. Several models are proposed and used...
In Search of Functional Advantages of Knots in Proteins.
Dabrowski-Tumanski, P.; Stasiak, A.; Sulkowska, J.I.
2016-01-01
We analysed the structure of deeply knotted proteins representing three unrelated families of knotted proteins. We looked at the correlation between positions of knotted cores in these proteins and such local structural characteristics as the number of intra-chain contacts, structural stability and solvent accessibility. We observed that the knotted cores and especially their borders showed strong enrichment in the number of contacts. These regions showed also increased thermal stability, whe...
On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots
Hom, Jennifer
2012-01-01
The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.
Smart platform for the time since death determination from vitreous humor cystine.
Ansari, Niha; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K
2016-12-15
In this work, we report the smart application of AgNPs based sensors for determination of time since death (TSD) via recognition and quantification of vitreous humor (VH) cystine as well as provide the portability for on spot determination of TSD. The lower detection limit was found to be 7.0ng/ml with prominent selectivity. It was found that there is a linear correlation between the VH cystine concentration and TSD as the concentration of cystine increases up to 96h±3.9h. Further for the first time TSD determination is given a smart approach and it proves to have a great utility up to 24h±2.6h. The linear regression equation between TSD (the dependent variable), RGB intensity of cystine concentration till 24h (the independent variable) was found to be TSD=26.69+-0.05*x. The proposed method gives the smart detection, portability, rapidity, sensitivity, selectivity as well as cost effectiveness for determination of time since death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E., E-mail: mateome@cab.inta-csic.es
2015-09-08
Highlights: • Successful adsorption of cystine on pyrite surface under several conditions. • Detailed XPS spectroscopic characterization of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface. • Spectroscopy evidence, oxidation and anoxic conditions adjust molecular adsorption. • Molecular chemistry on pyrite is driven depending on the surrounding conditions. • The cystine/pyrite(100) model is in good agreement with Wächtershäuser’s theory. - Abstract: We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions.
Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Successful adsorption of cystine on pyrite surface under several conditions. • Detailed XPS spectroscopic characterization of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface. • Spectroscopy evidence, oxidation and anoxic conditions adjust molecular adsorption. • Molecular chemistry on pyrite is driven depending on the surrounding conditions. • The cystine/pyrite(100) model is in good agreement with Wächtershäuser’s theory. - Abstract: We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions
Oxidation of L-cystine by chromium(VI) - a kinetic study | Kumar ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The kinetics of the title reaction was studied spectrophotometrically in HClO4 medium at 380 nm. The data suggested that the order with respect to cystine is fractional, whereas chromium(VI) follows first order kinetics. The reaction was second order in [H+]. Cysteic acid was found to be the main product of oxidation.
Majcher, Małgorzata A; Jeleń, Henryk H
2007-07-11
Aromas generated in extruded potato snacks without and with addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1% (w/w) of flavor precursors, cysteine and cystine, were compared and evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling. The results showed that high addition of cysteine (0.5 and 1%) resulted in the formation of undesirable odor and taste described as mercaptanic/sulfur, onion-like, and bitter; on the contrary, addition of cystine even at high concentration gave product with pleasant odor and taste, slightly changed into breadlike notes. GC/O analysis showed cysteine to be a much more reactive flavor precursor than cystine, stimulating formation of 12 compounds with garlic, sulfury, burnt, pungent/beer, cabbage/mold, meatlike, roasted, and popcorn odor notes. Further analysis performed by the AEDA technique identified 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (FD 2048) as a most potent odorant of extruded potato snacks with 1% addition of cysteine. Other identified compounds with high FD were butanal, 3-methyl-2-butenethiol, 2-methylthiazole, methional, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. In the case of cystine addition (1%) the highest FD factors were calculated for butanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, benzenemethanethiol, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, dimethyltrisulfide, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2-acetylpyrazine.
Knotcraft the practical and entertaining art of tying knots
Macfarlan, Allan and Paulette
1983-01-01
Comprehensive reference work explains how to tie hundreds of practical (and decorative) knots in clear illustrations and precisely worded written instructions. Ideal for boaters and campers. Also covers knots in history, knot mystery and magic, and games, stunts and tricks with rope. Introduction. Index. 166 black-and-white illustrations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clauber Polese
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%, in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day.
Four-manifolds, geometries and knots
Hillman, Jonathan A
2007-01-01
The goal of this book is to characterize algebraically the closed 4-manifolds that fibre nontrivially or admit geometries in the sense of Thurston, or which are obtained by surgery on 2-knots, and to provide a reference for the topology of such manifolds and knots. The first chapter is purely algebraic. The rest of the book may be divided into three parts: general results on homotopy and surgery (Chapters 2-6), geometries and geometric decompositions (Chapters 7-13), and 2-knots (Chapters 14-18). In many cases the Euler characteristic, fundamental group and Stiefel-Whitney classes together form a complete system of invariants for the homotopy type of such manifolds, and the possible values of the invariants can be described explicitly. The strongest results are characterizations of manifolds which fibre homotopically over S^1 or an aspherical surface (up to homotopy equivalence) and infrasolvmanifolds (up to homeomorphism). As a consequence 2-knots whose groups are poly-Z are determined up to Gluck reconstruc...
The Ileosigmoid Knot: A Case Report
African Journals Online (AJOL)
because the clinical signs are difficult to define and the ... describe a case of ileosigmoid knotting in a 40 year old male and .... Prompt relief of obstruction by an emergency laparatomy is a ... the bowel leading to perforation, fecal peritonitis and.
Refined large N duality for knots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi
We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...
Minimal knotted polygons in cubic lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Rensburg, E J Janse; Rechnitzer, A
2011-01-01
In this paper we examine numerically the properties of minimal length knotted lattice polygons in the simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic lattices by sieving minimal length polygons from a data stream of a Monte Carlo algorithm, implemented as described in Aragão de Carvalho and Caracciolo (1983 Phys. Rev. B 27 1635), Aragão de Carvalho et al (1983 Nucl. Phys. B 215 209) and Berg and Foester (1981 Phys. Lett. B 106 323). The entropy, mean writhe, and mean curvature of minimal length polygons are computed (in some cases exactly). While the minimal length and mean curvature are found to be lattice dependent, the mean writhe is found to be only weakly dependent on the lattice type. Comparison of our results to numerical results for the writhe obtained elsewhere (see Janse van Rensburg et al 1999 Contributed to Ideal Knots (Series on Knots and Everything vol 19) ed Stasiak, Katritch and Kauffman (Singapore: World Scientific), Portillo et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 275004) shows that the mean writhe is also insensitive to the length of a knotted polygon. Thus, while these results for the mean writhe and mean absolute writhe at minimal length are not universal, our results demonstrate that these values are quite close the those of long polygons regardless of the underlying lattice and length
Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam
2016-09-01
Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.
Virtual knotting in proteins and other open curves
Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander; Dennis, Mark
Long filaments naturally knot, from string to long-chain molecules. Knotting in a filament affects its properties, and may be very stable or disappear under slight manipulation. Knotting has been identified in protein backbones for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their function, although they are open curves in which knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the ends of the chain. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, a wider class of topological objects that do not use a classical closure, capturing the topological ambiguity of open curves. Having analysed all proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, we recover and extend previous knotting results, and identify topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in proteins are compared with those of Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important. This work was supported by the Leverhulme Trust Programme Grant ``Scientific Properties of Complex Knots'' and the EPSRC.
How should patients with cystine stone disease be evaluated and treated in the twenty-first century?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Osther, Susanne Sloth
2016-01-01
will have a life long risk of stone formation, repeated surgery, impaired renal function and quality of life. Therapy to reduce stone formation is directed towards lowering urine cystine concentration and increasing cystine solubility. Different molecules that could play a role in promoting nucleation...... and have a modulating effect on cystine solubility may represent new targets for cystinuria research. Investigation of newer thiol-containing drugs with fewer adverse effects is also warranted. Determining cystine capacity may be an effective tool to monitor the individual patient's response. Compliance...... in cystinuric patients concerning both dietary and pharmacological intervention is poor. Frequent clinical follow-up visits in dedicated centres seem to improve compliance. Cystinuric patients should be managed in dedicated centres offering the complete range of minimal invasive treatment modalities, enabling...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aabech, J; Andersen, J T
1993-01-01
Treatment of cystine stones in the urinary tract can be difficult because of a high frequency of recurrence, resistance to Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL), difficulty in localization and access to peripheral stones during Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), and the insufficient...... effect of oral chemolysis. We present two cases of urinary cystine calculi treated with a combination of pyelolithotomy, PCNL, ESWL and percutaneous irrigation chemolysis, using N-acetylcysteine and Tromethamine-E....
Busfield, Benjamin T; Glousman, Ronald E; McGarry, Michelle H; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q
2008-05-01
Previous studies have shown comparable biomechanical properties of double-row fixation versus double-row fixation with a knotless lateral row. SutureBridge is a construct that secures the cuff with medial row mattress suture anchors and knotless lateral row fixation of the medial suture ends. Recent completely knotless constructs may lead to lesser clinical outcomes if the construct properties are compromised from lack of suture knots. A completely knotless construct without medial row knots will compromise the biomechanical properties in both cyclic and failure-testing parameters. Controlled laboratory study. Six matched pairs of cadaveric shoulders were randomized to 2 groups of double row fixation with SutureBridge: group 1 with medial row knots, and group 2 without medial row knots. The specimens were placed in a materials test system at 30 degrees of abduction. Cyclic testing to 180 N at 1 mm/sec for 30 cycles was performed, followed by tensile testing to failure at 1 mm/sec. Data included cyclic and failure data from the materials test system and gap data using a video digitizing system. All data from paired specimens were compared using paired Student t tests. Group 1 had a statistically significant difference (P row failure, whereas all group 1 specimens failed at the clamp. Although lateral row knotless fixation has been shown not to sacrifice structural integrity of this construct, the addition of a knotless medial row compromises the construct leading to greater gapping and failure at lower loads. This may raise concerns regarding recently marketed completely knotless double row constructs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang He
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Smart polymer nanogel-assisted drug delivery systems have attracted more and more attention in cancer chemotherapy because of their well-defined morphologies and pleiotropic functions in recent years. In this work, an l-cystine-crosslinked reduction-responsive polypeptide nanogel of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(l-phenylalanine-co-l-cystine (mPEG-P(LP-co-LC was employed as a smart excipient for RM-1 prostate cancer (PCa chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (DOX, as a regular chemotherapy drug, was embedded in the nanogel. The loading nanogel marked as NG/DOX was shown to exhibit glutathione (GSH-induced swelling and GSH-accelerated DOX release. Subsequently, NG/DOX showed efficient cellular uptake and proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, NG/DOX presented enhanced antitumor efficacy and security in an RM-1 PCa-grafted mouse model in vivo, indicating its great potential for clinical treatment.
Surface-knots in 4-space an introduction
Kamada, Seiichi
2017-01-01
This introductory volume provides the basics of surface-knots and related topics, not only for researchers in these areas but also for graduate students and researchers who are not familiar with the field. Knot theory is one of the most active research fields in modern mathematics. Knots and links are closed curves (one-dimensional manifolds) in Euclidean 3-space, and they are related to braids and 3-manifolds. These notions are generalized into higher dimensions. Surface-knots or surface-links are closed surfaces (two-dimensional manifolds) in Euclidean 4-space, which are related to two-dimensional braids and 4-manifolds. Surface-knot theory treats not only closed surfaces but also surfaces with boundaries in 4-manifolds. For example, knot concordance and knot cobordism, which are also important objects in knot theory, are surfaces in the product space of the 3-sphere and the interval. Included in this book are basics of surface-knots and the related topics of classical knots, the motion picture method, surf...
Knot invariants and higher representation theory
Webster, Ben
2018-01-01
The author constructs knot invariants categorifying the quantum knot variants for all representations of quantum groups. He shows that these invariants coincide with previous invariants defined by Khovanov for \\mathfrak{sl}_2 and \\mathfrak{sl}_3 and by Mazorchuk-Stroppel and Sussan for \\mathfrak{sl}_n. The author's technique is to study 2-representations of 2-quantum groups (in the sense of Rouquier and Khovanov-Lauda) categorifying tensor products of irreducible representations. These are the representation categories of certain finite dimensional algebras with an explicit diagrammatic presentation, generalizing the cyclotomic quotient of the KLR algebra. When the Lie algebra under consideration is \\mathfrak{sl}_n, the author shows that these categories agree with certain subcategories of parabolic category \\mathcal{O} for \\mathfrak{gl}_k.
Towards effective topological field theory for knots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mironov
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Construction of (colored knot polynomials for double-fat graphs is further generalized to the case when “fingers” and “propagators” are substituting R-matrices in arbitrary closed braids with m-strands. Original version of [25] corresponds to the case m=2, and our generalization sheds additional light on the structure of those mysterious formulas. Explicit expressions are now combined from Racah matrices of the type R⊗R⊗R¯⟶R¯ and mixing matrices in the sectors R⊗3⟶Q. Further extension is provided by composition rules, allowing to glue two blocks, connected by an m-strand braid (they generalize the product formula for ordinary composite knots with m=1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ekaterina A Ivanova
Full Text Available Nephropathic cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding cystine transporter cystinosin that results in accumulation of amino acid cystine in the lysosomes throughout the body and especially affects kidneys. Early manifestations of the disease include renal Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. Current therapy of cystinosis is based on cystine-lowering drug cysteamine that postpones the disease progression but offers no cure for the Fanconi syndrome. We studied the mechanisms of impaired reabsorption in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC deficient for cystinosin and investigated the endo-lysosomal compartments of cystinosin-deficient PTEC by means of light and electron microscopy. We demonstrate that cystinosin-deficient cells had abnormal shape and distribution of the endo-lysosomal compartments and impaired endocytosis, with decreased surface expression of multiligand receptors and delayed lysosomal cargo processing. Treatment with cysteamine improved surface expression and lysosomal cargo processing but did not lead to a complete restoration and had no effect on the abnormal morphology of endo-lysosomal compartments. The obtained results improve our understanding of the mechanism of proximal tubular dysfunction in cystinosis and indicate that impaired protein reabsorption can, at least partially, be explained by abnormal trafficking of endosomal vesicles.
A state enumeration of the foil knot
Ramaharo, Franck; Rakotondrajao, Fanja
2017-01-01
We split the crossings of the foil knot and enumerate the resulting states with a generating polynomial. Unexpectedly, the number of such states which consist of two components are given by the lazy caterer's sequence. This sequence describes the maximum number of planar regions that is obtained with a given number of straight lines. We then establish a bijection between this partition of the plane and the concerned foil splits sequence.
Computation of Hyperbolic Structures in Knot Theory
Weeks, Jeffrey R.
2003-01-01
This chapter from the upcoming Handbook of Knot Theory (eds. Menasco and Thistlethwaite) shows how to construct hyperbolic structures on link complements and perform hyperbolic Dehn filling. Along with a new elementary exposition of the standard ideas from Thurston's work, the article includes never-before-published explanations of SnapPea's algorithms for triangulating a link complement efficiently and for converging quickly to the hyperbolic structure while avoiding singularities in the par...
Induction effects of torus knots and unknots
Oberti, Chiara; Ricca, Renzo L.
2017-09-01
Geometric and topological aspects associated with induction effects of field lines in the shape of torus knots/unknots are examined and discussed in detail. Knots are assumed to lie on a mathematical torus of circular cross-section and are parametrized by standard equations. The induced field is computed by direct integration of the Biot-Savart law. Field line patterns of the induced field are obtained and several properties are examined for a large family of knots/unknots up to 51 crossings. The intensity of the induced field at the origin of the reference system (center of the torus) is found to depend linearly on the number of toroidal coils and reaches maximum values near the boundary of the mathematical torus. New analytical estimates and bounds on energy and helicity are established in terms of winding number and minimum crossing number. These results find useful applications in several contexts when the source field is either vorticity, electric current or magnetic field, from vortex dynamics to astrophysics and plasma physics, where highly braided magnetic fields and currents are present.
Motion of Knots in DNA Stretched by Elongational Fields
Klotz, Alexander R.; Soh, Beatrice W.; Doyle, Patrick S.
2018-05-01
Knots in DNA occur in biological systems, serve as a model system for polymer entanglement, and affect the efficacy of modern genomics technologies. We study the motion of complex knots in DNA by stretching molecules with a divergent electric field that provides an elongational force. We demonstrate that the motion of knots is nonisotropic and driven towards the closest end of the molecule. We show for the first time experimentally that knots can go from a mobile to a jammed state by varying an applied strain rate, and that this jamming is reversible. We measure the mobility of knots as a function of strain rate, demonstrating the conditions under which knots can be driven towards the ends of the molecule and untied.
Modeling the Effects of Knots in Structural Timber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foley, Christina
The main purpose of the pursued research presented in this thesis is to increase knowledge of the effects of knots in structural timber so that characteristics of weaker timber may be determined and applied to improve current grading techniques. In the process, a three-dimensional fiber paradigm...... are given to Shigo's knot formation theory, and thus predicts two separate patterns of fiber direction within annual growth layers related to live knots. In order to determine the possibility to practically and non destructively predict local material directions in structural timber with the three...... was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot...
Sampling large random knots in a confined space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arsuaga, J; Blackstone, T; Diao, Y; Hinson, K; Karadayi, E; Saito, M
2007-01-01
DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e n 2 )). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n 2 ). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications
Sampling large random knots in a confined space
Arsuaga, J.; Blackstone, T.; Diao, Y.; Hinson, K.; Karadayi, E.; Saito, M.
2007-09-01
DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e^{n^2}) . We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n2). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.
Sampling large random knots in a confined space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arsuaga, J [Department of Mathematics, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Blackstone, T [Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Diao, Y [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Karadayi, E [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Saito, M [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)
2007-09-28
DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e{sup n{sup 2}}). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n{sup 2}). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.
Optical knots and contact geometry II. From Ranada dyons to transverse and cosmetic knots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kholodenko, Arkady L., E-mail: string@clemson.edu
2016-08-15
Some time ago Ranada (1989) obtained new nontrivial solutions of the Maxwellian gauge fields without sources. These were reinterpreted in Kholodenko (2015) [10] (part I) as particle-like (monopoles, dyons, etc.). They were obtained by the method of Abelian reduction of the non-Abelian Yang–Mills functional. The developed method uses instanton-type calculations normally employed for the non-Abelian gauge fields. By invoking the electric–magnetic duality it then becomes possible to replace all known charges/masses by the particle-like solutions of the source-free Abelian gauge fields. To employ these results in high energy physics, it is essential to extend Ranada’s results by carefully analyzing and classifying all dynamically generated knotted/linked structures in gauge fields, including those discovered by Ranada. This task is completed in this work. The study is facilitated by the recent progress made in solving the Moffatt conjecture. Its essence is stated as follows: in steady incompressible Euler-type fluids the streamlines could have knots/links of all types. By employing the correspondence between the ideal hydrodynamics and electrodynamics discussed in part I and by superimposing it with the already mentioned method of Abelian reduction, it is demonstrated that in the absence of boundaries only the iterated torus knots and links could be dynamically generated. Obtained results allow to develop further particle-knot/link correspondence studied in Kholodenko (2015) [13].
Takayasu, Kenta; Yoshida, Kenji; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Yoshimoto, Syunsuke; Oshiro, Osamu; Matsuda, Tadashi
2017-07-19
Quantifying surgical skills assists novice surgeons when learning operative techniques. We measured the interaction force at a ligation point and clarified the features of the force pattern among surgeons with different skill levels during laparoscopic knot tying. Forty-four surgeons were divided into three groups based on experience: 13 novice (0-5 years), 16 intermediate (6-15 years), and 15 expert (16-30 years). To assess the tractive force direction and volume during knot tying, we used a sensor that measures six force-torque values (x-axis: Fx, y-axis: Fy, z-axis: Fz, and xy-axis: Fxy) attached to a slit Penrose drain. All participants completed one double knot and five single knot sequences. We recorded completion time, force volume (FV), maximum force (MF), time over 1.5 N, duration of non-zero force, and percentage time when vertical force exceeded horizontal force (PTz). There was a significant difference between groups for completion time (p = 0.007); FV (total: p = 0.002; Fx: p = 0.004, Fy: p = 0.007, Fxy: p = 0.004, Fz: p force (p = 0.029); and PTz (p force pattern at the ligation point during suturing by surgeons with three levels of experience using a force measurement system. We revealed that both force volume and force direction differed depending on surgeons' skill level during knot tying. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage
Evans, Jason V.; Ammer, Amanda G.; Jett, John E.; Bolcato, Chris A.; Breaux, Jason C.; Martin, Karen H.; Culp, Mark V.; Gannett, Peter M.; Weed, Scott A.
2012-01-01
Summary Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions. PMID:23097045
Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage.
Evans, Jason V; Ammer, Amanda G; Jett, John E; Bolcato, Chris A; Breaux, Jason C; Martin, Karen H; Culp, Mark V; Gannett, Peter M; Weed, Scott A
2012-12-15
Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions.
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris at Lutembe Bay, Uganda
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Unfortunately it became nervous and flew to another island and we were unable to pursue it before darkness fell. I was, however, able to take some record shots. I circulated the best of four poor photographs to a few birding colleagues for their opinion, and the general consensus favoured Red Knot rather than Great Knot.
Ileosigmoid knotting in pregnancy: A case report from Zimbabwe ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ileosigmoid knotting (ISK), also known as compound volvulus, is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction wherein the ileum wraps around the base of the sigmoid colon and forms a knot with rapid progression to gangrene. The worldwide incidence of ISK ranges from 1 in 1500 to 1 in 66,431. ISK is particularly rare in pregnancy ...
Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We prove relative versions of the symplectic capping theorem and sufficiency of Giroux's criterion for Stein fillability and use these to study the 4-genus of knots. More precisely, suppose we have a symplectic 4-manifold with convex boundary and a symplectic surface in such that is a transverse knot in .
Factorization of differential expansion for antiparallel double-braid knots
Morozov, A.
2016-09-01
Continuing the quest for exclusive Racah matrices, which are needed for evaluation of colored arborescent-knot polynomials in Chern-Simons theory, we suggest to extract them from a new kind of a double-evolution — that of the antiparallel double-braids, which is a simple two-parametric family of two-bridge knots, generalizing the one-parametric family of twist knots. In the case of rectangular representations R = [ r s ] we found an evidence that the corresponding differential expansion miraculously factorizes and can be obtained from that for the twist knots. This reduces the problem of rectangular exclusive Racah to constructing the answers for just a few twist knots. We develop a recent conjecture on the structure of differential expansion for the simplest members of this family (the trefoil and the figure-eight knot) and provide the exhaustive answer for the first unknown case of R = [33]. The answer includes HOMFLY of arbitrary twist and double-braid knots and Racah matrices overline{S} and S — what allows to calculate [33]-colored polynomials for arbitrary arborescent (double-fat) knots. For generic rectangular representations fully described are only the contributions of the single-floor pyramids. One step still remains to be done.
True Umbilical Cord Knot Leading to Fetal Demise | Ikechebelu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The incidence of true knot of the umbilical cord is not only very low but it is often undiagnosed antenatally when present despite the availability of prenatal ultrasonography. When the true knot remains tight, it may impede the circulation of the fetus and may result to fetal death in utero especially in labor. We report a very ...
Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a computer mouse with cable which forms the logo of the Topo- logical Quantum .... theory of knots stayed on and was developed into a beautiful. Figure 3. A prime knot ... ematics to build bridges with the inner worlds that these temples seek to ...
E.S.R. studies of mechanisms of radiation protection effect by cysteine and cystine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue-Peng, L.; Tie-Cheng, T.; Nian-Yun, L.
1981-01-01
By means of E.S.R. the repair mechanism of radiation induced spin transfer from dTMP to cysteine in binary system dTMP-cysteine has been confirmed. Furthermore, a new marked radiation protection effect, exerted by cysteine or cystine on thymine irradiated and observed at low temperature, has been detected. Another sort of fast protection mechanism, including electron transfer and excitation transfer, has been proposed, based on recent advances of primary radiation process of pyrimidine bases and analysed by molecular orbital theory. This fast radiation protection mechanism provides the possibility to utilize electrophilic sulfhydryl protectors for realizing excellent protection effect. (author)
Atmospheres of polygons and knotted polygons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janse Rensburg, E J Janse; Rechnitzer, A
2008-01-01
In this paper we define two statistics a + (ω) and a - (ω), the positive and negative atmospheres of a lattice polygon ω of fixed length n. These statistics have the property that (a + (ω))/(a - (ω)) = p n+2 /p n , where p n is the number of polygons of length n, counted modulo translations. We use the pivot algorithm to sample polygons and to compute the corresponding average atmospheres. Using these data, we directly estimate the growth constants of polygons in two and three dimensions. We find that μ=2.63805±0.00012 in two dimensions and μ=4.683980±0.000042±0.000067 in three dimensions, where the error bars are 67% confidence intervals, and the second error bar in the three-dimensional estimate of μ is an estimated systematic error. We also compute atmospheres of polygons of fixed knot type K sampled by the BFACF algorithm. We discuss the implications of our results and show that different knot types have atmospheres which behave dramatically differently at small values of n
The mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diao, Y; Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Ernst, C; Ziegler, U, E-mail: ydiao@uncc.ed [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)
2010-12-10
The writhe of a knot diagram is a simple geometric measure of the complexity of the knot diagram. It plays an important role not only in knot theory itself, but also in various applications of knot theory to fields such as molecular biology and polymer physics. The mean squared writhe of any sample of knot diagrams with n crossings is n when for each diagram at each crossing one of the two strands is chosen as the overpass at random with probability one-half. However, such a diagram is usually not minimal. If we restrict ourselves to a minimal knot diagram, then the choice of which strand is the over- or under-strand at each crossing is no longer independent of the neighboring crossings and a larger mean squared writhe is expected for minimal diagrams. This paper explores the effect on the correlation between the mean squared writhe and the diagrams imposed by the condition that diagrams are minimal by studying the writhe of classes of reduced, alternating knot diagrams. We demonstrate that the behavior of the mean squared writhe heavily depends on the underlying space of diagram templates. In particular this is true when the sample space contains only diagrams of a special structure. When the sample space is large enough to contain not only diagrams of a special type, then the mean squared writhe for n crossing diagrams tends to grow linearly with n, but at a faster rate than n, indicating an intrinsic property of alternating knot diagrams. Studying the mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams also provides some insight into the properties of the diagram generating methods used, which is an important area of study in the applications of random knot theory.
Danpure, C J; Jennings, P R; Fyfe, D A
1986-03-14
The present study uses the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine to investigate the mechanisms by which exogenous [35S]cystine is able to label the intracellular (intralysosomal) cystine pool(s) in cystinotic fibroblasts. When cystinotic fibroblasts were labelled for short periods of time (8 h or less), chloroquine (20 microM) inhibited the labelling of the intracellular cystine pool(s). However, when the cells were labelled for longer periods of time (24 h or more) chloroquine stimulated the labelling of the intracellular cystine pool(s). The short-term effect was selectively abolished when the cells were washed free of chloroquine, while the long-term effect was selectively abolished when the medium was depleted of cystine. Two routes of translocation of exogenous cystine to the lysosomes could be defined. One route was fast, had a low capacity, was inhibited by chloroquine and increased with increasing medium pH, while the other route was slow, had a high capacity, was stimulated by chloroquine and was more active at low pH. The former pathway probably consisted of plasma membrane transport of cystine into the cytosol followed by direct or indirect transport into the lysosomes. The latter route possibly consisted of pinocytosis with fusion of the cystine-containing pinosomes with lysosomes.
Unusual specific heat of almost dry L-cysteine and L-cystine amino acids.
Ishikawa, M S; Lima, T A; Ferreira, F F; Martinho, H S
2015-03-01
A detailed quantitative analysis of the specific heat in the 0.5- to 200-K temperature range for almost dry L-cysteine and its dimer, L-cystine, amino acids is presented. We report the occurrence of a sharp first-order transition at ∼76 K for L-cysteine associated with the thiol group ordering which was successfully modeled with the two-dimensional Ising model. We demonstrated that quantum rotors, two-level systems (TLS), Einstein oscillators, and acoustic phonons (the Debye model) are essential ingredients to correctly describe the overall experimental data. Our analysis pointed out the absence of the TLS contribution to the low temperature specific heat of L-cysteine. This result was similar to that found in other noncrystalline amorphous materials, e.g., amorphous silicon, low density amorphous water, and ultrastable glasses. L-cystine presented an unusual nonlinear acoustic dispersion relation ω(q)=vq0.95 and a Maxwell-Boltzmann-type distribution of tunneling barriers. The presence of Einstein oscillators with ΘE∼70 K was common in both systems and adequately modeled the boson peak contributions.
Lybatides from Lycium barbarum Contain An Unusual Cystine-stapled Helical Peptide Scaffold.
Tan, Wei Liang; Wong, Ka H; Lei, Jian; Sakai, Naoki; Tan, Hong Wei; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Tam, James P
2017-07-12
Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of 2-6 kDa are generally thermally and proteolytically stable because of their multiple cross-bracing disulfide bonds. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two novel cystine-stapled CRPs, designated lybatide 1 and 2 (lyba1 and lyba2), from the cortex of Lycium barbarum root. Lybatides, 32 to 33 amino acids in length, are hyperstable and display a novel disulfide connectivity with a cysteine motif of C-C-C-C-CC-CC which contains two pairs of adjacent cysteines (-CC-CC). X-ray structure analysis revealed the presence of a single cystine-stabilized (α + π)-helix in lyba2, a rare feature of CRPs. Together, our results suggest that lybatides, one of the smallest four-disulfide-constrained plant CRPs, is a new family of CRPs. Additionally, this study provides new insights into the molecular diversity of plant cysteine-rich peptides and the unusual lybatide scaffold could be developed as a useful template for peptide engineering and therapeutic development.
Multimedia article. The keys to the new laparoscopic world Thumbs up! knot and Tornado knot.
Uchida, K; Haruta, N; Okajima, M; Matsuda, M; Yamamoto, M
2005-06-01
Most laparoscopic surgeons feel some anxiety when performing intracorporeal knotting with conventional techniques [1, 2]. Two factors contribute to this anxiety. The first is the necessity of recognizing three dimensions on a two-dimensional monitor. The conventional intracorporeal knotting techniques make loops by twisting the thread with a second pair of forceps. This necessitates cooperative movement of both hands, with the added difficulties of depth perception. Regular touch confirmations reduce problems with depth perception. However, touch confirmation is more complicated in laparoscopic surgery than in laparotomy. The second problem is that tied loops can come loose and escape the instruments, especially with hard thread. This is not only stressful but also increases operation time.
On the groundstate energy spectrum of magnetic knots and links
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricca, Renzo L; Maggioni, Francesca
2014-01-01
By using analytical results for the constrained minimum energy of magnetic knots we determine the influence of internal twist on the minimum magnetic energy levels of knots and links, and by using ropelength data from the RIDGERUNNER tightening algorithm (Ashton et al 2011 Exp. Math. 20 57–90) we obtain the groundstate energy spectra of the first 250 prime knots and 130 prime links. The two spectra are found to follow an almost identical logarithmic law. By assuming that the number of knot types grows exponentially with the topological crossing number, we show that this generic behavior can be justified by a general relationship between ropelength and crossing number, which is in good agreement with former analytical estimates (Buck and Simon 1999 Topol. Appl. 91 245–57, Diao 2003 J. Knot Theory Ramifications 12 1–16). Moreover, by considering the ropelength averaged over a given knot family, we establish a new connection between the averaged ropelength and the topological crossing number of magnetic knots. (paper)
Knotting probability of self-avoiding polygons under a topological constraint
Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2017-09-01
We define the knotting probability of a knot K by the probability for a random polygon or self-avoiding polygon (SAP) of N segments having the knot type K. We show fundamental and generic properties of the knotting probability particularly its dependence on the excluded volume. We investigate them for the SAP consisting of hard cylindrical segments of unit length and radius rex. For various prime and composite knots, we numerically show that a compact formula describes the knotting probabilities for the cylindrical SAP as a function of segment number N and radius rex. It connects the small-N to the large-N behavior and even to lattice knots in the case of large values of radius. As the excluded volume increases, the maximum of the knotting probability decreases for prime knots except for the trefoil knot. If it is large, the trefoil knot and its descendants are dominant among the nontrivial knots in the SAP. From the factorization property of the knotting probability, we derive a sum rule among the estimates of a fitting parameter for all prime knots, which suggests the local knot picture and the dominance of the trefoil knot in the case of large excluded volumes. Here we remark that the cylindrical SAP gives a model of circular DNA which is negatively charged and semiflexible, where radius rex corresponds to the screening length.
Knotting probability of self-avoiding polygons under a topological constraint.
Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2017-09-07
We define the knotting probability of a knot K by the probability for a random polygon or self-avoiding polygon (SAP) of N segments having the knot type K. We show fundamental and generic properties of the knotting probability particularly its dependence on the excluded volume. We investigate them for the SAP consisting of hard cylindrical segments of unit length and radius r ex . For various prime and composite knots, we numerically show that a compact formula describes the knotting probabilities for the cylindrical SAP as a function of segment number N and radius r ex . It connects the small-N to the large-N behavior and even to lattice knots in the case of large values of radius. As the excluded volume increases, the maximum of the knotting probability decreases for prime knots except for the trefoil knot. If it is large, the trefoil knot and its descendants are dominant among the nontrivial knots in the SAP. From the factorization property of the knotting probability, we derive a sum rule among the estimates of a fitting parameter for all prime knots, which suggests the local knot picture and the dominance of the trefoil knot in the case of large excluded volumes. Here we remark that the cylindrical SAP gives a model of circular DNA which is negatively charged and semiflexible, where radius r ex corresponds to the screening length.
Intracorporeal knotting of a femoral nerve catheter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghanem, Mohamed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Peripheral nerve catheters are effective and well-established tools to provide postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. The performance of these techniques is usually considered safe. However, placement of nerve catheters may be associated with a considerable number of side effects and major complications have repeatedly been published. In this work, we report on a patient who underwent total knee replacement with spinal anesthesia and preoperative insertion of femoral and sciatic nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia. During insertion of the femoral catheter, significant resistance was encountered upon retracting the catheter. This occurred due to knotting of the catheter. The catheter had to be removed by operative intervention which has to be considered a major complication. The postoperative course was uneventful. The principles for removal of entrapped peripheral catheters are not well established, may differ from those for neuroaxial catheters, and range from cautious manipulation up to surgical intervention.
A baseline correction algorithm for Raman spectroscopy by adaptive knots B-spline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xin; Fan, Xian-guang; Xu, Ying-jie; Wang, Xiu-fen; He, Hao; Zuo, Yong
2015-01-01
The Raman spectroscopy technique is a powerful and non-invasive technique for molecular fingerprint detection which has been widely used in many areas, such as food safety, drug safety, and environmental testing. But Raman signals can be easily corrupted by a fluorescent background, therefore we presented a baseline correction algorithm to suppress the fluorescent background in this paper. In this algorithm, the background of the Raman signal was suppressed by fitting a curve called a baseline using a cyclic approximation method. Instead of the traditional polynomial fitting, we used the B-spline as the fitting algorithm due to its advantages of low-order and smoothness, which can avoid under-fitting and over-fitting effectively. In addition, we also presented an automatic adaptive knot generation method to replace traditional uniform knots. This algorithm can obtain the desired performance for most Raman spectra with varying baselines without any user input or preprocessing step. In the simulation, three kinds of fluorescent background lines were introduced to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. We showed that two real Raman spectra (parathion-methyl and colza oil) can be detected and their baselines were also corrected by the proposed method. (paper)
Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.
Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)
2010-06-11
In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.
Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.
Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel
2017-10-11
Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.
Teaching and Learning of Knot Theory in School Mathematics
Kawauchi, Akio
2012-01-01
This book is the result of a joint venture between Professor Akio Kawauchi, Osaka City University, well-known for his research in knot theory, and the Osaka study group of mathematics education, founded by Professor Hirokazu Okamori and now chaired by his successor Professor Tomoko Yanagimoto, Osaka Kyoiku University. The seven chapters address the teaching and learning of knot theory from several perspectives. Readers will find an extremely clear and concise introduction to the fundamentals of knot theory, an overview of curricular developments in Japan, and in particular a series of teaching
Quandles an introduction to the algebra of knots
Elhamdadi, Mohamed
2015-01-01
From prehistory to the present, knots have been used for purposes both artistic and practical. The modern science of Knot Theory has ramifications for biochemistry and mathematical physics and is a rich source of research projects for undergraduate and graduate students and professionals alike. Quandles are essentially knots translated into algebra. This book provides an accessible introduction to quandle theory for readers with a background in linear algebra. Important concepts from topology and abstract algebra motivated by quandle theory are introduced along the way. With elementary self-co
1-13C; methyl-2H3 methionine kinetics in humans: Methionine conservation and cystine sparing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storch, K.J.; Wagner, D.A.; Burke, J.F.; Young, V.R.
1990-01-01
Methionine (Met) conservation in healthy young adult men (4/diet group) was explored by supplying one of the following three L-amino acid based diets: (1) adequate Met but no cystine; (2) neither Met nor cystine; or (3) no Met but cystine supplementation. After 5 days, subjects received a continuous intravenous infusion of L-[1-13C; methyl-2H3]Met for 5 h while the diet was given as small isocaloric isonitrogenous meals. Estimates were made of rates of Met incorporation into protein synthesis (S) and release from body proteins (B), transmethylation (TM), remethylation of homocysteine (RM), and transsulfuration (TS). For the adequate Met diet, the rates were S = 24 +/- 2, B = 18 +/- 1, TM = 12.4 +/- 1.7, RM = 4.7 +/- 1.1, and TS = 7.6 +/- 0.6 (SE) mumol.kg-1.h-1. The sulfur amino acid-devoid diet significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced S, TM, RM, and TS. Supplementation of this diet with cystine reduced Met oxidation (P = 0.05). Therefore, two loci are quantitatively important regulatory points in Met conservation in vivo: (1) the distribution of Met between the pathways of protein anabolism and TM (Met locus) and (2) the distribution of homocysteine between RM and TS (homocysteine locus)
A method using reversed phase high performance liquid chromtography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS) has been developed to confirm the dientity of dansylated derivatives of cysteine (C) and glutathione (GSH), and their respective dimers, cystine (CSSC) and...
Effects of knot type in the folding of topologically complex lattice proteins
Soler, Miguel A.; Nunes, Ana; Faísca, Patrícia F. N.
2014-07-01
The folding properties of a protein whose native structure contains a 52 knot are investigated by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice model and compared with those of a 31 knot. A 52 knot embedded in the native structure enhances the kinetic stability of the carrier lattice protein in a way that is clearly more pronounced than in the case of the 31 knot. However, this happens at the expense of a severe loss in folding efficiency, an observation that is consistent with the relative abundance of 31 and 52 knots in the Protein Data Bank. The folding mechanism of the 52 knot shares with that of the 31 knot the occurrence of a threading movement of the chain terminus that lays closer to the knotted core. However, co-concomitant knotting and folding in the 52 knot occurs with negligible probability, in sharp contrast to what is observed for the 31 knot. The study of several single point mutations highlights the importance in the folding of knotted proteins of the so-called structural mutations (i.e., energetic perturbations of native interactions between residues that are critical for knotting but not for folding). On the other hand, the present study predicts that mutations that perturb the folding transition state may significantly enhance the kinetic stability of knotted proteins provided they involve residues located within the knotted core.
evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to root-knot
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
Tomato production in Ghana is threatened by plant parasitic nematodes, especially the root knot ... to be highly resistant to Meloidogyne spp. and also recorded the lowest reproductive factors of 0.71 and 0.53, respectively. ..... VII International.
Knot theory and a physical state of quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liko, Tomas; Kauffman, Louis H
2006-01-01
We discuss the theory of knots, and describe how knot invariants arise naturally in gravitational physics. The focus of this review is to delineate the relationship between knot theory and the loop representation of non-perturbative canonical quantum general relativity (loop quantum gravity). This leads naturally to a discussion of the Kodama wavefunction, a state which is conjectured to be the ground state of the gravitational field with positive cosmological constant. This review can serve as a self-contained introduction to loop quantum gravity and related areas. Our intent is to make the paper accessible to a wider audience that may include topologists, knot theorists, and other persons innocent of the physical background to this approach to quantum gravity. (topical review)
Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) for tomato production and productivity. Bayuh Belay1* ... important food and cash crop of the farmers and is ...... some part of the research budget without any reservation.
Knots, splices and rope-work an illustrated handbook
Verrill, A Hyatt
2006-01-01
This treasury of practical and ornamental knots ranges from easy half-hitches and bow-lines to intricate rope-work projects, such as rope buckles and cask slings. Detailed instructions accompany the 148 drawings.
Khovanov homology for virtual knots with arbitrary coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manturov, Vassily O
2007-01-01
The Khovanov homology theory over an arbitrary coefficient ring is extended to the case of virtual knots. We introduce a complex which is well-defined in the virtual case and is homotopy equivalent to the original Khovanov complex in the classical case. Unlike Khovanov's original construction, our definition of the complex does not use any additional prescription of signs to the edges of a cube. Moreover, our method enables us to construct a Khovanov homology theory for 'twisted virtual knots' in the sense of Bourgoin and Viro (including knots in three-dimensional projective space). We generalize a number of results of Khovanov homology theory (the Wehrli complex, minimality problems, Frobenius extensions) to virtual knots with non-orientable atoms
Appendicular knot causing closed-loop obstruction, volvulus and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: appendix, appendicular tie/knot syndrome, intestinal obstruction, volvulus, strangulation .... possible contrast reaction and high cost) and its unavailability in some ... morbidity and mortality rise significantly with delay. In. Fevang's ...
Yang, B S; Yamazaki, M; Wan, Q; Kato, N
1996-12-01
The effects were compared of the addition of graded levels of L-cystine and of L-cysteine (0.3, 3, or 5%) to a 10% casein diet on several metabolic parameters in rats. The growth-promoting effect of cystine was equivalent to that of cysteine. Supplementation of these two amino acids elevated serum cholesterol, liver ascorbic acid, liver nonprotein sulfhydryl (SH) and kidney metallothionein, and reduced the activity of serum ceruloplasmin. The responses of serum cholesterol, liver nonprotein SH, and serum ceruloplasmin to cystine were greater than of those to cysteine. When the basal diet was supplemented with 0.3% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine supplementation was less than that by cysteine supplementation. However, when supplemented with 5% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine was greater than that by cysteine. There was no difference in the influence of cystine and cysteine on kidney metallothionein. This study demonstrates that dietary cystine and cysteine had the same influence on growth, but had a differential influence on such metabolic parameters as liver nonprotein SH, serum ceruloplasmin, serum cholesterol, and tissue ascorbic acid.
Topological effects on the mechanical properties of polymer knots
Zhao, Yani; Ferrari, Franco
2017-11-01
The mechanical properties of knotted polymer rings under stretching in a bad or good solvent are investigated by applying a force F to a point of the knot while keeping another point fixed. The Monte Carlo sampling of the polymer conformations is performed on a simple cubic lattice using the Wang-Landau algorithm. The specific energy, specific heat capacity, gyration radius and the force-elongation curves are computed for several knot topologies with lengths up to 120 lattice units. The common features of the mechanical and thermal behavior of stretched short polymer rings forming knots of a given topological type are analyzed as well as the differences arising due to topology and size effects. It is found that these systems admit three different phases depending on the values of the tensile force F and the temperature T. The transitions from one phase to the other are well characterized by the peaks of the specific heat capacity and by the data of the gyration radius and specific energy. At very low temperatures the force-elongation curves show that the stretching of a knot is a stepwise process, which becomes smooth at higher temperatures. Criteria for distinguishing topological and size effects are provided. It turns out from our study that the behavior of short polymer rings is strongly influenced by topological effects. In particular, the swelling and the swelling rate of knots are severely limited by the topological constraints. Several other properties that are affected by topology, like the decay of the specific energy at high tensile forces, are discussed. The fading out of the influences of topological origin with increasing knot lengths has been verified. Some anomalies detected in the plots of the specific heat capacity of very short and complex knots have been explained by the limitations in the number of accessible energy states due to the topological constraints.
Hybrid Threat Center of Gravity Analysis: Cutting the Gordian Knot
2016-04-04
19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 04/04/2016 Master’s Thesis 22-7-2015 to 04-04-2016 HYBRID THREAT CENTER OF GRAVITY ANALYSIS: CUTTING THE...CENTER OF GRAVITY ANALYSIS: CUTTING THE GORDIAN KNOT By Michael D. Reilly LtCol, USMC Intentionally left blank...HYBRID THREAT CENTER OF GRAVITY ANALYSIS: CUTTING THE GORDIAN KNOT By Michael D. Reilly LtCol, USMC A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Joint Advanced
Human CD4+ T cells require exogenous cystine for glutathione and DNA synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levring, Trine B; Kongsbak-Wismann, Martin; Rode, Anna Kathrine Obelitz
2015-01-01
. The aim of this study was to elucidate why activated human T cells require exogenous Cys2 in order to proliferate. We activated purified naïve human CD4+ T cells and found that glutathione (GSH) levels and DNA synthesis were dependent on Cys2 and increased in parallel with increasing concentrations of Cys......Adaptive immune responses require activation and expansion of antigen-specific T cells. Whereas early T cell activation is independent of exogenous cystine (Cys2), T cell proliferation is dependent of Cys2. However, the exact roles of Cys2 in T cell proliferation still need to be determined...... for the activity of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the enzyme responsible for generation of the deoxyribonucleotide DNA building blocks. In conclusion, we show that activated human T cells require exogenous Cys2 to proliferate and that this is partly explained by the fact that Cys2 is required for production...
Tilton, Buck
2008-01-01
Untie the mystery of knot-making with this clever and handy guide. This new compendium presents all the knots you need to know, with brightly colored photographs enabling you to easily follow the instructions. In addition, the book includes copious information on using knots in most popular activities. With its clear step-by-step instructions and friendly tone, this is the one volume you can count on to guide you toward quick success in knot-making.
Solid state radiolysis of sulphur-containing amino acids. Cysteine, cystine and methionine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franco Cataldo; Pietro Ragni; Susana Iglesias-Groth; Arturo Manchado
2011-01-01
The sulphur-containing proteinaceous amino acids l-cysteine, l-cystine and l-methionine were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. This dose corresponds to that delivered by radionuclide decay in a timescale of 1.05 x 10 9 years to the organic matter buried at a depth >20 m in comets and asteroids. The purity of the sulphur-containing amino acids was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after the solid state radiolysis and the preservation of the chirality after the radiolysis was studied by chirooptical methods (optical rotatory dispersion, ORD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Although the high radiation dose of 3.2 MGy delivered, all the amino acids studied show a high radiation resistance. The best radiation resistance was offered by l-cysteine. The radiolysis of l-cysteine leads to the formation of l-cystine. The radiation resistance of l-methionine is not at the level of l-cysteine but also l-methionine is able to survive the dose of 3.2 MGy. Furthermore in all cases examined the preservation of chirality after radiolysis was clearly observed by the ORD spectroscopy although a certain level of radioracemization was measured in all cases. The radioracemization is minimal in the case of l-cysteine and is more pronounced in the case of l-methionine. In conclusion, the study shows that the sulphur-containing amino acids can survive for 1.05 x 10 9 years and, after extrapolation of the data, even to the age of the Solar System i.e. to 4.6 x 10 9 years. (author)
Probe Knots and Hopf Insulators with Ultracold Atoms
Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Tao; Sun, Kai; Duan, L.-M.
2018-01-01
Knots and links are fascinating and intricate topological objects. Their influence spans from DNA and molecular chemistry to vortices in superfluid helium, defects in liquid crystals and cosmic strings in the early universe. Here we find that knotted structures also exist in a peculiar class of three-dimensional topological insulators—the Hopf insulators. In particular, we demonstrate that the momentum-space spin textures of Hopf insulators are twisted in a nontrivial way, which implies the presence of various knot and link structures. We further illustrate that the knots and nontrivial spin textures can be probed via standard time-of-flight images in cold atoms as preimage contours of spin orientations in stereographic coordinates. The extracted Hopf invariants, knots, and links are validated to be robust to typical experimental imperfections. Our work establishes the existence of knotted structures in Hopf insulators, which may have potential applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. D.L.D., S.T.W. and L.M.D. are supported by the ARL, the IARPA LogiQ program, and the AFOSR MURI program, and supported by Tsinghua University for their visits. K.S. acknowledges the support from NSF under Grant No. PHY1402971. D.L.D. is also supported by JQI-NSF-PFC and LPS-MPO-CMTC at the final stage of this paper.
Energy, ropelength, and other physical aspects of equilateral knots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Millett, Kenneth C.; Rawdon, Eric J.
2003-01-01
Closed macromolecular chains may form physically knotted conformations whose relative occurrence and spatial measurements provide insight into their properties and the mechanisms acting upon them. Under the assumption of a degree of structural homogeneity, equilateral spatial polygons are a productive context within which to create mathematical models of these knots and to study their mathematical and physical properties. The ensembles, or spaces, of these knots are models of the settings within which the knots evolve in ways determined by a physical model. In this paper we describe the mathematical foundation of such models as well as such spatial, geometric, statistical, and physical properties of the configurations as mathematical energies, thickness and ropelength, average crossing number, average writhe, and volumes and surfaces areas of standard bodies enclosing the knots. We present methods with which the energy and ropelength are optimized within the families of spatially equivalent equilateral configurations. Numerical results from our implementation of these methods are shown to illustrate connections between the physical measurements and spatial characteristics of the optimized knot configurations. In addition, these data suggest potentially new connections involving their spatial properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Najafi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Knots appear frequently in semiflexible (biopolymers, including double-stranded DNA, and their presence can affect the polymer’s physical and functional properties. In particular, it is possible and indeed often the case that multiple knots appear on a single chain, with effects which have only come under scrutiny in the last few years. In this manuscript, we study the interaction of two knots on a stretched semiflexible polymer, expanding some recent results on the topic. Specifically, we consider an idealization of a typical optical tweezers experiment and show how the bending rigidity of the chain—And consequently its persistence length—Influences the distribution of the entanglements; possibly more importantly, we observe and report how the relative chirality of the otherwise identical knots substantially modifies their interaction. We analyze the free energy of the chain and extract the effective interactions between embedded knots, rationalizing some of their pertinent features by means of simple effective models. We believe the salient aspect of the knot–knot interactions emerging from our study will be present in a large number of semiflexible polymers under tension, with important consequences for the characterization and manipulation of these systems—Be they artificial or biologica in origin—And for their technological application.
Trapping a Knot into Tight Conformations by Intra-Chain Repulsions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Dai
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Knots can occur in biopolymers such as DNA and peptides. In our previous study, we systematically investigated the effects of intra-chain interactions on knots and found that long-range repulsions can surprisingly tighten knots. Here, we use this knowledge to trap a knot into tight conformations in Langevin dynamics simulations. By trapping, we mean that the free energy landscape with respect to the knot size exhibits a potential well around a small knot size in the presence of long-range repulsions, and this potential can well lead to long-lived tight knots when its depth is comparable to or larger than thermal energy. We tune the strength of intra-chain repulsion such that a knot is weakly trapped. Driven by thermal fluctuations, the knot can escape from the trap and is then re-trapped. We find that the knot switches between tight and loose conformations—referred to as “knot breathing”. We use a Yukawa potential to model screened electrostatic interactions to explore the relevance of knot trapping and breathing in charged biopolymers. We determine the minimal screened length and the minimal strength of repulsion for knot trapping. We find that Coulomb-induced knot trapping is possible to occur in single-stranded DNA and peptides for normal ionic strengths.
Knots, topology and quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lusanna, L.
1989-01-01
The title of the workshop, Knots, Topology and Quantum Field Theory, accurate reflected the topics discussed. There have been important developments in mathematical and quantum field theory in the past few years, which had a large impact on physicist thinking. It is historically unusual and pleasing that these developments are taking place as a result of an intense interaction between mathematical physicists and mathematician. On the one hand, topological concepts and methods are playing an increasingly important lead to novel mathematical concepts: for instance, the study of quantum groups open a new chapter in the deformation theory of Lie algebras. These developments at present will lead to new insights into the theory of elementary particles and their interactions. In essence, the talks dealt with three, broadly defined areas of theoretical physics. One was topological quantum field theories, the other the problem of quantum groups and the third one certain aspects of more traditional field theories, such as, for instance, quantum gravity. These topics, however, are interrelated and the general theme of the workshop defies rigid classification; this was evident from the cross references to be found in almo all the talks
Type IIB Ileosigmoid knotting: a case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajak Makor
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Ileosigmoid knotting is a rare cause of acute intestinal obstruction. It is more common in Africans and Asians than in white populations and it is more prevalent in males than in females with a ratio of 14:1. It is classified into four types (I, II, III and IV with further extra two subtypes of A and B where type A is the most common presentation. Preoperative diagnosis is a challenge to the frontline doctors in the accidents and emergency departments; especially with limited diagnostic tools. Ultrasonography may be misleading in most of the cases due to the similarity of the disease with other causes of acute abdomen, especially acute appendicitis. Clinical presentation of an unprecedented intestinal obstruction with constant upper to mid-abdominal quadrant pain associated with mild to moderate abdominal distension contrary to the severe abdominal distension in sigmoid volvulus are the hallmarks that can help the surgical team to reach an accurate and early diagnosis preoperatively to avoid the devastating ischemia and gangrene in case of delay.
Campanini, Barbara; Schiaretti, Francesca; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Kessler, Dorothea; Mozzarelli, Andrea
2006-12-15
Sulfur mobilization represents one of the key steps in ubiquitous Fe-S clusters assembly and is performed by a recently characterized set of proteins encompassing cysteine desulfurases, assembly factors, and shuttle proteins. Despite the evolutionary conservation of these proteins, some degree of variability among organisms was observed, which might reflect functional specialization. L-Cyst(e)ine lyase (C-DES), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphatedependent enzyme identified in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis, was reported to use preferentially cystine over cysteine with production of cysteine persulfide, pyruvate, and ammonia. In this study, we demonstrate that C-DES sequences are present in all cyanobacterial genomes and constitute a new family of sulfur-mobilizing enzymes, distinct from cysteine desulfurases. The functional properties of C-DES from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 were investigated under pre-steady-state and steady-state conditions. Single wavelength and rapid scanning stopped-flow kinetic data indicate that the internal aldimine reacts with cystine forming an external aldimine that rapidly decays to a transient quinonoid species and stable tautomers of the alpha-aminoacrylate Schiff base. In the presence of cysteine, the transient formation of a dipolar species precedes the selective and stable accumulation of the enolimine tautomer of the external aldimine, with no formation of the alpha-aminoacrylate Schiff base under reducing conditions. Effective sulfur mobilization from cystine might represent a mechanism that allows adaptation of cyanobacteria to different environmental conditions and to light-dark cycles.
Millett, Kenneth C; Rawdon, Eric J; Stasiak, Andrzej; Physical and Numerical Models in Knot theory: including Applications to the Life Sciences; Conference on Knots, Random Walks and Biomolecules
2005-01-01
The physical properties of knotted and linked configurations in space have long been of interest to mathematicians. More recently, these properties have become significant to biologists, physicists, and engineers among others. Their depth of importance and breadth of application are now widely appreciated and valuable progress continues to be made each year. This volume presents several contributions from researchers using computers to study problems that would otherwise be intractable. While computations have long been used to analyze problems, formulate conjectures, and search for special structures in knot theory, increased computational power has made them a staple in many facets of the field. The volume also includes contributions concentrating on models researchers use to understand knotting, linking, and entanglement in physical and biological systems. Topics include properties of knot invariants, knot tabulation, studies of hyperbolic structures, knot energies, the exploration of spaces of knots, knot...
Classification of knotted tori in 2-metastable dimension
Cencelj, Matija
2012-11-30
This paper is devoted to the classical Knotting Problem: for a given manifold N and number m describe the set of isotopy classes of embeddings N → Sm. We study the specific case of knotted tori, that is, the embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm. The classification of knotted tori up to isotopy in the metastable dimension range m > p + 3 2 q + 2, p 6 q, was given by Haefliger, Zeeman and A. Skopenkov. We consider the dimensions below the metastable range and give an explicit criterion for the finiteness of this set of isotopy classes in the 2-metastable dimension: Theorem. Assume that p+ 4 3 q +2 < mp+ 3 2 q +2 and m > 2p+q +2. Then the set of isotopy classes of smooth embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm is infinite if and only if either q + 1 or p + q + 1 is divisible by 4. © 2012 RAS(DoM) and LMS.
Classification of knotted tori in 2-metastable dimension
Cencelj, Matija; Repovš, Dušan; Skopenkov, Mikhail
2012-01-01
This paper is devoted to the classical Knotting Problem: for a given manifold N and number m describe the set of isotopy classes of embeddings N → Sm. We study the specific case of knotted tori, that is, the embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm. The classification of knotted tori up to isotopy in the metastable dimension range m > p + 3 2 q + 2, p 6 q, was given by Haefliger, Zeeman and A. Skopenkov. We consider the dimensions below the metastable range and give an explicit criterion for the finiteness of this set of isotopy classes in the 2-metastable dimension: Theorem. Assume that p+ 4 3 q +2 < mp+ 3 2 q +2 and m > 2p+q +2. Then the set of isotopy classes of smooth embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm is infinite if and only if either q + 1 or p + q + 1 is divisible by 4. © 2012 RAS(DoM) and LMS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julio Francisco Valiati Marin
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o melhor nível de metionina mais cistina digestível e a melhor relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível em diferentes níveis de proteína para codorna em postura. Foram utilizadas 400 codornas japonesas produtoras de ovos de consumo com 45 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2 x 5, dois níveis de proteína bruta (19,5% e 21,5% e cinco níveis de metionina mais cistina digestível (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Foram analisadas as taxas de postura (%, peso médio dos ovos (g, massa de ovos (g de ovos/ave/dia, consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, conversão alimentar (g de ração/g de ovos, peso e porcentagem de gema (g e %, peso e porcentagem de clara (g e % e peso e porcentagem de casca (g e %. Para o nível de 19,5% de proteína 0,60% de metionina mais cistina digestível e relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,66% foram suficientes para otimizar a produção. Para o nível de 21,5% de proteína 0,851% de metionina mais cistina digestível com relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,935% com consumo diário de 223,3mg/ave levou a uma melhor produção de ovos de codornas.This research had the purpose to determine the best level of digestible methionine plus cystine and the best relation of digestible methionine plus cystine:digestible lysine in different levels of protein for laying Japanese quails. 400 laying Japanese quails, with 45 days of age were used in a completely randomized design, with a factorial 2 x 5, two crude protein levels (19,5% and 21,5% and five levels of digestible methionine plus cystine (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, with five replicates and eight quails per experimental unity. There were analysis of the posture rate (%, egg average weight (g egg mass (egg grams/bird/day, feed intake (g/bird/day, feed
Natural history and quality of life in patients with cystine urolithiasis: a single centre study.
Parr, Justin M; Desai, Devang; Winkle, David
2015-10-01
To describe the natural history and quality of life (QoL) in patients with cystine urolithiasis. A cohort study was carried out involving participants recruited from a single surgeon's case mix. Patients with cystinuria and related urolithiasis were invited to complete a questionnaire involving demographic information, use of medical treatment, surgical interventions and the 36-item short-form 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). In all, 14 patients completed the survey. The SF-36 survey showed lower QoL than the general public in seven of eight domains. The mean interventional rate in patients with cystinuria was 10.6 procedures per patient. Most patients reported previous use of d-penicillamine and urinary alkalinisation medications, with most ceasing due to side-effects or lack of perceived efficacy. Cystinuria is associated with a high rate of surgical intervention and lower QoL than the general public. Individuals with this condition report that medical management is either ineffective or poorly tolerated. There is a need for further improvements in medical management of cystinuria, to reduce the rate of operative intervention. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knots and Random Walks in Vibrated Granular Chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Naim, E.; Daya, Z. A.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R. E.
2001-01-01
We study experimentally statistical properties of the opening times of knots in vertically vibrated granular chains. Our measurements are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with a theoretical model involving three random walks interacting via hard-core exclusion in one spatial dimension. In particular, the knot survival probability follows a universal scaling function which is independent of the chain length, with a corresponding diffusive characteristic time scale. Both the large-exit-time and the small-exit-time tails of the distribution are suppressed exponentially, and the corresponding decay coefficients are in excellent agreement with theoretical values
Kaneshiro, Todd L; Ke, Tianyi; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Parker, Dennis L; Lu, Zheng-Rong
2006-06-01
The purpose of this study was to synthesize biodegradable Gd-DTPA L-cystine bisamide copolymers (GCAC) as safe and effective, macromolecular contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate their biodegradability and efficacy in MR blood pool imaging in an animal model. Three new biodegradable GCAC with different substituents at the cystine bisamide [R = H (GCAC), CH2CH2CH3 (Gd-DTPA L-cystine bispropyl amide copolymers, GCPC), and CH(CH3)2 (Gd-DTPA cystine bisisopropyl copolymers, GCIC)] were prepared by the condensation copolymerization of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride with cystine bisamide or bisalkyl amides, followed by complexation with gadolinium triacetate. The degradability of the agents was studied in vitro by incubation in 15 microM cysteine and in vivo with Sprague-Dawley rats. The kinetics of in vivo contrast enhancement was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats on a Siemens Trio 3 T scanner. The apparent molecular weight of the polydisulfide Gd(III) chelates ranged from 22 to 25 kDa. The longitudinal (T1) relaxivities of GCAC, GCPC, and GCIC were 4.37, 5.28, and 5.56 mM(-1) s(-1) at 3 T, respectively. The polymeric ligands and polymeric Gd(III) chelates readily degraded into smaller molecules in incubation with 15 microM cysteine via disulfide-thiol exchange reactions. The in vitro degradation rates of both the polymeric ligands and macromolecular Gd(III) chelates decreased as the steric effect around the disulfide bonds increased. The agents readily degraded in vivo, and the catabolic degradation products were detected in rat urine samples collected after intravenous injection. The agents showed strong contrast enhancement in the blood pool, major organs, and tissues at a dose of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg. The difference of their in vitro degradability did not significantly alter the kinetics of in vivo contrast enhancement of the agents. These novel GCAC are promising contrast agents for cardiovascular and tumor MRI
Successful Treatment of Stent Knot in the Proximal Ureter Using Ureteroscopy and Holmium Laser
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Masters M. Richards
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Knotted ureteral stent is rare yet tedious complication that might represent a treatment challenge to the endourologist. Only twelve cases of knotted stent have been reported. Different management options have been reported, including simple traction, ureteroscopy, percutaneous removal, and open surgery. In this paper, we present the successful untying of the knot using ureteroscopy with holmium laser.
Cyclic nucleotides and radioresistnace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulinskij, V.I.; Mikheeva, G.A.; Zel'manovich, B.M.
1982-01-01
The addition of glucose to meat-peptone broth does not change the radiosensitizing effect (RSE) of cAMP at the logarithmic phase (LP) and the radioprotective effect (RPE) at the stationary phase (SP), but sensitization, characteristic of cGMP, disappears in SP and turns into RPE in LP. Introduction of glucose into the broth for 20 min eliminates all the effects of both cyclic nucleotides in the cya + strain while cya - mutant exhibits RSE. RSE of both cyclic nucleotides is only manifested on minimal media. These data brought confirmation of the dependence of the influence of cyclic media. These data brought confirmation of the dependence of the influence of cyclic nucleotides on radioresistance upon the metabolic status of the cell [ru
True Umbilical Cord Knot Leading to Fetal Demise
African Journals Online (AJOL)
weight was 140 kg, height 1.69 m, blood pressure 120 mmHg. The booking ... The fetal heart tones were monitored using Doppler sonicaid. They remained normal throughout .... true knot, seemingly because the umbilical cord vessels can be compressed ... Therefore, the Wharton's jelly surrounding the fetal vessels has the ...
The multivariable Alexander polynomial and modern knot theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleur, H.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT
1991-01-01
This note is a summary of several recent works (by the author and collaborators) that study the Conway Alexander link invariant in the light of quantum groups and topological quantum field theories. Their purpose is to understand connections between ''modern'' knot theory and more classical topological concepts. (author)
The multivariable Alexander polynomial and modern knot theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleur, H.
1992-01-01
This paper is a summary of several recent works (by the author and collaborators) that study the Conway-Alexander link invariant in the light of quantum groups and topological quantum field theories. Their purpose is to understand connections between modern knot theory and more classical topological concepts
The unique cysteine knot regulates the pleotropic hormone leptin.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellinor Haglund
Full Text Available Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake/expenditure, metabolism and hypertension. It folds into a four-helix bundle that binds to the extracellular receptor to initiate signaling. Our work on leptin revealed a hidden complexity in the formation of a previously un-described, cysteine-knotted topology in leptin. We hypothesized that this unique topology could offer new mechanisms in regulating the protein activity. A combination of in silico simulation and in vitro experiments was used to probe the role of the knotted topology introduced by the disulphide-bridge on leptin folding and function. Our results surprisingly show that the free energy landscape is conserved between knotted and unknotted protein, however the additional complexity added by the knot formation is structurally important. Native state analyses led to the discovery that the disulphide-bond plays an important role in receptor binding and thus mediate biological activity by local motions on distal receptor-binding sites, far removed from the disulphide-bridge. Thus, the disulphide-bridge appears to function as a point of tension that allows dissipation of stress at a distance in leptin.
Spontaneous knot; a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Mohammed, Wail
2011-02-01
A 14-year old X linked congenital hydrocephalus presented with unexplained headaches and vomiting. He had external ventricular drain and intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP). Subsequently, he underwent exploration and removal of previously inserted ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. On retrieval of peritoneal catheters a double knot was noted between his two distal catheters. This case illustrates a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction.
Spontaneous knot; a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Mohammed, Wail
2012-02-01
A 14-year old X linked congenital hydrocephalus presented with unexplained headaches and vomiting. He had external ventricular drain and intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP). Subsequently, he underwent exploration and removal of previously inserted ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. On retrieval of peritoneal catheters a double knot was noted between his two distal catheters. This case illustrates a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction.
Braid group, knot theory and statistical mechanics II
Yang Chen Ning
1994-01-01
The present volume is an updated version of the book edited by C N Yang and M L Ge on the topics of braid groups and knot theory, which are related to statistical mechanics. This book is based on the 1989 volume but has new material included and new contributors.
Prevalence, incidence and molecular identification of root-knot ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tomato is a widely grown vegetable in Pakistan. However, its production is severely constrained by root knot nematodes (RKNs). Accurate identification of RKNs is essential for an appropriate control program. The current study evaluated the prevalence, incidence and diversity of RKNs of tomato crops grown in the Khyber ...
Oxidation of extracellular cysteine/cystine redox state in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.
Iyer, Smita S; Ramirez, Allan M; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Roser-Page, Susanne; Mora, Ana L; Brigham, Kenneth L; Jones, Dean P; Roman, Jesse; Rojas, Mauricio
2009-01-01
Several lines of evidence indicate that depletion of glutathione (GSH), a critical thiol antioxidant, is associated with the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, GSH synthesis depends on the amino acid cysteine (Cys), and relatively little is known about the regulation of Cys in fibrosis. Cys and its disulfide, cystine (CySS), constitute the most abundant low-molecular weight thiol/disulfide redox couple in the plasma, and the Cys/CySS redox state (E(h) Cys/CySS) is oxidized in association with age and smoking, known risk factors for IPF. Furthermore, oxidized E(h) Cys/CySS in the culture media of lung fibroblasts stimulates proliferation and expression of transitional matrix components. The present study was undertaken to determine whether bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis is associated with a decrease in Cys and/or an oxidation of the Cys/CySS redox state and to determine whether these changes were associated with changes in E(h) GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG). We observed distinct effects on plasma GSH and Cys redox systems during the progression of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Plasma E(h) GSH/GSSG was selectively oxidized during the proinflammatory phase, whereas oxidation of E(h) Cys/CySS occurred at the fibrotic phase. In the epithelial lining fluid, oxidation of E(h) Cys/CySS was due to decreased food intake. Thus the data show that decreased precursor availability and enhanced oxidation of Cys each contribute to the oxidation of extracellular Cys/CySS redox state in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.
Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2017-12-07
We show that the average size of self-avoiding polygons (SAPs) with a fixed knot is much larger than that of no topological constraint if the excluded volume is small and the number of segments is large. We call it topological swelling. We argue an "enhancement" of the scaling exponent for random polygons with a fixed knot. We study them systematically through SAP consisting of hard cylindrical segments with various different values of the radius of segments. Here we mean by the average size the mean-square radius of gyration. Furthermore, we show numerically that the topological balance length of a composite knot is given by the sum of those of all constituent prime knots. Here we define the topological balance length of a knot by such a number of segments that topological entropic repulsions are balanced with the knot complexity in the average size. The additivity suggests the local knot picture.
Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang-Meng Liu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.
Solvation thermodynamics of L-cystine, L-tyrosine, and L-leucine in aqueous-electrolyte media
Roy, Sanjay; Guin, Partha Sarathi; Mahali, Kalachand; Dolui, Bijoy Krishna
2017-12-01
Solubilities of L-cystine, L-tyrosine, and L-leucine in aqueous NaCl media at 298.15 K have been studied. Indispensable and related solvent parameters such as molar mass, molar volume, etc., were also determined. The results are used to evaluate the standard transfer Gibbs free energy, cavity forming enthalpy of transfer, cavity forming transfer Gibbs free energy and dipole-dipole interaction effects during the course of solvation. Various weak interactions involving solute-solvent or solvent-solvent molecules were characterized in order to find their role on the solvation of these amino acids.
Kishimoto, Naoki; Waizumi, Hiroki
2017-10-01
Stable conformers of L-cysteine and L,L-cystine were explored using an automated and efficient conformational searching method. The Gibbs energies of the stable conformers of L-cysteine and L,L-cystine were calculated with G4 and MP2 methods, respectively, at 450, 298.15, and 150 K. By assuming thermodynamic equilibrium and the barrier energies for the conformational isomerization pathways, the estimated ratios of the stable conformers of L-cysteine were compared with those determined by microwave spectroscopy in a previous study. Equilibrium structures of 1:1 and 2:1 cystine-Fe complexes were also calculated, and the energy of insertion of Fe into the disulfide bond was obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmiegelow, P.; Puschmann, M.; Giese, U.
1984-01-16
Clinical experience has obviously shown a positive effect of application of sulfated amino acids on degenerative cartilage diseases. L-Cystin, presumed to be of therapeutic effect, was autoradiographically localized in articular, columnar and intervertebral cartilage as well as in skeletal musculature. In 10 days old NMRI-mice, we had shown a dose-dependent incorporation of the radioactively labelled /sup 35/S-Cystin in hair follicle. These statistically significant differences had been measured by quantitative autoradiographical microscope photometry. The sulfated amino acids are also proven in nail matrix, nail hyponychium as well as in cartilage and skeletal musculature. Besides a localization of radioactively labelled L-Cystin in tissues, presumed as target organs of a therapeutic effect, there is still lacking an experimental proof of efficacy on cell proliferation and functional metabolism e.g. in arthrosis by suitable animal models.
Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Fuhao; Chang, Rui; Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Mao; Sasaki, Shigemi; Qiao, Shan
2015-01-01
The design and performance of the Apple-Knot undulator which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization and low on-axis heat load are presented. Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported
Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Fuhao [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai 200438, People’s Republic of (China); Chang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201204, People’s Republic of (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Sasaki, Shigemi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Qiao, Shan, E-mail: qiaoshan@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, People’s Republic of (China)
2015-06-09
The design and performance of the Apple-Knot undulator which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization and low on-axis heat load are presented. Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported.
BPS counting for knots and combinatorics on words
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kucharski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2016-11-21
We discuss relations between quantum BPS invariants defined in terms of a product decomposition of certain series, and difference equations (quantum A-polynomials) that annihilate such series. We construct combinatorial models whose structure is encoded in the form of such difference equations, and whose generating functions (Hilbert-Poincaré series) are solutions to those equations and reproduce generating series that encode BPS invariants. Furthermore, BPS invariants in question are expressed in terms of Lyndon words in an appropriate language, thereby relating counting of BPS states to the branch of mathematics referred to as combinatorics on words. We illustrate these results in the framework of colored extremal knot polynomials: among others we determine dual quantum extremal A-polynomials for various knots, present associated combinatorial models, find corresponding BPS invariants (extremal Labastida-Mariño-Ooguri-Vafa invariants) and discuss their integrality.
Gordian Knots of Prevision: The lessons of history
Fleming, J. R.
2017-12-01
Atmospheric researchers have long attempted to untie the Gordian Knot of meteorology—that intractable and intertwined tangle of observational imprecision, theoretical uncertainties, and non-linear influences—that, if unraveled, would provide perfect prevision of the weather for ten days, of seasonal conditions for the year, and of climatic conditions for a decade, a century, a millennium, or longer. This presentation, based on Inventing Atmospheric Science (M.I.T. Press, 2016), examines the work of four interconnected generations of scientists (Vilhelm Bjerknes, C.-G. Rossby, Harry Wexler, Ed Lorenz) and the influence of four transformative technologies (radio, nuclear, computation, aerospace) from the dawn of applied fluid dynamics to the emergence of the interdisciplinary atmospheric sciences and the new Gordian Knot of chaos.
Energy and helicity of magnetic torus knots and braids
Oberti, Chiara; Ricca, Renzo L.
2018-02-01
By considering steady magnetic fields in the shape of torus knots and unknots in ideal magnetohydrodynamics, we compute some fundamental geometric and physical properties to provide estimates for magnetic energy and helicity. By making use of an appropriate parametrization, we show that knots with dominant toroidal coils that are a good model for solar coronal loops have negligible total torsion contribution to magnetic helicity while writhing number provides a good proxy. Hence, by the algebraic definition of writhe based on crossing numbers, we show that the estimated values of writhe based on image analysis provide reliable information for the exact values of helicity. We also show that magnetic energy is linearly related to helicity, and the effect of the confinement of magnetic field can be expressed in terms of geometric information. These results can find useful application in solar and plasma physics, where braided structures are often present.
BPS counting for knots and combinatorics on words
Kucharski, Piotr; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-11-01
We discuss relations between quantum BPS invariants defined in terms of a product decomposition of certain series, and difference equations (quantum A-polynomials) that annihilate such series. We construct combinatorial models whose structure is encoded in the form of such difference equations, and whose generating functions (Hilbert-Poincaré series) are solutions to those equations and reproduce generating series that encode BPS invariants. Furthermore, BPS invariants in question are expressed in terms of Lyndon words in an appropriate language, thereby relating counting of BPS states to the branch of mathematics referred to as combinatorics on words. We illustrate these results in the framework of colored extremal knot polynomials: among others we determine dual quantum extremal A-polynomials for various knots, present associated combinatorial models, find corresponding BPS invariants (extremal Labastida-Mariño-Ooguri-Vafa invariants) and discuss their integrality.
Polynomial invariants for torus knots and topological strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labastida, J.M.F.
2001-01-01
We make a precision test of a recently proposed conjecture relating Chern-Simons gauge theory to topological string theory on the resolution of the conifold. First, we develop a systematic procedure to extract string amplitudes from vacuum expectation values (vevs) of Wilson loops in Chern-Simons gauge theory, and then we evaluate these vevs in arbitrary irreducible representations of SU(N) for torus knots. We find complete agreement with the predictions derived from the target space interpretation of the string amplitudes. We also show that the structure of the free energy of topological open string theory gives further constraints on the Chern-Simons vevs. Our work provides strong evidence towards an interpretation of knot polynomial invariants as generating functions associated to enumerative problems. (orig.)
New Ways to Cut through Ethical Gordian Knots.
Howe, Edmund G
2017-01-01
Clinicians and ethicists routinely encounter complex ethical dilemmas that seem intractable, which have been described as ethical Gordian knots. How can they best assist patients and surrogate decision makers who are entangled in struggles around the capacity to make life-or-death treatment decisions? In this article I describe unconventional and unorthodox approaches to help slice through these dilemmas. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Southward migration and fuel deposition of Red Knots Calidris canutus
Helseth, Anders; Lindström, Åke; Stervander, Martin
2005-01-01
We compared the differences between spring and autumn in migration speed, fuelling rates and fuel loads of migrating Red Knots Calidris canutus. As a basis we used ringing data from Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeastern Sweden, collected 1948–2003, with morphometrical data from 1990–2003. Numbers ringed varied between 0 and 301 per year (average 56). Morphometrics, recoveries and recaptures of ringed birds indicated that most birds belonged to the Afro-Siberian subspecies C. c. canutus, poss...
The Knot Spectrum of Confined Random Equilateral Polygons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diao Y.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available It is well known that genomic materials (long DNA chains of living organisms are often packed compactly under extreme confining conditions using macromolecular self-assembly processes but the general DNA packing mechanism remains an unsolved problem. It has been proposed that the topology of the packed DNA may be used to study the DNA packing mechanism. For example, in the case of (mutant bacteriophage P4, DNA molecules packed inside the bacteriophage head are considered to be circular since the two sticky ends of the DNA are close to each other. The DNAs extracted from the capsid without separating the two ends can thus preserve the topology of the (circular DNAs. It turns out that the circular DNAs extracted from bacteriophage P4 are non-trivially knotted with very high probability and with a bias toward chiral knots. In order to study this problem using a systematic approach based on mathematical modeling, one needs to introduce a DNA packing model under extreme volume confinement condition and test whether such a model can produce the kind of knot spectrum observed in the experiments. In this paper we introduce and study a model of equilateral random polygons con_ned in a sphere. This model is not meant to generate polygons that model DNA packed in a virus head directly. Instead, the average topological characteristics of this model may serve as benchmark data for totally randomly packed circular DNAs. The difference between the biologically observed topological characteristics and our benchmark data might reveal the bias of DNA packed in the viral capsids and possibly lead to a better understanding of the DNA packing mechanism, at least for the bacteriophage DNA. The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the knot spectrum of equilateral random polygons under such a spherical confinement with length and confinement ratios in a range comparable to circular DNAs packed inside bacteriophage heads.
The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome
Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth; Meier, Stuart Kurt; Gehring, Christoph A
2016-01-01
Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms
Knot invariants and M-theory: Proofs and derivations
Errasti Díez, Verónica
2018-01-01
We construct two distinct yet related M-theory models that provide suitable frameworks for the study of knot invariants. We then focus on the four-dimensional gauge theory that follows from appropriately compactifying one of these M-theory models. We show that this theory has indeed all required properties to host knots. Our analysis provides a unifying picture of the various recent works that attempt an understanding of knot invariants using techniques of four-dimensional physics. This is a companion paper to K. Dasgupta, V. Errasti Díez, P. Ramadevi, and R. Tatar, Phys. Rev. D 95, 026010 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.026010, covering all but Sec. III C. It presents a detailed mathematical derivation of the main results there, as well as additional material. Among the new insights, those related to supersymmetry and the topological twist are highlighted. This paper offers an alternative, complementary formulation of the contents in the first paper, but is self-contained and can be read independently.
Rectangular superpolynomials for the figure-eight knot 41
Kononov, Ya. A.; Morozov, A. Yu.
2017-11-01
We rewrite the recently proposed differential expansion formula for HOMFLY polynomials of the knot 41 in an arbitrary rectangular representation R = [rs] as a sum over all Young subdiagrams λ of R with surprisingly simple coefficients of the Z factors. Intriguingly, these coefficients are constructed from the quantum dimensions of symmetric representations of the groups SL(r) and SL(s) and restrict the summation to diagrams with no more than s rows and r columns. Moreover, the β-deformation to Macdonald dimensions yields polynomials with positive integer coefficients, which are plausible candidates for the role of superpolynomials for rectangular representations. Both the polynomiality and the positivity of the coefficients are nonobvious, nevertheless true. This generalizes the previously known formulas for symmetric representations to arbitrary rectangular representations. The differential expansion allows introducing additional gradings. For the trefoil knot 31, to which our results for the knot 41 are immediately extended, we obtain the so-called fourth grading of hyperpolynomials. The property of factorization in roots of unity is preserved even in the five-graded case.
Cyclic Voltammograms from First Principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill
2007-01-01
Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental tool for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Whereas cyclic voltammetry is widely used within the field of electrochemistry, a way to quantitatively and directly relate the cyclic voltammogram to ab initio calculations has been lacking, even f...
Tightening slip knots in raw and degummed silk to increase toughness without losing strength
Pantano, Maria; Berardo, Alice; Pugno, Nicola
2016-01-01
Knots are fascinating topological elements, which can be found in both natural and artificial systems. While in most of the cases, knots cannot be loosened without breaking the strand where they are tightened, herein, attention is focused on slip or running knots, which on the contrary can be unfastened without compromising the structural integrity of their hosting material. Two different topologies are considered, involving opposite unfastening mechanisms, and their influence on the mechanic...
Schultz, D.
1983-01-01
The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.
Knotting dynamics of DNA chains of different length confined in nanochannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suma, Antonio; Micheletti, Cristian; Orlandini, Enzo
2015-01-01
Langevin dynamics simulations are used to characterize the typical mechanisms governing the spontaneous tying, untying and the dynamical evolution of knots in coarse-grained models of DNA chains confined in nanochannels. In particular we focus on how these mechanisms depend on the chain contour length, L c , at a fixed channel width D = 56 nm corresponding to the onset of the Odijk scaling regime where chain backfoldings and hence knots are disfavoured but not suppressed altogether. We find that the lifetime of knots grows significantly with L c , while that of unknots varies to a lesser extent. The underlying kinetic mechanisms are clarified by analysing the evolution of the knot position along the chain. At the considered confinement, in fact, knots are typically tied by local backfoldings of the chain termini where they are eventually untied after a stochastic motion along the chain. Consequently, the lifetime of unknots is mostly controlled by backfoldings events at the chain ends, which is largely independent of L c . The lifetime of knots, instead, increases significantly with L c because knots can, on average, travel farther along the chain before being untied. The observed interplay of knots and unknots lifetimes underpins the growth of the equilibrium knotting probability of longer and longer chains at fixed channel confinement. (paper)
A 'FIREWORK' OF H2 KNOTS IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 7293 (THE HELIX NEBULA)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, M.; Speck, A. K.; McHunu, B. M.; Tanaka, I.; Wright, N. J.; Viti, S.; Wesson, R.; Smith, M. D.; Zijlstra, A. A.
2009-01-01
We present a deep and wide field-of-view (4' x 7') image of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) in the 2.12 μm H 2 v = 1 → 0 S(1) line. The excellent seeing (0.''4) at the Subaru Telescope, allows the details of cometary knots to be examined. The knots are found at distances of 2.'2-6.'4 from the central star (CS). At the inner edge and in the inner ring (up to 4.'5 from the CS), the knot often show a 'tadpole' shape, an elliptical head with a bright crescent inside and a long tail opposite to the CS. In detail, there are variations in the tadpole shapes, such as narrowing tails, widening tails, meandering tails, or multipeaks within a tail. In the outer ring (4.'5-6.'4 from the CS), the shapes are more fractured, and the tails do not collimate into a single direction. The transition in knot morphology from the inner edge to the outer ring is clearly seen. The number density of knots governs the H 2 surface brightness in the inner ring: H 2 exists only within the knots. Possible mechanisms which contribute to the shaping of the knots are discussed, including photoionization and streaming motions. A plausible interpretation of our images is that inner knots are being overrun by a faster wind, but that this has not (yet) reached the outer knots. Based on H 2 formation and destruction rates, H 2 gas can survive in knots from formation during the late asymptotic giant branch phase throughout the PN phase. These observations provide new constraints on the formation and evolution of knots, and on the physics of molecular gas embedded within ionized gas.
A "Firework" of H2 Knots in the Planetary Nebula NGC 7293 (The Helix Nebula)
Matsuura, M.; Speck, A. K.; McHunu, B. M.; Tanaka, I.; Wright, N. J.; Smith, M. D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Viti, S.; Wesson, R.
2009-08-01
We present a deep and wide field-of-view (4' × 7') image of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) in the 2.12 μm H2 v = 1 → 0 S(1) line. The excellent seeing (0farcs4) at the Subaru Telescope, allows the details of cometary knots to be examined. The knots are found at distances of 2farcm2-6farcm4 from the central star (CS). At the inner edge and in the inner ring (up to 4farcm5 from the CS), the knot often show a "tadpole" shape, an elliptical head with a bright crescent inside and a long tail opposite to the CS. In detail, there are variations in the tadpole shapes, such as narrowing tails, widening tails, meandering tails, or multipeaks within a tail. In the outer ring (4farcm5-6farcm4 from the CS), the shapes are more fractured, and the tails do not collimate into a single direction. The transition in knot morphology from the inner edge to the outer ring is clearly seen. The number density of knots governs the H2 surface brightness in the inner ring: H2 exists only within the knots. Possible mechanisms which contribute to the shaping of the knots are discussed, including photoionization and streaming motions. A plausible interpretation of our images is that inner knots are being overrun by a faster wind, but that this has not (yet) reached the outer knots. Based on H2 formation and destruction rates, H2 gas can survive in knots from formation during the late asymptotic giant branch phase throughout the PN phase. These observations provide new constraints on the formation and evolution of knots, and on the physics of molecular gas embedded within ionized gas. Based on data taken with the Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (proposal ID S07B-054).
Cyclic approximation to stasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stewart D. Johnson
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.
Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prošek T.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical phases. They are able to predict the material performance in service more correctly as documented on several examples. The use of NSS should thus be restricted for quality control.
Knots and surfaces a guide to discovering mathematics
Farmer, David W
1995-01-01
In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Knots and Surfaces is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequi
Explorations in topology map coloring, surfaces and knots
Gay, David
2013-01-01
Explorations in Topology, Second Edition, provides students a rich experience with low-dimensional topology (map coloring, surfaces, and knots), enhances their geometrical and topological intuition, empowers them with new approaches to solving problems, and provides them with experiences that will help them make sense of future, more formal topology courses. The book's innovative story-line style models the problem-solving process, presents the development of concepts in a natural way, and engages students in meaningful encounters with the material. The updated end-of-chapter investigation
Production of highly knotted DNA by means of cosmid circularization inside phage capsids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trigueros Sonia
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of DNA knots is common during biological transactions. Yet, functional implications of knotted DNA are not fully understood. Moreover, potential applications of DNA molecules condensed by means of knotting remain to be explored. A convenient method to produce abundant highly knotted DNA would be highly valuable for these studies. Results We had previously shown that circularization of the 11.2 kb linear DNA of phage P4 inside its viral capsid generates complex knots by the effect of confinement. We demonstrate here that this mechanism is not restricted to the viral genome. We constructed DNA cosmids as small as 5 kb and introduced them inside P4 capsids. Such cosmids were then recovered as a complex mixture of highly knotted DNA circles. Over 250 μg of knotted cosmid were typically obtained from 1 liter of bacterial culture. Conclusion With this biological system, DNA molecules of varying length and sequence can be shaped into very complex and heterogeneous knotted forms. These molecules can be produced in preparative amounts suitable for systematic studies and applications.
A summary of modulus of elasticity and knot size surveys for laminating grades of lumber
R. W. Wolfe; R. C. Moody
1981-01-01
A summary of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and knot data is presented for grades of lumber commonly used to manufacture glued-laminated (glulam) timber by the laminating Industry. Tabulated values represent 30 different studies covering a time span of over 16 years. Statistical estimates of average and near-maximum knot sizes as well as mean and coefficient of variation...
The volume conjecture, perturbative knot invariants, and recursion relations for topological strings
Dijkgraaf, R.; Fuji, H.; Manabe, M.
2011-01-01
We study the relation between perturbative knot invariants and the free energies defined by topological string theory on the character variety of the knot. Such a correspondence between SL(2;C) Chern-Simons gauge theory and the topological open string theory was proposed earlier on the basis of the
First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica on tomato in Slovenia
Sirca, S.; Urek, G.; Karssen, G.
2004-01-01
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead originally described from Tanzania is also distributed in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Ethiopia (3). Although this species is a relatively unknown root-knot nematode, M. ethiopica parasitizes several economical important crops, such as tomato,
Use of gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging spruce knots by magnetic resonance
Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Amy H. Herlihy; Po-Wah So
2006-01-01
Treatments of knot-containing spruce wood blocks with a paramagnetic salt, gadolinium (III) chloride, in combination with solvent pretreatments, were evaluated as strategies to enhance the visualization of wood features by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial experiments with clear wood and excised knot samples showed differences in moisture uptake after...
Characterization of the psoRPM1 gene for resistance to root-knot ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Several root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) resistance genes have been discovered in different stone fruit crops. However, none of them has yet been cloned and they were only located on the chromosomes. In this study, a candidate root-knot nematode resistance gene (designated as psoRPM1) was isolated from the ...
[Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].
Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E
1996-01-01
We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehners, Jean-Luc
2008-01-01
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/(ρ) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures
Borges, J.
2014-01-01
A binary linear code C is a Z2-double cyclic code if the set of coordinates can be partitioned into two subsets such that any cyclic shift of the coordinates of both subsets leaves invariant the code. These codes can be identified as submodules of the Z2[x]-module Z2[x]/(x^r − 1) × Z2[x]/(x^s − 1). We determine the structure of Z2-double cyclic codes giving the generator polynomials of these codes. The related polynomial representation of Z2-double cyclic codes and its duals, and the relation...
Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær
This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic/dynamic tria......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic...
Knot detection in X-ray images of wood planks using dictionary learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansson, Nils Mattias; Enescu, Alexandru; Brandt, Sami Sebastian
2015-01-01
This paper considers a novel application of x-ray imaging of planks, for the purpose of detecting knots in high quality furniture wood. X-ray imaging allows the detection of knots invisible from the surface to conventional cameras. Our approach is based on texture analysis, or more specifically, ......, discriminative dictionary learning. Experiments show that the knot detection and segmentation can be accurately performed by our approach. This is a promising result and can be directly applied in industrial processing of furniture wood.......This paper considers a novel application of x-ray imaging of planks, for the purpose of detecting knots in high quality furniture wood. X-ray imaging allows the detection of knots invisible from the surface to conventional cameras. Our approach is based on texture analysis, or more specifically...
Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jack S. Avrin
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Two knots; just two rudimentary knots, the unknot and the trefoil. That’s all we need to build a model of the elementary particles of physics, one with fermions and bosons, hadrons and leptons, interactions weak and strong and the attributes of spin, isospin, mass, charge, CPT invariance and more. There are no quarks to provide fractional charge, no gluons to sequester them within nucleons and no “colors” to avoid violating Pauli’s principle. Nor do we require the importation of an enigmatic Higgs boson to confer mass upon the particles of our world. All the requisite attributes emerge simply (and relativistically invariant as a result of particle conformation and occupation in and of spacetime itself, a spacetime endowed with the imprimature of general relativity. Also emerging are some novel tools for systemizing the particle taxonomy as governed by the gauge group SU(2 and the details of particle degeneracy as well as connections to Hopf algebra, Dirac theory, string theory, topological quantum field theory and dark matter. One exception: it is found necessary to invoke the munificent geometry of the icosahedron in order to provide, as per the group “flavor” SU(3, a scaffold upon which to organize the well-known three generations—no more, no less—of the particle family tree.
The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome
Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth
2016-05-11
Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.
Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi: some like it knot.
Ramos, Cayo; Matas, Isabel M; Bardaji, Leire; Aragón, Isabel M; Murillo, Jesús
2012-12-01
Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive (Olea europaea) knot disease and an unorthodox member of the P. syringae complex, causing aerial tumours instead of the foliar necroses and cankers characteristic of most members of this complex. Olive knot is present wherever olive is grown; although losses are difficult to assess, it is assumed that olive knot is one of the most important diseases of the olive crop. The last century witnessed a large number of scientific articles describing the biology, epidemiology and control of this pathogen. However, most P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains are highly recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, which has effectively prevented the pathogen from benefitting from the scientific progress in molecular biology that has elevated the foliar pathogens of the P. syringae complex to supermodels. A number of studies in recent years have made significant advances in the biology, ecology and genetics of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, paving the way for the molecular dissection of its interaction with other nonpathogenic bacteria and their woody hosts. The selection of a genetically pliable model strain was soon followed by the development of rapid methods for virulence assessment with micropropagated olive plants and the analysis of cellular interactions with the plant host. The generation of a draft genome of strain NCPPB 3335 and the closed sequence of its three native plasmids has allowed for functional and comparative genomic analyses for the identification of its pathogenicity gene complement. This includes 34 putative type III effector genes and genomic regions, shared with other pathogens of woody hosts, which encode metabolic pathways associated with the degradation of lignin-derived compounds. Now, the time is right to explore the molecular basis of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi-olive interaction and to obtain insights into why some pathovars like it necrotic and why some like it knot
Antagonistic Activities of Streptomyces against Root Knot Nematode of Kiwifruit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Bashiri
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is among the world leading kiwifruit producers with 2.816 ha cultivated and 31.567 tones production. Plant parasitic nematodes cause damages to a variety of agricultural crops throughout the world. Interest in biological control of nematodes has increased because of the need for alternative methods to fumigant and non-fumigant nematicides and overall improvement of IPM programs. Bacterial species with nematicidal activity have also been used with some success for controlling root-knot diseases, including Streptomyces spp., Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. The goal of the current study was to isolate, identify and investigate the potential of local Streptomyces bacteria for controlling and reducing root-knot nematode population in the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of antagonistic bacteria on control of root-knot nematode of Kiwifruit, 100 isolates of bacteria were collected from Kiwifruit rhizosphere in the north of Iran and screened for pigmented microorganisms especially Streptomyces by applying standard serial dilution plate technique, using starch casein nitrate agar and glycerol asparagine agar. Morphological characterizations were achieved by the microscopic method. The microscopic characterization was done by cover slip culture method. The mycelium structure, color and arrangement of conidiospore and arthrospore on the mycelium were observed through the oil immersion (100X. The observed structure was compared with Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology and the organism was identified. Various biochemical tests performed for the identification of the potent isolates are as follows: casein hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, urea hydrolysis, esculin hydrolysis, acid production from sugar, NaCl resistance, temperature tolerance. Soil samples (100g were collected, and then processed for nematode egg and larvae extraction Hussey method. The suspension was pipetted
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. G. Warmerdam
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Urethral catheterization is a common procedure with a relatively low complication rate. Knotting of an indwelling urethral catheter is a very rare complication, and there are only a few case reports on knotted catheters, most of them concerning children. We report an especially rare case where a urethral catheter formed a knot around a double-J ureteral stent after a kidney transplantation. We will discuss the various risk factors for knotting of a catheter and the methods to untangle a knot.
Numerical simulation of the knotted nylon netting panel
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Li Yuwei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A piece of netting, consists of the 8 8 meshes, fixed on a square frame, was simulated and the tensions and their distribution, the positions of knots and netting shape were calculated by means of MATLAB in computer. The dynamic mathematic model was developed based on lumped mass method, the netting was treated as spring-mass system, the Runge-Kutta fifth-order and sixth-order method was used to solve the differential equations for every step, then the displacement and tension of each mass point were obtained. For verify this model, the tests have been carried out in a flume tank. The results of the numerical simulation fully agreed with the experiments.
Disciplinary Knots and Learning Problems in Waves Physics
Di Renzone, Simone; Frati, Serena; Montalbano, Vera
An investigation on student understanding of waves is performed during an optional laboratory realized in informal extracurricular way with few, interested and talented pupils. The background and smart intuitions of students rendered the learning path very dynamic and ambitious. The activities started by investigating the basic properties of waves by means of a Shive wave machine. In order to make quantitative observed phenomena, the students used a camcorder and series of measures were obtained from the captured images. By checking the resulting data, it arose some learning difficulties especially in activities related to the laboratory. This experience was the starting point for a further analysis on disciplinary knots and learning problems in the physics of waves in order to elaborate a teaching-learning proposal on this topic.
New knotted solutions of Maxwell's equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoyos, Carlos; Sircar, Nilanjan; Sonnenschein, Jacob
2015-01-01
In this paper we have further developed the study of topologically non-trivial solutions of vacuum electrodynamics. We have discovered a novel method of generating such solutions by applying conformal transformations with complex parameters on known solutions expressed in terms of Bateman's variables. This has enabled us to obtain a wide class of solutions from the basic configuration, such as constant electromagnetic fields and plane-waves. We have introduced a covariant formulation of Bateman's construction and discussed the conserved charges associated with the conformal group as well as a set of four types of conserved helicities. We have also given a formulation in terms of quaternions. This led to a simple map between the electromagnetic knotted and linked solutions into flat connections of SU(2) gauge theory. We have computed the corresponding Chern–Simons charge in a class of solutions and the charge takes integer values. (paper)
Average size of random polygons with fixed knot topology.
Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yao, Akihisa; Tsukahara, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Tetsuo; Furuta, Ko; Inami, Takeo
2003-07-01
We have evaluated by numerical simulation the average size R(K) of random polygons of fixed knot topology K=,3(1),3(1) musical sharp 4(1), and we have confirmed the scaling law R(2)(K) approximately N(2nu(K)) for the number N of polygonal nodes in a wide range; N=100-2200. The best fit gives 2nu(K) approximately 1.11-1.16 with good fitting curves in the whole range of N. The estimate of 2nu(K) is consistent with the exponent of self-avoiding polygons. In a limited range of N (N greater, similar 600), however, we have another fit with 2nu(K) approximately 1.01-1.07, which is close to the exponent of random polygons.
Quantum invariants of knots and 3-manifolds. 2. rev. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turaev, Vladimir G.
2010-01-01
Due to the strong appeal and wide use of this monograph, it is now available in its second revised edition. The monograph gives a systematic treatment of 3-dimensional topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) based on the work of the author with N. Reshetikhin and O. Viro. This subject was inspired by the discovery of the Jones polynomial of knots and the Witten-Chern-Simons field theory. On the algebraic side, the study of 3-dimensional TQFTs has been influenced by the theory of braided categories and the theory of quantum groups. The book is divided into three parts. Part I presents a construction of 3-dimensional TQFTs and 2-dimensional modular functors from so-called modular categories. This gives a vast class of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants as well as a class of linear representations of the mapping class groups of surfaces. In Part II the technique of 6j-symbols is used to define state sum invariants of 3-manifolds. Their relation to the TQFTs constructed in Part I is established via the theory of shadows. Part III provides constructions of modular categories, based on quantum groups and skein modules of tangles in the 3-space. This fundamental contribution to topological quantum field theory is accessible to graduate students in mathematics and physics with knowledge of basic algebra and topology. It is an indispensable source for everyone who wishes to enter the forefront of this fascinating area at the borderline of mathematics and physics. From the contents: - Invariants of graphs in Euclidean 3-space and of closed 3-manifolds - Foundations of topological quantum field theory - Three-dimensional topological quantum field theory - Two-dimensional modular functors - 6j-symbols - Simplicial state sums on 3-manifolds - Shadows of manifolds and state sums on shadows - Constructions of modular categories. (orig.)
HOMFLYPT polynomial is the best quantifier for topological cascades of vortex knots
Ricca, Renzo L.; Liu, Xin
2018-02-01
In this paper we derive and compare numerical sequences obtained by adapted polynomials such as HOMFLYPT, Jones and Alexander-Conway for the topological cascade of vortex torus knots and links that progressively untie by a single reconnection event at a time. Two cases are considered: the alternate sequence of knots and co-oriented links (with positive crossings) and the sequence of two-component links with oppositely oriented components (negative crossings). New recurrence equations are derived and sequences of numerical values are computed. In all cases the adapted HOMFLYPT polynomial proves to be the best quantifier for the topological cascade of torus knots and links.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simões, G., E-mail: simoes.grazieli@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, F.N. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Maracanã, 20270-021 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bernini, R.B. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Duque de Caxias, 25050-100 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castro, C.S.C. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia – Inmetro, 25250-020 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de, E-mail: gerson@iq.ufrj.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2014-03-01
Highlights: • Structural modifications in sulfur containing biomolecules were investigated. • Significant modifications were observed in insulin irradiated NEXAFS spectra. • Degradation of insulin can be observed even at low temperature. • Alterations in insulin spectrum were characterized according to the state of sulfur. - Abstract: We have performed a NEXAFS (S 1s) and mass spectrometry study of solid samples of cysteine, cystine and insulin irradiated with 0.8 keV electrons. The measured mass spectra point out to processes of desulfurization, deamination, decarbonylation and decarboxylation in the irradiated biomolecules. Electron beam irradiation was also conducted at low temperatures in order to evaluate the possible contribution from thermal degradation processes. The NEXAFS spectra of irradiated cysteine and cystine did not show substantial changes when compared to the same spectra obtained using non-irradiated samples. The sulfur K-edge photoabsorption spectrum of irradiated insulin, however, showed clear modifications when compared to the spectrum of the non-irradiated protein, even when the irradiation was conducted at low temperature. Using an empirical combination of the photoabsorption spectra of cysteine and cystine (which are associated respectively with reduced and oxidized forms of sulfur) we have been able to reproduce the absorption spectrum of irradiated insulin.
Zhang, Yu-Hui; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu
2014-12-01
Constructing safe and effective gene delivery carriers is becoming highly desirable for gene therapy. Herein, a series of supramolecular crosslinking system were prepared through host-guest binding of adamantyl-modified low molecular weight of polyethyleneimine with L-cystine-bridged bis(β-cyclodextrin)s and characterized by 1H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light-scattering, gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that these nanometersized supramolecular crosslinking systems exhibited higher DNA transfection efficiencies and lower cytotoxicity than the commercial DNA carrier gold standard (25 kDa bPEI) for both normal cells and cancer cells, giving a very high DNA transfection efficiency up to 54% for 293T cells. Significantly, this type of supramolecular crosslinking system possesses a number of enzyme-responsive disulfide bonds, which can be cleaved by reductive enzyme to promote the DNA release but recovered by oxidative enzyme to make the carrier renewable. These results demonstrate that these supramolecular crosslinking systems can be used as promising gene carriers.
Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
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J. Gordon Millichap
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.
Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu
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Alberto Saez-Rodriguez
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat
Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence
Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.
2015-01-01
We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention
Effect of soil solarization using plastic mulch in controlling root-knot ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PRECIOUS
2009-12-15
Dec 15, 2009 ... effect of soil solarization using plastic mulch in controlling root-knot nematode infestation and yield of ... addition to their increased toxic effects in the soil over the .... thereby promoting conducive environment for the utiliza- ...
Knotted solutions for linear and nonlinear theories: Electromagnetism and fluid dynamics
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Daniel W.F. Alves
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We examine knotted solutions, the most simple of which is the “Hopfion”, from the point of view of relations between electromagnetism and ideal fluid dynamics. A map between fluid dynamics and electromagnetism works for initial conditions or for linear perturbations, allowing us to find new knotted fluid solutions. Knotted solutions are also found to be solutions of nonlinear generalizations of electromagnetism, and of quantum-corrected actions for electromagnetism coupled to other modes. For null configurations, electromagnetism can be described as a null pressureless fluid, for which we can find solutions from the knotted solutions of electromagnetism. We also map them to solutions of Euler's equations, obtained from a type of nonrelativistic reduction of the relativistic fluid equations.
PRESENCE OF RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS) IN ITE WETLANDS, TACNA, PERU
Jhonson K. Vizcarra
2012-01-01
The presence of Red Knot (Calidris canutus, Linnaeus 1758) in Ite Wetlands, Tacna, Peru is documented. Two individuals were observed in October 2011. This species had only one occurrence without details in this area.
Tasinkevych, Mykola; Campbell, Michael G; Smalyukh, Ivan I
2014-11-18
Topologically nontrivial field excitations, including solitonic, linked, and knotted structures, play important roles in physical systems ranging from classical fluids and liquid crystals, to electromagnetism, classic, and quantum field theories. These excitations can appear spontaneously during symmetry-breaking phase transitions. For example, in cosmological theories, cosmic strings may have formed knotted configurations influencing the Early Universe development, whereas in liquid crystals transient tangled defect lines were observed during isotropic-nematic transitions, eventually relaxing to defect-free states. Knotted and solitonic fields and defects were also obtained using optical manipulation, complex-shaped colloids, and frustrated cholesterics. Here we use confinement of nematic liquid crystal by closed surfaces with varied genus and perpendicular boundary conditions for a robust control of appearance and stability of such field excitations. Theoretical modeling and experiments reveal structure of defect lines as a function of the surface topology and material and geometric parameters, establishing a robust means of controlling solitonic, knotted, linked, and other field excitations.
Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.
2018-02-13
This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.
Cyclic Processing for Context Fusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun
2007-01-01
Many machine-learning techniques use feedback information. However, current context fusion systems do not support this because they constrain processing to be structured as acyclic processing. This paper proposes a generalization which enables the use of cyclic processing in context fusion systems....... A solution is proposed to the inherent problem of how to avoid uncontrollable looping during cyclic processing. The solution is based on finding cycles using graph-coloring and breaking cycles using time constraints....
Potential of Tissue Culture for Breeding Root-Knot Nematode Resistance into Vegetables
Fassuliotis, G.; Bhatt, D. P.
1982-01-01
Plant protoplast technology is being investigated as a means of transferring root-knot nematode resistance factors from Solanum sisymbriifolium into the susceptible S. melongena. Solanum sisymbriifolium plants regenerated from callus lost resistance to Meloidogyne javanica but retained resistance to M. incognita. Tomato plants cloned from leaf discs of the root-knot nematode resistant 'Patriot' were completely susceptible to M. incognita, while sections of stems and leaves rooted in sand in t...
Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora
Jansson, Hans-Börje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.
1985-01-01
The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...
Knots: attractive places with high path tortuosity in mouse open field exploration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Dvorkin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available When introduced into a novel environment, mammals establish in it a preferred place marked by the highest number of visits and highest cumulative time spent in it. Examination of exploratory behavior in reference to this "home base" highlights important features of its organization. It might therefore be fruitful to search for other types of marked places in mouse exploratory behavior and examine their influence on overall behavior.Examination of path curvatures of mice exploring a large empty arena revealed the presence of circumscribed locales marked by the performance of tortuous paths full of twists and turns. We term these places knots, and the behavior performed in them-knot-scribbling. There is typically no more than one knot per session; it has distinct boundaries and it is maintained both within and across sessions. Knots are mostly situated in the place of introduction into the arena, here away from walls. Knots are not characterized by the features of a home base, except for a high speed during inbound and a low speed during outbound paths. The establishment of knots is enhanced by injecting the mouse with saline and placing it in an exposed portion of the arena, suggesting that stress and the arousal associated with it consolidate a long-term contingency between a particular locale and knot-scribbling.In an environment devoid of proximal cues mice mark a locale associated with arousal by twisting and turning in it. This creates a self-generated, often centrally located landmark. The tortuosity of the path traced during the behavior implies almost concurrent multiple views of the environment. Knot-scribbling could therefore function as a way to obtain an overview of the entire environment, allowing re-calibration of the mouse's locale map and compass directions. The rich vestibular input generated by scribbling could improve the interpretation of the visual scene.
Knotting and unknotting proteins in the chaperonin cage: Effects of the excluded volume.
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Szymon Niewieczerzal
Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the effects of chaperonin-like cages on knotted proteins with very low sequence similarity, different depths of a knot but with a similar fold, and the same type of topology. The investigated proteins are VirC2, DndE and MJ0366 with two depths of a knot. A comprehensive picture how encapsulation influences folding rates is provided based on the analysis of different cage sizes and temperature conditions. Neither of these two effects with regard to knotted proteins has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained structure-based models before. We show that encapsulation in a chaperonin is sufficient to self-tie and untie small knotted proteins (VirC2, DndE, for which the equilibrium process is not accessible in the bulk solvent. Furthermore, we find that encapsulation reduces backtracking that arises from the destabilisation of nucleation sites, smoothing the free energy landscape. However, this effect can also be coupled with temperature rise. Encapsulation facilitates knotting at the early stage of folding and can enhance an alternative folding route. Comparison to unknotted proteins with the same fold shows directly how encapsulation influences the free energy landscape. In addition, we find that as the size of the cage decreases, folding times increase almost exponentially in a certain range of cage sizes, in accordance with confinement theory and experimental data for unknotted proteins.
A DECADE-BASELINE STUDY OF THE PLASMA STATES OF EJECTA KNOTS IN CASSIOPEIA A
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rutherford, John; Dewey, Daniel; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Heine, Sarah N. T.; Canizares, C. R.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Sato, Kosuke, E-mail: enectali@mit.edu, E-mail: jmrv@mit.edu [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2013-05-20
We present the analysis of 21 bright X-ray knots in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant from observations spanning 10 yr. We performed a comprehensive set of measurements to reveal the kinematic and thermal state of the plasma in each knot, using a combined analysis of two high energy resolution High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and four medium energy resolution Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) sets of spectra. The ACIS electron temperature estimates agree with the HETG-derived values for approximately half of the knots studied, yielding one of the first comparisons between high resolution temperature estimates and ACIS-derived temperatures. We did not observe the expected spectral evolution-predicted from the ionization age and density estimates for each knot-in all but three of the knots studied. The incompatibility of these measurements with our assumptions has led us to propose a dissociated ejecta model, with the metals unmixed inside the knots, which could place strong constraints on supernova mixing models.
Confirming the nature of the knot near the pulsar B1951+32
Zyuzin, D. A.; Shibanov, Yu A.; Pavlov, G. G.; Danilenko, A. A.
2017-12-01
The energetic and fast-moving radio and γ-ray pulsar B1951+32 is associated with the supernova remnant CTB 80. It powers a complex pulsar wind nebula detected in the radio, Hα and X-rays (Moon et al 2004 ApJ 610 L33). A puzzling optical knot was detected about 0″.5 from the pulsar in the optical and near-IR (Moon et al 2004 ApJ 610 L33; Hester 2000 Bulletin of the AAS 32 1542). It is reminiscent of the unique “inner optical knot” located 0″.6 from the Crab pulsar. Until now there has been no evidence that B1951+32 knot is indeed associated with the pulsar. We observed the pulsar field with the Gemini-North telescope in 2016 to check the association. We performed first near-IR high spatial resolution imaging in the K s band using the NIRI+Altair instrument and deep optical imaging in the gr bands using the GMOS instrument. Our observations showed that the current knot position is shifted by ≈ 0″.6 from the position measured with the HST in 1997. This is consistent with the known pulsar proper motion and is direct evidence of the pulsar-knot connection. We compared the spectral energy distribution of the knot emission with that of the Crab knot. Possible implications of the results are discussed.
Total curvature and total torsion of knotted random polygons in confinement
Diao, Yuanan; Ernst, Claus; Rawdon, Eric J.; Ziegler, Uta
2018-04-01
Knots in nature are typically confined spatially. The confinement affects the possible configurations, which in turn affects the spectrum of possible knot types as well as the geometry of the configurations within each knot type. The goal of this paper is to determine how confinement, length, and knotting affect the total curvature and total torsion of random polygons. Previously published papers have investigated these effects in the unconstrained case. In particular, we analyze how the total curvature and total torsion are affected by (1) varying the length of polygons within a fixed confinement radius and (2) varying the confinement radius of polygons with a fixed length. We also compare the total curvature and total torsion of groups of knots with similar complexity (measured as crossing number). While some of our results fall in line with what has been observed in the studies of the unconfined random polygons, a few surprising results emerge from our study, showing some properties that are unique due to the effect of knotting in confinement.
Knot positioning during McDonald cervical cerclage, does it make a difference? A cohort study.
Atia, Hytham; Ellaithy, Mohamed; Altraigey, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Heba
2018-05-15
To study the effect of McDonald cerclage knot position on the different maternal and neonatal outcomes. This historical cohort study included women with singleton pregnancy who had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage between 1 May 2010 and 31 September 2017. Maternal and neonatal outcome parameters were compared between the anterior and posterior knot cerclage procedures. The primary outcome measure was the rate of term birth. 550 Women had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage, 306 with anterior knot (Group A) and 244 with posterior knot (Group B). There were no statistically significant differences regarding gestational age (GA) at delivery (36.3 ± 4.2 versus 35.8 ± 5.3 for groups A and B respectively), term birth rate, post-cerclage cervical length, symptomatic vaginitis, urinary tract infection, difficult cerclage removal and cervical lacerations. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences as regards the studied neonatal outcomes including take home babies, neonatal intensive care admission, respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal sepsis. Survival analysis on GA at delivery demonstrated no statistically significant difference as regards the proportion of term deliveries in the anterior and posterior knot cerclage groups (log-rank test p-value = .478). Knot positioning during McDonald cervical cerclage, anteriorly or posteriorly, didn't significantly impact the studied maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Freely Expanding Knots of X-Ray-emitting Ejecta in Kepler’s Supernova Remnant
Sato, Toshiki; Hughes, John P.
2017-08-01
We report measurements of proper motion, radial velocity, and elemental composition for 14 compact X-ray-bright knots in Kepler’s supernova remnant (SNR) using archival Chandra data. The knots with the highest speed show both large proper motions (μ ˜ 0.″11-0.″14 yr-1) and high radial velocities (v ˜ 8700-10,020 km s-1). For these knots the estimated space velocities (9100 km s-1 ≲ v 3D ≲ 10,400 km s-1) are similar to the typical Si velocity seen in supernovae (SNe) Ia near maximum light. High-speed ejecta knots appear only in specific locations and are morphologically and kinematically distinct from the rest of the ejecta. The proper motions of five knots extrapolate back over the age of Kepler’s SNR to a consistent central position. This new kinematic center agrees well with previous determinations, but is less subject to systematic errors and denotes a location about which several prominent structures in the remnant display a high degree of symmetry. These five knots are expanding at close to the free expansion rate (expansion indices of 0.75 ≲ m ≲ 1.0), which we argue indicates either that they were formed in the explosion with a high density contrast (more than 100 times the ambient density) or that they have propagated through regions of relatively low density (n H ruled out.
The magnetic resonance appearance of surfers' knots: a case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luke J. McManus, BMBS, PhD
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Athletes are at increased risk of developing soft-tissue lesions of the lower limbs. Although the majority of these will be benign, the differential diagnosis is broad and increasingly, doctors are turning to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a first-line investigation when presented with these sorts of lesions, both to narrow the differential diagnosis and exclude malignancy. We report the case of a 28-year-old Caucasian man who presented with 2 soft-tissue lesions of the right foot. History and examination of the nodules fitted with a diagnosis of surfers' knots, an unusual form of acquired, benign, connective tissue nodule that may appear over the tibial tuberosities, dorsum of the feet, and occasionally on the chest of surfers in association with repetitive microtrauma during surfing. MRI findings were consistent with this diagnosis with both lesions exhibiting T1 hypointensity and speckled T2 hypointensity with no significant blooming artifact on gradient echo imaging. When imaged with gadolinium, they demonstrated only mild contrast enhancement. MRI is a valuable tool when investigating athletes with soft-tissue lesions over the lower limbs where the possibility of malignancy must be addressed. In selected cases, MRI may be sufficient to permit a conservative approach to the management of these patients.
Quandles and topological pairs symmetry, knots, and cohomology
Nosaka, Takefumi
2017-01-01
This book surveys quandle theory, starting from basic motivations and going on to introduce recent developments of quandles with topological applications and related topics. The book is written from topological aspects, but it illustrates how esteemed quandle theory is in mathematics, and it constitutes a crash course for studying quandles. More precisely, this work emphasizes the fresh perspective that quandle theory can be useful for the study of low-dimensional topology (e.g., knot theory) and relative objects with symmetry. The direction of research is summarized as “We shall thoroughly (re)interpret the previous studies of relative symmetry in terms of the quandle”. The perspectives contained herein can be summarized by the following topics. The first is on relative objects G/H, where G and H are groups, e.g., polyhedrons, reflection, and symmetric spaces. Next, central extensions of groups are discussed, e.g., spin structures, K2 groups, and some geometric anomalies. The third topic is a method to s...
OH+ emission from cometary knots in planetary nebulae
Priestley, F. D.; Barlow, M. J.
2018-05-01
We model the molecular emission from cometary knots in planetary nebulae (PNe) using a combination of photoionization and photodissociation region (PDR) codes, for a range of central star properties and gas densities. Without the inclusion of ionizing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, our models require central star temperatures T* to be near the upper limit of the range investigated in order to match observed H2 and OH+ surface brightnesses consistent with observations - with the addition of EUV flux, our models reproduce observed OH+ surface brightnesses for T* ≥ 100 kK. For T* non-detection of this molecule in PNe with such central star temperatures. Our predicted level of H2 emission is somewhat weaker than commonly observed in PNe, which may be resolved by the inclusion of shock heating or fluorescence due to UV photons. Some of our models also predict ArH+ and HeH+ rotational line emission above detection thresholds, despite neither molecule having been detected in PNe, although the inclusion of photodissociation by EUV photons, which is neglected by our models, would be expected to reduce their detectability.
Feedback in clinical education: untying the Gordian knot.
Weinstein, Debra F
2015-05-01
Feedback is essential to clinical education, especially in the era of competencies, milestones, and entrustable professional activities. It is, however, an area where medical educators often fall short. Although educational leaders and faculty supervisors provide feedback in a variety of clinical settings, surveys show important gaps in medical student and resident satisfaction with the feedback received, suggesting lost opportunities to identify performance problems as well as to help each learner reach his or her greatest potential.In this issue of Academic Medicine, Telio and colleagues extend the empirically validated concept of a "therapeutic alliance" to propose the "educational alliance" as a framework for enhancing feedback in medical education. They highlight the importance of source credibility, which depends on the teacher-learner relationship and alignment of values, the teacher's understanding of the learner's role and goals, the teacher's direct observation of the learner, and the learner's perception of the teacher's good intentions. The author of this Commentary suggests that the educational alliance framework should prompt medical educators to reconsider feedback and explore opportunities for optimizing it. Most medical schools and graduate medical education programs are not designed in a way that supports the education alliance model, but the Commentary author offers suggestions for cultivating educational alliances, including rethinking supervisor selection criteria. Such interventions should be combined with ongoing faculty development and efforts to improve coaching and mentoring for students, residents, and fellows. Untying the Gordian knot of effective feedback will require innovative approaches, exchange of successful strategies, and continued research.
On Improvements of Cyclic MUSIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Howard Fan
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Many man-made signals encountered in communications exhibit cyclostationarity. By exploiting cyclostationarity, cyclic MUSIC has been shown to be able to separate signals with different cycle frequencies, thus, to be able to perform signal selective direction of-arrival (DOA estimation. However, as will be shown in this paper, the DOA estimation of cyclic MUSIC is actually biased. We show in this paper that by properly choosing the frequency for evaluating the steering vector, the bias of DOA estimation can be substantially reduced and the performance can be improved. Furthermore, we propose another algorithm exploiting cyclic conjugate correlation to further improve the performance of DOA estimation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of both of our methods.
Bounds for the minimum step number of knots confined to slabs in the simple cubic lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishihara, K; Shimokawa, K; Scharein, R; Arsuaga, J; Vazquez, M; Diao, Y
2012-01-01
Volume confinement is a key determinant of the topology and geometry of a polymer. However, the direct relationship between the two is not fully understood. For instance, recent experimental studies have constructed P4 cosmids, i.e. P4 bacteriophages whose genome sequence and length have been artificially engineered and have shown that upon extraction their DNA knot distribution differs from that of wild-type bacteriophage P4. In particular, it was observed that the complexity of the knots decreases sharply with the length of the packed genome. This problem is the motivation of this paper. Here, a polymer is modeled as a self-avoiding polygon on the simple cubic lattice and the confining condition is such that the polygon is bounded between two parallel planes (i.e. bounded within a slab). We estimate the minimum length required for such a polygon to realize a knot type. Our numerical simulations show that in order to realize a prime knot (with up to ten crossings) in a 1-slab (i.e. a slab of height 1), one needs a polygon of length strictly longer than the minimum length needed to realize the same knot when there is no confining condition. In the case of the trefoil knot, we can in fact establish this result analytically by proving that the minimum length required to tie a trefoil in the 1-slab is 26, which is greater than 24, the known minimum length required to tie a trefoil without a confinement condition. Additionally, we find that in the 1-slab not all geometrical realizations of a given knot type are equivalent under BFACF moves. This suggests that in certain confined volumes, knowing the topology of a polymer is not enough to describe all its states. (paper)
Thomas, Christoph; Heuschmid, Martin; Schilling, David; Ketelsen, Dominik; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Stenzl, Arnulf; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter
2010-11-01
To retrospectively evaluate radiation dose, image quality, and the ability to differentiate urinary calculi of differing compositions by using low-dose dual-energy computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; informed consent was waived. A low-dose dual-energy CT protocol (tube voltage and reference effective tube current-time product, 140 kV and 23 mAs and 80 kV and 105 mAs; collimation, 64 × 0.6 mm; pitch, 0.7) for the detection of urinary calculi was implemented into routine clinical care. All patients (n = 112) who were examined with this protocol from July 2008 to August 2009 were included. The composition of urinary calculi was assessed by using commercially available postprocessing software and was compared with results of the reference standard (ex vivo infrared spectroscopy) in 40 patients for whom the reference standard was available. Effective doses were calculated. Image quality was rated subjectively and objectively and was correlated with patient size expressed as body cross-sectional area at the level of acquisition by using Spearman correlation coefficients. One calcified concrement in the distal ureter of an obese patient was mistakenly interpreted as mixed calcified and uric acid. One struvite calculus was falsely interpreted as cystine. All other uric acid, cystine, and calcium-containing calculi were correctly identified by using dual-energy CT. The mean radiation dose was 2.7 mSv. The average image quality was rated as acceptable, with a decrease in image quality in larger patients. Low-dose unenhanced dual-source dual-energy CT can help differentiate between calcified, uric acid, and cystine calculi at a radiation dose comparable to that of conventional intravenous pyelography. Because of decreased image quality in obese patients, only nonobese patients should be examined with this protocol. © RSNA, 2010.
Stetina, Mandy; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F
2014-07-01
As a result of its strong adaptation to wheat and rye sourdoughs, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis has the smallest genome within the genus Lactobacillus. The concomitant absence of some important antioxidative enzymes and the inability to synthesize glutathione suggest a role of cystine transport in maintenance of an intracellular thiol balance. Diamide [synonym 1,1'-azobis(N,N-dimethylformamide)] disturbs intracellular and membrane thiol levels in oxidizing protein thiols depending on its initial concentration. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to reveal the transcriptional response of L. sanfranciscensis DSM 20451(T) (wild type [WT]) and its ΔtcyB mutant with a nonfunctional cystine transporter after thiol stress caused by diamide. Along with the different expression of genes involved in amino acid starvation, pyrimidine synthesis, and energy production, our results show that thiol stress in the wild type can be compensated through activation of diverse chaperones and proteases whereas the ΔtcyB mutant shifts its metabolism in the direction of survival. Only a small set of genes are significantly differentially expressed between the wild type and the mutant. In the WT, mainly genes which are associated with a heat shock response are upregulated whereas glutamine import and synthesis genes are downregulated. In the ΔtcyB mutant, the whole opp operon was more highly expressed, as well as a protein which probably includes enzymes for methionine transport. The two proteins encoded by spxA and nrdH, which are involved in direct or indirect oxidative stress responses, are also upregulated in the mutant. This work emphasizes that even in the absence of definitive antioxidative enzymes, bacteria with a small genome and a high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination use small molecules such as the cysteine/cystine couple to overcome potential cell damage resulting from oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, K.; Robbins, J.
1981-01-01
To elucidate the recently advanced hypothesis that glutathione [L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl glycine (GSH)] regulates deiodinating enzyme activities, accounting for the decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in the liver of fetal and starved animals, we investigated thyroid hormone metabolism in GSH-depleted neoplastic and normal hepatocytes. In monkey hepatocarcinoma cells, intracellular total GSH decreased below 10% of the control value (approximately 25 micrograms/mg protein) when cells were grown for 44 h in medium deficient in cystine and methionine or in cystine alone. The latter finding indicated that transsulfuration from methionine to cysteine was defective in these neoplastic cells. In primary cultured adult rat hepatocytes, on the other hand, the transsulfuration pathway was intact, and total GSH decreased below 10% of control (approximately 20 micrograms/mg protein) only in cells grown in cystine- and methionine-deficient medium. In both cell types, the oxidized GSH fraction remained constant (2-5% of total). Incubation with 125I-labeled T4 and T3, followed by chromatography, was used to evaluate 5-deiodination in hepatocarcinoma cells and both 5- and 5'-deiodination in normal hepatocytes. Deiodination was not decreased by GSH deficiency in either case, but was actually increased in hepatocarcinoma cells. This resulted from an increase in the Vmax of 5-deiodinase related to growth arrest. Diamide at 2 mM reversibly inhibited both 5'- and 5'-deiodination in rat hepatocytes, accompanied by decreased total GSH as well as increased GSH disulfide (27% of total). The data suggest that GSH is so abundant in the liver that hepatocytes can tolerate a greater than 90% decrease in intracellular concentration without any change in thyroid hormone deiodination and indicate that altered thyroid hormone metabolism in the fetus and in starvation cannot be accounted for by a decreased hepatic GSH concentration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piao Yunsong, E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)
2010-08-09
Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piao Yunsong
2010-01-01
Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanchuk, P.R.
1981-01-01
The paper contains a critical review of works on studying a cyclic character of solar activity. An introduction of cyclic curves with a frequency spectrum is established to be insolvent. The Wolf, Newcomb and Waldmeier approach seems to be useful. Some evidence is given in favour of the author's conception of solar activity ciclicity of a tide nature. It is accounted for a continuous double and single effect of planets, a resonant character of this effect due to which a 10-year period of Jupiter and Saturn is transformed into an 11-year cycle of activity [ru
Nagashima, Masazumi; Udagawa, Koichi; Fujinami, Kiyoshi; Murai, Tetsuo; Noguchi, Kazumi
2007-11-01
A 62-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for bilateral renal stones. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral staghorn calculi and atrophic left kidney. She had extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for right renal stone during the first 6 months. However, ESWL was not effective and the patient did not want to continue this treatment. Her stone was composed of cystine. We started oral administration of alkaline citrate. Then massive residual stones were completely dissolved during the next 32 months.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mai Froberg; Heimisdóttir, Sólborg Berglind; Sørensen, Mia Dahl
2018-01-01
Epileptic seizures are an important cause of morbidity in glioma patients. Substantial lines of evidence support the concept of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate being a crucial mediator of glioma-associated seizures. In gliomas, non-vesicular secretion of glutamate via the cystine...... tumor using tissue microarrays. In addition to histological grading of the tumors, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) R132H mutational status was determined by immunohistochemistry. 215 consecutive glioma patients were included in the study (7.4% grade II, 7.0% grade III, 85.6% grade IV). High x...
Freely Expanding Knots of X-Ray-emitting Ejecta in Kepler’s Supernova Remnant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sato, Toshiki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Hughes, John P., E-mail: toshiki@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States)
2017-08-20
We report measurements of proper motion, radial velocity, and elemental composition for 14 compact X-ray-bright knots in Kepler’s supernova remnant (SNR) using archival Chandra data. The knots with the highest speed show both large proper motions ( μ ∼ 0.″11–0.″14 yr{sup −1}) and high radial velocities ( v ∼ 8700–10,020 km s{sup −1}). For these knots the estimated space velocities (9100 km s{sup −1} ≲ v {sub 3D} ≲ 10,400 km s{sup −1}) are similar to the typical Si velocity seen in supernovae (SNe) Ia near maximum light. High-speed ejecta knots appear only in specific locations and are morphologically and kinematically distinct from the rest of the ejecta. The proper motions of five knots extrapolate back over the age of Kepler’s SNR to a consistent central position. This new kinematic center agrees well with previous determinations, but is less subject to systematic errors and denotes a location about which several prominent structures in the remnant display a high degree of symmetry. These five knots are expanding at close to the free expansion rate (expansion indices of 0.75 ≲ m ≲ 1.0), which we argue indicates either that they were formed in the explosion with a high density contrast (more than 100 times the ambient density) or that they have propagated through regions of relatively low density ( n {sub H} < 0.1 cm{sup −3}) in the ambient medium. X-ray spectral analysis shows that the undecelerated knots have high Si and S abundances, a lower Fe abundance, and very low O abundance, pointing to an origin in the partial Si-burning zone, which occurs in the outer layer of the exploding white dwarf for models of SNe Ia. Other knots show lower speeds and expansion indices consistent with decelerated ejecta knots or features in the ambient medium overrun by the forward shock. Our new accurate location for the explosion site has well-defined positional uncertainties, allowing for a great reduction in the area to be searched for faint
Long-slit spectrophotometry of the multiple knots of the polar ring galaxy IIZw71
Pérez-Montero, E.; García-Benito, R.; Díaz, A. I.; Pérez, E.; Kehrig, C.
2009-04-01
Aims: The blue compact dwarf galaxy IIZw71 is catalogued as a probable polar-ring galaxy, and along its long axis it has several very luminous knots showing recent episodes of star formation. Our main aim is to study the physical properties, the stellar content, and the kinematics in the brightest knots of the polar ring. Methods: We carried out long-slit spectroscopic observations of the polar ring in the spectral range 3500-10 000 Å taken with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT). The spectroscopic observations complemented by the available photometry of the galaxy in narrow Hα filters. Results: We measured the rotation curve of the ring, from which we infer a ratio M/LB ≈ 3.9 inside the star-forming ring. We measured the auroral [Oiii] line in the two brightest knots, allowing us to measure oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, argon, and neon chemical abundances following the direct method. Different empirical calibrators were used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the two faintest knots where the temperature sensitive lines could not be measured. The metallicities obtained are very similar for all the knots, but lower than previously reported in the literature from integrated spectra. The N/O abundance, as derived from the N2O2 parameter (the ratio of the [Nii] and [Oii] intensities), is remarkably constant over the ring, indicating that local polution processes are not conspicuous. Using synthetic stellar populations (SSPs) calculated with the code STARLIGHT, we studied the age distribution of the stellar populations in each knot, finding that in all of them there is a combination of a very young population with less than 10 Myr, responsible for the ionisation of the gas, with other populations older than 100 Myr, probably responsible for the chemical evolution of the knots. The small differences in metallicity and the age distributions among the different knots are indicative of a common chemical evolution, probably related to the process of interaction with the
360° virtual reality video for the acquisition of knot tying skills: A randomised controlled trial.
Yoganathan, S; Finch, D A; Parkin, E; Pollard, J
2018-04-10
360° virtual reality (VR) video is an exciting and evolving field. Current technology promotes a totally immersive, 3-dimensional (3D), 360° experience anywhere in the world using simply a smart phone and virtual reality headset. The potential for its application in the field of surgical education is enormous. The aim of this study was to determine knot tying skills taught with a 360-degree VR video compared to conventional 2D video teaching. This trial was a prospective, randomised controlled study. 40 foundation year doctors (first year postgraduate) were randomised to either the 360-degree VR video (n = 20) or 2D video teaching (n = 20). Participants were given 15 min to watch their allocated video. Ability to tie a single handed reef knot was then assessed against a marking criteria developed for the Royal College of Surgeons, England, (RCSeng) Basic Surgical Skills (BSS) course, by a blinded assessor competent in knot tying. Each candidate then underwent further teaching using Peyton's four step model. Knot tying technique was then re-assessed. Knot tying scores were significantly better in the VR video teaching arm when compared with conventional (median knot score 5.0 vs 4.0 p = 0.04). When used in combination with face to face skills teaching this difference persisted (median knot score 9.5 vs 9.0 p = 0.01). More people in the VR arm constructed a complete reef knot than in the 2D arm following face to face teaching (17/20 vs 12/20). No difference between the groups existed in the time taken to construct a reef knot following video and teaching (median time 31.0s vs 30.5s p = 0.89). This study shows there is significant merit in the application of 360-degree VR video technology in surgical training, both as an independent teaching aid and when used as an adjunct to traditional face to face teaching. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Fusheng; Zhao, Ji; Ji, Shijun; Zhang, Bing; Fan, Cheng
2017-01-01
The B-spline curve has been widely used in the reconstruction of measurement data. The error-bounded sampling points reconstruction can be achieved by the knot addition method (KAM) based B-spline curve fitting. In KAM, the selection pattern of initial knot vector has been associated with the ultimate necessary number of knots. This paper provides a novel initial knots selection method to condense the knot vector required for the error-bounded B-spline curve fitting. The initial knots are determined by the distribution of features which include the chord length (arc length) and bending degree (curvature) contained in the discrete sampling points. Firstly, the sampling points are fitted into an approximate B-spline curve Gs with intensively uniform knot vector to substitute the description of the feature of the sampling points. The feature integral of Gs is built as a monotone increasing function in an analytic form. Then, the initial knots are selected according to the constant increment of the feature integral. After that, an iterative knot insertion (IKI) process starting from the initial knots is introduced to improve the fitting precision, and the ultimate knot vector for the error-bounded B-spline curve fitting is achieved. Lastly, two simulations and the measurement experiment are provided, and the results indicate that the proposed knot selection method can reduce the number of ultimate knots available. (paper)
Prediction of the optimal set of contacts to fold the smallest knotted protein
Dabrowski-Tumanski, P.; Jarmolinska, A. I.; Sulkowska, J. I.
2015-09-01
Knotted protein chains represent a new motif in protein folds. They have been linked to various diseases, and recent extensive analysis of the Protein Data Bank shows that they constitute 1.5% of all deposited protein structures. Despite thorough theoretical and experimental investigations, the role of knots in proteins still remains elusive. Nonetheless, it is believed that knots play an important role in mechanical and thermal stability of proteins. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of native, shadow-specific and non-native interactions which describe free energy landscape of the smallest knotted protein (PDB id 2efv). We show that the addition of shadow-specific contacts in the loop region greatly enhances folding kinetics, while the addition of shadow-specific contacts along the C-terminal region (H3 or H4) results in a new folding route with slower kinetics. By means of direct coupling analysis (DCA) we predict non-native contacts which also can accelerate kinetics. Next, we show that the length of the C-terminal knot tail is responsible for the shape of the free energy barrier, while the influence of the elongation of the N-terminus is not significant. Finally, we develop a concept of a minimal contact map sufficient for 2efv protein to fold and analyze properties of this protein using this map.
Prediction of the optimal set of contacts to fold the smallest knotted protein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabrowski-Tumanski, P; Jarmolinska, A I; Sulkowska, J I
2015-01-01
Knotted protein chains represent a new motif in protein folds. They have been linked to various diseases, and recent extensive analysis of the Protein Data Bank shows that they constitute 1.5% of all deposited protein structures. Despite thorough theoretical and experimental investigations, the role of knots in proteins still remains elusive. Nonetheless, it is believed that knots play an important role in mechanical and thermal stability of proteins. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of native, shadow-specific and non-native interactions which describe free energy landscape of the smallest knotted protein (PDB id 2efv). We show that the addition of shadow-specific contacts in the loop region greatly enhances folding kinetics, while the addition of shadow-specific contacts along the C-terminal region (H3 or H4) results in a new folding route with slower kinetics. By means of direct coupling analysis (DCA) we predict non-native contacts which also can accelerate kinetics. Next, we show that the length of the C-terminal knot tail is responsible for the shape of the free energy barrier, while the influence of the elongation of the N-terminus is not significant. Finally, we develop a concept of a minimal contact map sufficient for 2efv protein to fold and analyze properties of this protein using this map. (paper)
Particle on a torus knot: Constrained dynamics and semi-classical quantization in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Praloy, E-mail: praloydasdurgapur@gmail.com; Pramanik, Souvik, E-mail: souvick.in@gmail.com; Ghosh, Subir, E-mail: subirghosh20@gmail.com
2016-11-15
Kinematics and dynamics of a particle moving on a torus knot poses an interesting problem as a constrained system. In the first part of the paper we have derived the modified symplectic structure or Dirac brackets of the above model in Dirac’s Hamiltonian framework, both in toroidal and Cartesian coordinate systems. This algebra has been used to study the dynamics, in particular small fluctuations in motion around a specific torus. The spatial symmetries of the system have also been studied. In the second part of the paper we have considered the quantum theory of a charge moving in a torus knot in the presence of a uniform magnetic field along the axis of the torus in a semiclassical quantization framework. We exploit the Einstein–Brillouin–Keller (EBK) scheme of quantization that is appropriate for multidimensional systems. Embedding of the knot on a specific torus is inherently two dimensional that gives rise to two quantization conditions. This shows that although the system, after imposing the knot condition reduces to a one dimensional system, even then it has manifested non-planar features which shows up again in the study of fractional angular momentum. Finally we compare the results obtained from EBK (multi-dimensional) and Bohr–Sommerfeld (single dimensional) schemes. The energy levels and fractional spin depend on the torus knot parameters that specifies its non-planar features. Interestingly, we show that there can be non-planar corrections to the planar anyon-like fractional spin.
Intra-vesical knot of bladder catheter in an extremely low birthweight neonate: A case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paula M.Y. Tang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Premature and extremely low birth weight (ELBW neonates are at high risk of developing multiple co-morbidities and often require urinary catheterization for various medical indications. Intra-vesical knotting of bladder catheter is a known but uncommon complication of this procedure. We report a case of an ELBW baby boy with a knotted bladder catheter requiring surgical retrieval. After an elective operation for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus, a 4 French urinary catheter was inserted into an ELBW baby boy for urine output monitoring and left in-situ. Resistance was encountered in attempt to remove the urinary catheter. Abdominal X Ray confirmed intra-vesical knotting of the tube. Knot unravelling by interventional radiology was attempted but was unsuccessful. Open extra-peritoneal bladder exploration was performed for the retrieval of the tightly knotted catheter. A 6 French transurethral Foley catheter was inserted for bladder drainage. Upon removal of the Foley's catheter on day 5 post op, the baby was able to void spontaneously. With literature review, we postulated the potential risk factors resulting in this potentially avoidable iatrogenic unusual complication. Recommendations were suggested to avoid further incidences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ochi, Takafumi [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa 199-01 (Japan)
1997-11-01
Increases in the glutathione (GSH) level in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells incubated with arsenic compounds were investigated in terms of changes in the activity of {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), rate of cystine uptake, and utilization of cysteine. Arsenite at subtoxic concentrations caused a marked increase of the GSH level at 8 h after addition and then declined. Increase in the GSH level caused by arsenite was associated with an increase in the rate of cystine uptake, but not in {gamma}-GCS activity. Increase in the rate of uptake of cystine was attributed mainly to an increase in the utilization of cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) also caused an increase in the GSH level in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Increase in the GSH level was accompanied by increases in {gamma}-GCS activity and in the uptake of cystine. DMAA caused a reduction in the rate of utilization of cysteine for protein synthesis while enhancing the rate of cysteine utilization for GSH synthesis. Cycloheximide inhibited increases in {gamma}-GCS activity caused by DMAA and in the rate of cystine uptake caused by arsenite and DMAA. The cystine transport system is suggested to be induced by arsenite and DMAA with {gamma}-GCS induced in cells incubated with DMAA. Among the arsenic compounds, methylarsonic acid (MAA) was not effective in causing an increase in the GSH level. Accordingly, increases in the GSH level caused by arsenite and DMAA may be specific phenomena in which the cells responded to the arsenicals by increasing the GSH level. (orig.) With 13 figs., 1 tab., 47 refs.
Deformation mechanisms in cyclic creep and fatigue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laird, C.
1979-01-01
Service conditions in which static and cyclic loading occur in conjunction are numerous. It is argued that an understanding of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation are necessary both for design and for understanding creep-fatigue fracture. Accordingly a brief, and selective, review of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation at both low and high strain amplitudes is provided. Cyclic loading in conjunction with static loading can lead to creep retardation if cyclic hardening occurs, or creep acceleration if softening occurs. Low strain amplitude cyclic deformation is understood in terms of dislocation loop patch and persistent slip band behavior, high strain deformation in terms of dislocation cell-shuttling models. While interesting advances in these fields have been made in the last few years, the deformation mechanisms are generally poorly understood
Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry
Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.
2012-01-01
Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357
Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future.
Zorzi, Alessandro; Deyle, Kaycie; Heinis, Christian
2017-06-01
Cyclic peptides combine several favorable properties such as good binding affinity, target selectivity and low toxicity that make them an attractive modality for the development of therapeutics. Over 40 cyclic peptide drugs are currently in clinical use and around one new cyclic peptide drug enters the market every year on average. The vast majority of clinically approved cyclic peptides are derived from natural products, such as antimicrobials or human peptide hormones. New powerful techniques based on rational design and in vitro evolution have enabled the de novo development of cyclic peptide ligands to targets for which nature does not offer solutions. A look at the cyclic peptides currently under clinical evaluation shows that several have been developed using such techniques. This new source for cyclic peptide ligands introduces a freshness to the field, and it is likely that de novo developed cyclic peptides will be in clinical use in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
"Nara" knot for suturing of cleft lip in children to make removal easy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Obaidullah
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Cleft patients usually go through a lifetime of repeated hospital admissions and multiple procedures. Suture removal at a tender age and on a sensitive area like the lip becomes a challenge for the nursing staff. It is also emotionally demanding on the part of the parents. Hence, in most centres these patients are at least sedated if not anaesthetised. We have been using a simple knot and running prolene material so that undoing of the knot becomes easy and suture removal more or less atraumatic. We would like to share our experience with readers through this article. An analysis of 53 cleft lip repairs has shown that this knot is safe and easily removable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sweelam, M E [Econ. Entomology Dept., Fac. Agric. Menoufia University Shebin El-Kom, (Egypt)
1995-10-01
The experiment was carried out at the experimental station of the faculty of agriculture, Menoufia Univ. To determine the sensitivity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica infecting tomato plants exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0,20,40,60,80 Gy, salinity levels 0. 1000, 2000, 4000 ppm and the plant growth regulator cycocel 0,200 ppm. Treated seeds were planted clay pots and salinity levels and cycocel concentrations were applied. Fresh weights and nematode populations were computed 3 months after application. Results indicated that 20 Gy, 1000 ppm salinity and cycocel gave the highest fresh weight of shoots and roots. The developmental stages and egg-laying females of nematode decreased by the increasing of irradiation dose and salinity levels. Root-knot galls decreased with 40 and 60 Gy, while significant increase was observed with 0 and 80 Gy, salinity levels decreased root galls. Cycocel decreased nematode population, egg-lying females and root-knot galls.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sweelam, M.E.
1995-01-01
The experiment was carried out at the experimental station of the faculty of agriculture, Menoufia Univ. To determine the sensitivity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica infecting tomato plants exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0,20,40,60,80 Gy, salinity levels 0. 1000, 2000, 4000 ppm and the plant growth regulator cycocel 0,200 ppm. Treated seeds were planted clay pots and salinity levels and cycocel concentrations were applied. Fresh weights and nematode populations were computed 3 months after application. Results indicated that 20 Gy, 1000 ppm salinity and cycocel gave the highest fresh weight of shoots and roots. The developmental stages and egg-laying females of nematode decreased by the increasing of irradiation dose and salinity levels. Root-knot galls decreased with 40 and 60 Gy, while significant increase was observed with 0 and 80 Gy, salinity levels decreased root galls. Cycocel decreased nematode population, egg-lying females and root-knot galls
Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)
Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.
Rezvani, Seyyed Ahmad; Soleymanpour, Ahmad
2016-03-04
A very convenient, sensitive and precise solid phase extraction (SPE) system was developed for enrichment and determination of ultra-trace of cadmium ion in water and plant samples. This method was based on the retention of cadmium(II) ions by l-cystine adsorbed in Y-zeolite and carry out in a packed mini-column. The retained cadmium ions then were eluted and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques were applied for the characterization of cystine modified zeolite (CMZ). Some experimental conditions affecting the analytical performance such as pH, eluent type, concentration of sample, eluent flow rate and also the presence of interfering ions were investigated. The calibration graph was linear within the range of 0.1-7.5ngmL(-1) and limit of detection was obtained 0.04ngmL(-1) with the preconcentration factor of 400. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was obtained 1.4%, indicating the excellent reproducibility of this method. The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of cadmium(II) ion in black tea, cigarette's tobacco and also various water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Verkuil, Y; González, Patricia M.
1996-01-01
We studied the food and feeding ecology of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa on an area of rocky flat, or restinga, near San Antonio Oeste in the northwest of Golfo San Matias, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina in March 1992. These Red Knots are on their way north, from ''wintering'' areas in Tierra
Rogers, Danny I.; Yang, Hong-Yan; Hassell, Chris J.; Boyle, Adrian N.; Rogers, Ken G.; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Piersma, Theunis
2010-01-01
We monitored numbers of Red Knots (Calidris canutus) staging in Bohai Bay, China (39 degrees 02'N, 118 degrees 15'E) on northward migration. Knots were identified to subspecies, and we systematically searched for colour-banded birds from the non-breeding grounds. We modelled migratory turnover, and
Leyrer, J.
2011-01-01
This thesis describes the possible selection pressures acting on survival and, indirectly, on reproduction of Afro-Siberian red knots Calidris canutus canutus while wintering and migrating. Afro-Siberian red knots are long-distance migrants. They travel between the West African wintering areas and
Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo
on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...
40 CFR 721.2120 - Cyclic amide.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyclic amide. 721.2120 Section 721... Cyclic amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a cyclic amide (PMN P-92-131) is subject to reporting under this section for the...
Gaussian quadrature rules for C 1 quintic splines with uniform knot vectors
Barton, Michael; Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Calo, Victor Manuel
2017-01-01
We provide explicit quadrature rules for spaces of C1C1 quintic splines with uniform knot sequences over finite domains. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids numerical solvers. Each rule is optimal, that is, requires the minimal number of nodes, for a given function space. For each of nn subintervals, generically, only two nodes are required which reduces the evaluation cost by 2/32/3 when compared to the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials over each knot span. Numerical experiments show fast convergence, as nn grows, to the “two-third” quadrature rule of Hughes et al. (2010) for infinite domains.
Post-breeding migration and connectivity of red knots in the Western Atlantic
Lyons, James E.; Winn, Bradford; Keyes, Timothy; Kalasz, Kevin S.
2018-01-01
Red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) have 3 distinct nonbreeding regions: 1 in the southeastern United States and Caribbean, another on the northeast coast of Brazil in the Maranhão region, and a third along the Patagonian coasts of Chile and Argentina. Effective conservation and recovery of this threatened long-distance migrant will require knowledge of population structure, migration ecology, and abundance and distribution throughout the annual cycle. We conducted a stopover population and biogeographic assessment of knots at the Altamaha River Delta, Georgia, an important stopover area in the southeastern United States. We estimated stopover population size and stopover duration during post-breeding migration in 2011 at the Altamaha study area using mark-resight data, and we inferred nonbreeding regions for this stopover population using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in feathers, and observations (sightings and captures) during boreal winter from across the hemisphere. With an integrated Bayesian analysis of all these data, we also estimated the number of birds in the southeastern United States and northern Brazil during boreal winter. For mark-resight analyses in Georgia, we made observations of marked individuals during 14 weeks from early August to early November 2011 and detected 814 individually marked birds. We used the Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model and estimated the southbound passage population at approximately 23,400 red knots. In ongoing studies elsewhere, isotope samples were collected from 175 (21%) of the 814 birds detected in our study, and ≥1 sighting or capture record during boreal winter was located in data repositories for 659 birds (81%). Isotopic signatures and boreal winter records indicate that the majority (82–96%) of the birds that stopped at the Altamaha Delta spend the boreal winter in the northern part of the nonbreeding range (southeast USA, Caribbean, and northern Brazil). Knots migrating to the southeastern
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J.; Brindle, Mary; Daneman, Alan
2005-01-01
We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)
Gaussian quadrature rules for C 1 quintic splines with uniform knot vectors
Bartoň, Michael
2017-03-21
We provide explicit quadrature rules for spaces of C1C1 quintic splines with uniform knot sequences over finite domains. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids numerical solvers. Each rule is optimal, that is, requires the minimal number of nodes, for a given function space. For each of nn subintervals, generically, only two nodes are required which reduces the evaluation cost by 2/32/3 when compared to the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials over each knot span. Numerical experiments show fast convergence, as nn grows, to the “two-third” quadrature rule of Hughes et al. (2010) for infinite domains.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zapiór, Maciej; Martinez-Gómez, David, E-mail: zapior.maciek@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. de Valldemossa, km 7.5. Palma (Illes Balears), E-07122 (Spain)
2016-02-01
Based on the data collected by the Vacuum Tower Telescope located in the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands, we analyzed the three-dimensional (3D) motion of so-called knots in a solar prominence of 2014 June 9. Trajectories of seven knots were reconstructed, giving information of the 3D geometry of the magnetic field. Helical motion was detected. From the equipartition principle, we estimated the lower limit of the magnetic field in the prominence to ≈1–3 G and from the Ampère’s law the lower limit of the electric current to ≈1.2 × 10{sup 9} A.
Zapiór, Maciej; Martínez-Gómez, David
2016-02-01
Based on the data collected by the Vacuum Tower Telescope located in the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands, we analyzed the three-dimensional (3D) motion of so-called knots in a solar prominence of 2014 June 9. Trajectories of seven knots were reconstructed, giving information of the 3D geometry of the magnetic field. Helical motion was detected. From the equipartition principle, we estimated the lower limit of the magnetic field in the prominence to ≈1-3 G and from the Ampère’s law the lower limit of the electric current to ≈1.2 × 109 A.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szafron, M L; Soteros, C E
2011-01-01
We investigate, both theoretically and numerically, the knotting probabilities after a local strand passage is performed in an unknotted self-avoiding polygon (SAP) on the simple cubic lattice. In the polygons studied, it is assumed that two polygon segments have already been brought close together for the purpose of performing a strand passage. This restricts the polygons considered to those that contain a specific pattern called Θ at a fixed location; an unknotted polygon containing Θ is called a Θ-SAP. It is proved that the number of n-edge Θ-SAPs grows exponentially (with n) at the same rate as the total number of n-edge unknotted SAPs (those with no prespecified strand passage structure). Furthermore, it is proved that the same holds for subsets of n-edge Θ-SAPs that yield a specific after-strand-passage knot-type. Thus, the probability of a given after-strand-passage knot-type does not grow (or decay) exponentially with n. Instead, it is conjectured that these after-strand-passage knot probabilities approach, as n goes to infinity, knot-type dependent amplitude ratios lying strictly between 0 and 1. This conjecture is supported by numerical evidence from Monte Carlo data generated using a composite (aka multiple) Markov chain Monte Carlo BFACF algorithm developed to study Θ-SAPs. A new maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the critical exponents relevant to this conjecture. We also obtain strong numerical evidence that the after-strand-passage knotting probability depends on the local structure around the strand-passage site. If the local structure and the crossing sign at the strand-passage site are considered, then we observe that the more 'compact' the local structure, the less likely the after-strand-passage polygon is to be knotted. This trend for compactness versus knotting probability is consistent with results obtained for other strand-passage models; however, we are the first to note the influence of the crossing-sign information. We
Evaluation of potential bio-control agents on root-knot nematode ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Indigenous strains of Trichoderma viride (ITCC No. 6889), Pseudomonas fluorescens (ITCC No. B0034) and Purpureocillium lilacinum (ITCC No.6887) were isolated from undisturbed forest eco-system of Southern India. These three bio-mediators were evaluated for their antagonism towards root knot nematode, ...
A new class of magnetic confinement device in the shape of a knot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hudson, S. R., E-mail: shudson@pppl.gov; Startsev, E.; Feibush, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-01-15
We describe a new class of magnetic confinement device, with the magnetic axis in the shape of a knot. We call such devices “knotatrons.” An example is given that has a large volume filled with magnetic surfaces, with significant rotational-transform, and with the magnetic field produced entirely by external circular coils.
The mutual attraction of magnetic knots. [solar hydromagnetic instability in sunspot regions
Parker, E. N.
1978-01-01
It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability. The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side.
First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne minor on turfgrass in Belgium
Viaene, N.; Wiseborn, D.B.; Karssen, G.
2007-01-01
The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor, was described during 2004 after it was found on potato roots in a field in the Netherlands and in golf courses in England, Wales, and Ireland (2). Since it is associated with yellow patch disease in turf grass and causes deformation of potato tubers (2), it
van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Battley, Phil F.
2006-01-01
Reversible phenotypic changes, such as those observed in nutritional organs of long-distance migrants, increasingly receive the attention of ornithologists. In this paper we review the cost-benefit studies that have been performed on the flexible gizzard of Red Knots Calidris cunutus. By varying the
Van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T.; Dekinga, A.; Battley, P.F.
2006-01-01
Reversible phenotypic changes, such as those observed in nutritional organs of long-distance migrants, increasingly receive the attention of ornithologists. In this paper we review the cost-benefit studies that have been performed on the flexible gizzard of Red Knots Calidris canutus. By varying the
Causer, Joe; Harvey, Adrian; Snelgrove, Ryan; Arsenault, Gina; Vickers, Joan N
2014-08-01
We examined the effectiveness of technical training (TT) and quiet eye training (QE) on the performance of one-handed square knot tying in surgical residents. Twenty surgical residents were randomly assigned to the 2 groups and completed pretest, training, retention, and transfer tests. Participants wore a mobile eye tracker that simultaneously recorded their gaze and hand movements. Dependent variables were knot tying performance (%), QE duration (%), number of fixations, total movement time (s), and hand movement phase time (s). The QE training group had significantly higher performance scores, a longer QE duration, fewer fixations, faster total knot tying times, and faster movement phase times compared with the TT group. The QE group maintained performance in the transfer test, whereas the TT group significantly decreased performance from retention to transfer. QE training significantly improved learning, retention, and transfer of surgical knot tying compared with a traditional technical approach. Both performance effectiveness (performance outcome) and movement efficiency (hand movement times) were improved using QE modeling, instruction, and feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Day and night feeding habitat of Red Knots in Patagonia : Profitability versus safety?
Sitters, HP; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Baker, AJ; Price, DJ; Sitters, Humphrey P.; González, Patricia M.; Baker, Allan J.; Price, David J.
2001-01-01
By radio-tracking and recording the movements of flocks. the distribution of feeding Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) was studied day and night at a migration stopover site near San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro, Argentina in March and April 1998. By day, the birds fed in dense flocks of 500-4000 on an
Azadirachtin powder for control of root-knot nematodes in tomato
USDA ARS Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, HI 96720. Root-knot nematodes cause root galling and yield reductions in many vegetable crops, including tomato. Three organic treatments to improve root growth and reduce nematode infestation were eval...
Fuzzy knot theory interpretation of Yang-Mills instantons and Witten's 5-Brane model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naschie, M.S.
2008-01-01
A knot theory interpretation of 'tHooft's instanton based on hyperbolic volume, crossing numbers and exceptional Lie symmetry groups is given. Subsequently it is shown that although instantons and particle-like states of Heterotic super strings may appear to be different concepts, on a very deep fuzzy level they are not
Percutaneous untying of a knot in a retained Swan-Ganz catheter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatti, Waqar A.; Sinha, Sankar; Rowlands, Peter
2000-01-01
A patient was referred to us with a tightly knotted Swan-Ganz catheter. The catheter could not be removed by conventional simple methods. We describe a minimally invasive means of removal of the catheter using an Amplatz gooseneck snare and an angioplasty balloon. This allowed the Catheter to be removed without trauma.
Dissecting host plant manipulation by cyst and root-knot nematodes
Karczmarek, A.
2006-01-01
Cyst ( Globodera spp. and Heterodera spp.) and root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.), one of the most damaging crop pests, are a perfect example of highly adapted, sophisticated root parasites. These nematodes induces specialized feeding structures (cyst
Effect of soil solarization using plastic mulch in controlling root-knot ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A field experiment was conducted from February to May, 2004 and 2005 planting seasons at the Vegetable Evaluation and Research Station Farm located at Anse Boileau, Seychelles to evaluate the effect of soil solarization using plastic mulch in controlling root-knot nematode infestation and yield of lettuce.
Basal metabolic rate declines during long-distance migratory flight in great knots
Battley, PF; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Tang, SX; Hulsman, K; Battley, Phil F.; Tang, Sixian
2001-01-01
Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) make one of the longest migratory flights in the avian world, flying almost 5500 km from Australia to China during northward migration. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition in birds before and after this flight and found that BMR decreased
Piersma, Theunis; Brugge, Maarten; Spaans, Bernard; Battley, Phil F.; Handel, C.M.
Four Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) were kept for six years in a constant-temperature indoor aviary. For two of those six years, they were kept under photoperiodic conditions that mimicked natural changes in daylength for wild birds, followed by four years under a constant photoperiod
Lachance, M A
1981-07-01
The new yeast species Hanseniaspora nodinigri is described to accommodate members of the genus Hanseniaspora that are unable to assimilate glucono-sigma-lactone and isolated from stromatal tissue of black knots (Dobotryon morbosum) of chokecherry, Prunus virginiana. The newly described taxon shows much resemblance, by other criteria, to H. vineae van der Walt et Tscheuschner and H. osmophila (Niehaus) Phaff, Miller et Shifrine.
Interference from adults forces young red knots to forage for longer and in dangerous places
van den Hout, P.J.; van Gils, J.A.; Robin, F.; van der Geest, M.; Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.
2014-01-01
In birds and mammals, juvenile and adult foragers are often found apart from each other. In this study, we found this is also true for red knots, Calidris canutus canutus, wintering on the intertidal flats of Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. Not only did juveniles feed separately from adults, they also
Evaluation of edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for root-knot nematode resistance
Edible ginger and turmeric roots are important agricultural commodities for the State of Hawaii. Bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. are major factors hindering optimum production. An evaluation of tolerance and resistance to M. incognita was undertake...
Tolerance of a knotted near infrared fluorescent protein to random circular permutation
Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E.; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E.; Alnahhas, Razan N.; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J.
2016-01-01
Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFP to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified twenty seven circularly permuted iRFP that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants were discovered that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains. Circularly permuted iRFP retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a similar quantum yield as iRFP, but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed signal increase arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step towards the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical-sensing functions for in vivo imaging. PMID:27304983
Tolerance of a Knotted Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein to Random Circular Permutation.
Pandey, Naresh; Kuypers, Brianna E; Nassif, Barbara; Thomas, Emily E; Alnahhas, Razan N; Segatori, Laura; Silberg, Jonathan J
2016-07-12
Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphP) are knotted proteins that have been developed as near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) reporters of gene expression. To explore how rearrangements in the peptides that interlace into the knot within the BphP photosensory core affect folding, we subjected iRFPs to random circular permutation using an improved transposase mutagenesis strategy and screened for variants that fluoresce. We identified 27 circularly permuted iRFPs that display biliverdin-dependent fluorescence in Escherichia coli. The variants with the brightest whole cell fluorescence initiated translation at residues near the domain linker and knot tails, although fluorescent variants that initiated translation within the PAS and GAF domains were discovered. Circularly permuted iRFPs retained sufficient cofactor affinity to fluoresce in tissue culture without the addition of biliverdin, and one variant displayed enhanced fluorescence when expressed in bacteria and tissue culture. This variant displayed a quantum yield similar to that of iRFPs but exhibited increased resistance to chemical denaturation, suggesting that the observed increase in the magnitude of the signal arose from more efficient protein maturation. These results show how the contact order of a knotted BphP can be altered without disrupting chromophore binding and fluorescence, an important step toward the creation of near-infrared biosensors with expanded chemical sensing functions for in vivo imaging.
First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne marylandi on Turfgrasses in Israel
Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.
2004-01-01
In a turfgrass nursery in Arava, Israel, a population of root-knot nematodes was isolated from poorly growing Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) with symptoms of foliar chlorosis and roots with very small, smooth galls and protruding egg masses. The isolated population (genus Meloidogyne) included
Evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to root-knot nematodes
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most popular vegetable crops worldwide, owing to its high nutritive value and diversified use. Tomato production in Ghana is threatened by plant parasitic nematodes, especially the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), which are responsible for huge economic yield losses.
Intravesical knotting of feeding tube used as urinary catheter in an infant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mamatha Basavaraju
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Infant feeding tube is commonly used to temporarily drain the bladder in pediatric population. A case is described where the tube got knotted inside the bladder probably due to over insertion or bladder spasm caused by irritation of catheter.
Tang, Hao; Xu, Liuxiong; Hu, Fuxiang
2018-01-01
Nylon (PA) netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90), but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0). For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE) netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Tang
Full Text Available Nylon (PA netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90, but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0. For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200.
Pierced Lasso Bundles are a new class of knot-like motifs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellinor Haglund
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A four-helix bundle is a well-characterized motif often used as a target for designed pharmaceutical therapeutics and nutritional supplements. Recently, we discovered a new structural complexity within this motif created by a disulphide bridge in the long-chain helical bundle cytokine leptin. When oxidized, leptin contains a disulphide bridge creating a covalent-loop through which part of the polypeptide chain is threaded (as seen in knotted proteins. We explored whether other proteins contain a similar intriguing knot-like structure as in leptin and discovered 11 structurally homologous proteins in the PDB. We call this new helical family class the Pierced Lasso Bundle (PLB and the knot-like threaded structural motif a Pierced Lasso (PL. In the current study, we use structure-based simulation to investigate the threading/folding mechanisms for all the PLBs along with three unthreaded homologs as the covalent loop (or lasso in leptin is important in folding dynamics and activity. We find that the presence of a small covalent loop leads to a mechanism where structural elements slipknot to thread through the covalent loop. Larger loops use a piercing mechanism where the free terminal plugs through the covalent loop. Remarkably, the position of the loop as well as its size influences the native state dynamics, which can impact receptor binding and biological activity. This previously unrecognized complexity of knot-like proteins within the helical bundle family comprises a completely new class within the knot family, and the hidden complexity we unraveled in the PLBs is expected to be found in other protein structures outside the four-helix bundles. The insights gained here provide critical new elements for future investigation of this emerging class of proteins, where function and the energetic landscape can be controlled by hidden topology, and should be take into account in ab initio predictions of newly identified protein targets.
Management of Root Knot Nematode on Tomato through Grafting Root Stock of Solanum sisymbriifolium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suraj Baidya
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp are difficult to manage once established in the field because of their wide host range, and soil-borne nature. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the use of resistant root stock of wild brinjal (Solanum sisymbriifolium to reduce the loss caused by the nematodes on tomato. For the management of root-knot nematodes, grafted plant with resistant root stock of the wild brinjal was tested under farmers’ field conditions at Hemza of Kaski district. Grafted and non-grafted plants were produced in root-knot nematode-free soil. Around three week-old grafted and non-grafted tomato plants were transplanted in four different plastic tunnels where root-knot nematodes had been reported previously. The plants were planted in diagonal position to each other as a pair plot in 80 × 60 cm2 spacing in an average of 20 × 7 m2 plastic tunnels. Galling Index (GI was recorded three times in five randomly selected plants in each plot at 60 days intervals. The first observation was recorded two months after transplanting. Total fruit yield was recorded from same plants. In the grafted plants, the root system was totally free from gall whereas in an average of 7.5 GI in 0-10 scale was recorded in the non-grafted plants. Fruits were harvested from time to time and cumulated after final harvest to calculate the total fruit yield. It was estimated that on an average tomato fruit yield was significantly (P>0.05 increased by 37 percent in the grafted plants compared with the non-grafted plants. Grafting technology could be used effectively for cultivation of commonly grown varieties, which are susceptible to root-knot nematodes in disease prone areas. This can be used as an alternative technology for reducing the use of hazardous pesticides for enhancing commercial organic tomato production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braden, H W; D'Avanzo, Antonella; Enolski, V Z
2011-01-01
We determine the spectral curve of charge-3 BPS su(2) monopoles with C 3 cyclic symmetry. The symmetry means that the genus 4 spectral curve covers a (Toda) spectral curve of genus 2. A well adapted homology basis is presented enabling the theta functions and monopole data of the genus 4 curve to be given in terms of genus 2 data. The Richelot correspondence, a generalization of the arithmetic mean, is used to solve for this genus 2 curve. Results of other approaches are compared
On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M
2014-01-01
We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates
Cyclic graphs and Apery's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorokin, V N
2002-01-01
This is a survey of results about the behaviour of Hermite-Pade approximants for graphs of Markov functions, and a survey of interpolation problems leading to Apery's result about the irrationality of the value ζ(3) of the Riemann zeta function. The first example is given of a cyclic graph for which the Hermite-Pade problem leads to Apery's theorem. Explicit formulae for solutions are obtained, namely, Rodrigues' formulae and integral representations. The asymptotic behaviour of the approximants is studied, and recurrence formulae are found
A system for cyclical voltametry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, R.P. da; Chierice, G.O.
1974-01-01
The constrution of a system composed by two instruments, voltametric circuit and potenciostate is depicted. Both instruments junction joined so that the voltametric circuit works as a triangular pulse generator, capable of operating with independent ascendant and descendant slope change, with unique pulse of continuous regime. The circuit of the potenciostate is composed of an amplifier with high entrance impedance and capable of supplying relatively high currents at the exit. The equipment was tested to study the aqueous Pb 2+ system in mercury electrode. this system depicted for the cyclical-voltometry technique set in use at I.E.A., Sao Paulo (Brazil), has very good linearity
Kurihara, Shigekazu; Hiraoka, Takenori; Akutsu, Masahisa; Sukegawa, Eiji; Bannai, Makoto; Shibahara, Susumu
2010-01-01
The common cold is one of the most frequent illnesses caused by viral infection. Recently, we have reported that oral administration of cystine and theanine (CT) to mice enhanced the humoral immune response associated with antibody production. Based on this mouse study, we investigated the effects of CT supplementation on the common cold in humans as a pilot study. A total of 176 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive either placebo or CT (490 mg) tablets twice daily for 35 days. The incidence outcome was assessed using the definition in our laboratory based on questionnaires regarding cold symptoms. The incidence of subjects with colds during the trial was significantly lower in the CT group than in the placebo group, although the duration of the colds was not significantly different between the groups. These results suggest that CT supplementation may be useful for the prevention of the common cold. PMID:22331996
Cyclic AMP in rat pancreatic islets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grill, V.; Borglund, E.; Cerasi, E.; Uppsala Univ.
1977-01-01
The incorporation of [ 3 H]adenine into cyclic AMP was studied in rat pancreatic islets under varying conditions of labeling. Prolonging the exposure to [ 3 H]adenine progressively augmented the islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP level. Islets labeled for different periods of time and subsequently incubated (without adenine) in the presence of D-glucose or cholera toxin showed stimulations of intra-islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP that were proportionate to the levels of radioactive nucleotide present under non-stimulatory conditions. Labeling the islets in a high glucose concentration (27.7 mM) did not modify the nucleotide responses to glucose or cholera toxin. The specific activity of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP, determined by simultaneous assay of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP and total cyclic AMP, was not influenced by glucose or cholera toxin. Glucose had no effect on the specific activity of labeled ATP
Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.
1985-01-01
The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. For cyclic accelerators a technique is required for carrying the plasma channel and the beam around a bend. Multiple laser-generated channels with dipole magnetic fields to switch the beam from one channel to the next have been tested at Sandia. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using rf breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. With a suitable driving frequency, a waveguide mode can be driven which has its peak field intensity on the axis with negligible fields at the chamber walls. The plasma production and hence the beam propagation is thereby isolated from the walls. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.V. Sorokman
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS — is a fairly common disease of unknown etiology that affects children of all age groups and sometimes adult population and refers to the functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of Rehydron Optim for oral rehydration therapy in children. Materials and methods. The treatment of 40 children aged 3 to 11 years with CVS (15 persons and primary acetonemic syndrome (25 persons in the period of acetonemic crisis, including 15 boys and 25 girls, was analyzed. All children were observed in the outpatient department of the Regional children’s hospital of Chernivtsi. Diagnosis was established based on anamnesis, clinical and laboratory data. Patients underwent required clinico-biological tests and instrumental examinations. The dynamics of the following syndromes was investigated: pain, vomiting, dehydration and intoxication. Rehydration therapy in all cases was oral with the usage of Rehydron Optim. Results of the study and their discussion. A cyclical vomiting was observed in children with primary acetonemic syndrome with satisfactory condition in attack-free period. Migraine-like headaches prevailed in 36 patients (80 %, and the age of these patients was older than 7 years. Same children had episodes of paroxysmal autonomic failure. Almost all surveyed children had in their family history the risk factors for CVS development. All children had positive dynamics of the main basic clinical manifestations on the background of oral rehydration therapy using Rehydron Optim. Within the 1st day of oral rehydration therapy with Rehydron Optim in children, we have noted a significant decrease in the incidence of lethargy, vomiting, spastic abdominal pain, smell of acetone in the exhaled air (p < 0.05. In children with the I degree of dehydration, clinical signs of dehydration were not seen before the treatment, and children with the II degree had an
[Cyclic Cushing's Syndrome - rare or rarely recognized].
Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa
2015-01-01
Cyclic Cushing's syndrome is a type of Cushing's disease which is characterized by alternating periods of increasing and decreasing levels of cortisol in the blood. The diagnostic criteria for cyclic Cushing's syndrome are at least three periods of hypercortisolism alternating with at least two episodes of normal levels of serum cortisol concentration. The epidemiology, signs, symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of cyclic Cushing's syndrome have been discussed.
Modeling Cyclic Variation of Intracranial Pressure
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Daley, M
2001-01-01
...) recording during mechanical ventilation are due to cyclic extravascular compressional modulation primarily of the cerebral venous bed, an established isovolumetric model of cerebrospinal fluid...
Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær
Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...
Cyclical subnormal separation in A-groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarfi, M.U.
1995-12-01
Three main results, concerning A-groups in respect of cyclical subnormal separation as defined in, are presented. It is shown in theorem A that any A-group that is generated by elements of prime order and satisfying the cyclical subnormal separation conditions is metabelian. The two other main results give necessary and sufficient conditions for A-groups, that are split extensions of certain abelian p-groups by a metabelian p'-group, to satisfy the cyclical subnormal separation condition. There is also a result which shows that A-groups with elementary abelian Sylow subgroups are cyclically separated as defined. (author). 7 refs
Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.
1985-01-01
The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using RF breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean Pierre Astruc
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical framework of multiresolution analysis based on irregularly spaced knots sequence. Our presentation is based on the construction of nested nonuniform spline multiresolution spaces. From these spaces, we present the construction of orthonormal scaling and wavelet basis functions on bounded intervals. For any arbitrary degree of the spline function, we provide an explicit generalization allowing the construction of the scaling and wavelet bases on the nontraditional sequences. We show that the orthogonal decomposition is implemented using filter banks where the coefficients depend on the location of the knots on the sequence. Examples of orthonormal spline scaling and wavelet bases are provided. This approach can be used to interpolate irregularly sampled signals in an efficient way, by keeping the multiresolution approach.
Examining the High-energy Radiation Mechanisms of Knots and Hotspots in Active Galactic Nucleus Jets
Zhang, Jin; Du, Shen-shi; Guo, Sheng-Chu; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Chen, Liang; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan
2018-05-01
We compile the radio–optical–X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 65 knots and 29 hotspots in 41 active galactic nucleus jets to examine their high-energy radiation mechanisms. Their SEDs can be fitted with the single-zone leptonic models, except for the hotspot of Pictor A and six knots of 3C 273. The X-ray emission of 1 hotspot and 22 knots is well explained as synchrotron radiation under the equipartition condition; they usually have lower X-ray and radio luminosities than the others, which may be due to a lower beaming factor. An inverse Compton (IC) process is involved for explaining the X-ray emission of the other SEDs. Without considering the equipartition condition, their X-ray emission can be attributed to the synchrotron-self-Compton process, but the derived jet powers (P jet) are not correlated with L k and most of them are larger than L k, with more than three orders of magnitude, where L k is the jet kinetic power estimated with their radio emission. Under the equipartition condition, the X-ray emission is well interpreted with the IC process for the cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB). In this scenario, the derived P jet of knots and hotspots are correlated with and comparable to L k. These results suggest that the IC/CMB model may be a promising interpretation of the X-ray emission. In addition, a tentative knot–hotspot sequence in the synchrotron peak-energy–peak-luminosity plane is observed, similar to the blazar sequence, which may be attributed to the different cooling mechanisms of electrons.
Sprouty gene dosage influences temporal-spatial dynamics of primary enamel knot formation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lochovská, Kateřina; Peterková, Renata; Pavlíková, Zuzana; Hovořáková, Mária
2015-01-01
Roč. 15, APR 22 (2015), s. 21 ISSN 1471-213X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1766; GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : enamel knot * tooth development * mouse molar * sprouty genes * sonic hedgehog * cre-loxp system * supernumerary tooth Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.096, year: 2015
Castillo, Pablo; Nico, Andrés I.; Azcón González de Aguilar, Concepción; Río Rincón, C. del; Calvet, Cinta; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.
2006-01-01
The effects were investigated, under controlled conditions, of single and joint inoculation of olive planting stocks cvs Arbequina and Picual with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae or Glomus viscosum, and the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica, on plant performance and nematode infection. Establishment of the fungal symbiosis significantly increased growth of olive plants by 88·9% within a range of 11·9–214·0%, ...
Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield
Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang
2015-01-01
Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in labor...
Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2015-06-19
We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention of any numerical solver and the rule is optimal, that is, it requires minimal number of nodes. Numerical experiments validating the theoretical results and the error estimates of the quadrature rules are also presented.
A farmer friendly and economic IPM strategy to combat root-knot nematodes infesting lentil
Rose Rizvi; Rizwan Ali Ansari; Gulshan Zehra; Irshad Mahmood
2015-01-01
An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Rhizobium sp., waste tea leaves, eggshell powder, and composted cow dung manure on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on lentil in Botany department AMU, Aligarh, India. When used alone, composted cow dung was better in reducing galling and nematode multiplication and improving lentil growth followed by eggshell powder, Rhizobium sp., and waste tea leaves. Significant result in the integrated management of M. incognita was obtain...
Root-knot nematodes in golf course greens of the western United States
A survey of 238 golf courses in ten of the Western U.S. found root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in 60 % of the putting greens sampled. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA, D2-D3 of 28S rRNA, ITS-rRNA and mtDNA gene sequences were used to identify specimens from 110 golf courses. The...
HOMFLY for twist knots and exclusive Racah matrices in representation [333
Morozov, A.
2018-03-01
Next step is reported in the program of Racah matrices extraction from the differential expansion of HOMFLY polynomials for twist knots: from the double-column rectangular representations R = [ rr ] to a triple-column and triple-hook R = [ 333 ]. The main new phenomenon is the deviation of the particular coefficient f[ 332 ][ 21 ] from the corresponding skew dimension, what opens a way to further generalizations.
Chang, Olivia H; King, Louise P; Modest, Anna M; Hur, Hye-Chun
2016-01-01
To develop a teaching and assessment tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot tying. We designed an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool that includes a procedure-specific checklist (PSC) and global rating scale (GRS) to assess laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying performance. Obstetrics and Gynecology residents at our institution were videotaped while performing a laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying task at a surgical simulation workshop. A total of 2 expert reviewers assessed resident performance using the OSATS tool during live performance and 1 month later using the videotaped recordings. OSATS scores were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Data are presented as median scores (interquartile range [IQR]). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed using a Spearman correlation and are presented as an r correlation coefficient and p value. An r ≥ 0.8 was considered as a high correlation. After testing, we received feedback from residents and faculty to improve the OSATS tool as part of an iterative design process. In all, 14 of 21 residents (66.7%) completed the study, with 9 junior residents and 5 senior residents. Junior residents had a lower score on the PSC than senior residents did; however, this was not statistically significant (median = 6.0 [IQR: 4.0-10.0] and median = 13.0 [IQR: 10.0-13.0]; p = 0.09). There was excellent intrarater reliability with our OSATS tool (for PSC component, r = 0.88 for Rater 1 and 0.93 for Rater 2, both p assessment and teaching tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying skills. Overall, good intrarater reliability was demonstrated, suggesting that this tool may be useful for longitudinal assessment of surgical skills. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Automated knot detection with visual post-processing of Douglas-fir veneer images
C.L. Todoroki; Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra
2010-01-01
Knots on digital images of 51 full veneer sheets, obtained from nine peeler blocks crosscut from two 35-foot (10.7 m) long logs and one 18-foot (5.5 m) log from a single Douglas-fir tree, were detected using a two-phase algorithm. The algorithm was developed using one image, the Development Sheet, refined on five other images, the Training Sheets, and then applied to...
Caspase 3 activation in the primary enamel knot of developing molar tooth
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matalová, Eva; Kovářů, František; Míšek, Ivan
2006-01-01
Roč. 55, 2 (2006), s. 183-188 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/04/0101; GA AV ČR KJB500450503; GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : apoptosis * caspase 3 * primary enamel knot Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006
Cyclic completion of the anamorphic universe
Ijjas, Anna
2018-04-01
Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the best known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.
Detection of Cyclic Dinucleotides by STING.
Du, Xiao-Xia; Su, Xiao-Dong
2017-01-01
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor protein mediating cytosolic DNA-induced innate immunity for both microbial invasion and self-DNA leakage. STING is also a direct receptor for cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), including the microbial secondary messengers c-di-GMP (3',3'-cyclic di-GMP), 3',3'cGAMP (3',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP), and mammalian endogenous 2',3'cGAMP (2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP) synthesized by cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase). Upon CDN binding, STING undergoes a conformational change to enable signal transduction by phosphorylation and finally to active IRF3 (Interferon regulatory factor 3) for type I interferon production. Here, we describe some experimental procedures such as Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and luciferase reporter assays to study the CDNs binding and activity by STING proteins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irvine, William T M
2010-01-01
Maxwell's equations allow for some remarkable solutions consisting of pulsed beams of light which have linked and knotted field lines. The preservation of the topological structure of the field lines in these solutions has previously been ascribed to the fact that the electric and magnetic helicities, a measure of the degree of linking and knotting between field lines, are conserved. Here we show that the elegant evolution of the field is due to the stricter condition that the electric and magnetic fields be everywhere orthogonal. The field lines then satisfy a 'frozen field' condition and evolve as if they were unbreakable filaments embedded in a fluid. The preservation of the orthogonality of the electric and magnetic field lines is guaranteed for null, shear-free fields such as the ones considered here by a theorem of Robinson. We calculate the flow field of a particular solution and find it to have the form of a Hopf fibration moving at the speed of light in a direction opposite to the propagation of the pulsed light beam, a familiar structure in this type of solution. The difference between smooth evolution of individual field lines and conservation of electric and magnetic helicities is illustrated by considering a further example in which the helicities are conserved, but the field lines are not everywhere orthogonal. The field line configuration at time t = 0 corresponds to a nested family of torus knots but unravels upon evolution.
Hair-on-hair static friction coefficient can be determined by tying a knot.
Chevalier, Nicolas R
2017-11-01
Characterizing the tribological properties of the hair-hair interface is important to quantify the manageability of hair and to assess the performance of hair care products. Audoly et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164301, 2007) derived an equation relating the self-friction coefficient of an elastic fiber to the dimensions of a simple, relaxed overhand knot made from this fiber. I experimentally tested and validated their equation using nylon thread and an independent measurement of its self-friction coefficient. I show that this methodology can be applied to provide high-throughput data on the static self-friction coefficient of single hair fibers in various conditions and to quantitatively assess how hair care treatments (conditioner, relaxant) alter frictional properties. I find that treatment of hair with 1M sodium hydroxide leads to a quick, irreversible self-friction coefficient increase; the resulting fine frictional fibers can be used to form very small knots for microsurgical vessel and organ ligature in medicine or embryology. The relaxed overhand knot method can more generally be used to measure the self-friction coefficients of a wide range of elastic fibers from the nano- (e.g. proteins, nanotubes) to the macro-scale (e.g. textile fiber, fiberglass). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A novel platform based on defect-rich knotted graphene nanotubes for detection of small biomolecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lan, Shumin; Song, Yingpan; Chen, Qidi; Guo, Zhiyong; Zhan, Hongbing
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Curvature of the SC-CNTs’ cavities had more local pressure, leading to form k-GNTs. • k-GNTs are divided into sections by knots with abundant edge-plane sites/defects. • k-GNTs exhibited excellent catalytic activity, sensitivity and reproducibility. - Abstract: Detection of disease-related small biomolecules was of great significance for clinical diagnostics and treatment. In this work, we synthesized defect-rich knotted graphene nanotubes (k-GNTs) via chemical oxidative etching of stacked-up carbon nanotubes (SC-CNTs) followed by chemical reduction, to detect disease-related small biomolecules. We further studied the electrochemical properties using three representative redox probes and analyzed their biosensitivity using five biomolecules. The k-GNT-modified electrodes exhibited excellent electrochemical response, with the lowest ΔE p and the highest k 0 . Besides, the modified electrodes could simultaneously detect and discriminate between dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid and uric acid (UA), as well as differentiate phenethylamine (PEA) and epinephrine (EP) existed in newborn rat serum, providing the wide linear detection ranges with high sensitivities for DA, UA, PEA, and EP. These excellent electrocatalytic properties could be ascribe to the unique knotted graphene nanotube structure with high proportion of defect/edge sites, large, accessible, three-dimensional, accessible surface area, fewer oxygen-containing groups and doped N atoms. Our work reveals defect-rich k-GNTs as a promising platform for further applications in electrochemical biosensing and electrocatalysis.
Blue optical continuum associated with a radio knot in 3C346
Dey, Arjun; van Breugel, Wil J. M.
1994-06-01
We report the discovery of extremely luminous near-UV continuum emission associated with a bright radio knot in the radio galaxy 3C346 (zeta = 0.162). Photometric measurements from U and r' band images and longslit spectra show a spectral energy distribution that steepens at higher frequencies, with radio and optical spectral indices alphar = -0.37 +/- 0.02 and alphao = -1.8 +/- 0.2, respectively. Based on a comparison of the optical properties of this knot with other known cases of optical emission associated with radio structures, we conclude that the continuum emission is optical synchrotron radiation. Our observations are consistent with the suggestion that 3C346 is a foreshortened FR-II radio galaxy with its radio axis oriented close to the line of sight. The optical and radio emission from the knot appear to be associated with a hotspot (at the end of a jet) on the near side. Finally, our U and r' images of 3C346 provide a striking illustration that the optical morphologies of nearby radio galaxies also depend upon wavelength and that studies of these objects are relevant to the interpretation of the alignment effect seen in the high redshift radio galaxies.
[Controlling effect of antagonist bioorganic fertilizer on tomato root-knot nematode].
Zhu, Zhen; Chen, Fang; Xiao, Tong-jian; Wang, Xiao-hui; Ran, Wei; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong
2011-04-01
Indoor in vitro culture experiment and greenhouse pot experiment were conducted to evaluate the capabilities of three bacterial strains XZ-173 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), SL-25 (B. gibsonii), and KS-62 (Paenibacillus polymyxa) that can hydrolyze collagen protein in controlling tomato root-knot nematode. In the in vitro culture experiment, suspensions of XZ-173, SL-25, and KS-62 induced a mortality rate of 75.9%, 66.7%, and 50.0% to the second-stage junior nematode within 24 h, and decreased the egg hatching rate to 17.8%, 28.9% and 37.6% after 7-day incubation, respectively, in contrast to the 17.4% mortality rate and 53.6% egg hatching rate in the control (sterilized water). In the greenhouse pot experiment, the bioorganic fertilizer mixed with equal parts of fermented XZ-173, SL-25, and KS-62 gained the best result, with the root-knot nematode population in rhizosphere soil decreased by 84.0% as compared with the control. The bioorganic fertilizer also decreased the numbers of galls and eggs on tomato roots significantly, and increased the underground and aboveground biomass of tomato. Therefore, antagonist bioorganic fertilizer has promising potential in controlling root-knot nematode.
Knot probability of polygons subjected to a force: a Monte Carlo study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rensburg, E J Janse van; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G
2008-01-01
We use Monte Carlo methods to study the knot probability of lattice polygons on the cubic lattice in the presence of an external force f. The force is coupled to the span of the polygons along a lattice direction, say the z-direction. If the force is negative polygons are squeezed (the compressive regime), while positive forces tend to stretch the polygons along the z-direction (the tensile regime). For sufficiently large positive forces we verify that the Pincus scaling law in the force-extension curve holds. At a fixed number of edges n the knot probability is a decreasing function of the force. For a fixed force the knot probability approaches unity as 1 - exp(-α 0 (f)n + o(n)), where α 0 (f) is positive and a decreasing function of f. We also examine the average of the absolute value of the writhe and we verify the square root growth law (known for f = 0) for all values of f
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul J. Ackerman
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Topological solitons are knots in continuous physical fields classified by nonzero Hopf index values. Despite arising in theories that span many branches of physics, from elementary particles to condensed matter and cosmology, they remain experimentally elusive and poorly understood. We introduce a method of experimental and numerical analysis of such localized structures in liquid crystals that, similar to the mathematical Hopf maps, relates all points of the medium’s order parameter space to their closed-loop preimages within the three-dimensional solitons. We uncover a surprisingly large diversity of naturally occurring and laser-generated topologically nontrivial solitons with differently knotted nematic fields, which previously have not been realized in theories and experiments alike. We discuss the implications of the liquid crystal’s nonpolar nature on the knot soliton topology and how the medium’s chirality, confinement, and elastic anisotropy help to overcome the constraints of the Hobart-Derrick theorem, yielding static three-dimensional solitons without or with additional defects. Our findings will establish chiral nematics as a model system for experimental exploration of topological solitons and may impinge on understanding of such nonsingular field configurations in other branches of physics, as well as may lead to technological applications.
Ackerman, Paul J.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.
2017-01-01
Topological solitons are knots in continuous physical fields classified by nonzero Hopf index values. Despite arising in theories that span many branches of physics, from elementary particles to condensed matter and cosmology, they remain experimentally elusive and poorly understood. We introduce a method of experimental and numerical analysis of such localized structures in liquid crystals that, similar to the mathematical Hopf maps, relates all points of the medium's order parameter space to their closed-loop preimages within the three-dimensional solitons. We uncover a surprisingly large diversity of naturally occurring and laser-generated topologically nontrivial solitons with differently knotted nematic fields, which previously have not been realized in theories and experiments alike. We discuss the implications of the liquid crystal's nonpolar nature on the knot soliton topology and how the medium's chirality, confinement, and elastic anisotropy help to overcome the constraints of the Hobart-Derrick theorem, yielding static three-dimensional solitons without or with additional defects. Our findings will establish chiral nematics as a model system for experimental exploration of topological solitons and may impinge on understanding of such nonsingular field configurations in other branches of physics, as well as may lead to technological applications.
Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.
1982-01-01
The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at
Cyclic characteristics of earthquake time histories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, J.R. Jr; Shukla, D.K.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.
1977-01-01
From an engineering standpoint, an earthquake record may be characterized by a number of parameters, one of which is its 'cyclic characteristics'. The cyclic characteristics are most significant in fatigue analysis of structures and liquefaction analysis of soils where, in addition to the peak motion, cyclic buildup is significant. Whereas duration peak amplitude and response spectra for earthquakes have been studied extensively, the cyclic characteristics of earthquake records have not received an equivalent attention. Present procedures to define the cyclic characteristics are generally based upon counting the number of peaks at various amplitude ranges on a record. This paper presents a computer approach which describes a time history by an amplitude envelope and a phase curve. Using Fast Fourier Transform Techniques, an earthquake time history is represented as a projection along the x-axis of a rotating vector-the length the vector is given by the amplitude spectra-and the angle between the vector and x-axis is given by the phase curve. Thus one cycle is completed when the vector makes a full rotation. Based upon Miner's cumulative damage concept, the computer code automatically combines the cycles of various amplitudes to obtain the equivalent number of cycles of a given amplitude. To illustrate the overall results, the cyclic characteristics of several real and synthetic earthquake time histories have been studied and are presented in the paper, with the conclusion that this procedure provides a physical interpretation of the cyclic characteristics of earthquakes. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmiegelow, P.; Berndt, G.; Lindner, J.; Puschmann, M.
1981-01-01
By quantitative autoradiographic methods we tested the possible influence of the sulphurous amino acid L-cystine on the growth of hair, skin and nails. In the 3 H-thymidine autoradiographic method the tracing index (percentage of traced cell cores in relation to the total number of cell cores of a cell population) is calculated morphologically. In the 35 S-cystine and the 35 S-methionine autoradiography a quantification is carried out by applying the microscopic photometer for the investigation of defined hair root cross-sections. Measured values are indicated which depend on dosage and on the incorporation time. The investigation of other agents provoking negative or positive reactions of the hair growth by means of this method will have to be realized. Unlabelled L-cystine seems to promote the growth of hairs, epidermic basal cells and of germ cells of mouse nails, according to experiences made in animal experiments. The latter findings will have to be completed and confirmed by additional experiments. (orig.) [de
Cyclic voltammetry and reduction mechanistic studies of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
styrylpyrylium perchlorates have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, in comparison to their non-methylated derivatives values. The reduction peak of all studied compounds remained chemically irreversible. The presence of the ...
A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device
Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Foulds, Ian G.
2015-01-01
This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime
Introduction of a cyclic-fermentation method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makarova, C P
1958-01-01
Equipment is described, consisting of 8 kettles, which permits a cyclic fermentation process and continuous ethanol production; 100% yields of ethanol are obtained, based on the starch content in grain.
Results on Cyclic Signal Processing Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vaidyanathan, P
1998-01-01
.... A number of related problems such as the paraunitary interpolation problem and the cyclic paraunitary factorizability problem can be understood in a unified way by using the realization matrix...
Cyclical Variability of Prominences, CMEs and Flares
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
For many years, qualitative studies were made about the cyclical ... plan to review the more recent research concerning all these topics. Key words. ... are distributed in three narrow zones, which show different types of time-latitude behaviour.
Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives
Onomura, Osamu
2012-01-01
Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.
Macromolecular Networks Containing Fluorinated Cyclic Moieties
2015-12-12
Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 Nov 2015 – 12 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Macromolecular Networks Containing Fluorinated Cyclic... FLUORINATED CYCLIC MOIETIES 12 December 2015 Andrew J. Guenthner,1 Scott T. Iacono,2 Cynthia A. Corley,2 Christopher M. Sahagun,3 Kevin R. Lamison,4...Reinforcements Good Flame, Smoke, & Toxicity Characteristics Low Water Uptake with Near Zero Coefficient of Hygroscopic Expansion ∆ DISTRIBUTION A
The Cyclicality of New Product Introductions
Kostas Axarloglou
2003-01-01
This study analyzes empirically the cyclical nature of the timing of new product introductions in U.S. manufacturing. New product introductions vary more in nonseasonal frequencies than in seasonal frequencies. However, the seasons alone account for only a small part of their total variability with demand factors being much more important. Demand fluctuations account for 35%80% and 17%43%, respectively, of the seasonal and cyclical variability of new product introductions in various industrie...
3' : 5'-Cyclic AMP-dependent 3'
Mato, José M.; Krens, Frans A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Konijn, Theo M.
1977-01-01
Suspensions of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cAMP pulse with increased 3':5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Under the assay conditions used (2 × 10^8 cells per ml in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) cAMP (5 × 10-8 M final concentration) increased cGMP
The calculation of dissipated work, elastoplastic cyclic stress and cyclic strain in a structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xucheng; Xie Yihuan.
1986-01-01
With the development of the reactor technique, there is being an increasing interest in the calculation of elastoplastic response of a structure to its complex loading. This paper introduces a constitutive relation of a material for discribing unloading property, and uses it in an analysis of a real structure under a cyclic loading. The results, which include cyclic stress, cyclic strain and dissipated work, are meaningful in the researches of the structure behavior under complex loading and of the structural safety
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrayás, Manuel; Trueba, José L
2015-01-01
An electromagnetic knot is an electromagnetic field in vacuum in which the magnetic lines and the electric lines coincide with the level curves of a pair of complex scalar fields ϕ and θ (see equations (A.1), (A.2)). When electromagnetism is expressed in terms of electromagnetic knots, it includes mechanisms for the topological quantization of the electromagnetic helicity, the electric charge, the electromagnetic energy inside a cavity and the magnetic flux through a superconducting ring. In the case of electromagnetic helicity, its topological quantization depends on the linking number of the field lines, both electric and magnetic. Consequently, to find solutions of the electromagnetic knot equations with nontrivial topology of the field lines has important physical consequences. We study a new class of solutions of Maxwell's equations in vacuum Arrayás and Trueba (2011 arXiv:1106.1122) obtained from complex scalar fields that can be interpreted as maps S 3 →S 2 , in which the topology of the field lines is that of the whole torus-knot set. Thus this class of solutions is built as electromagnetic knots at initial time. We study some properties of those fields and consider if detection based on the energy and momentum observables is possible. (paper)
EXPANSION OF HYDROGEN-POOR KNOTS IN THE BORN-AGAIN PLANETARY NEBULAE A30 AND A78
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, X.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Toalá, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Arthur, S. J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, 58090 Morelia (Mexico); Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blair, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Todt, H., E-mail: fangx@iaa.es [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, Universität Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2014-12-20
We analyze the expansion of hydrogen-poor knots and filaments in the born-again planetary nebulae A30 and A78 based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images obtained almost 20 yr apart. The proper motion of these features generally increases with distance to the central star, but the fractional expansion decreases, i.e., the expansion is not homologous. As a result, there is not a unique expansion age, which is estimated to be 610-950 yr for A30 and 600-1140 yr for A78. The knots and filaments have experienced complex dynamical processes: the current fast stellar wind is mass loaded by the material ablated from the inner knots; the ablated material is then swept up until it shocks the inner edges of the outer, hydrogen-rich nebula. The angular expansion of the outer filaments shows a clear dependence on position angle, indicating that the interaction of the stellar wind with the innermost knots channels the wind along preferred directions. The apparent angular expansion of the innermost knots seems to be dominated by the rocket effect of evaporating gas and by the propagation of the ionization front inside them. Radiation-hydrodynamical simulations show that a single ejection of material followed by a rapid onset of the stellar wind and ionizing flux can reproduce the variety of clumps and filaments at different distances from the central star found in A30 and A78.
Abbott, Eduardo F; Thompson, Whitney; Pandian, T K; Zendejas, Benjamin; Farley, David R; Cook, David A
2017-11-01
Compare the effect of personalized feedback (PF) vs. task demonstration (TD), both delivered via video, on laparoscopic knot-tying skills and perceived workload; and evaluate the effect of repeated practice. General surgery interns and research fellows completed four repetitions of a simulated laparoscopic knot-tying task at one-month intervals. Midway between repetitions, participants received via e-mail either a TD video (demonstration by an expert) or a PF video (video of their own performance with voiceover from a blinded senior surgeon). Each participant received at least one video per format, with sequence randomly assigned. Outcomes included performance scores and NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores. To evaluate the effectiveness of repeated practice, scores from these trainees on a separate delayed retention test were compared against historical controls who did not have scheduled repetitions. Twenty-one trainees completed the randomized study. Mean change in performance scores was significantly greater for those receiving PF (difference = 23.1 of 150 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0, 46.2], P = .05). Perceived workload was also significantly reduced (difference = -3.0 of 20 [95% CI: -5.8, -0.3], P = .04). Compared with historical controls (N = 93), the 21 with scheduled repeated practice had higher scores on the laparoscopic knot-tying assessment two weeks after the final repetition (difference = 1.5 of 10 [95% CI: 0.2, 2.8], P = .02). Personalized video feedback improves trainees' procedural performance and perceived workload compared with a task demonstration video. Brief monthly practice sessions support skill acquisition and retention.
Kiewnick, S; Sikora, R A
2004-01-01
The egg pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (strain 251) is a biocontrol fungus with a potential range of activity to control the worldwide most important plant parasitic nematodes. This biological nematicide may be an useful tool in an integrated approach to control mainly sedentary nematodes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla on tomato. P. lilacinus, formulated as WG (BIOACT WG), was incorporated into soil inoculated with root-knot nematode eggs prior to transplanting the susceptible tomato cultivar "Hellfrucht". Furthermore, soil treatments were combined with seedling treatments 24 hours before transplanting and a soil drench 2 weeks after planting, respectively. Seedling and post planting treatment was also combined with a soil treatment at planting. All single or combination treatments tested decreased the gall index and the number of egg masses compared to the untreated control 12 weeks after planting. However, the combination of the seedling treatment with a pre- or at-planting application of P. lilacinus was necessary to achieve higher levels of control. Additional post plant drenching resulted in only a slight increase In efficacy. To the feasibility of this modified application system for the control of root-knot nematodes, a yield experiment was conducted with M. hapla and the susceptible cultivar "Gnom F1 Hybrid". It could be demonstrated that the above mentioned combination of pre-planting application plus the seedling and one post plant drench gave the best control and resulted in a significant fruit yield increase in concurrence with a decrease in number of galls per root.
Spermatic Cord Knot: A Clinical Finding in Patients with Spermatic Cord Torsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullatif Al-Terki
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Pertinent history taking and careful examination often taper the differentials of the acute scrotum; congruently the ability to diagnose acute spermatic cord torsion (SCT when radiological adjuncts are not available is highly imperative. This observational study serves to present a series of 46 cases of spermatic cord torsion whereby we hypothesize the identification of a clinical knot on scrotal examination as an important clinical aid in making a decision to surgical exploration in patients with acute and subacute SCT, especially in centers where imaging resources are unavailable.
On knottings in the physical Hilbert space of LQG as given by the EPRL model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahr, Benjamin
2011-01-01
We consider the EPRL spin foam amplitude for arbitrary embedded two-complexes. Choosing a definition of the face- and edge amplitudes which lead to spin foam amplitudes invariant under trivial subdivisions, we investigate invariance properties of the amplitude under consistent deformations, which are deformations of the embedded two-complex where faces are allowed to pass through each other in a controlled way. Using this surprising invariance, we are able to show that the physical Hilbert space, as defined by the sum over all spin foams, contains no information about knotting classes of graphs anymore.
21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to measure the level of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in plasma, urine, and other body fluids...
Shimamura, Miyuki K; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2002-05-01
Several nontrivial properties are shown for the mean-square radius of gyration R2(K) of ring polymers with a fixed knot type K. Through computer simulation, we discuss both finite size and asymptotic behaviors of the gyration radius under the topological constraint for self-avoiding polygons consisting of N cylindrical segments with radius r. We find that the average size of ring polymers with the knot K can be much larger than that of no topological constraint. The effective expansion due to the topological constraint depends strongly on the parameter r that is related to the excluded volume. The topological expansion is particularly significant for the small r case, where the simulation result is associated with that of random polygons with the knot K.
Liu, Yuzhong; O'Keeffe, Michael; Treacy, Michael M J; Yaghi, Omar M
2018-05-04
The geometry of simple knots and catenanes is described using the concept of linear line segments (sticks) joined at corners. This is extended to include woven linear threads as members of the extended family of knots. The concept of transitivity that can be used as a measure of regularity is explained. Then a review is given of the simplest, most 'regular' 2- and 3-periodic patterns of polycatenanes and weavings. Occurrences in crystal structures are noted but most structures are believed to be new and ripe targets for designed synthesis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzhumanov, S.; Tulepbergenov, S.K.; Shunkeev, K.Sh.
2002-01-01
In the paper molecular component of two-knot auto-localized exciton (TALE) occupying centrosymmetric state in alkali halide crystal cubic lattice with local D 2h symmetry is considered. In is suggested that the symmetry lowering of forming small radius auto-localized exciton (ALE) is realizing in order configuration transformation by the scenario: multi-knot continual ALE (with O h symmetry)→six-halide ALE (with O h symmetry)→TALE (with O h symmetry) or by the scenario O h →D 2h . Then for TALE with local D 2h symmetry normal molecular ion shifts are considered as well
Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlederer, Florian; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton
2016-01-01
The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally entangled Bell-states. (paper)
On the equivalence of cyclic and quasi-cyclic codes over finite fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenza Guenda
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the equivalence problem for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ and quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$. In particular, we generalize the results of Huffman, Job, and Pless (J. Combin. Theory. A, 62, 183--215, 1993, who considered the special case $p^2$. This is achieved by explicitly giving the permutations by which two cyclic codes of prime power length are equivalent. This allows us to obtain an algorithm which solves the problem of equivalency for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ in polynomial time. Further, we characterize the set by which two quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$ can be equivalent, and prove that the affine group is one of its subsets.
The impact of solarisation integrated with plant bio-fermentation on root knot nematodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, S. K.; Traboulsi, A. F.
2009-01-01
The impact of different freshly/dried chopped medicinal or aromatic plant materials as an organic amendment in pot cultures, as well as integrated with solarisation under greenhouse conditions on the root knot nematodes population was evaluated. Results indicated that application of solarisation alone gave good control (72%) but when integrated with different plant materials, the control level increased to 95% with Allium sativum and 90% with Mentha microphylla and slightly less with other plant materials which ranged from75 to 80%. The results of pot experiments revealed that the most significant effect on the number of nematodes was achieved with Tagetes patula followed by Pimpinella anisum, Melia azadirach and Origanium syriacum reaching 0.0, 1.2, 1.2 and 2.5/g of roots, respectively. Total control was obtained with Allium sativum. Origanium syriacum contained the highest amount of essential oil (6%). Results obtained indicated that integrated approach using solarisation combined with plant materials could be the best alternative control for the root-knot nematodes. (author)
Adhering Pasteuria penetrans endospores affect movements of root-knot nematode juveniles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioannis VAGELAS
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Pasteuria penetrans is a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., preventing root invasion by second-stage juveniles (J2s, and eventually causing females sterility and death. greatest control effects for P. penetrans depend on the numbers of endospores attached to nematode cuticles. a method based on digital image analysis was used to record the effects of endospore attachment on the movements of juvenile root-knot nematodes, using a model based on the centroid point. Data showed that the numbers of endospores attached to the cuticle influenced nematode movement. At high endospore attachment levels (20‒30 per J2, nematodes did not show directional movement, whereas nematodes encumbered with five to eight spores showed limited directional movement, compared to those without endospores. nematode cephalic region turns were modelled using a markov chain, showing that P. penetrans endospores affected movements. Less nematodes invaded and established on tomato root systems when encumbered with low (five to eight or high numbers (20‒30 of P. penetrans endospores, compared with unencumbered nematodes.
Topological Vortex and Knotted Dissipative Optical 3D Solitons Generated by 2D Vortex Solitons.
Veretenov, N A; Fedorov, S V; Rosanov, N N
2017-12-29
We predict a new class of three-dimensional (3D) topological dissipative optical one-component solitons in homogeneous laser media with fast saturable absorption. Their skeletons formed by vortex lines where the field vanishes are tangles, i.e., N_{c} knotted or unknotted, linked or unlinked closed lines and M unclosed lines that thread all the closed lines and end at the infinitely far soliton periphery. They are generated by embedding two-dimensional laser solitons or their complexes in 3D space after their rotation around an unclosed, infinite vortex line with topological charge M_{0} (N_{c}, M, and M_{0} are integers). With such structure propagation, the "hula-hoop" solitons form; their stability is confirmed numerically. For the solitons found, all vortex lines have unit topological charge: the number of closed lines N_{c}=1 and 2 (unknots, trefoils, and Solomon knots links); unclosed vortex lines are unknotted and unlinked, their number M=1, 2, and 3.
Knot wormholes and the dimensional invariant of exceptional Lie groups and Stein space hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elokaby, Ayman
2009-01-01
The present short note points out a most interesting and quite unexpected connection between the number of distinct knot as a function of their crossing number and exceptional Lie groups and Stein space hierarchies. It is found that the crossing number 7 plays the role of threshold similar to 4 and 5 in E-infinity theory and for the 11 crossing the number of distinct knots is very close to 4α-bar 0 +1=548+1=549, where α-bar 0 =137 is the inverse integer electromagnetic fine structure constant. This is particularly intriguing in view of a similar relation pertinent to the 17 two and three Stein spaces where the total dimension is Σ 1 17 Stein=5α-bar 0 +1=685+1=686, as well as the sum of the eight exceptional Lie symmetry groups Σ i=1 8 |E i |=4α-bar 0 =548. The slight discrepancy of one is explained in both cases by the inclusion of El Naschie's transfinite corrections leading to Σ i=1 8 |E i |=(4)(137+k 0 )=548.328157 and Σ i=1 17 Stein=(5)(137+k 0 )=685.41097, where k o = φ 5 (1 - φ 5 ) and φ=(√(5)-1)/2.
Lucena, Thomas R; Lam, Patrick H; Millar, Neal L
2015-01-01
Background The present study aimed to determine how repair technique influenced structural and clinical outcomes at 5 years post-surgery. Methods Three cohorts of patients had repair of a symptomatic rotator cuff tear using (i) an open double-row mattress repair technique (n = 25); (ii) arthroscopic single-row simple suture knotted technique (n = 25); or (iii) arthroscopic single-row inverted mattress knotless technique (n = 36) by one surgeon. Standardized patient- and examiner-determined outcomes were obtained pre-operatively and postoperatively with a validated protocol, ultrasound were also performed at the same time. Results Retear occurred more often after open repair (48%) at 5 years than after arthroscopic knotted (33%) and arthroscopic knotless (26%) repair. Retear was associated with increasing age, pre-operative tear size and weaker pre-operative and 5 years postoperative cuff strength. Between 2 years and 5 years, the open repair group experienced an increase in the frequency of pain during activity, as well as in the difficulty experienced and the severity of pain during overhead activities (p repair group. Conclusions At 5-year follow-up, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair techniques resulted in fewer retears and better outcomes compared to an open double-row technique. PMID:27582985
Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rose Rizvi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.
HOST liner cyclic facilities: Facility description
Schultz, D.
1982-01-01
A quartz lamp box, a quartz lamp annular rig, and a low pressure liner cyclic can rig planned for liner cyclic tests are described. Special test instrumentation includes an IR-TV camera system for measuring liner cold side temperatures, thin film thermocouples for measuring liner hot side temperatures, and laser and high temperature strain gages for obtaining local strain measurements. A plate temperature of 2,000 F was obtained in an initial test of an apparatus with three quartz lamps. Lamp life, however, appeared to be limited for the standard commercial quartz lamps available. The design of vitiated and nonvitiated preheaters required for the quartz lamp annular rig and the cyclic can test rigs is underway.
Cyclic cellular automata in 3D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiter, Clifford A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. → Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. → Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. → Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, G.; Slovak, K.
2006-01-01
It is too early to speculate on where the Transpetrol shares will end up. The bankruptcy trustee of Yukos, Eduard Rebgun, has so far received three offers from Gazprom, the Rusneft oil company and the Penta private equity group via its Cyprian company. All three would like to gain control over the Slovak oil transporting company. As yet, no formal request from the Slovak Republic has been delivered to Moscow. By Trend's deadline, President Ivan Gasparovic and the Minister of Economy, Lubomir Jahnatek, were still negotiating in Moscow with the Russian President, Vladimir Putin. One of the topics on the agenda was the future of the company which transports Russian oil to Europe. Both Slovakia and Russia aim to gain control over the stock and the situation is locked in stalemate The stock in question is owned by the Dutch company, Yukos Finance. And although this company is owned by the bankrupt Yukos, the property rights are in the hands of foundation, Stichting Administratiekantoor Yukos International. Yukos Finance is not in bankruptcy and it is therefore difficult to detach the Yukos shares from the company assets. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Susanne; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer
2017-01-01
dispersed within these networks. To illustrate and discuss the process of participatory infrastructuring we use a case study from an educational context. This particular project contains a diverse set of design activities at many organizational levels revolving around technology, decision-making, competence...... of the literature on infrastructuring, participatory design, and activity theory, and leads to a revised understanding of, for example, learning and conflicts in participatory infrastructuring....
Holographic entanglement entropy and cyclic cosmology
Frampton, Paul H.
2018-06-01
We discuss a cyclic cosmology in which the visible universe, or introverse, is all that is accessible to an observer while the extroverse represents the total spacetime originating from the time when the dark energy began to dominate. It is argued that entanglement entropy of the introverse is the more appropriate quantity to render infinitely cyclic, rather than the entropy of the total universe. Since vanishing entanglement entropy implies disconnected spacetimes, at the turnaround when the introverse entropy is zero the disconnected extroverse can be jettisoned with impunity.
Entire cyclic cohomology and modular theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoytchev, O.Ts.
1992-04-01
We display a close relationship between C* and W*-dynamical systems with KMS states on them and entire cyclic cohomology theory. We construct a character form which assigns to each such system (A, α, R) an even entire cyclic cocycle of the subalgebra A of differentiable (with respect to the given automorphism group) elements of A. We argue that the most interesting case is the von Neumann algebra one, where the automorphism group is determined uniquely by the faithful normal state on the algebra (the modular group) and where the character may provide important information about the algebra. (author). 11 refs
DEKINGA, A; PIERSMA, T
Methods are described to assess the molluscan diet of Knots feeding on intertidal flats in western Europe from their faecal output. The size distributions of two common bivalve prey, Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule, can be estimated from the heights of shell hinges retrieved from droppings.
Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.
1993-01-01
Methods are described to assess the molluscan diet of Knots feeding on intertidal flats in western Europe from their faecal output. The size distributions of two common bivalve prey, Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule, can be estimated from the heights of shell hinges retrieved from droppings.
Incidence and Identification of Root-Knot Nematode in Plastic-House Fields of Central Area of Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyoung Rai Ko
2017-12-01
Full Text Available To investigate occurrence of root-knot nematode (RKN in plastic house of central area of Korea, 132 soil samples were collected in cucumber, water melon, tomato, red pepper and strawberry fields from 2013 to 2015. Among 132 soil samples, 65 soil samples (49% were infested with RKN and mean density of RKN was 178 second-stage juveniles per 100 cm³ soil (min. 1 ~ max. 3,947. The frequency of RKN by regional was the highest in Chuncheon with 80%, followed by Cheonan (68%, Nonsan (36%, Buyeo (33% and Yesan (30%. The frequency of RKN by crops was the highest in tomato with 83%, followed by cucumber (61%, strawberry (41%, red pepper (30%, watermelon (26%. To identify the species of RKN, fifteen populations were selected for representative populations. As a phylogenetic analysis of 15 populations, southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita, peanut root-knot nematode (M. arenaria and northern root-knot nematode (M. hapla were identified with 47%, 20% and 33% ratio, respectively. In crops, M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla were detected in tomato, M. incognita and M. arenaria were detected in cucumber and watermelon, and M. hapla was detected in strawberry and lettuce. Thus, there should be a continuous management to major species of each crops to prevent dispersal of RKN damages.
Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). Spores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second stage juvenile (J2) and sterilize infected female. This study looked at different factors that influence spore attachment of P. penetrans to M. arenaria. Incubating J2 ...
Battley, PF; Rogers, DI; Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.
2003-01-01
Migratory shorebirds that live in the tropics prior to embarking on long (> 5000 km) flights may face heat-load problems. The behaviour of a large sandpiper, the Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), was studied in Roebuck Bay, north-west Australia, from February to April 2000. We determined the
Bruinzeel, L.W.; Piersma, T.
1998-01-01
To test whether heat generated during locomotion substitutes for the thermoregulation cost, oxygen consumption of four post-absorptive temperate-wintering Knot Calidris canutus was measured at air temperatures of 25 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 10 degrees C (c. 10 degrees below the lower critical
The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...
Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Correa, V.R.; Almeida, M.R.A.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Deimi, A.M.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.; Karssen, G.
2014-01-01
A new root-knot nematode parasitising vegetables, flowers and fruits in Brazil, Iran and Chile, is described as Meloidogyne luci n. sp. The female has an oval to squarish perineal pattern with a low to moderately high dorsal arc and without shoulders, similar to M. ethiopica. The female stylet is
Verhoeven, M.A.; Van Eerbeek, J.; Hassell, C.J.; Piersma, T.
2016-01-01
The departure of migratory birds from their non-breeding grounds is thought to be driven by the phenologyof their breeding destination. In north-west Australia, two plumage morphs of Red Knot (Calidris canutus) prepare for a5500-km journey to Yellow Sea staging areas. These morphs are recognised as
Huang, Emily; Chern, Hueylan; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Cook, Brian; McDonald, Erik; Palmer, Barnard; Liu, Terrence; Kim, Edward
2014-10-01
Knot tying is a fundamental and crucial surgical skill. We developed a kinesthetic pedagogical approach that increases precision and economy of motion by explicitly teaching suture-handling maneuvers and studied its effects on novice performance. Seventy-four first-year medical students were randomized to learn knot tying via either the traditional or the novel "kinesthetic" method. After 1 week of independent practice, students were videotaped performing 4 tying tasks. Three raters scored deidentified videos using a validated visual analog scale. The groups were compared using analysis of covariance with practice knots as a covariate and visual analog scale score (range, 0 to 100) as the dependent variable. Partial eta-square was calculated to indicate effect size. Overall rater reliability was .92. The kinesthetic group scored significantly higher than the traditional group for individual tasks and overall, controlling for practice (all P kinesthetic overall mean was 64.15 (standard deviation = 16.72) vs traditional 46.31 (standard deviation = 16.20; P kinesthetic suture handling substantively improved performance on knot tying. We believe this effect can be extrapolated to more complex surgical skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piersma, T.; Poot, M.
1993-01-01
A Knot Calidris canutus, kept with four conspecifics on an enclosed artificial outdoor tidal flat in The Netherlands, refused to feed on the available bivalve prey for a period of 18 days and thereby decreased in mass from 209 g to 107 g, at which point the bird resumed feeding on the then freely
Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G
2004-01-01
Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego,
Wiersma, Popko; Piersma, Theunis
We quantify seasonal changes in the maintenance energy requirements of Red Knots (Calidris canutus islandica). This subspecies breeds on the tundra of northeast Canada and north Greenland, migrates through Iceland and spends the winter in the coastal regions of western Europe. Maintenance Metabolism
Piersma, T.; Cadée, N.; Daan, S.
Knots Calidris canutus live highly seasonal lives, breeding solitarily on high arctic tundra and spending the non-breeding season in large social flocks in temperate to tropical estuaries. Their reproductive activities and physiological preparations for long flights are reflected in pronounced
Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) can negatively impact both herbaceous annual and woody perennial hosts. RKN infestations also may increase plant host susceptibility to other stresses such as those imposed by water deficits or various diseases. However, little is known about direct or ind...
Verdaasdonk, E.G.G.; Dankelman, J.; Lange, J.F.; Stassen, L.P.S.
2007-01-01
Background- Laparoscopic suturing is one of the most difficult tasks in endoscopic surgery, requiring extensive training. The aim of this study was to determine the transfer validity of knot-tying training on a virtual-reality (VR) simulator to a realistic laparoscopic environment. Methods- Twenty
2011-01-04
... breeding areas, in addition to having morphological and behavioral character differences. The Service and... subspecies' ability to build up adequate nutrient and energy stores to complete their long migrations... both market and sport (Harrington 2001, p. 22). Hunting of red knots is no longer allowed in the United...
Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation
Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.
2003-01-01
One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose
Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel
2013-01-01
A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...
Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens
2017-01-01
with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...
Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.
Wilkinson, Bruce H.
1982-01-01
Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…
Hopf Algebroids and Their Cyclic Theory
Kowalzig, N.
2009-01-01
The main objective of this thesis is to clarify concepts of generalised symmetries in noncommutative geometry (i.e., the noncommutative analogue of groupoids and Lie algebroids) and their associated (co)homologies. These ideas are incorporated by the notion of Hopf algebroids and Hopf-cyclic
Cyclic viscoelastoplasticity of polypropylene/nanoclay composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drozdov, A.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville
2012-01-01
Observations are reported on isotactic polypropylene/organically modified nanoclay hybrids with concentrations of filler ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% in cyclic tensile tests with a stress–controlled program (oscillations between various maximum stresses and the zero minimum stress). A pronounced effe...
Breaking antidunes: Cyclic behavior due to hysteresis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deigaard, Rolf
2006-01-01
The cyclic behavior of breaking antidunes (growth, breaking of surface wave, obliteration) is investigated by use of a numerical model. The model includes the transition between supercritical and transcritical flow. As the antidune grows the flow becomes transcritical and a hydraulic jump is form...
Inversion of General Cyclic Heptadiagonal Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Karawia
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a reliable symbolic computational algorithm for inverting general cyclic heptadiagonal matrices by using parallel computing along with recursion. The computational cost of it is operations. The algorithm is implementable to the Computer Algebra System (CAS such as MAPLE, MATLAB, and MATHEMATICA. Two examples are presented for the sake of illustration.
Cyclic olefin copolymer-silica nanocomposites foams
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pegoretti, A.; Dorigato, A.; Biani, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 51, č. 8 (2016), s. 3907-3916 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic olefin copolymer * nanocomposites * silica Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016
Steady state oxygen reduction and cyclic voltammetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rossmeisl, Jan; Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas
2008-01-01
The catalytic activity of Pt and Pt3Ni for the oxygen reduction reaction is investigated by applying a Sabatier model based on density functional calculations. We investigate the role of adsorbed OH on the activity, by comparing cyclic voltammetry obtained from theory with previously published ex...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eiji Kakazu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The innate immune cells can not normally respond to the pathogen in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that antigen-presenting cells take up L-Cystine (L-Cys and secrete substantial amounts of L-Glutamate (L-Glu via the transport system Xc- (4F2hc+xCT, and that this exchange influences the immune responses. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis on the function of circulating monocytes. METHODS: We used a serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentrations of plasma amino acids from patients with advanced cirrhosis (ACM, and examined the function of CD14+ monocytes or THP-1 under ACM that contained 0-300 nmol/mL L-Cys with LPS. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, we actually determined the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes, and evaluated the correlation between the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu ratio and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: The addition of L-Cys significantly increased the production of TNF alpha from monocytes under ACM. Monocytes with LPS and THP-1 expressed xCT and a high level of extracellular L-Cys enhanced L-Cys/L-Glu antiport, and the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was decreased. The L-Cys transport was inhibited by excess L-Glu. In patients with advanced cirrhosis (n = 19, the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes were increased according to the Child-Pugh grade. The TNF-alpha mRNA of monocytes was significantly higher in the high L-Cys/L-Glu ratio group than in the low ratio group, and the plasma TNF-alpha was significantly correlated with the L-Cys/L-Glu ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance, which appears in patients with advanced cirrhosis, increased the TNF-alpha from circulating monocytes via increasing the intracellular oxidative stress. These results may reflect the immune abnormality that appears in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
Knot soliton in DNA and geometric structure of its free-energy density.
Wang, Ying; Shi, Xuguang
2018-03-01
In general, the geometric structure of DNA is characterized using an elastic rod model. The Landau model provides us a new theory to study the geometric structure of DNA. By using the decomposition of the arc unit in the helical axis of DNA, we find that the free-energy density of DNA is similar to the free-energy density of a two-condensate superconductor. By using the φ-mapping topological current theory, the torus knot soliton hidden in DNA is demonstrated. We show the relation between the geometric structure and free-energy density of DNA and the Frenet equations in differential geometry theory are considered. Therefore, the free-energy density of DNA can be expressed by the curvature and torsion of the helical axis.
Luo, Hong-li; Sun, Man-hong; Xie, Jian-ping; Liu, Zhi-heng; Huang, Ying
2006-08-01
Twenty actinomycetes were isolated from root-knot nematode eggs and females collected from 11 plant root samples infested by Meloidogyne spp.. The isolates were assigned to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardia and Pseudonocardia respectively, based on analysis of morphological characteristics, cell-wall DAPs and 16S rRNA gene sequences. 80% of them were streptomycetes. Biocontrol potential of the isolates against Meloidogyne hapla was evaluated in liquid culture in vitro. The average percentages of egg parasitism, egg hatching, and juvenile mortality were 54.1, 40.4 and 26.2, respectively. Three Streptomyces strains and one Nocardia strain with high pathogenicity in vitro were selected to determine their ability to reduce tomato root galls in greenhouse. The results demonstrated good biocontrol efficacy (31.4%-56.4%) of the strains.
Commercial Biological Control Agents Targeted Against Plant-Parasitic Root-knot Nematodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie-Stéphane Tranier
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes are microscopic round worms, which cause severe agricultural losses. Their attacks affect the productivity by reducing the amount and the caliber of the fruits. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using microorganisms to reduce the quantity of pests infecting crops. Biological control is developing gradually, and with time, more products are being marketed worldwide. They can be formulated with bacteria, viruses or with filamentous fungi, which can destroy and feed on phytoparasitic nematodes. To be used by the farmers, biopesticides must be legalized by the states, which has led to the establishment of a legal framework for their use, devised by various governmental organizations.
Microbiomes associated with infective stages of root-knot and lesion nematodes in soil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Elhady
Full Text Available Endoparasitic root-knot (Meloidogyne spp. and lesion (Pratylenchus spp. nematodes cause considerable damage in agriculture. Before they invade roots to complete their life cycle, soil microbes can attach to their cuticle or surface coat and antagonize the nematode directly or by induction of host plant defenses. We investigated whether the nematode-associated microbiome in soil differs between infective stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans, and whether it is affected by variation in the composition of microbial communities among soils. Nematodes were incubated in suspensions of five organically and two integrated horticultural production soils, recovered by sieving and analyzed for attached bacteria and fungi after washing off loosely adhering microbes. Significant effects of the soil type and nematode species on nematode-associated fungi and bacteria were revealed as analyzed by community profiling using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Attached microbes represented a small specific subset of the soil microbiome. Two organic soils had very similar bacterial and fungal community profiles, but one of them was strongly suppressive towards root-knot nematodes. They were selected for deep amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS. Significant differences among the microbiomes associated with the two species in both soils suggested specific surface epitopes. Among the 28 detected bacterial classes, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were the most abundant. The most frequently detected fungal genera were Malassezia, Aspergillus and Cladosporium. Attached microbiomes did not statistically differ between these two soils. However, Malassezia globosa and four fungal species of the family Plectosphaerellaceae, and the bacterium Neorhizobium galegae were strongly enriched on M. incognita in the suppressive soil. In conclusion, the highly specific attachment of microbes to infective stages of
BUBBLES AND KNOTS IN THE KINEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 2818
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vazquez, Roberto, E-mail: vazquez@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico)
2012-06-01
High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope archive imaging and high-dispersion spectroscopy are used to study the complex morphological and kinematical structure of the planetary nebula, NGC 2818. We analyze narrowband H{alpha}, [O III], [N II], [S II], and He II images, addressing important morphological features. Ground-based long-slit echelle spectra were obtained crossing NGC 2818 at five different positions to precisely determine kinematical features in the structure of the nebula. A distance of 2.5 kpc was used to determine physical scales. Constructing models to fit the data with modern computational tools, we find NGC 2818 is composed of (1) a non-uniform bipolar structure with a semimajor axis of 0.92 pc (75''), possibly deformed by the stellar wind, (2) a 0.17 pc (14'') diameter central region, which is potentially the remnant of an equatorial enhancement, and (3) a great number of cometary knots. These knots are preferentially located inside a radius of 0.24 pc (20'') around the central star. The major axis of the main structure is oriented at i {approx_equal} 60 Degree-Sign with respect to the line of sight and at P.A. = +89 Degree-Sign on the plane of the sky. Expansion velocities of this nebula are V{sub pol} = 105 km s{sup -1} and V{sub eq} = 20 km s{sup -1}, which lead to our estimate of the kinematical age of {tau}{sub k} {approx_equal} 8400 {+-} 3400 yr (assuming homologous expansion). Our observations do not support the idea that high-velocity collimated ejections are responsible for the formation of microstructures inside the nebula. We determine the systemic velocity of NGC 2818 to be V{sub HEL} = +26 {+-} 2 km s{sup -1}.
Root-Knot and Cyst Nematodes Activate Procambium-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis Roots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasuka L. Yamaguchi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Developmental plasticity is one of the most striking features of plant morphogenesis, as plants are able to vary their shapes in response to environmental cues. Biotic or abiotic stimuli often promote organogenesis events in plants not observed under normal growth conditions. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs are known to parasitize multiple species of rooting plants and to induce characteristic tissue expansion called galls or root-knots on the roots of their hosts by perturbing the plant cellular machinery. Galls contain giant cells (GCs and neighboring cells, and the GCs are a source of nutrients for the parasitizing nematode. Highly active cell proliferation was observed in galls. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the symptoms triggered by the plant-nematode interaction have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we deciphered the molecular mechanism of gall formation with an in vitro infection assay system using RKN Meloidogyne incognita, and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By taking advantages of this system, we performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome profiling, and found that the expression of procambium identity-associated genes were enriched during gall formation. Clustering analyses with artificial xylogenic systems, together with the results of expression analyses of the candidate genes, showed a significant correlation between the induction of gall cells and procambium-associated cells. Furthermore, the promoters of several procambial marker genes such as ATHB8, TDR and WOX4 were activated not only in M. incognita-induced galls, but similarly in M. javanica induced-galls and Heterodera schachtii-induced syncytia. Our findings suggest that phytoparasitic nematodes modulate the host’s developmental regulation of the vascular stem cells during gall formation.
Root-Knot and Cyst Nematodes Activate Procambium-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis Roots.
Yamaguchi, Yasuka L; Suzuki, Reira; Cabrera, Javier; Nakagami, Satoru; Sagara, Tomomi; Ejima, Chika; Sano, Ryosuke; Aoki, Yuichi; Olmo, Rocio; Kurata, Tetsuya; Obayashi, Takeshi; Demura, Taku; Ishida, Takashi; Escobar, Carolina; Sawa, Shinichiro
2017-01-01
Developmental plasticity is one of the most striking features of plant morphogenesis, as plants are able to vary their shapes in response to environmental cues. Biotic or abiotic stimuli often promote organogenesis events in plants not observed under normal growth conditions. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are known to parasitize multiple species of rooting plants and to induce characteristic tissue expansion called galls or root-knots on the roots of their hosts by perturbing the plant cellular machinery. Galls contain giant cells (GCs) and neighboring cells, and the GCs are a source of nutrients for the parasitizing nematode. Highly active cell proliferation was observed in galls. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the symptoms triggered by the plant-nematode interaction have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we deciphered the molecular mechanism of gall formation with an in vitro infection assay system using RKN Meloidogyne incognita , and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By taking advantages of this system, we performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome profiling, and found that the expression of procambium identity-associated genes were enriched during gall formation. Clustering analyses with artificial xylogenic systems, together with the results of expression analyses of the candidate genes, showed a significant correlation between the induction of gall cells and procambium-associated cells. Furthermore, the promoters of several procambial marker genes such as ATHB8 , TDR and WOX4 were activated not only in M. incognita -induced galls, but similarly in M. javanica induced-galls and Heterodera schachtii -induced syncytia. Our findings suggest that phytoparasitic nematodes modulate the host's developmental regulation of the vascular stem cells during gall formation.
Growth and yield of grafted cucumbers in soil infested with root-knot nematodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smiljana Goreta Ban
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenariasiceraria (Molina Standi. ('Emphasis', 'S-1', and 'Gourd', two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved' and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'. The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season. The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9 and yield (5.38 kg compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant. The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga A Postnikova
Full Text Available Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp. are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69 and susceptible (cv. Lahontan alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with
Identification of cyclic nucleotide gated channels using regular expressions
Zelman, Alice K.; Dawe, Adam Sean; Berkowitz, Gerald A.
2013-01-01
Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are nonselective cation channels found in plants, animals, and some bacteria. They have a six-transmembrane/one- pore structure, a cytosolic cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, and a cytosolic calmodulin
Effects of hypokinesia on cyclic nucleotides and hormonal regulation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PTH), calcitonin (CT), cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) and calcium in the blood of rats, while in urine - phosphate, calcium and cyclic nucleotides. Design: Laboratory based experiment. Setting: Laboratory in the Department of Biochemistry, ...
Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Borylation of Cyclic Alkenes
Kondoh, Azusa; Jamison, Timothy F.
2010-01-01
A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenative borylation of cyclic alkenes is described. This reaction provides direct access to cyclic 1-alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters, useful intermediates in organic synthesis. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling applications are also presented. PMID:20107646
Cyclic inelastic deformation aspects of fatigue-crack-growth analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leis, B.N.; Zahoor, A.
1980-01-01
This paper concentrates on a J-integral analysis of fatigue crack growth. Data on cyclic plasticity are analyzed showing that there are limitations to the usefulness of the deformation theory in applications to cyclic plasticity. 56 refs.
Compressed sensing with cyclic-S Hadamard matrix for terahertz imaging applications
Ermeydan, Esra Şengün; ćankaya, Ilyas
2018-01-01
Compressed Sensing (CS) with Cyclic-S Hadamard matrix is proposed for single pixel imaging applications in this study. In single pixel imaging scheme, N = r . c samples should be taken for r×c pixel image where . denotes multiplication. CS is a popular technique claiming that the sparse signals can be reconstructed with samples under Nyquist rate. Therefore to solve the slow data acquisition problem in Terahertz (THz) single pixel imaging, CS is a good candidate. However, changing mask for each measurement is a challenging problem since there is no commercial Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) for THz band yet, therefore circular masks are suggested so that for each measurement one or two column shifting will be enough to change the mask. The CS masks are designed using cyclic-S matrices based on Hadamard transform for 9 × 7 and 15 × 17 pixel images within the framework of this study. The %50 compressed images are reconstructed using total variation based TVAL3 algorithm. Matlab simulations demonstrates that cyclic-S matrices can be used for single pixel imaging based on CS. The circular masks have the advantage to reduce the mechanical SLMs to a single sliding strip, whereas the CS helps to reduce acquisition time and energy since it allows to reconstruct the image from fewer samples.
Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hacı Aktaş
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.
Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling in Kidney Fibrosis
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Elisabeth Schinner
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis is an important factor for the progression of kidney diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus induced kidney failure, glomerulosclerosis and nephritis resulting in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP were implicated to suppress several of the above mentioned renal diseases. In this review article, identified effects and mechanisms of cGMP and cAMP regarding renal fibrosis are summarized. These mechanisms include several signalling pathways of nitric oxide/ANP/guanylyl cyclases/cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP/Epac/adenylyl cyclases/cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Furthermore, diverse possible drugs activating these pathways are discussed. From these diverse mechanisms it is expected that new pharmacological treatments will evolve for the therapy or even prevention of kidney failure.
A cyclic symmetry principle in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA
1994-01-01
Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs
Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2010-01-01
Size effects on the cyclic shear response are studied numerically using a recent higher order strain gradient visco-plasticity theory accounting for both dissipative and energetic gradient hardening. Numerical investigations of the response under cyclic pure shear and shear of a finite slab between...... rigid platens have been carried out, using the finite element method. It is shown for elastic–perfectly plastic solids how dissipative gradient effects lead to increased yield strength, whereas energetic gradient contributions lead to increased hardening as well as a Bauschinger effect. For linearly...... hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...
Generalized Toeplitz operators and cyclic vectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gassier, G.; Mahzouli, H.; Zerouali, E.H.
2003-04-01
We give in this paper some asymptotic Von Neumann inequalities for power bounded operators in the class C ρ intersection C 1 . and some spacial von Neumann inequalities associated with non zero elements of the point spectrum, when it is non void, of generalized Toeplitz operators. Introducing perturbed kernel, we consider classes C R which extend the classical classes C ρ . We give results about absolute continuity with respect to the Haar measure for operators in class C R intersection C 1 . This allows us to give new results on cyclic vectors for such operators and provides invariant subspaces for their powers. Relationships between cyclic vectors for T and T* involving generalized Toeplitz operators are given and the commutativity of {T}', the commutant of T is discussed. (author)
Cosmic evolution in a cyclic universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil
2002-01-01
Based on concepts drawn from the ekpyrotic scenario and M theory, we elaborate our recent proposal of a cyclic model of the universe. In this model, the universe undergoes an endless sequence of cosmic epochs which begin with the universe expanding from a 'big bang' and end with the universe contracting to a 'big crunch'. Matching from 'big crunch' to 'big bang' is performed according to the prescription recently proposed with Khoury, Ovrut and Seiberg. The expansion part of the cycle includes a period of radiation and matter domination followed by an extended period of cosmic acceleration at low energies. The cosmic acceleration is crucial in establishing the flat and vacuous initial conditions required for ekpyrosis and for removing the entropy, black holes, and other debris produced in the preceding cycle. By restoring the universe to the same vacuum state before each big crunch, the acceleration ensures that the cycle can repeat and that the cyclic solution is an attractor
Separation of isotopes by cyclical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamrin, C.E. Jr.; Weaver, K.
1976-01-01
Various isotopes of hydrogen are separated by a cyclic sorption process in which a gas stream containing the isotopes is periodically passed through a high pressure column containing a palladium sorbent. A portion of the product from the high pressure column is passed through a second column at lower pressure to act as a purge. Before the sorbent in the high pressure column becomes saturated, the sequence is reversed with the stream flowing through the former low-pressure column now at high pressure, and a portion of the product purging the former high pressure column now at low pressure. The sequence is continued in cyclic manner with the product being enriched in a particular isotope
Soil Fatigue Due To Cyclically Loaded Foundations
Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw
2016-01-01
Cyclic loading on civil structures can lead to a reduction of strength of the used materials. A literature study showed that, in contrast to steel structures and material engineering, there are no design codes or standards for fatigue of foundations and the surrounding ground masses in terms of shear strength reduction. Scientific efforts to study the fatigue behaviour of geomaterials are mainly focused on strain accumulation, while the reduction of shear strength of geomaterials has not been...
Reaction of cyclic epoxide compounds with triphenylphosphine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kas'yan, L.I.; Stepanova, N.V.; Galafeeva, M.F.; Boldeskul, I.E.; Trachevskii, V.V.; Zefirov, N.S.
1987-01-01
Significant differences were found in the reactivity of a series of epoxides of cycloalkenes and methylenecycloalkanes and diepoxides in reaction with triphenylphosphine, depending both on the steric effects of the cyclic fragments and on their strain. The level of the strain can be judged indirectly from the chemical shifts of the 1 H and 13 C nuclei and the spin-spin coupling constants of the C-H bonds in the epoxide ring
Human skin kinetics of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins
Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; ROCHE, NATHALIE; De Spiegeleer, Bart
2014-01-01
Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are an emerging group of naturally occurring bioactive peptides, some of which are already developed as pharmaceutical drugs, e.g. valinomycin. They are produced by bacteria, marine organisms and fungi [1]. Some CDPs are secondary fungal metabolites, which can be very toxic to humans and animals, and are therefore called mycotoxins. Currently, dermal exposure data of CDP mycotoxins is scarce and fragmentary with a lack of understanding about the local skin and syst...
Modelling of cyclical stratigraphy using Markov chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulatilake, P.H.S.W.
1987-07-01
State-of-the-art on modelling of cyclical stratigraphy using first-order Markov chains is reviewed. Shortcomings of the presently available procedures are identified. A procedure which eliminates all the identified shortcomings is presented. Required statistical tests to perform this modelling are given in detail. An example (the Oficina formation in eastern Venezuela) is given to illustrate the presented procedure. 12 refs., 3 tabs. 1 fig.
Markup cyclicality, employment adjustment, and financial constraints
Askildsen, Jan Erik; Nilsen, Øivind Anti
2001-01-01
We investigate the existence of markups and their cyclical behaviour. Markup is not directly observed. Instead, it is given as a price-cost relation that is estimated from a dynamic model of the firm. The model incorporates potential costly employment adjustments and takes into consideration that firms may be financially constrained. When considering size of the future labour stock, financially constrained firms may behave as if they have a higher discount factor, which may affect the realise...
Characterization of cyclic peptides containing disulfide bonds
Johnson, Mindy; Liu, Mingtao; Struble, Elaine; Hettiarachchi, Kanthi
2015-01-01
Unlike linear peptides, analysis of cyclic peptides containing disulfide bonds is not straightforward and demands indirect methods to achieve a rigorous proof of structure. Three peptides that belong to this category, p-Cl-Phe-DPDPE, DPDPE, and CTOP, were analyzed and the results are presented in this paper. The great potential of two dimensional NMR and ESI tandem mass spectrometry was harnessed during the course of peptide characterizations. A new RP-HPLC method for the analysis of trifluor...
Visual search of cyclic spatio-temporal events
Gautier, Jacques; Davoine, Paule-Annick; Cunty, Claire
2018-05-01
The analysis of spatio-temporal events, and especially of relationships between their different dimensions (space-time-thematic attributes), can be done with geovisualization interfaces. But few geovisualization tools integrate the cyclic dimension of spatio-temporal event series (natural events or social events). Time Coil and Time Wave diagrams represent both the linear time and the cyclic time. By introducing a cyclic temporal scale, these diagrams may highlight the cyclic characteristics of spatio-temporal events. However, the settable cyclic temporal scales are limited to usual durations like days or months. Because of that, these diagrams cannot be used to visualize cyclic events, which reappear with an unusual period, and don't allow to make a visual search of cyclic events. Also, they don't give the possibility to identify the relationships between the cyclic behavior of the events and their spatial features, and more especially to identify localised cyclic events. The lack of possibilities to represent the cyclic time, outside of the temporal diagram of multi-view geovisualization interfaces, limits the analysis of relationships between the cyclic reappearance of events and their other dimensions. In this paper, we propose a method and a geovisualization tool, based on the extension of Time Coil and Time Wave, to provide a visual search of cyclic events, by allowing to set any possible duration to the diagram's cyclic temporal scale. We also propose a symbology approach to push the representation of the cyclic time into the map, in order to improve the analysis of relationships between space and the cyclic behavior of events.
Cyclic dominance in evolutionary games: a review
Szolnoki, Attila; Mobilia, Mauro; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Szczesny, Bartosz; Rucklidge, Alastair M.; Perc, Matjaž
2014-01-01
Rock is wrapped by paper, paper is cut by scissors and scissors are crushed by rock. This simple game is popular among children and adults to decide on trivial disputes that have no obvious winner, but cyclic dominance is also at the heart of predator–prey interactions, the mating strategy of side-blotched lizards, the overgrowth of marine sessile organisms and competition in microbial populations. Cyclical interactions also emerge spontaneously in evolutionary games entailing volunteering, reward, punishment, and in fact are common when the competing strategies are three or more, regardless of the particularities of the game. Here, we review recent advances on the rock–paper–scissors (RPS) and related evolutionary games, focusing, in particular, on pattern formation, the impact of mobility and the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance. We also review mean-field and zero-dimensional RPS models and the application of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, and we highlight the importance and usefulness of statistical physics for the successful study of large-scale ecological systems. Directions for future research, related, for example, to dynamical effects of coevolutionary rules and invasion reversals owing to multi-point interactions, are also outlined. PMID:25232048
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M. [Departamento de Física - CCE,Universidade Federal de Espirito Santo, 29075-900, Vitoria ES (Brazil)
2016-11-16
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M.
2016-01-01
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nadeem
2016-01-01
Conclusion: The use of metallic endoclip for appendix stump closure is safe and less time consuming but costs higher. Because of the simplicity of the technique it's a useful alternative to the extracorporeal knotting especially for learners.
Pender, Cianna; Kiselov, Vladimir; Yu, Qingzhao; Mooney, Jennifer; Greiffenstein, Patrick; Paige, John T
2017-02-01
We evaluated the effectiveness of implementing a proficiency-driven, simulation-based knot tying and suturing curriculum for medical students during their 3rd-year surgery clerkship. Medical students on the 3rd-year surgical clerkship completed a proficiency-driven, simulation-based knot tying and suturing curriculum consisting of 6 tasks. The effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the initial presession scores to the final postsession scores on an 8-item self-efficacy scale and evaluating pass rates on end of clerkship skills testing. A paired t test was used to analyze data. Sixty-five students had matched preintervention and postintervention questionnaires for analysis. Pass rates approached 100% by the 3rd attempt on all tasks. Significant gains on all 8 items of the self-efficacy questionnaire from pretraining to post-training were noted. Timing of the general surgery rotation did not impact results. Implementation of a simulation-based training, proficiency-driven knot tying and suturing curriculum for 3rd-year medical students during the surgery clerkship is feasible and effective in improving student self-efficacy and objective proficiency toward performance of the tasks taught. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ertugrul Can
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aim of Study: To describe a simplified ab-interno cow-hitch suture fixation technique for repositioning decentered posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL. Materials and Methods: Two cases are presented with the surgical correction of decentered and subluxated IOL. Ab-interno scleral suture fixation technique with hitch-cow knot in the eye was performed with a ciliary sulcus guide instrument and 1 year follow-up was completed. Results: Both of the patients had well centered lenses postoperatively. Corrected distant and near visual acuities of the patients were improved. There was no significant postoperative complication. In the follow-up period of 1 year, no evidence of suture erosion was found. Conclusions: Ab-interno scleral suture loop fixation with hitch-cow knot in the eye was effective in repositioning decentered or subluxated PC IOLs with excellent postoperative centered lenses and visual outcomes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van de Wetering, J.F.W.H.
1992-01-01
Using perturbative Chern-Simons theory in the almost axial gauge on the euclidean manifold S 1 xR 2 , we give a prescription for the computation of knot invariants. The method gives the correct expectation value of the unknot to all orders in perturbation theory and gives the correct answer for the spectral-parameter-dependent universal R-matrix to second order. All results are derived for a general semi-simple Lie algebra. (orig.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matalová, Eva; Dubská, L.; Fleischmannová, Jana; Chlastáková, Ivana; Janečková, Eva; Tucker, A. S.
2010-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 8 (2010), s. 570-575 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450802; GA AV ČR IAA600450904; GA ČR GA203/08/1680 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Laser capture microdissection * Flow cytometry * Primary enamel knot Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2010
Statistical damage constitutive model for rocks subjected to cyclic stress and cyclic temperature
Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu
2017-10-01
A constitutive model of rocks subjected to cyclic stress-temperature was proposed. Based on statistical damage theory, the damage constitutive model with Weibull distribution was extended. Influence of model parameters on the stress-strain curve for rock reloading after stress-temperature cycling was then discussed. The proposed model was initially validated by rock tests for cyclic stress-temperature and only cyclic stress. Finally, the total damage evolution induced by stress-temperature cycling and reloading after cycling was explored and discussed. The proposed constitutive model is reasonable and applicable, describing well the stress-strain relationship during stress-temperature cycles and providing a good fit to the test results. Elastic modulus in the reference state and the damage induced by cycling affect the shape of reloading stress-strain curve. Total damage induced by cycling and reloading after cycling exhibits three stages: initial slow increase, mid-term accelerated increase, and final slow increase.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para determinar a exigência nutricional em metionina + cistina (aminoácidos sulfurosos para frangos de corte Hubbard e Ross de ambos os sexos, no período de 1 a 21 e 22 a 42 dias de idade. Ganho de peso, consumo, conversão alimentar e composição de carcaça das aves foram avaliados. Foram usadas 2400 aves na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade e 1800 na fase de 22 a 42 dias de idade. Rações basais com 21e 19% PB e 3000 e 3100 kcal EM/kg foram suplementadas com seis níveis de metionina + cistina ( 0; 0,06; 0,12; 0,18; 0,24; e 0,30 nas fases de 1 a 21 e 22 a 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. As estimativas das exigências de metionina + cistina para a fase de 1 a 21 dias foram 0,886 e 0,896% e 0,890 e 0,868% e para a fase de 22 a 42 dias, 0,795 e 0,802% e 0,810 e 0,792%, para machos e fêmeas Hubbard e Ross, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to determine the nutritional requirement of methionine + cystine (sulfur amino acids for Hubbard and Ross broilers from 1 to 21 and from 22 to 42 days of age, of both sexes. Weight gain, intake, feed:gain and carcass composition were evaluated. Two thousand and four hundred broilers were used in the phase from 1 to 21 of age and 1800 broilers in the phase from 22 a 42 days of age. Basal diets with 21 and 19% of the CP and 3000 and 3100 kcal ME/kg were supplemented with six levels of methionine + cystine in the phases from 1 to 21 and from 22 to 42 of age, respectively. The estimated requirements of methionine + cystine ( 0; .06; .12; .18; .24; and .30 for the phase from 1 to 21 days were. 886% and .896%, .890% and .868% and for the phase from 22 to 42 days, .795%, and .802%, .810% and .792% for Hubbard and Ross male and female, respectively.
Duffy, Fergal J; O'Donovan, Darragh; Devocelle, Marc; Moran, Niamh; O'Connell, David J; Shields, Denis C
2015-03-23
Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but targeting these interactions with small molecules has historically been difficult. What is required are efficient combined computational and experimental screening methods to choose among a number of potential protein interfaces worthy of targeting lead macrocyclic compounds for further investigation. To achieve this, we have generated combinatorial 3D virtual libraries of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide structures, including short linear motifs (SLiMs), protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data Bank. We prepared a total of 372 reference pharmacophores, which were matched against 108,659 multiconformer cyclic peptides. After normalization to exclude nonspecific cyclic peptides, the top hits notably are enriched for mimetics of turn structures, including a turn at the interaction surface of human α thrombin, and also feature several protein-binding peptides. The top cyclic peptide hits also cover the critical "hot spot" interaction sites predicted from the interaction crystal structure. We have validated our method by testing cyclic peptides predicted to inhibit thrombin, a key protein in the blood coagulation pathway of important therapeutic interest, identifying a cyclic peptide inhibitor with lead-like activity. We conclude that protein interfaces most readily targetable by cyclic peptides and related macrocyclic drugs may be identified computationally among a set of candidate interfaces, accelerating the choice of interfaces against which lead compounds may be screened.
Shah, Syed Jehangir; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Mendy, Badou; Anwer, Muhammad Arslan; Habash, Samer S; Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid
2017-12-16
When nematodes invade and subsequently migrate within plant roots, they generate cell wall fragments (in the form of oligogalacturonides; OGs) that can act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate host defence responses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating damage responses in plant-nematode interactions remain unexplored. Here, we characterized the role of a group of cell wall receptor proteins in Arabidopsis, designated as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), during infection with the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. PGIPs are encoded by a family of two genes in Arabidopsis, and are involved in the formation of active OG elicitors. Our results show that PGIP gene expression is strongly induced in response to cyst nematode invasion of roots. Analyses of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines revealed that PGIP1 expression attenuates infection of host roots by cyst nematodes, but not root-knot nematodes. The PGIP1-mediated attenuation of cyst nematode infection involves the activation of plant camalexin and indole-glucosinolate pathways. These combined results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plant damage perception and response pathways during infection by cyst and root-knot nematodes, and establishes the function of PGIP in plant resistance to cyst nematodes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Nitration Study of Cyclic Ladder Polyphenylsilsesquioxane
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LIANG Jia-xiang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Several nitration reagents including fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4, KNO3-H2SO4, HNO3-KNO3, CH3COOH-KNO3, (CH3CO2O-HNO3 were used to nitrate cyclic ladder polyphenylsilsesquioxane (CL-PPSQ in different conditions in order to enhance the compatibility of the CL-PPSQ in polymers, the NO2-PPSQ was obtained. FTIR, element analysis, GPC, TGA and 1H NMR were used to characterize the structures of the nitrated products. The results show that the nitrating abilities of the fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4 and KNO3-H2SO4 are very strong. Many nitro groups can be linked with phenyl groups in CL-PPSQ, but with low molecular mass, fracture occurs in siloxane segment. However, the Mn of the product NO2-PPSQ sharply drops by 50% compared with that of CL-PPSQ, so the nitration reagents can break the cyclic structure of CL-PPSQ. The nitrating reagents of HNO3-KNO3 and CH3COOH-KNO3 have no nitration effects on CL-PPSQ. At last, NO2-CL-PPSQ was prepared using (CH3CO2O-HNO3 because of the moderate nitration process and ability. The cyclic structure of PPSQ is remained, although the number of —NO2 group is not too much. At the same time, the nitration mechanism using different nitration reagents was analyzed. A certain amount of NO2+, which is a kind of activator owning strong nitration ability, can be found in the fuming nitric acid and H2SO4-HNO3(KNO3 systems. As to the (CH3CO2O-HNO3 system, the main activator is CH3COONO2.
Cosmological D-instantons and cyclic universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, E A; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, J G; Townsend, P K
2005-01-01
For models of gravity coupled to hyperbolic sigma models, such as the metric-scalar sector of IIB supergravity, we show how smooth trajectories in the 'augmented target space' connect FLRW cosmologies to non-extremal D-instantons through a cosmological singularity. In particular, we find closed cyclic universes that undergo an endless sequence of big-bang to big-crunch cycles separated by instanton 'phases'. We also find 'big-bounce' universes in which a collapsing closed universe bounces off its cosmological singularity to become an open expanding universe
Increase of cyclic durability of pressure vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorona, V.A.; Zvezdin, Yu.I.
1980-01-01
The durability of multilayer pressure vessels under cyclic loading is compared with single-layer vessels. The relative conditional durability is calculated taking into account the assumption on the consequent destruction of layers and viewing a vessel wall as an indefinite plate. It is established that the durability is mainly determined by the number of layers and to a lesser degree depends on the relative size of the defect for the given layer thickness. The advantage of the multilayer vessels is the possibility of selecting layer materials so that to exclude the effect of agressive corrosion media on the strength [ru
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pradeep Kumar Papolu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKN cause substantial yield decline in eggplant and sustainable management options to minimize crop damage due to nematodes are still limited. A number of genetic engineering strategies have been developed to disrupt the successful plant-nematode interactions. Among them, delivery of proteinase inhibitors from the plant to perturb nematode development and reproduction is arguably the most effective strategy. In the present study, transgenic eggplant expressing a modified rice cystatin (OC-IΔD86 gene under the control of the root-specific promoter, TUB-1, was generated to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. Five putative transformants were selected through PCR and genomic Southern blot analysis. Expression of the cystatin transgene was confirmed in all the events using western blotting, ELISA and qPCR assay. Upon challenge inoculation, all the transgenic events exhibited a detrimental effect on RKN development and reproduction. The best transgenic line (a single copy event showed 78.3% inhibition in reproductive success of RKN. Our results suggest that cystatins can play an important role for improving nematode resistance in eggplant and their deployment in gene pyramiding strategies with other proteinase inhibitors could ultimately enhance crop yield.
Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.
Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang
2015-01-01
Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1), respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.
Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingkai Cheng
Full Text Available Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1, respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.
The Chern-Simons current in time series of knots and links in proteins
Capozziello, Salvatore; Pincak, Richard
2018-06-01
A superspace model of knots and links for DNA time series data is proposed to take into account the feedback loop from docking to undocking state of protein-protein interactions. In particular, the direction of interactions between the 8 hidden states of DNA is considered. It is a E8 ×E8 unified spin model where the genotype, from active and inactive side of DNA time data series, can be considered for any living organism. The mathematical model is borrowed from loop-quantum gravity and adapted to biology. It is used to derive equations for gene expression describing transitions from ground to excited states, and for the 8 coupling states between geneon and anti-geneon transposon and retrotransposon in trash DNA. Specifically, we adopt a modified Grothendieck cohomology and a modified Khovanov cohomology for biology. The result is a Chern-Simons current in (8 + 3) extradimensions of a given unoriented supermanifold with ghost fields of protein structures. The 8 dimensions come from the 8 hidden states of spinor field of genetic code. The extradimensions come from the 3 types of principle fiber bundle in the secondary protein.
A farmer friendly and economic IPM strategy to combat root-knot nematodes infesting lentil
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Rose Rizvi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Rhizobium sp., waste tea leaves, eggshell powder, and composted cow dung manure on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on lentil in Botany department AMU, Aligarh, India. When used alone, composted cow dung was better in reducing galling and nematode multiplication and improving lentil growth followed by eggshell powder, Rhizobium sp., and waste tea leaves. Significant result in the integrated management of M. incognita was obtained when Rhizobium sp. was used in combination with cow dung and eggshell powder (with or without waste tea leaves. Combined application of root nodule bacterium and organic wastes like waste tea leaves, eggshell, and cow dung may be suggested to the farmers/growers or related persons who are having great enthusiasm to establish a lentil production business. Application of these organic materials along with the root nodule bacteria may be helpful to foster soil ecosystem which has been a hot topic in the present scenario.
Application of graphene oxide based Microfiber-Knot resonator for relative humidity sensing
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S.R. Azzuhri
2018-06-01
Full Text Available A relative humidity (RH sensor is proposed and demonstrated using a micro-knot resonator (MKR enhanced with a layer graphene oxide (GO coating. The MKR is fabricated by means of tapering a standard fiber, with the GO coating added by the drop-cast method. The proposed sensor is tested for an RH range of between 0% and 80% at 20% intervals, and the configurations with and without the GO coating achieve sensitivities of 0.0104 nm/% and 0.0095 nm/%, respectively. The MKR configuration without the GO coating has a linear response correlation coefficient of 0.9098 and a resolution of 0.1%, while the configuration with the GO coating has a linear response correlation coefficient of 0.9548 and a resolution of 0.096% which is better. The proposed sensor has multiple applications, especially in the area of climate and atmospheric measurement and monitoring. Keywords: Microfiber, Resonator, Humidity sensor
Isolation and characterization of a rhizobacterial antagonist of root-knot nematodes.
Wei, Lihui; Shao, Ying; Wan, Jingwang; Feng, Hui; Zhu, Hua; Huang, Huiwen; Zhou, Yijun
2014-01-01
The rhizobacterial strain Jdm2 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii in Jiangsu province, China, and was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Exposure of cell-free filtrate of the strain to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under in vitro conditions caused substantial mortality of the second stage juvenile (J2) and significantly reduced egg hatchability. A greenhouse trial demonstrated that 56 days after treatment with Jdm2, the number of galls associated with M. incognita infection in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots was significantly reduced compared to controls, and the disease severity of infected plants was lower in treated plants (36%) compared to water control (75%). Consistently, in the field trial, the biocontrol efficacy of Jdm2 reached 69%, 51% and 48% after 30, 60 and 90 days post-transplantation, respectively. As indicated by PCR-DGGE analysis, inoculation with Jdm2 strain had an effect on the bacterial community of the tomato rhizosphere at the first stage, but was not able to imperil the bacterial community stability for long time. The novel bacterial strain Jdm2 enhances plant growth and inhibits nematode activity, and has the potential to be a safe and effective microbial pesticide.
Isolation and characterization of a rhizobacterial antagonist of root-knot nematodes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihui Wei
Full Text Available The rhizobacterial strain Jdm2 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii in Jiangsu province, China, and was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Exposure of cell-free filtrate of the strain to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under in vitro conditions caused substantial mortality of the second stage juvenile (J2 and significantly reduced egg hatchability. A greenhouse trial demonstrated that 56 days after treatment with Jdm2, the number of galls associated with M. incognita infection in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum roots was significantly reduced compared to controls, and the disease severity of infected plants was lower in treated plants (36% compared to water control (75%. Consistently, in the field trial, the biocontrol efficacy of Jdm2 reached 69%, 51% and 48% after 30, 60 and 90 days post-transplantation, respectively. As indicated by PCR-DGGE analysis, inoculation with Jdm2 strain had an effect on the bacterial community of the tomato rhizosphere at the first stage, but was not able to imperil the bacterial community stability for long time. The novel bacterial strain Jdm2 enhances plant growth and inhibits nematode activity, and has the potential to be a safe and effective microbial pesticide.
Detection of two fungal biocontrol agents against root-knot nematodes by RAPD markers.
Zhu, Ming Liang; Mo, Ming He; Xia, Zhen Yuan; Li, Yun Hua; Yang, Shu Jun; Li, Tian Fei; Zhang, Ke Qin
2006-05-01
The strain ZK7 of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia and IPC of Paecilomyces lilacinus are highly effective in the biological control against root-knot nematodes infecting tobacco. When applied, they require a specific monitoring method to evaluate the colonization and dispersal in soil. In this work, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to differentiate between the two individual strains and 95 other isolates, including isolates of the same species and common soil fungi. This approach allowed the selection of specific fragments of 1.2 kb (Vc1200) and 2.0 kb (Vc2000) specific for ZK7, 1.4 kb (P1400) and 0.85 kb (P850) specific for IPC, using the random Primers OPL-02, OPD-05, OPD-05 and OPC-11, respectively. These fragments were cloned, sequenced, and used to design sequence-characterized amplification region (SCAR) primers specific for the two strains. In classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with serial dilution of ZK7 and IPC pure culture DNAs template, the detection limits of these oligonucleotide SCAR-PCR primers were found to be 10, 1000, 500, 100 pg, respectively. In the dot blotting, digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled amplicons from these four primers specifically recognized the corresponding fragments in the DNAs template of these two strains. The detection limit of these amplicons were 0.2, 0.2, 0.5, 0.5 mug, respectively.
The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiujuan Yang
Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.
Root-knot nematode management in double-cropped plasticulture vegetables.
Desaeger, J A; Csinos, A S
2006-03-01
Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D +/- chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffered much greater root-knot nematode (RKN) pressure than first crops, and almost-total yield loss occurred when second crops received no nematicide treatment. On a first crop of eggplant, all fumigants provided good nematode control and average yield increases of 10% to 15 %. On second crops, higher application rates and fumigant combinations (metam sodium and 1,3-D +/- chloropicrin) improved RKN control and increased yields on average by 20% to 35 % compared to the nonfumigated control. Oxamyl increased yields of the first crop in 2003 on average by 10% to 15% but had no effect in 2004 when RKN failed to establish itself. On double-cropped squash in 2003, oxamyl following fumigation provided significant additional reduction in nematode infection and increased squash yields on average by 30% to 75%.
Free-energy calculations for semi-flexible macromolecules: Applications to DNA knotting and looping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giovan, Stefan M.; Scharein, Robert G.; Hanke, Andreas; Levene, Stephen D.
2014-01-01
We present a method to obtain numerically accurate values of configurational free energies of semiflexible macromolecular systems, based on the technique of thermodynamic integration combined with normal-mode analysis of a reference system subject to harmonic constraints. Compared with previous free-energy calculations that depend on a reference state, our approach introduces two innovations, namely, the use of internal coordinates to constrain the reference states and the ability to freely select these reference states. As a consequence, it is possible to explore systems that undergo substantially larger fluctuations than those considered in previous calculations, including semiflexible biopolymers having arbitrary ratios of contour length L to persistence length P. To validate the method, high accuracy is demonstrated for free energies of prime DNA knots with L/P = 20 and L/P = 40, corresponding to DNA lengths of 3000 and 6000 base pairs, respectively. We then apply the method to study the free-energy landscape for a model of a synaptic nucleoprotein complex containing a pair of looped domains, revealing a bifurcation in the location of optimal synapse (crossover) sites. This transition is relevant to target-site selection by DNA-binding proteins that occupy multiple DNA sites separated by large linear distances along the genome, a problem that arises naturally in gene regulation, DNA recombination, and the action of type-II topoisomerases
Free-energy calculations for semi-flexible macromolecules: Applications to DNA knotting and looping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giovan, Stefan M. [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States); Scharein, Robert G. [Hypnagogic Software, Vancouver, British Columbia V6K 1V6 (Canada); Hanke, Andreas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, Texas 78520 (United States); Levene, Stephen D., E-mail: sdlevene@utdallas.edu [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)
2014-11-07
We present a method to obtain numerically accurate values of configurational free energies of semiflexible macromolecular systems, based on the technique of thermodynamic integration combined with normal-mode analysis of a reference system subject to harmonic constraints. Compared with previous free-energy calculations that depend on a reference state, our approach introduces two innovations, namely, the use of internal coordinates to constrain the reference states and the ability to freely select these reference states. As a consequence, it is possible to explore systems that undergo substantially larger fluctuations than those considered in previous calculations, including semiflexible biopolymers having arbitrary ratios of contour length L to persistence length P. To validate the method, high accuracy is demonstrated for free energies of prime DNA knots with L/P = 20 and L/P = 40, corresponding to DNA lengths of 3000 and 6000 base pairs, respectively. We then apply the method to study the free-energy landscape for a model of a synaptic nucleoprotein complex containing a pair of looped domains, revealing a bifurcation in the location of optimal synapse (crossover) sites. This transition is relevant to target-site selection by DNA-binding proteins that occupy multiple DNA sites separated by large linear distances along the genome, a problem that arises naturally in gene regulation, DNA recombination, and the action of type-II topoisomerases.
Use of organic waste as biofumigant for controlling root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato
Sari, D. I. P.; Lisnawita; Oemry, S.; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, A. R.
2018-02-01
Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the important pathogens that causes big impact on potato crop yields. One of the control strategies for controlling this nematode is the use of biofumigants. Biofumigants are volatile toxic compound derived from plants, and have biocide properties against insects and plant pathogens. Organic waste such as Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae can be used as biofumigant sources. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae as biofumigants against Meloidogyne spp. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design (CRD) with the treatments were organic wastes including Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae, both single and combinations, and 2 controls (positive and negative controls) with 3 replications. Each of the biofumigant treatments was prepared and stored for 2 weeks. Potato tubers were transplanted 15 days after germination into polybag inoculated with 1,000 Meloidogyne spp. J2s. The results showed that Brassicaceae + Solanaceae were effective in decreasing the number of galls in potato plants, however only Solanaceae improved plant growth.
Selective automation and skill transfer in medical robotics: a demonstration on surgical knot-tying.
Knoll, Alois; Mayer, Hermann; Staub, Christoph; Bauernschmitt, Robert
2012-12-01
Transferring non-trivial human manipulation skills to robot systems is a challenging task. There have been a number of attempts to design research systems for skill transfer, but the level of the complexity of the actual skills transferable to the robot was rather limited, and delicate operations requiring a high dexterity and long action sequences with many sub-operations were impossible to transfer. A novel approach to human-machine skill transfer for multi-arm robot systems is presented. The methodology capitalizes on the metaphor of 'scaffolded learning', which has gained widespread acceptance in psychology. The main idea is to formalize the superior knowledge of a teacher in a certain way to generate support for a trainee. In our case, the scaffolding is constituted by abstract patterns, which facilitate the structuring and segmentation of information during 'learning by demonstration'. The actual skill generalization is then based on simulating fluid dynamics. The approach has been successfully evaluated in the medical domain for the delicate task of automated knot-tying for suturing with standard surgical instruments and a realistic minimally invasive robotic surgery system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Animal abolitionism meets moral abolitionism : cutting the Gordian knot of applied ethics.
Marks, Joel
2013-12-01
The use of other animals for human purposes is as contentious an issue as one is likely to find in ethics. And this is so not only because there are both passionate defenders and opponents of such use, but also because even among the latter there are adamant and diametric differences about the bases of their opposition. In both disputes, the approach taken tends to be that of applied ethics, by which a position on the issue is derived from a fundamental moral commitment. This commitment in turn depends on normative ethics, which investigates the various moral theories for the best fit to our moral intuitions. Thus it is that the use of animals in biomedical research is typically defended by appeal to a utilitarian theory, which legitimates harm to some for the greater good of others; while the opposition condemns that use either by appeal to the same theory, but disagreeing about the actual efficacy of animal experimentation, or by appeal to an alternative theory, such as the right of all sentient beings not to be exploited. Unfortunately, the normative issue seems likely never to be resolved, hence leaving the applied issue in limbo. The present essay seeks to circumvent this impasse by dispensing altogether with any moral claim or argument, thereby cutting the Gordian knot of animal ethics with a meta-ethical sword. The alternative schema defended is simply to advance relevant considerations, whereupon "there is nothing left but to feel." In a word, motivation replaces justification.
X-RAY RADIATION MECHANISMS AND BEAMING EFFECT OF HOT SPOTS AND KNOTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEAR JETS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jin; Bai, J. M.; Chen Liang; Liang Enwei
2010-01-01
The observed radio-optical-X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 hot spots and 45 knots in the jets of 35 active galactic nuclei are complied from the literature and modeled with single-zone lepton models. It is found that the observed luminosities at 5 GHz (L 5 G Hz ) and at 1 keV (L 1 k eV ) are tightly correlated, and the two kinds of sources can be roughly separated with a division of L 1 k eV = L 5 G Hz . Our SED fits show that the mechanisms of the X-rays are diverse. While the X-ray emission of a small fraction of the sources is a simple extrapolation of the synchrotron radiation for the radio-to-optical emission, an inverse Compton (IC) scattering component is necessary to model the X-rays for most of the sources. Considering the sources at rest (the Doppler factor δ = 1), the synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) scattering would dominate the IC process. This model can interpret the X-rays of some hot spots with a magnetic field strength (B δ= 1 ssc ) being consistent with the equipartition magnetic field (B δ= 1 eq ) in 1 order of magnitude, but an unreasonably low B δ= 1 ssc is required to model the X-rays for all knots. Measuring the deviation between B δ= 1 ssc and B δ= 1 eq with ratio R B ≡ B δ= 1 eq /B δ= 1 ssc , we find that R B is greater than 1 and it is tightly anti-correlated with ratio R L ≡ L 1 k eV /L 5 G Hz for both the knots and the hot spots. We propose that the deviation may be due to the neglect of the relativistic bulk motion for these sources. Considering this effect, the IC/cosmic microwave background (CMB) component would dominate the IC process. We show that the IC/CMB model well explains the X-ray emission for most sources under the equipartition condition. Although the derived beaming factor (δ) and co-moving equipartition magnetic field (B' eq ) of some hot spots are comparable to the knots, the δ values of the hot spots tend to be smaller and their B' eq values tend to be larger than that of the knots, favoring
Gold prices: Analyzing its cyclical behavior
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Martha Gutiérrez
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Gold is a commodity that is seen as a safe haven when a financial crisis strikes, but when stock markets are prosperous, these are more attractive investment alternatives, and so the gold cycle goes on and on. The DJIA/GF (Dow Jones Industrial Average and Gold Fix ratio is chosen to establish the evolution of gold prices in relation to the NYSE. This paper has two goals: to prove that the DJIA/GF ratio is strongly cyclical by using Fourier analysis and to set a predictive neural networks model to forecast the behavior of this ratio during 2011-2020. To this end, business cycle events like the Great Depression along with the 1970s crisis, and the 1950s boom along with the world economic recovery of the 1990s are contrasted in light of the mentioned ratio. Gold prices are found to evolve cyclically with a dominant period of 37 years and are mainly affected by energy prices, financial markets and macroeconomic indicators.
Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.
Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc
2018-05-07
Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.
A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device
Yi, Ying
2015-01-01
This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.
Wang, Liang-Wei; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Jackson, Sophie E.; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny
2015-09-01
Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants.
Burger, Joanna; Niles, Lawrence J.
2017-07-01
Sea level rise and increasing human activities have decreased intertidal habitat in many places in the world. The expansion of aquaculture in intertidal areas may impact birds and other organisms using these habitats, leading to questions of sustainability of both aquaculture and functioning estuarine ecosystems. Understanding the effect of oyster culture on shorebird activity, particularly on Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), a species on the U.S. Threatened List, is important for adaptive management and the expansion of oyster culture. In May 2013 we experimentally compared Red Knot and shorebird use of a beach section with racks and a control, and in 2016 we compared the use of sections with artificial reefs, oyster racks, and control on Delaware Bay, New Jersey (USA). The data included only times when no workers or other people were present. Censuses, conducted every 30 min throughout the day (279 censuses in 2013, 231 censuses in 2016), included the number of Red Knots and other shorebirds in each treatment section. In 2013, the total number of shorebirds was significantly higher in the rack section than in the control section, except for Red Knots and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that occurred in higher numbers in the control than in the rack section. In 2016 Red Knot numbers were also significantly lower in the rack section. In 2013, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks vs 59 for the control (P racks and over 68 for other treatments (P racks while both foraging and roosting, suggesting that caution should be used before placing oyster racks in areas used for foraging by Red Knots.
Synthesis of Cyclic Py-Im Polyamide Libraries
Li, Benjamin C.; Montgomery, David C.; Puckett, James W.; Dervan, Peter B.
2013-01-01
Cyclic Py-Im polyamides containing two GABA turn units exhibit enhanced DNA binding affinity, but extensive studies of their biological properties have been hindered due to synthetic inaccessibility. A facile modular approach toward cyclic polyamides has been developed via microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of hairpin amino acid oligomer intermediates followed by macrocyclization. A focused library of cyclic polyamides 1–7 targeted to the androgen response element (ARE) and the estrogen...
Characterization of cyclical phases in the manufacturing industry in Spain
Sala, Mercè; Torres, Teresa; Farré, Mariona
2014-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industry in Spain and detect which industries have more influence on the Spanish business cycle. We assume that economic growth is a priority; we are going to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according this priority. We analyze if the industries with better cyclical behavior are the ones that achieve greater co-movement with the business cycle of the Spanish...
Caffeine, cyclic AMP and postreplication repair of mammalian DNA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehmann, U.K.
1976-01-01
The methylxanthines, caffeine and theophylline, inhibit postreplication repair of DNA in mammalian cells. Because they also inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, it was thought that there might be some connection between concentrations of cyclic AMP and postreplication repair. This possibility was tested by performing DNA sedimentation experiments with a cyclic AMP-resistant mouse lymphoma cell mutant and its wild-type counterpart. The results show that there is no connection between cellular cyclic AMP concentrations and the rate of postreplication repair. Therefore, it is more likely that caffeine and theophylline inhibit postreplication repair by some other means, such as by binding to DNA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Kiefer
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Foram utilizados 50 suínos dos 29,97 ± 0,36 kg aos 60,38 ± 0,49 kg, para determinar a exigência de metionina + cistina digestíveis. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, composto por cinco níveis de metionina + cistina digestíveis (0,448; 0,490; 0,531; 0,573 e 0,614%, cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos influenciaram o ganho de peso diário e a conversão alimentar, que variaram de forma quadrática, sendo o nível de metionina + cistina digestíveis estimado em 0,549% para máximo ganho de peso e melhor conversão alimentar. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo de ração. O consumo de metionina + cistina digestíveis elevou de forma linear com o aumento dos níveis de metionina + cistina digestíveis na dieta. Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos tratamentos sobre as deposições diárias de proteína e de gordura na carcaça, que aumentaram até os níveis de metionina + cistina digestíveis estimados de 0,548 e 0,547%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a exigência de metionina + cistina digestíveis para suínos machos castrados, mantidos em ambiente termoneutro dos 30 aos 60 kg, é de 0,549%, correspondente à relação metionina + cistina digestíveis:lisina digestível de 66%.Fifty barrows from 29.97 ± 0.36 kg to 60.38 ± 0.49 kg were used to evaluate the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine. A completely randomized blocks design, with five digestible methionine + cystine levels (0.448; 0.490; 0.531; 0.573 and 0.614%, with five replicates and two animals per experimental unity, was used. The digestible methionine + cystine levels of the diet influenced in a quadratic way the average daily gain and the feed:gain being the level of digestible methionine + cystine estimated in 0.549% for the maximum weight gain and better feed:gain. No effect of the treatments on the feed intake was observed. The digestible methionine + cystine intake increased
Santos, Jansen Rodrigo Pereira; Ndeve, Arsenio Daniel; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Matthews, William Charles; Roberts, Philip Alan
2018-01-01
Cowpea is one of the most important food and forage legumes in drier regions of the tropics and subtropics. However, cowpea yield worldwide is markedly below the known potential due to abiotic and biotic stresses, including parasitism by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN). Two resistance genes with dominant effect, Rk and Rk2, have been reported to provide resistance against RKN in cowpea. Despite their description and use in breeding for resistance to RKN and particularly genetic mapping of the Rk locus, the exact genes conferring resistance to RKN remain unknown. In the present work, QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL) population 524B x IT84S-2049 segregating for a newly mapped locus and analysis of the transcriptome changes in two cowpea near-isogenic lines (NIL) were used to identify candidate genes for Rk and the newly mapped locus. A major QTL, designated QRk-vu9.1, associated with resistance to Meloidogyne javanica reproduction, was detected and mapped on linkage group LG9 at position 13.37 cM using egg production data. Transcriptome analysis on resistant and susceptible NILs 3 and 9 days after inoculation revealed up-regulation of 109 and 98 genes and down-regulation of 110 and 89 genes, respectively, out of 19,922 unique genes mapped to the common bean reference genome. Among the differentially expressed genes, four and nine genes were found within the QRk-vu9.1 and QRk-vu11.1 QTL intervals, respectively. Six of these genes belong to the TIR-NBS-LRR family of resistance genes and three were upregulated at one or more time-points. Quantitative RT-PCR validated gene expression to be positively correlated with RNA-seq expression pattern for eight genes. Future functional analysis of these cowpea genes will enhance our understanding of Rk-mediated resistance and identify the specific gene responsible for the resistance.
Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon
2016-03-01
Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jansen Rodrigo Pereira Santos
Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important food and forage legumes in drier regions of the tropics and subtropics. However, cowpea yield worldwide is markedly below the known potential due to abiotic and biotic stresses, including parasitism by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN. Two resistance genes with dominant effect, Rk and Rk2, have been reported to provide resistance against RKN in cowpea. Despite their description and use in breeding for resistance to RKN and particularly genetic mapping of the Rk locus, the exact genes conferring resistance to RKN remain unknown. In the present work, QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL population 524B x IT84S-2049 segregating for a newly mapped locus and analysis of the transcriptome changes in two cowpea near-isogenic lines (NIL were used to identify candidate genes for Rk and the newly mapped locus. A major QTL, designated QRk-vu9.1, associated with resistance to Meloidogyne javanica reproduction, was detected and mapped on linkage group LG9 at position 13.37 cM using egg production data. Transcriptome analysis on resistant and susceptible NILs 3 and 9 days after inoculation revealed up-regulation of 109 and 98 genes and down-regulation of 110 and 89 genes, respectively, out of 19,922 unique genes mapped to the common bean reference genome. Among the differentially expressed genes, four and nine genes were found within the QRk-vu9.1 and QRk-vu11.1 QTL intervals, respectively. Six of these genes belong to the TIR-NBS-LRR family of resistance genes and three were upregulated at one or more time-points. Quantitative RT-PCR validated gene expression to be positively correlated with RNA-seq expression pattern for eight genes. Future functional analysis of these cowpea genes will enhance our understanding of Rk-mediated resistance and identify the specific gene responsible for the resistance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ABD EL FATTAH, A.I.; KAMEL, H.A.; EL-NAGDI, W.M.A.
2008-01-01
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.
Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morin, Annaïg
2017-01-01
This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and counter-cyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus, and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus offers new insights into two business cycle features...
Stress relaxation under cyclic electron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bystrov, L.N.; Reznitskij, M.E.
1990-01-01
The kinetics of deformation process in a relaxating sample under 2 MeV electron cyclic irradiation was studied experimentally. The Al-Mg alloys with controllable and different (in dislocation density precipitate presence and their character) structure were used in experiments. It was established that after the beam was switched on the deformation rate increased sharply and then, during prolonged irradiation, in a gradual manner. After the switching-off the relaxation rate decreases by jumps up to values close to extrapolated rates of pre-radiation relaxation. The exhibition of these effects with radiation switching-off and switchin-on is dependent on the initial rate of thermal relaxation, the test temperature, the preliminary cold deformation and the dominating deformation dislocation mechanism. The preliminary cold deformation and test temperature elevation slightly decrease the effect of instantaneous relaxation acceleration with the irradiation switch-on. 17 refs., 5 figs
Numerical Simulation of Cyclic Thermodynamic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Stig Kildegård
2006-01-01
This thesis is on numerical simulation of cyclic thermodynamic processes. A modelling approach and a method for finding periodic steady state solutions are described. Examples of applications are given in the form of four research papers. Stirling machines and pulse tube coolers are introduced...... and a brief overview of the current state of the art in methods for simulating such machines is presented. It was found that different simulation approaches, which model the machines with different levels of detail, currently coexist. Methods using many simplifications can be easy to use and can provide...... models flexible and easy to modify, and to make simulations fast. A high level of accuracy was achieved for integrations of a model created using the modelling approach; the accuracy depended on the settings for the numerical solvers in a very predictable way. Selection of fast numerical algorithms...
Temperature rise of cyclicly loaded power cables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brakelmann, H
1984-09-01
A calculation method for the current ratings of cyclicly loaded power cables is introduced, taking into account optional shapes of the load cycle as well as the drying-out of the soil. The method is based on the Fourier-analysis of the loss cycle, representing an extension of the calculation method of VDE 0298. It is shown, that the ''VDE-method'' gives good results for the thermal resistances, if an ''utility load cycle'' in accordance with VDE 0298 is supposed. Only for cycles deviating essentially from the utility load cycle, the thermal resistances calculated by the ''VDE-method'' may be too great. In these cases the represented method is advantageous and can be processed by the aid of microcomputers.
The cyclic universe: An informal introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhaxdt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil
2003-01-01
The Cyclic Model is a radical, new cosmological scenario which proposes that the Universe undergoes an endless sequence of epochs which begin with a 'big bang' and end in a 'big crunch.' When the Universes bounces from contraction to re-expansion, the temperature and density remain finite. The model does not include a period of rapid inflation, yet it reproduces all of the successful predictions of standard big bang and inflationary cosmology. We point out numerous novel elements that have not been used previously which may open the door to further alternative cosmologies. Although the model is motivated by M-theory, branes and extra dimensions, here we show that the scenario can be described almost entirely in terms of conventional 4d field theory and 4d cosmology
Janus cyclic peptide-polymer nanotubes
Danial, Maarten; My-Nhi Tran, Carmen; Young, Philip G.; Perrier, Sébastien; Jolliffe, Katrina A.
2013-11-01
Self-assembled nanotubular structures have numerous potential applications but these are limited by a lack of control over size and functionality. Controlling these features at the molecular level may allow realization of the potential of such structures. Here we report a new generation of self-assembled cyclic peptide-polymer nanotubes with dual functionality in the form of either a Janus or mixed polymeric corona. A ‘relay’ synthetic strategy is used to prepare nanotubes with a demixing or mixing polymeric corona. Nanotube structure is assessed in solution using 1H-1H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR, and in bulk using differential scanning calorimetry. The Janus nanotubes form artificial pores in model phospholipid bilayers. These molecules provide a viable pathway for the development of intriguing nanotubular structures with dual functionality via a demixing or a mixing polymeric corona and may provide new avenues for the creation of synthetic transmembrane protein channel mimics.
Magnetoelastic Demagnetization of Steel under Cyclic Loading
Muratov, K. R.; Novikov, V. F.; Neradovskii, D. F.; Kazakov, R. Kh.
2018-01-01
Magnetoelastic demagnetization of steel samples under cyclic tensile loads has been analyzed. It has been established that values of residual magnetization that correspond to peak loads are characterized by the power-law dependence on the number of loading cycles. In some cases, in the region of high loads, the qualitative transition to exponential dependence has been observed. Coefficients of the power-law approximation of peak magnetization depend on the value of amplitude load and have specific characteristics in the vicinity of characteristic loads. The ratios of approximated slide load coefficients depending on the load are common for the three considered samples, and there is an outburst in the vicinity of the fatigue limit, which can be used as the basis for developing the rapid nondestructive method for determination of this limit.